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q Preface

q Introduction

q Over 40 sexual positions with images and detailed explanations

q Preface

q Observations on the three worldly attainments of Virtue, Wealth, and Love

q On the study of the Sixty-four Arts

q On the Arrangements of a House, and Household Furniture; and about the

Daily Life of a Citizen, his Companions, Amusements, etc.
q About classes of Women fit and unfit for Congress with the Citizen, and of

Friends, and Messengers
q Kinds of Union according to Dimensions, Force of Desire, and Time; and on

the different kinds of Love
q Of the Embrace

q On Kissing

q On Pressing or Marking with the Nails

q On Biting, and the ways of Love to be employed with regard to Women of

different countries
q On the various ways of Lying down, and the different kinds of Congress

q On the various ways of Striking, and of the Sounds appropriate to them

q About females acting the part of Males

q On holding the Lingam in the Mouth

q How to begin and how to end the Congress. Different kinds of Congress, and

Love Quarrels
q Observations on Betrothal and Marriage

q About creating Confidence in the Girl

q Courtship, and the manifestation of the feelings by outward signs and deeds

q On things to be done only by the Man, and the acquisition of the Girl thereby.

Also what is to be done by a Girl to gain over a Man and subject him to her
q On the different Forms of Marriage

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In the literature of all countries there will be found a certain number of works
treating especially of love. Everywhere the subject is dealt with differently, and
from various points of view. In the present publication it is proposed to give a
complete translation of what is considered the standard work on love in Sanscrit
literature, and which is called the `Vatsyayana Kama Sutra', or Aphorisms on
Love, by Vatsyayana. While the introduction will deal with the evidence
concerning the date of the writing, and the commentaries written upon it, the
chapters following the introduction will give a translation of the work itself. It is,
however, advisable to furnish here a brief analysis of works of the same nature,
prepared by authors who lived and wrote years after Vatsyayana had passed
away, but who still considered him as the great authority, and always quoted
him as the chief guide to Hindoo erotic literature.

Besides the treatise of Vatsyayana the following works on the same subject are
procurable in India:

The Ratirahasya, or secrets of love
The Panchasakya, or the five arrows
The Smara Pradipa, or the light of love
The Ratimanjari, or the garland of love
The Rasmanjari, or the sprout of love
The Anunga Runga, or the stage of love; also called Kamaledhiplava, or a boat
in the ocean of love.

The author of the `Secrets of Love' was a poet named Kukkoka. He composed
his work to please one Venudutta, who was perhaps a king. When writing his
own name at the end of each chapter he calls himself `Siddha patiya pandita',
i.e. an ingenious man among learned men. The work was translated into Hindi
years ago, and in this the author's name was written as Koka. And as the same
name crept into all the translations into other languages in India, the book
became generally known, and the subject was popularly called Koka Shastra, or
doctrines of Koka, which is identical with the Kama Shastra, or doctrines of
love, and the words Koka Shastra and Kama Shastra are used indiscriminately.

The work contains nearly eight hundred verses, and is divided into ten
chapters, which are called Pachivedas. Some of the things treated of in this
work are not to be found in the Vatsyayana, such as the four classes of women,
the Padmini, Chitrini, Shankini and Hastini, as also the enumeration of the days
and hours on which the women of the different classes become subject to love,
The author adds that he wrote these things from the opinions of Gonikaputra
and Nandikeshwara, both of whom are mentioned by Vatsyayana, but their
works are not now extant. It is difficult to give any approximate idea as to the
year in which the work was composed. It is only to be presumed that it was
written after that of Vatsyayana, and previous to the other works on this
subject that are still extant. Vatsyayana gives the names of ten authors on the
subject, all of whose works he had consulted, but none of which are extant, and
does not mention this one. This would tend to show that Kukkoka wrote after
Vatsya, otherwise Vatsya would assuredly have mentioned him as an author in
this branch of literature along with the others.

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It may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about that
Vatsyayana was first brought to light and translated into the English language.
It happened thus. While translating with the pundits the `Anunga Runga, or the
stage of love', reference was frequently found to be made to one Vatsya. The
sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or of that opinion. The sage Vatsya said this,
and so on. Naturally questions were asked who the sage was, and the pundits
replied that Vatsya was the author of the standard work on love in Sanscrit
literature, that no Sanscrit library was complete without his work, and that it
was most difficult now to obtain in its entire state. The copy of the manuscript
obtained in Bombay was defective, and so the pundits wrote to Benares,
Calcutta and Jeypoor for copies of the manuscript from Sanscrit libraries in
those places. Copies having been obtained, they were then compared with each
other, and with the aid of a Commentary called `Jayamangla' a revised copy of
the entire manuscript was prepared, and from this copy the English translation
was made. The following is the certificate of the chief pundit:

`The accompanying manuscript is corrected by me after comparing four
different copies of the work. I had the assistance of a Commentary called
"Jayamangla" for correcting the portion in the first five parts, but found great
difficulty in correcting the remaining portion, because, with the exception of one
copy thereof which was tolerably correct, all the other copies I had were far too
incorrect. However, I took that portion as correct in which the majority of the
copies agreed with each other.'

The `Aphorisms on Love' by Vatsyayana contain about one thousand two
hundred and fifty slokas or verses, and are divided into parts, parts into
chapters, and chapters into paragraphs. The whole consists of seven parts,
thirty-six chapters, and sixty-four paragraphs. Hardly anything is known about
the author. His real name is supposed to be Mallinaga or Mrillana, Vatsyayana
being his family name. At the close of the work this is what he writes about

`After reading and considering the works of Babhravya and other ancient
authors, and thinking over the meaning of the rules given by them, this treatise
was composed, according to the precepts of the Holy Writ, for the benefit of the
world, by Vatsyayana, while leading the life of a religious student at Benares,
and wholly engaged in the contemplation of the Deity. This work is not to be
used merely as an instrument for satisfying our desires. A person acquainted
with the true principles of this science, who preserves his Dharma (virtue or
religious merit), his Artha (worldly wealth) and his Kama (pleasure or sensual
gratification), and who has regard to the customs of the people, is sure to
obtain the mastery over his senses. In short, an intelligent and knowing person
attending to Dharma and Artha and also to Kama, without becoming the slave
of his passions, will obtain success in everything that he may do.'

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Salutation to Dharma, Artha and Kama
In the beginning, the Lord of Beings created men and women, and in the form
of commandments in one hundred thousand chapters laid down rules for
regulating their existence with regard to Dharma,(1) Artha,(2) and Kama.(3)
Some of these commandments, namely those which treated of Dharma, were
separately written by Swayambhu Manu; those that related to Artha were
compiled by Brihaspati; and those that referred to Kama were expounded by
Nandi, the follower of Mahadeva, in one thousand chapters.

Now these `Kama Sutra' (Aphorisms on Love), written by Nandi in one
thousand chapters, were reproduced by Shvetaketu, the son of Uddvalaka, in
an abbreviated form in five hundred chapters, and this work was again similarly
reproduced in an abridged form, in one hundred and fifty chapters, by
Babhravya, an inheritant of the Punchala (South of Delhi) country. These one
hundred and fifty chapters were then put together under seven heads or parts
named severally

Sadharana (general topics)
Samprayogika (embraces, etc.)
Kanya Samprayuktaka (union of males and females)
Bharyadhikarika (on one's own wife)
Paradika (on the wives of other people)
Vaisika (on courtesans)
Aupamishadika (on the arts of seduction, tonic medicines, etc.)

The sixth part of this last work was separately expounded by Dattaka at the
request of the public women of Pataliputra (Patna), and in the same way
Charayana explained the first part of it. The remaining parts, viz. the second,
third, fourth, fifth, and seventh, were each separately expounded by
Suvarnanabha (second part)
Ghotakamukha (third part)
Gonardiya (fourth part)
Gonikaputra (fifth part)
Kuchumara (seventh part), respectively.

Thus the work being written in parts by different authors was almost
unobtainable and, as the parts which were expounded by Dattaka and the
others treated only of the particular branches of the subject to which each part
related, and moreover as the original work of Babhravya was difficult to be
mastered on account of its length, Vatsyayana, therefore, composed his work in
a small volume as an abstract of the whole of the works of the above named

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Observations on the three worldly attainments of Virtue, Wealth, and

Man, the period of whose life is one hundred years, should practise Dharma,
Artha and Kama at different times and in such a manner that they may
harmonize together and not clash in any way. He should acquire learning in his
childhood, in his youth and middle age he should attend to Artha and Kama,
and in his old age he should perform Dharma, and thus seek to gain Moksha,
i.e. release from further transmigration. Or, on account of the uncertainty of
life, he may practise them at times when they are enjoined to be practised. But
one thing is to be noted, he should lead the life of a religious student until he
finishes his education.

Dharma is obedience to the command of the Shastra or Holy Writ of the
Hindoos to do certain things, such as the performance of sacrifices, which are
not generally done, because they do not belong to this world, and produce no
visible effect; and not to do other things, such as eating meat, which is often
done because it belongs to this world, and has visible effects.

Dharma should be learnt from the Shruti (Holy Writ), and from those
conversant with it.

Artha is the acquisition of arts, land, gold, cattle, wealth, equipages and friends.
It is, further, the protection of what is acquired, and the increase of what is

Artha should be learnt from the king's officers, and from merchants who may
be versed in the ways of commerce.

Kama is the enjoyment of appropriate objects by the five senses of hearing,
feeling, seeing, tasting and smelling, assisted by the mind together with the
soul. The ingredient in this is a peculiar contact between the organ of sense and
its object, and the consciousness of pleasure which arises from that contact is
called Kama.

Kama is to be learnt from the Kama Sutra (aphorisms on love) and from the
practice of citizens.

When all the three, viz. Dharma, Artha and Kama, come together, the former is
better than the one which follows it, i.e. Dharma is better than Artha, and Artha
is better than Kama. But Artha should always be first practised by the king for
the livelihood of men is to be obtained from it only. Again, Kama being the
occupation of public women, they should prefer it to the other two, and these
are exceptions to the general rule.

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On the arts and sciences to be studied

Man should study the Kama Sutra and the arts and sciences subordinate
thereto, in addition to the study of the arts and sciences contained in Dharma
and Artha. Even young maids should study this Kama Sutra along with its arts
and sciences before marriage, and after it they should continue to do so with
the consent of their husbands.

Here some learned men object, and say that females, not being allowed to
study any science, should not study the Kama Sutra.

But Vatsyayana is of opinion that this objection does not hold good, for women
already know the practice of Kama Sutra, and that practice is derived from the
Kama Shastra, or the science of Kama itself. Moreover, it is not only in this but
in many other cases that, though the practice of a science is known to all, only
a few persons are acquainted with the rules and laws on which the science is
based. Thus the Yadnikas or sacrificers, though ignorant of grammar, make use
of appropriate words when addressing the different Deities, and do not know
how these words are framed. Again, persons do the duties required of them on
auspicious days, which are fixed by astrology, though they are not acquainted
with the science of astrology. In a like manner riders of horses and elephants
train these animals without knowing the science of training animals, but from
practice only. And similarly the people of the most distant provinces obey the
laws of the kingdom from practice, and because there is a king over them, and
without further reason.1 And from experience we find that some women, such
as daughters of princes and their ministers, and public women, are actually
versed in the Kama Shastra.

A female, therefore, should learn the Kama Shastra, or at least a part of it, by
studying its practice from some confidential friend. She should study alone in
private the sixty-four practices that form a part of the Kama Shastra. Her
teacher should be one of the following persons: the daughter of a nurse brought
up with her and already married,2 or a female friend who can be trusted in
everything, or the sister of her mother (i.e. her aunt), or an old female servant,
or a female beggar who may have formerly lived in the family, or her own sister
who can always be trusted.

The following are the arts to be studied, together with the Kama Sutra:


Playing on musical instruments


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The life of a citizen

Having thus acquired learning, a man, with the wealth that he may have gained
by gift, conquest, purchase, deposit,1 or inheritance from his ancestors, should
become a householder, and pass the life of a citizen.2 He should take a house
in a city, or large village, or in the vicinity of good men, or in a place which is
the resort of many persons. This abode should be situated near some water,
and divided into different compartments for different purposes. It should be
surrounded by a garden, and also contain two rooms, an outer and an inner
one. The inner room should be occupied by the females, while the outer room,
balmy with rich perfumes, should contain a bed, soft, agreeable to the sight,
covered with a clean white cloth, low in the middle part, having garlands and
bunches of flowers3 upon it, and a canopy above it, and two pillows, one at the
top, another at the bottom. There should be also a sort of couch besides, and at
the head of this a sort of stool, on which should be placed the fragrant
ointments for the night, as well as flowers, pots containing collyrium and other
fragrant substances, things used for perfuming the mouth, and the bark of the
common citron tree. Near the couch, on the ground, there should be a pot for
spitting, a box containing ornaments, and also a lute hanging from a peg made
of the tooth of an elephant, a board for drawing, a pot containing perfume,
some books, and some garlands of the yellow amaranth flowers. Not far from
the couch, and on the ground, there should be a round seat, a toy cart, and a
board for playing with dice; outside the outer room there should be cages of
birds,4 and a separate place for spinning, carving and such like diversions. In
the garden there should be a whirling swing and a common swing, as also a
bower of creepers covered with flowers, in which a raised parterre should be
made for sitting.

Now the householder, having got up in the morning and performed his
necessary duties,5 should wash his teeth, apply a limited quantity of ointments
and perfumes to his body, put some ornaments on his person and collyrium on
his eyelids and below his eyes, colour his lips with alacktaka,6 and look at
himself in the glass. Having then eaten betel leaves, with other things that give
fragrance to the mouth, he should perform his usual business. He should bathe
daily, anoint his body with oil every other day, apply a lathering substance7 to
his body every three days, get his head (including face) shaved every four days
and the other parts of his body every five or ten days.8 All these things should
be done without fail, and the sweat of the armpits should also be removed.
Meals should be taken in the forenoon, in the afternoon, and again at night,
according to Charayana. After breakfast, parrots and other birds should be
taught to speak, and the fighting of cocks, quails, and rams should follow. A
limited time should be devoted to diversions with Pithamardas, Vitas, and
Vidushakas,9 and then should be taken the midday sleep.10 After this the
householder, having put on his clothes and ornaments, should, during the
afternoon, converse with his friends. In the evening there should be singing,
and after that the householder, along with his friend, should await in his room,
previously decorated and perfumed, the arrival of the woman that may be
attached to him, or he may send a female messenger for her, or go for her
himself. After her arrival at his house, he and his friend should welcome her,
and entertain her with a loving and agreeable conversation. Thus end the duties
of the day.

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About the kinds of women resorted to by the citizens, and of friends
and messengers

When Kama is practised by men of the four castes according to the rules of the
Holy Writ (i.e. by lawful marriage) with virgins of their own caste, it then
becomes a means of acquiring lawful progeny and good fame, and it is not also
opposed to the customs of the world. On the contrary the practice of Kama with
women of the higher castes, and with those previously enjoyed by others, even
though they be of the same caste, is prohibited. But the practice of Kama with
women of the lower castes, with women excommunicated from their own caste,
with public women, and with women twice married,1 is neither enjoined nor
prohibited. The object of practising Kama with such women is pleasure only.

Nayikas,2 therefore, are of three kinds, viz. maids, women twice married, and
public women. Gonikaputra has expressed an opinion that there is a fourth kind
of Nayika, viz. a woman who is resorted to on some special occasion even
though she be previously married to another. These special occasions are when
a man thinks thus:

This woman is self-willed, and has been previously enjoyed by many others
besides myself. I may, therefore, safely resort to her as to a public woman
though she belongs to a higher caste than mine, and, in so doing, I shall not be
violating the ordinances of Dharma.
Or thus:
This is a twice-married woman and has been enjoyed by others before me;
there is, therefore, no objection to my resorting to her.
Or thus:
This woman has gained the heart of her great and powerful husband, and
exercises a mastery over him, who is a friend of my enemy; if, therefore, she
becomes united with me she will cause her husband to abandon my enemy.
Or thus:
This woman will turn the mind of her husband, who is very powerful, in my
favour, he being at present disaffected towards me, and intent on doing me
some harm.
Or thus:
By making this woman my friend I shall gain the object of some friend of mine,
or shall be able to effect the ruin of some enemy, or shall accomplish some
other difficult purpose.
Or thus:
By being united with this woman, I shall kill her husband, and so obtain his vast
riches which I covet.

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Kinds of sexual union according to dimensions, force of desire or
passion, time

Kind of Union
Man is divided into three classes, viz. the hare man, the bull man, and the
horse man, according to the size of his lingam.

Woman also, according to the depth of her yoni, is either a female deer, a
mare, or a female elephant.

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Of the embrace

This part of the Kama Shastra, which treats of sexual union, is also called `Sixty-
four' (Chatushshashti). Some old authors say that it is called so, because it
contains sixty-four chapters. Others are of opinion that the author of this part
being a person named Panchala, and the person who recited the part of the Rig
Veda called Dashatapa, which contains sixty-four verses, being also called
Panchala, the name `sixty-four' has been given to the part of the work in honour
of the Rig Vedas. The followers of Babhravya say on the other hand that this part
contains eight subjects, viz. the embrace, kissing, scratching with the nails or
fingers, biting, lying down, making various sounds, playing the part of a man,
and the Auparishtaka, or mouth congress. Each of these subjects being of eight
kinds, and eight multiplied by eight being sixty-four, this part is therefore named
`sixty-four'. But Vatsyayana affirms that as this part contains also the following
subjects, viz. striking, crying, the acts of a man during congress, the various
kinds of congress, and other subjects, the name `sixty-four' is given to it only
accidentally. As, for instance, we say this tree is `Saptaparna', or seven-leaved,
this offering of rice is `Panchavarna', or five-coloured, but the tree has not seven
leaves, neither has the rice five colours.

However the part sixty-four is now treated of, and the embrace, being the first
subject, will now be considered.

Now the embrace which indicates the mutual love of a man and woman who
have come together is of four kinds:





The action in each case is denoted by the meaning of the word which stands for
When a man under some pretext or other goes in front or alongside of a woman
and touches her body with his own, it is called the `touching embrace'.
On kissing

It is said by some that there is no fixed time or order between the embrace,
the kiss, and the pressing or scratching with the nails or fingers, but that all
these things should be done generally before sexual union takes place, while
striking and making the various sounds generally takes place at the time of the
union. Vatsyayana, however, thinks that anything may take place at any time,
for love does not care for time or order.

On the occasion of the first congress, kissing and the other things mentioned
above should be done moderately, they should not be continued for a long
time, and should be done alternately. On subsequent occasions, however, the
reverse of all this may take place, and moderation will not be necessary, they
may continue for a long time, and, for the purpose of kindling love, they may
be all done at the same time.

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On pressing, or marking, or scratching with nails

When love becomes intense, pressing with the nails or scratching the body with
them is practised, and it is done on the following occasions: on the first visit; at
the time of setting out on a journey; on the return from a journey; at the time
when an angry lover is reconciled; and lastly when the woman is intoxicated.

But pressing with the nails is not a usual thing except with those who are
intensely passionate, i.e. full of passion. It is employed, together with biting, by
those to whom the practice is agreeable.

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On biting, and the means to be employed with regard to women og
different countries

All the places that can be kissed are also the places that can be bitten, except
the upper lip, the interior of the mouth, and the eyes. The qualities of good teeth
are as follows: They should be equal, possessed of a pleasing brightness,
capable of being coloured, of proper proportions, unbroken, and with sharp ends.

The defects of teeth on the other hand are that they are blunt, protruding from
the gums, rough, soft, large, and loosely set.

The following are the different kinds of biting:

The hidden bite

The swollen bite

The point

The line of points

The coral and the jewel

The line of jewels

The broken cloud

The biting of the boar

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Of the different ways of lying down, and various kinds of congress

On the occasion of a `high congress' the Mrigi (Deer) woman should lie down in
such a way as to widen her yoni, while in a `low congress' the Hastini (Elephant)
woman should lie down so as to contract hers. But in an `equal congress' they
should lie down in the natural position. What is said above concerning the Mrigi
and the Hastini applies also to the Vadawa (Mare) woman. In a `low congress
the woman should particularly make use of medicine, to cause her desires to be
satisfied quickly.
The Deer-woman has the following three ways of lying down:
q The widely opened position

q The yawning position

q The position of the wife of Indra

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Of the various modes of striking, and of the sounds appropiate to them

SEXUAL intercourse can be compared to a quarrel, on account of the
contrarieties of love and its tendency to dispute. The place of striking with
passion is the body, and on the body the special places are:

The shoulders

The head

The space between the breasts

The back

The jaghana, or middle part of the body

The sides

Striking is of four kinds:

Striking with the back of the hand

Striking with the fingers a little contracted

Striking with the fist

Striking with the open palm of the hand

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About women acting the part of a man; and of the work of a man

When a woman sees that her lover is fatigued by constant congress, without
having his desire satisfied, she should, with his permission, lay him down upon
his back, and give him assistance by acting his part. She may also do this to
satisfy the curiosity of her lover, or her own desire of novelty. There are two
ways of doing this, the first is when during congress she turns round, and gets
on the top of her lover, in such a manner as to continue the congress, without
obstructing the pleasure of it; and the other is when she acts the man's part
from the beginning. At such a time, with flowers in her hair hanging loose, and
her smiles broken by hard breathings, she should press upon her lover's bosom
with her own breasts, and lowering her head frequently, should do in return the
same actions which he used to do before, returning his blows and chaffing him,
should say, `I was laid down by you, and fatigued with hard congress, I shall
now therefore lay you down in return.' She should then again manifest her own
bashfulness, her fatigue, and her desire of stopping the congress. In this way
she should do the work of a man, which we shall presently relate.

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Of the Auparishtaka or mouth congress

There are two kinds of eunuchs, those that are disguised as males, and those
that are disguised as females. Eunuchs disguised as females imitate their dress,
speech, gestures, tenderness, timidity, simplicity, softness and bashfulness.
The acts that are done on the jaghana or middle parts of women, are done in
the mouths of these eunuchs, and this is called Auparishtaka.1 These eunuchs
derive their imaginable pleasure, and their livelihood from this kind of congress,
and they lead the life of courtesans. So much concerning eunuchs disguised as

Eunuchs disguised as males keep their desires secret, and when they wish to do
anything they lead the life of shampooers. Under the pretence of shampooing, a
eunuch of this kind embraces and draws towards himself the thighs of the man
whom he is shampooing, and after this he touches the joints of his thighs and
his jaghana, or central portions of his body. Then, if he finds the lingam of the
man erect, he presses it with his hands and chaffs him for getting into that
state. If after this, and after knowing his intention, the man does not tell the
eunuch to proceed, then the latter does it of his own accord and begins the
congress. If however he is ordered by the man to do it, then he disputes with
him, and only consents at last with difficulty.

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Of the way how to begin and how to end the congress. Different kinds
of congress and love quarrels.

In the pleasure-room, decorated with flowers, and fragrant with perfumes,
attended by his friends and servants, the citizen should receive the woman,
who will come bathed and dressed, and will invite her to take refreshment and
to drink freely. He should then seat her on his left side, and holding her hair,
and touching also the end and knot of her garment, he should gently embrace
her with his right arm. They should then carry on an amusing conversation on
various subjects, and may also talk suggestively of things which would be
considered as coarse, or not to be mentioned generally in society. They may
then sing, either with or without gesticulations, and play on musical
instruments, talk about the arts, and persuade each other to drink. At last when
the woman is overcome with love and desire, the citizen should dismiss the
people that may be with him, giving them flowers, ointments, and betel leaves,
and then when the two are left alone, they should proceed as has been already
described in the previous chapters.

Such is the beginning of sexual union. At the end of the congress, the lovers
with modesty, and not looking at each other, should go separately to the
washing-room. After this, sitting in their own places, they should eat some betel
leaves, and the citizen should apply with his own hand to the body of the
woman some pure sandal wood ointment, or ointment of some other kind. He
should then embrace her with his left arm, and with agreeable words should
cause her to drink from a cup held in his own hand, or he may give her water to
drink. They can then eat sweetmeats, or anything else, according to their
likings and may drink fresh juice,1 soup, gruel, extracts of meat, sherbet, the
juice of mango fruits, the extract of the juice of the citron tree mixed with
sugar, or anything that may be liked in different countries, and known to be
sweet, soft, and pure. The lovers may also sit on the terrace of the palace or
house, and enjoy the moonlight, and carry on an agreeable conversation. At
this time, too, while the woman lies in his lap, with her face towards the moon,
the citizen should show her the different planets, the morning star, the polar
star, and the seven Rishis, or Great Bear.

This is the end of sexual union.

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On marriage

When a girl of the same caste, and a virgin, is married in accordance with the
precepts of Holy Writ, the results of such a union are the acquisition of Dharma
and Artha, offspring, affinity, increase of friends, and untarnished love. For this
reason a man should fix his affections upon a girl who is of good family, whose
parents are alive, and who is three years or more younger than himself. She
should be born of a highly respectable family, possessed of wealth, well
connected, and with many relations and friends. She should also be beautiful,
of a good disposition, with lucky marks on her body, and with good hair, nails,
teeth, ears, eyes and breasts, neither more nor less than they ought to be, and
no one of them entirely wanting, and not troubled with a sickly body. The man
should, of course, also possess these qualities himself. But at all events, says
Ghotakamukha, a girl who has been already joined with others (i.e. no longer a
maiden) should never be loved, for it would be reproachable to do such a thing.

Now in order to bring about a marriage with such a girl as described above,
thee parents and relations of the man should exert themselves, as also such
friends on both sides as may be desired to assist in the matter. These friends
should bring to the notice of the girl's parents, the faults, both present and
future, of all the other men that may wish to marry her, and should at the same
time extol even to exaggeration all the excellencies, ancestral, and paternal, of
their friend, so as to endear him to them, and particularly to those that may be
liked by the girl's mother. One of the friends should also disguise himself as an
astrologer, and declare the future good fortune and wealth of his friend by
showing the existence of all the lucky omens (1) and signs, (2) the good
influence of planets, the auspicious entrance of the sun into a sign of the
Zodiac, propitious stars and fortunate marks on his body. Others again should
rouse the jealousy of the girl's mother by telling her that their friend has a
chance of getting from some other quarter even a better girl than hers.
Of creating confidence in the girl

For the first three days after marriage, the girl and her husband should sleep
on the floor, abstain from sexual pleasures, and eat their food without
seasoning it either with alkali or salt. For the next seven days they should bathe
amidst tire sounds of auspicious musical instruments, should decorate
themselves, dine together, and pay attention to their relations as well as to
those who may have come to witness their marriage. This is applicable to
persons of all castes. On the night of the tenth day the man should begin in a
lonely place with soft words, and thus create confidence in the girl. Some
authors say that for the purpose of winning her over he should not speak to her
for three days, but the followers of Babhravya are of opinion that if the man
does not speak with her for three days, the girl may be discouraged by seeing
him spiritless like a pillar, and, becoming dejected, she may begin to despise
him as a eunuch.

Vatsyayana says that the man should begin to win her over, and to create
confidence in her, but should abstain at first from sexual pleasures. Women,
being of a tender nature, want tender beginnings, and when they are forcibly
approached by men with whom they are but slightly acquainted, they
sometimes suddenly become haters of sexual connection, and sometimes even
haters of the male sex. The man should therefore approach the girl according to
her liking, and should make use of those devices by which he may be able to
establish himself more and more into her confidence. These devices are as
He should embrace her first of all in a way she likes most, because it does not
last for a long time.

He should embrace her with the upper part of his body because that is easier
and simpler. If the girl is grown up, or if the man has known her for some time,
he may embrace her by the light of a lamp, but if he is not well acquainted with
her, or if she is a young girl, he should then embrace her in darkness.

When the girl accepts the embrace, the man should put a tambula or screw of
betel nut and betel leaves in her mouth, and if she will not take it, he should
induce her to do so by conciliatory words, entreaties, oaths, and kneeling at her
feet, for it is a universal rule that however bashful or angry a woman may be
she never disregards a man's kneeling at her feet. At the time of giving this
tambula he should kiss her mouth softly and gracefully without making any

When she is gained over in this respect he should then make her talk, and so
that she may be induced to talk he should ask her questions about things of
which he knows or pretends to know nothing, and which can be answered in a
few words. If she does not speak to him, he should not frighten her, but should
ask her the same thing again and again in a conciliatory manner. If she does
not then speak he should urge her to give a reply because, as Ghotakamukha
says, `all girls hear everything said to them by men, but do not themselves
sometimes say a single word'.

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On courtship, and the manifestation of the feelings by outward signs
and deeds

A poor man possessed of good qualities, a man born of a low family possessed
of mediocre qualities, a neighbour possessed of wealth, and one under the
control of his father, mother or brothers, should not marry without
endeavouring to gain over the girl from her childhood to love and esteem him.
Thus a boy separated from his parents, and living in the house of his uncle,
should try to gain over the daughter of his uncle, or some other girl, even
though she be previously betrothed to another. And this way of gaining over a
girl, says Ghotakamukha, is unexceptional, because Dharma can be
accomplished by means of it as well as by any other way of marriage.

When a boy has thus begun to woo the girl he loves, he should spend his time
with her and amuse her with various games and diversions fitted for their age
and acquaintanceship, such as picking and collecting flowers, making garlands
of flowers, playing the parts of members of a fictitious family, cooking food,
playing with dice, playing with cards, the game of odd and even, the game of
finding out the middle finger, the game of six pebbles, and such other games as
may be prevalent in the country, and agreeable to the disposition of the girl. In
addition to this, he should carry on various amusing games played by several
persons together, such as hide and seek, playing with seeds, hiding things in
several small heaps of wheat and looking for them, blindman's buff, gymnastic
exercises, and other games of the same sort, in company with the girl, her
friends and female attendants. The man should also show great kindness to any
woman whom the girl thinks fit to be trusted, and should also make new
acquaintances, but above all he should attach to himself by kindness and little
services the daughter of the girl's nurse, for if she be gained over, even though
she comes to know of his design, she does not cause any obstruction, but is
sometimes even able to effect a union between him and the girl. And though
she knows the true character of the man, she always talks of his many
excellent qualities to the parents and relations of the girl, even though she may
not be desired to do so by him.

In this way the man should do whatever the girl takes most delight in, and he
should get for her whatever she may have a desire to possess. Thus he should
procure for her such playthings as may be hardly known to other girls. He may
also show her a ball dyed with various colours, and other curiosities of the same
sort; and should give her dolls made of cloth, wood, buffalo-horn, wax, flour, or
earth; also utensils for cooking food, and figures in wood, such as a man and
woman standing, a pair of rams, or goats, or sheep; also temples made of
earth, bamboo, or wood, dedicated to various goddesses; and cages for
parrots, cuckoos, starlings, quails, cocks, and partridges; water-vessels of
different sorts and of elegant forms, machines for throwing water about,
guitars, stands for putting images upon, stools, lac, red arsenic, yellow
ointment, vermilion and collyrium, as well as sandalwood, saffron, betel nut and
betel leaves. Such things should be given at different times whenever he gets a
good opportunity of meeting her, and some of them should be given in private,
and some in public, according to circumstances. In short, he should try in every
way to make her look upon him as one who would do for her everything that
she wanted to be done.

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About things to be done only by the man, and the acquisition of the girl
thereby. Also what is to be done by a girl to gain over a man, and
subject him to her

Now when the girl begins to show her love by outward signs and motions, as
described in the last chapter, the lover should try to gain her over entirely by
various ways and means, such as the following:

When engaged with her in any game or sport he should intentionally hold her
hand. He should practise upon her the various kinds of embraces, such as the
touching embrace, and others already described in a preceding chapter (Part II,
Chapter II). He should show her a pair of human beings cut out of the leaf of a
tree, and such like things, at intervals. When engaged in water sports, he
should dive at a distance from her, and come tip close to her. He should show
an increased liking for the new foliage of trees and such like things. He should
describe to her the pangs he suffers on her account. He should relate to her the
beautiful dream that he has had with reference to other women. At parties and
assemblies of his caste he should sit near her, and touch her under some
pretence or other, and having placed his foot upon hers, he should slowly touch
each of her toes, and press the ends of the nails; if successful in this, he should
get hold of her foot with his hand and repeat the same thing. He should also
press a finger of her hand between his toes when she happens to be washing
his feet; and whenever he gives anything to her or takes anything from her, he
should show her by his manner and look how much he loves her.

He should sprinkle upon her the water brought for rinsing his mouth; and when
alone with her in a lonely place, or in darkness, he should make love to her,
and tell her the true state of his mind without distressing her in any way.

Whenever he sits with her on the same seat or bed he should say to her, `I
have something to tell you in private', and then, when she comes to hear it in a
quiet place, he should express his love to her more by manner and signs than
by words. When he comes to know the state of her feelings towards him he
should pretend to be ill, and should make her come to his house to speak to
him. There he should intentionally hold her hand and place it on his eyes and
forehead, and under the pretence of preparing some medicine for him he should
ask her to do the work for his sake in the following words: `This work must be
done by you, and by nobody else.' When she wants to go away he should let
her go, with an earnest request to come and see him again. This device of
illness should be continued for three days and three nights. After this, when she
begins coming to see him frequently, he should carry on long conversations
with her, for, says Ghotakamukha, `though a man loves a girl ever so much, he
never succeeds in winning her without a great deal of talking'.

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On certain forms of marriage (1)

When a girl cannot meet her lover frequently in private, she should send the
daughter of her nurse to him, it being understood that she has confidence in
her, and had previously gained her over to her interests. On seeing the man,
the daughter of the nurse should, in the course of conversation, describe to him
the noble birth, the good disposition, the beauty, talent, skill, knowledge of
human nature and affection of the girl in such a way as not to let him suppose
that she had been sent by the girl, and should thus create affection for the girl
in the heart of the man. To the girl also she should speak about the excellent
qualities of the man, especially of those qualities which she knows are pleasing
to the girl. She should, moreover, speak with disparagement of the other lovers
of the girl, and talk about the avarice and indiscretion of their parents, and the
fickleness of their relations. She should also quote samples of many girls of
ancient times, such as Sakoontala and others, who, having united themselves
with lovers of their own caste and their own choice, were ever happy afterwards
in their society. And she should also tell of other girls who married into great
families, and being troubled by rival wives, became wretched and miserable,
and were finally abandoned. She should further speak of the good fortune, the
continual happiness, the chastity, obedience, and affection of the man, and if
the girl gets amorous about him, she should endeavour to allay her shame2 and
her fear as well as her suspicions about any disaster that might result from her
marriage. In a word, she should act the whole part of a female messenger by
telling the girl all about the man's affection for her, the places he frequented,
and the endeavours he made to meet her, and by frequently repeating, `It will
be all right if the man will take you away forcibly and unexpectedly.'

The Forms of Marriage
When the girl is gained over, and acts openly with the man as his wife, he
should cause fire to be brought from the house of a Brahman, and having
spread the Kusha grass upon the ground, and offered an oblation to the fire, he
should marry her according to the precepts of the religious law. After this he
should inform his parents of the fact, because it is the opinion of ancient
authors that a marriage solemnly contracted in the presence of fire cannot
afterwards be set aside.

After the consummation of the marriage, the relations of the man should
gradually be made acquainted with the affair, and the relations of the girl
should also be apprised of it in such a way that they may consent to the
marriage, and overlook the manner in which it was brought about, and when
this is done they should afterwards be reconciled by affectionate presents and
favourable conduct. In this manner the man should marry the girl according to
the Gandharva form of marriage.

When the girl cannot make up her mind, or will not express her readiness to
marry, the man should obtain her in any one of the following ways:

On a fitting occasion, and under some excuse, he should, by means of a female
friend with whom he is well acquainted, and whom he can trust, and who also is
well known to the girl's family, get the girl brought unexpectedly to his house,
and he should then bring fire from the house of a Brahman, and proceed as
before described.

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On the manner of living of a virtuous woman, and of her behaviour
during the absence of her husband

A virtuous woman, who has affection for her husband, should act in conformity
with his wishes as if he were a divine being, and with his consent should take
upon herself the whole care of his family. She should keep the whole house well
cleaned, and arrange flowers of various kinds in different parts of it, and make
the floor smooth and polished so as to give the whole a neat and becoming
appearance. She should surround the house with a garden, and place ready in it
all the materials required for the morning, noon and evening sacrifices.
Moreover she should herself revere the sanctuary of the Household Gods, for,
says Gonardiya, `nothing so much attracts the heart of a householder to his
wife as a careful observance of the things mentioned above'. Towards the
parents, relations, friends, sisters, and servants of her husband she should
behave as they deserve. In the garden she should plant beds of green
vegetables, bunches of the sugar cane, and clumps of the fig tree, the mustard
plant, the parsley plant, the fennel plant, and the xanthochymus pictorius.
Clusters of various flowers such as the trapa bispinosa, the jasmine, the
jasminum grandiflorum, the yellow amaranth, the wild jasmine, the
tabernamontana coronaria, the nadyaworta, the china rose and others, should
likewise be planted, together with the fragrant grass andropogon schaenanthus,
and the fragrant root of the plant andropogon miricatus. She should also have
seats and arbours made in the garden, in the middle of which a well, tank, or
pool should be dug.

The wife should always avoid the company of female beggars, female Buddhist
mendicants, unchaste and roguish women, female fortune tellers and witches.
As regards meals she should always consider what her husband likes and
dislikes and what things are good for him, and what are injurious to him. When
she hears the sounds of his footsteps coming home she should at once get up
and be ready to do whatever he may command her, and either order her female
servant to wash his feet, or wash them herself. When going anywhere with her
husband, she should put on her ornaments, and without his consent she should
not either give or accept invitations, or attend marriages and sacrifices, or sit in
the company of female friends, or visit the temples of the Gods. And if she
wants to engage in any kind of games or sports, she should not do it against his
will. In the same way she should always sit down after him, and get up before
him, and should never awaken him when he is asleep. The kitchen should be
situated in a quiet and retired place, so as not to be accessible to strangers,
and should always look clean.

In the event of any misconduct on the part of her husband, she should not
blame him excessively, though she be a little displeased. She should not use
abusive language towards him, but rebuke him with conciliatory words, whether
he be in the company of friends or alone. Moreover, she should not be a scold,
for, says Gonardiya, `there is no cause of dislike on the part of a husband so
great as this characteristic in a wife'. Lastly she should avoid bad expressions,
sulky looks, speaking aside, standing in the doorway, and looking at passers-
by, conversing in the pleasure groves, and remaining in a lonely place for a long
time; and finally she should always keep her body, her teeth, her hair and
everything belonging to her tidy, sweet, and clean.

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On the conduct of the eldest Wife towards the other Wives of her
Husband, and of the younger Wife towards the elder ones. Also on the
conduct of a Virgin Widow remarried; of a Wife disliked by her
Husband; of the Women in the King's Harem; and of a Husband who has
more than one Wife

The causes of re-marrying during the lifetime of the wife are as follows:

The folly or ill-temper of the wife

Her husband's dislike to her

The want of offspring

The continual birth of daughters

The incontinence of the husband
From the very beginning, a wife should endeavour to attract the heart of her
husband, by showing to him continually her devotion, her good temper, and her
wisdom. If however she bears him no children, she should herself toilette her
husband to marry another woman. And when the second wife is married, and
brought to the house, the first wife should give her a position superior to her
own, and look upon her as a sister. In the morning the elder wife should
forcibly make the younger one decorate herself in the presence of their
husband, and should not mind all the husband's favour being given to her. If
the younger wife does anything to displease her husband the elder one should
not neglect her, but should always be ready to give her most careful advice,
and should teach her to do various things in the presence of her husband. Her
children she should treat as her own, her attendants she should look upon with
more regard, even than on her own servants, her friends she should cherish
with love and kindness, and her relations with great honour.

When there are many other wives besides herself, the elder wife should
associate with the one who is immediately next to her in rank and age, and
should instigate the wife who has recently enjoyed her husband's favour to
quarrel with the present favourite. After this she should sympathize with the
former, and having collected all the other wives together, should get them to
denounce the favourite as a scheming and wicked woman, without however
committing herself in any way. If the favourite wife happens to quarrel with the
husband, then the elder wife should take her part and give her false
encouragement, and thus cause the quarrel to be increased. If there be only a
little quarrel between the two, the elder wife should do all she can to work it up
into a large quarrel. But if after all this she finds the husband still continues to
love his favourite wife she should then change her tactics, and endeavour to
bring about a conciliation between them, so as to avoid her husband's

Thus ends the conduct of the elder wife.

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On the Characteristics of Men and Women, and the reason why Women
reject the Addresses of Men. About Men who have Success with
Women, and about Women who are easily gained over

The wives of other people may be resorted to on the occasions already
described in Part I, Chapter V, of this work, but the possibility of their
acquisition, their fitness for cohabitation, the danger to oneself in uniting with
them, and the future effect of these unions, should first of all be examined. A
man may resort to the wife of another, for the purpose of saving his own life,
when he perceives that his love for her proceeds from one degree of intensity
to another. These degrees are ten in number, and are distinguished by the
following marks:
q Love of the eye

q Attachment of the mind

q Constant reflection

q Destruction of sleep

q Emaciation of the body

q Turning away from objects of enjoyment

q Removal of shame

q Madness

q Fainting

q Death

Ancient authors say that a man should know the disposition, truthfulness,
purity, and will of a young woman, as also the intensity, or weakness of her
passions, from the form of her body, and from her characteristic marks and
signs. But Vatsyayana is of opinion that the forms of bodies, and the
characteristic marks or signs are but erring tests of character, and that women
should be judged by their conduct, by the outward expression of their thoughts,
and by the movements of their bodies.

Now as a general rule Gonikaputra says that a woman falls in love with every
handsome man she sees, and so does every man at the sight of a beautiful
woman, but frequently they do not take any further steps, owing to various
considerations. In love the following circumstances are peculiar to the woman.
She loves without regard to right or wrong,1 and does not try to gain over a
man simply for the attainment of some particular purpose. Moreover, when a
man first makes up to her she naturally shrinks from him, even though she may
be willing to unite herself with him. But when the attempts to gain her are
repeated and renewed, she at last consents. But with a man, even though he
may have begun to love, he conquers his feelings from a regard for morality
and wisdom, and although his thoughts are often on the woman, he does not
yield, even though an attempt be made to gain him over. He sometimes makes
an attempt or effort to win the object of his affections, and having failed, he
leaves her alone for the future. In the same way, when a woman is once
gained, he often becomes indifferent about her. As for the saying that a man
does not care for what is easily gained, and only desires a thing which cannot
be obtained without difficulty, it is only a matter of talk.

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About making Acquaintance with the Woman, and of the efforts to gain
her over

Ancient authors are of opinion that girls are not so easily seduced by employing
female messengers as by the efforts of the man himself, but that the wives of
others are more easily got at by the aid of female messengers than by the
personal efforts of the man. But Vatsyayana lays it down that whenever it is
possible a man should always act himself in these matters, and it is only when
such is impracticable, or impossible, that female messengers should be
employed. As for the saying that women who act and talk boldly and freely are
to be won by the personal efforts of the man, and that women who do not
possess those qualities are to be got at by female messengers, it is only a
matter of talk.

Now when a man acts himself in the matter he should first of all make the
acquaintance of the woman he loves in the following manner:

He should arrange to be seen by the woman either on a natural or special
opportunity. A natural opportunity is when one of them goes to the house of the
other, and a special opportunity is when they meet either at the house of a
friend, or a caste-fellow, or a minister, or a physician, as also on the occasion of
marriage ceremonies, sacrifices, festivals, funerals, and garden parties.

When they do meet, the man should be careful to look at her in such a way as
to cause the state of his mind to be made known to her; he should pull about
his moustache, make a sound with his nails, cause his own ornaments to tinkle,
bite his lower lip, and make various other signs of that description. When she is
looking at him he should speak to his friends about her and other women, and
should show to her his liberality and his appreciation of enjoyments. When
sitting by the side of a female friend he should yawn and twist his body,
contract his eyebrows, speak very slowly as if he was weary, and listen to her
indifferently. A conversation having two meanings should also be carried on
with a child or some other person, apparently having regard to a third person,
but really having reference to the woman he loves, and in this way his love
should be made manifest under the pretext of referring to others rather than to
herself. He should make marks that have reference to her, on the earth with his
nails, or with a stick, and should embrace and kiss a child in her presence, and
give it the mixture of betel nut and betel leaves with his tongue, and press its
chin with his fingers in a caressing way. All these things should be done at the
proper time and in proper places.

The man should fondle a child that may be sitting on her lap, and give it
something to play with, and also take the same back again. Conversation with
respect to the child may also be held with her, and in this manner he should
gradually become well acquainted with her, and he should also make himself
agreeable to her relations. Afterwards, this acquaintance should be made a
pretext for visiting her house frequently, and on such occasions he should
converse on the subject of love in her absence but within her hearing. As his
intimacy with her increases he should place in her charge some kind of deposit
or trust, and take away from it a small portion at a time; or he may give her
some fragrant substances, or betel nuts to be kept for him by her. After this he
should endeavour to make her well acquainted with his own wife, and get them
to carry on confidential conversations, and to sit together in lonely places.

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Examination of the State of a Woman's mind

When a man is trying to gain over a woman he should examine the state of her
mind, and act as follows:

If she listens to him, but does not manifest to him in any way her own
intentions, he should then try to gain her over by means of a go-between.

If she meets him once, and again comes to meet him better dressed than
before, or comes to him in some lonely place, he should be certain that she is
capable of being enjoyed by the use of a little force. A woman who lets a man
make up to her, but does not give herself up, even after a long time, should be
considered as a trifler in love, but owing to the fickleness of the human mind,
even such a woman can be conquered by always keeping up a close
acquaintance with her.

When a woman avoids the attentions of a man, and on account of respect for
him, and pride in herself, will not meet him or approach him, she can be gained
over with difficulty, either by endeavouring to keep on familiar terms with her,
or else by an exceedingly clever go-between.

When a man makes up to a woman, and she reproaches him with harsh words,
she should be abandoned at once.

When a woman reproaches a man, but at the same time acts affectionately
towards him, she should be made love to in every way.

A woman, who meets a man in lonely places, and puts up with the touch of his
foot, but pretends, on account of the indecision of her mind, not to be aware of
it, should be conquered by patience, and by continued efforts as follows:

If she happens to go to sleep in his vicinity he should put his left arm round
her, and see when she awakes whether she repulses him in reality, or only
repulses him in such a way as if she was desirous of the same thing being done
to her again. And what is done by the arm can also be done by the foot. If the
man succeeds in this point he should embrace her more closely, and if she will
not stand the embrace and gets up, but behaves with him as usual the next
day, he should consider then that she is not unwilling to be enjoyed by him. If
however she does not appear again, the man should try to get over her by
means of a go-between; and if, after having disappeared for some time, she
again appears, and behaves with him as usual, the man should then consider
that she would not object to be united with him.

When a woman gives a man an opportunity, and makes her own love manifest
to him, he should proceed to enjoy her. And the signs of a woman manifesting
her love are these:

She calls out to a man without being addressed by him in the first instance.

She shows herself to him in secret places.

She speaks to him tremblingly and inarticulately.

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The Business of a Go-Between

If a woman has manifested her love or desire, either by signs or by motions of
the body, and is afterwards rarely or never seen anywhere, or if a woman is
met for the first time, the man should get a go-between to approach her.

Now the go-between, having wheedled herself into the confidence of the
woman by acting according to her disposition, should try to make her hate or
despise her husband by holding artful conversations with her, by telling her
about medicines for getting children, by talking to her about other people, by
tales of various kinds, by stories about the wives of other men, and by praising
her beauty, wisdom, generosity and good nature, and then saying to her: `It is
indeed a pity that you, who are so excellent a woman in every way, should be
possessed of a husband of this kind. Beautiful lady, he is not fit even to serve
you.' The go-between should further talk to the woman about the weakness of
the passion of her husband, his jealousy, his roguery, his ingratitude, his
aversion to enjoyments, his dullness, his meanness, and all the other faults that
he may have, and with which she may be acquainted. She should particularly
harp upon that fault or that failing by which the wife may appear to be the most
affected. If the wife be a deer woman, and the husband a hare man, then there
would be no fault in that direction, but in the event of his being a hare man,
and she a mare woman or elephant woman, then this fault should be pointed
out to her.

Gonikaputra is of opinion that when it is the first affair of the woman, or when
her love has only been very secretly shown, the man should then secure and
send to her a go-between, with whom she may be already acquainted, and in
whom she confides.

But to return to our subject. The go-between should tell the woman about the
obedience and love of the man, and as her confidence and affection increase,
she should then explain to her the thing to be accomplished in the following
way. `Hear this, Oh beautiful lady, that this man, born of a good family, having
seen you, has gone mad on your account. The poor young man, who is tender
by nature, has never been distressed in such a way before, and it is highly
probable that he will succumb under his present affliction, and experience the
pains of death.' If the woman listens with a favourable ear, then on the
following day the go-between, having observed marks of good spirits in her
face, in her eyes, and in her manner of conversation, should again converse
with her on the subject of the man, and should tell her the stories of Ahalya1
and Indra, of Sakoontala2 and Dushyanti, and such others as may be fitted for
the occasion. She should also describe to her the strength of the man, his
talents, his skill in the sixty-four sorts of enjoyments mentioned by Babhravya,
his good looks, and his liaison with some praiseworthy woman, no matter
whether this last ever took place or not.

In addition to this, the go-between should carefully note the behaviour of the
woman, which if favourable would be as follows: She would address her with a
smiling look, would seat herself close beside her, and ask her, `Where have you
been? What have you been doing? Where did you dine? Where did you sleep?
Where have you been sitting?'

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On the Love of Persons in authority with the Wives of other People

Kings and their ministers have no access to the abodes of others, and moreover
their mode of living is constantly watched and observed and imitated by the
people at large, just as the animal world, seeing the sun rise, get up after him,
and when he sits in the evening, lie down again in the same way. Persons in
authority should not therefore do any improper act in public, as such are
impossible from their position, and would be deserving of censure. But if they
find that such an act is necessary to be done, they should make use of the
proper means as described in the following paragraphs.

The head man of the village, the king's officer employed there, and the man1
whose business it is to glean corn, can gain over female villagers simply by
asking them. It is on this account that this class of woman are called unchaste
women by voluptuaries.

The union of the above mentioned men with this class of woman takes place on
the occasions of unpaid labour, of filling the granaries in their houses, of taking
things in and out of the house, of cleaning the houses, of working in the fields,
and of purchasing cotton, wool, flax, hemp, and thread, and at the season of
the purchase, sale, and exchange of various other articles, as well as at the
time of doing various other works. In the same way the superintendents of cow
pens enjoy the women in the cow pens; and the officers, who crave the
superintendence of widows, of the women who are without supporters, and of
women who have left their husbands, have sexual intercourse with these
women. The intelligent accomplish their object by wandering at night in the
village, and while villagers also unite with the wives of their sons, being much
alone with them. Lastly the superintendents of markets have a great deal to do
with the female villagers at the time of their making purchases in the market.

During the festival of the eighth moon, i.e. during the bright half of the month
of Nargashirsha, as also during the moonlight festival of the month of Kartika,
and the spring festival of Chaitra, the women of cities and towns generally visit
the women of the king's harem in the royal palace. These visitors go to the
several apartments of the women of the harem, as they are acquainted with
them, and pass the night in conversation, and in proper sports, and
amusement, and go away in the morning. On such occasions a female
attendant of the king (previously acquainted with the woman whom the king
desires) should loiter about, and accost this woman when she sets out to go
home, and induce her to come and see the amusing things in the palace.
Previous to these festivals even, she should have caused it to be intimated to
this woman that on the occasion of this festival she would show her all the
interesting things in the royal palace. Accordingly she should show her the
bower of the coral creeper, the garden house with its floor inlaid with precious
stones, the bower of grapes, the building on the water, the secret passages in
the walls of the palace, the pictures, the sporting animals, the machines, the
birds, and the cages of the lions and the tigers. After this, when alone with her,
she should tell her about the love of the king for her, and should describe to her
the good fortune which would attend upon her union with the king, giving her at
the time a strict promise of secrecy. If the woman does not accept the offer,
she should conciliate and please her with handsome presents befitting the
position of the king, and having accompanied her for some distance should
dismiss her with great affection.

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About the Women of the Royal Harem, and of the keeping of one's own

The women of the royal harem cannot see or meet any men on account of their
being strictly guarded, neither do they have their desires satisfied, because
their only husband is common to many wives. For this reason among
themselves they give pleasure to each other in various ways as now described.
Having dressed the daughters of their nurses, or their female friends, or their
female attendants, like men, they accomplish their object by means of bulbs,
roots, and fruits having the form of the lingam, or they lie down upon the
statue of a male figure, in which the lingam is visible and erect.

Some kings, who are compassionate, take or apply certain medicines to enable
them to enjoy many wives in one night, simply for the purpose of satisfying the
desire of their women, though they perhaps have no desire of their own. Others
enjoy with great affection only those wives that they particularly like, while
others only take them, according as the turn of each wife arrives in due course.
Such are the ways of enjoyment prevalent in Eastern countries, and what is
said about the means of enjoyment of the female is also applicable to the male.

By means of their female attendants the ladies of the royal harem generally get
men into their apartments in the disguise or dress of women. Their female
attendants, and the daughters of their nurses, who are acquainted with their
secrets, should exert themselves to get men to come to the harem in this way
by telling them of the good fortune attending it, and by describing the facilities
of entering and leaving the palace, the large size of the premises, the
carelessness of the sentinels, and the irregularities of the attendants about the
persons of the royal wives. But these women should never induce a man to
enter the harem by telling him falsehoods, for that would probably lead to his

As for the man himself he had better not enter a royal harem, even though it
may be easily accessible, on account of the numerous disasters to which he
may be exposed there. If however he wants to enter it, he should first ascertain
whether there is an easy way to get out, whether it is closely surrounded by the

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