<<

. 9
( 9)



in themselves, and then reaffected “ this time as an empirical being
endowed with sense organs “ by the empirical objects which are the
products of the ¬rst affection.”6 But this model clearly violates UT:
affection is a causal relation, and all concepts, including causality,
apply only within experience.
Transcendental idealism entails that affection of subjects by objects
can be ascribed only on the empirical level, because it is a causal
relation. Thus despite its intuitive appeal, it is an error to think of
whatever relation obtains between subjects and things in themselves
as causal. Given UT, we cannot know how the subject in itself relates
to other things. The theory of double affection represents a form of
transcendental illusion: it arises from an attempt to make meaningful
cognitive claims about the unconditioned. On the empirical level, by
contrast, there is no dif¬culty in representing the relation between
subjects and objects causally. As I argued in chapter 7, the Second
Analogy requires us to recognize sensations as physical states caused
in perceivers by external, physical objects. So there is no “double
affection.” We have no way to represent how we as subjects in ourselves
are related to things in themselves.
This same reasoning can be used to answer a similar criticism of
the “double aspect” view. Several philosophers claim that any attempt
to identify appearances ontologically with things in themselves also
violates UT. After all, numerical identity is de¬ned in part by the
principle of the indiscernibility of identicals: two things are numeri-
cally identical if and only if they share all properties. But NST denies
that appearances and things in themselves share any properties. Thus
it is nonsensical to assert that things in themselves are appearances
taken non-relationally. The solution here echoes that given above. On
my view, things in themselves are the ontological ground of appear-
ances. But we have only a minimal logical conception of this relation,
an indeterminate notion of condition to conditioned. That cannot
be the notion of numerical identity de¬ned by the indiscernibility of
identicals, since concepts of number do not apply beyond experience.
Thus I ¬nd myself sympathetic to the “indeterminacy” view described
by Gardner, according to which “transcendental re¬‚ection is incapable

6 Gardner, Guidebook, 291“2.
Conclusion 309
of making out determinately the relation between appearances and
things in themselves.”7 Attempts to de¬ne that relation precisely do
not take transcendental idealism seriously.
Kant™s idealism raises many more questions I have not touched on.
Interested readers will ¬nd no lack of discussion in the literature.8
My hope here is to sketch an answer to some of the more serious
charges against transcendental idealism. I have argued that it is not
blatantly incoherent. In chapter 3 we saw how Kant™s theory of space
and time supports NST. In chapter 2 I explained why NST and the
claim that things in themselves exist do not contradict UT, since
neither view ascribes any properties to things in themselves. As I
have insisted throughout this book, whatever the dif¬culties with
Kant™s critical theory, it offers a powerful and systematic alternative
to the philosophies that preceded it, and continues to set the stage
for philosophical debate.

7 Gardner, Guidebook, 297.
8 See chapter 10 of Van Cleve™s Problems from Kant for a helpful discussion of many issues.
Works cited




bio g ra ph ies
Cassirer, Ernst. Kant™s Life and Thought. Trans. James Haden. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1981.
Kuehn, Manfred. Kant: A Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2001.


works by ka nt cit ed in t he tex t
Unless otherwise noted, all quotations and references are to translations
available in the Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. Volumes
from which works are cited are:

Correspondence. Trans. and ed. Arnulf Zweig. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, 1999.
Critique of Pure Reason. Trans. and ed. Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. As is customary, cita-
tions are to the A (1781) and B (1787) pagination of the Akademie
edition.
Critique of the Power of Judgment. Trans. and ed. Paul Guyer and Eric
Matthews. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Lectures on Logic. Trans. and ed. J. Michael Young. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1992. Contains the following works cited:
The Blomberg Logic, 1“246.
The Dohna-Wundlacken Logic, 427“516.
The J¨ sche Logic, 519“640.
a
The Vienna Logic, 249“377.
Lectures on Metaphysics. Trans. and ed. Karl Ameriks and Steve Naragon.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Contains the following
works cited:
Metaphysik Mrongovius, 107“283.
Metaphysik Vigilantius, 415“506.

310
Works cited 311
Practical Philosophy. Trans. and ed. Mary J. Gregor. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1996. Contains the following works cited:
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, 37“108.
Critique of Practical Reason, 133“271.
Theoretical Philosophy, 1755“1770. Trans. and ed. David Walford. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1992. Contains the following works cited:
A New Elucidation of the First Principles of Metaphysical Cognition, 1“45.
Concerning the Ultimate Ground of the Differentiation of Directions in Space,
361“72.
On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and the Intelligible World
[Inaugural Dissertation], 373“416.
The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence
of God, 107“201.
Theoretical Philosophy after 1781. Trans. and ed. Henry Allison and Peter
Heath, trans. Gary Hat¬eld and Michael Friedman. Cambridge: Cam-
bridge University Press, 2002. Contains the following works cited:
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics that Will be Able to Come Forward
as Science, 49“169.
Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, 171“270.
On a Discovery Whereby Any New Critique of Pure Reason Is To be Made
Super¬‚uous by an Older One, 281“336.

Other editions of Kant™s works:
Nachtr¨ ge zu Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Ed. Benno Erdmann. Kiel:
a
Lipsius & Tischer, 1881.
Re¬‚exionen Kants zur kritischen Philosophie. Ed. Benno Erdmann. Leipzig:
Feuss Verlag, 1882.
The standard German edition of Kant™s works is Kants gesammelte Schriften.
Ed. Royal Prussian (later German) Academy of Sciences. Berlin: Georg
Reimer, later Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1900“. The marginal numbers
in works in the Cambridge edition are to volumes and pages of this
edition.


other wo rks c it ed
Adams, Robert. Leibniz: Determinist, Theist, Idealist. Oxford: Oxford Uni-
versity Press, 1994.
Adickes, Erich. Kant und das Ding an sich. Berlin: Pan Verlag, 1924.
Al-Azm, Sadik J. The Origins of Kant™s Arguments in the Antinomies. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1972.
Allison, Henry E. Kant™s Theory of Freedom. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, 1990.
Works cited
312
Kant™s Transcendental Idealism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983,
rev. ed. 2004.
“Transcendental Idealism: The ˜Two Aspect™ View.” In New Essays on
Kant, ed. Bernard den Ouden. New York: Peter Lang, 1987, 155“78.
Ameriks, Karl. Kant™s Theory of Mind . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.
Anselm, St. Anselm™s Basic Writings. Trans. S. W. Deane. La Salle, Ill.: Open
Court Publishing Co., 1962.
Aquinas, St. Thomas. The Basic Writings of St. Thomas Aquinas. Trans. Anton
C. Pegis. New York: Random House, 1945.
Arnauld, Antoine and Pierre Nicole. Logic or the Art of Thinking: The Port-
Royal Logic. Trans. and ed. Jill Vance Buroker. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1996.
Bennett, Jonathan. Kant™s Analytic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1966.
Kant™s Dialectic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.
Berkeley, George. De Motu. In The Works of George Berkeley Bishop of Cloyne,
4:1“52. Ed. A. A. Luce and T. E. Jessop. London: Thomas Nelson and
Sons, 1951.
Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous. Ed. Robert M. Adams.
Indianapolis: Hackett, 1979.
A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. Ed. Kenneth P.
Winkler. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1982.
Bird, Graham. Kant™s Theory of Knowledge. London: Routledge & Kegan
Paul, 1962.
Brittan, Gordon G., Jr. Kant™s Theory of Science. Princeton: Princeton Uni-
versity Press, 1978.
Broad, C. D. Kant: An Introduction. Ed. C. Lewy. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1978.
Brook, Andrew. Kant and the Mind . Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1994.
Buroker, Jill Vance. “Descartes on Sensible Qualities.” Journal of the History
of Philosophy 29 (1991): 585“611.
“On Kant™s Proof of the Existence of Material Objects.” Proceedings of
the Sixth International Kant Congress, ed. Gerhard Funke and Thomas
M. Seebohm, 2.1:183“97. Washington, D.C.: Center for Advanced
Research in Phenomenology and University Press of America, 1989.
“The Role of Incongruent Counterparts in Kant™s Transcendental Ideal-
ism.” In James Van Cleve and Robert E. Frederick, eds., The Philosophy
of Right and Left (see below), 315“39.
Space and Incongruence: The Origin of Kant™s Idealism. Dordrecht: D.
Reidel, 1981.
Carson, Emily. “Kant on the Method of Mathematics.” Journal of the History
of Philosophy 37 (1999): 629“52.
Works cited 313
Chipman, Lachlan. “Kant™s Categories and their Schematism.” In Kant on
Pure Reason, ed. Ralph C. S. Walker, 100“16.
Descartes, Ren´. Meditations on First Philosophy. In The Philosophical Writ-
e
ings of Descartes, ed. J. Cottingham, R. Stoothoff, and D. Murdoch. 3
vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
D¨ r¬‚inger, Bernd. “The Underlying Teleology of the First Critique.” Pro-
o
ceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress, 1.2: 813“26.
Dummett, Michael. “The Signi¬cance of Quine™s Indeterminacy Thesis.”
In Truth and Other Enigmas. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Press, 1978.
Falkenstein, Lorne. Kant™s Intuitionism. Toronto: University of Toronto
Press, 1995.
Frege, Gottlob. The Foundations of Arithmetic. Trans. J. L. Austin. Oxford:
Basil Blackwell, 1959.
“The Thought.” In G. Frege, Logical Investigations. Trans. and ed. P.
T. Geach and R. H. Stoothoff. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1977.
Friedman, Michael. “Causal Laws and the Foundations of Natural Science.”
In The Cambridge Companion to Kant, ed. Paul Guyer (see below),
161“97.
Kant and the Exact Sciences. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,
1982.
Gardner, Sebastian. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Kant and the Critique
of Pure Reason. London: Routledge, 1999.
Gibbons, Sarah. Kant™s Theory of Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1994.
Gochnauer, Myron. “Kant™s Refutation of Idealism.” Journal of the History
of Philosophy 12 (1974): 195“206.
Grice, H. P. and P. F. Strawson. “In Defense of a Dogma.” Philosophical
Review 45 (1956): 141“58.
Grier, Michelle. Kant™s Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion. Cambridge: Cam-
bridge University Press, 2001.
Guyer, Paul, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Kant. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1992. Contains an extensive bibliography.
Kant and the Claims of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1987.
“Kant™s Intentions in the Refutation of Idealism.” Philosophical Review 92
(1983): 329“83.
Henrich, Dieter. “The Proof-Structure of Kant™s Transcendental Deduc-
tion.” Review of Metaphysics 22 (1969): 640“59.
Hintikka, Jaakko. “On Kant™s Notion of Intuition (Anschauung).” In The
First Critique: Re¬‚ections on Kant™s Critique of Pure Reason, ed. T. Penel-
hum and J. J. MacIntosh (see below), 38“53.
Works cited
314
Hume, David. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Ed. Richard H. Pop-
kin. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998.
Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge, rev. P.
H. Nidditch. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.
A Treatise of Human Nature. Ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge, rev. P. H. Nidditch.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Kemp Smith, Norman. A Commentary to Kant™s Critique of Pure Reason. New
York: Humanities Press, 1962.
Kitcher, Patricia. Kant™s Transcendental Psychology. Oxford: Oxford Univer-
sity Press, 1990.
Langton, Rae. Kantian Humility: Our Ignorance of Things in Themselves.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm. Discourse on Metaphysics, Correspondence with
Arnauld and Monadology. Trans. George R. Montgomery. La Salle, Ill.:
Open Court, 1968.
The Leibniz“Clarke Correspondence. Ed. H. G. Alexander. Manchester:
Manchester University Press, 1965.
New Essays on Human Understanding. Ed. Peter Remnant and Jonathan
Bennett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Philosophical Papers and Letters. Trans. and ed. Leroy E. Loemker.
Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1969.
Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ed. P. H. Nidditch.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Longuenesse, B´atrice. Kant and the Capacity to Judge. Princeton: Princeton
e
University Press, 1998.
Lovejoy, Arthur O. “On Kant™s Reply to Hume.” In Kant: Disputed Questions,
ed. M. Gram, 284“308. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1967.
McGinn, Colin. Logical Properties. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.
Melnick, Arthur. Kant™s Analogies of Experience. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1973.
Space, Time and Thought in Kant. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publish-
ers, 1989.
Naragon, Steven. “Kant on Descartes and the Brutes.” Kantstudien 81 (1990):
1“23.
Newton, Isaac. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and his System
of the World. Trans. Florian Cajori. 2 vols. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1966.
Parsons, Charles. “Kant™s Philosophy of Arithmetic.” In Kant on Pure Reason,
ed. Ralph C. S. Walker (see below), 13“40.
“The Transcendental Aesthetic.” In The Cambridge Companion to Kant,
ed. Paul Guyer (see above), 62“100.
Paton, H. J. Kant™s Metaphysic of Experience. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan,
1936.
Works cited 315
Penelhum, T. and J. J. MacIntosh, eds. The First Critique: Re¬‚ections on
Kant™s Critique of Pure Reason. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1969.
Posy, Carl. “Dancing to the Antinomy: A Proposal for Transcendental Ide-
alism.” American Philosophical Quarterly 20 (1983): 81“94.
Prauss, Gerold. Erscheinung bei Kant. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1971.
Kant und das Problem der Dinge an sich. Bonn: Bouvier, 1974.
Prichard, H. A. Kant™s Theory of Knowledge. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929.
Quine, Willard Van Orman. “Two Dogmas of Empiricism.” In From a
Logical Point of View. New York: Harper and Row, 1961.
Word and Object. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1960.
Robinson, Hoke. “Two Perspectives on Kant™s Appearances and Things in
Themselves.” Journal of the History of Philosophy 32 (1994): 411“41.
Russell, Bertrand. Our Knowledge of the External World. New York: New
American Library, 1956.
Russell, Bertrand and Alfred North Whitehead. Principia Mathematica. 3
vols. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1910“13.
Shabel, Lisa. “Kant™s ˜Argument from Geometry™.” Journal of the History of
Philosophy 42 (2004): 195“215.
Spinoza, Baruch. The Ethics and Selected Letters. Trans. Samuel Shirley.
Indianapolis: Hackett, 1982.
Strawson, P. F. The Bounds of Sense. London: Methuen, 1966.
Thompson, Manley. “Singular Terms and Intuitions in Kant™s Epistemol-
ogy.” Review of Metaphysics 26 (1972): 314“43
Vaihinger, Hans. Commentar zu Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft. 2 vols.
Stuttgart: W. Spemann and Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1881“
92.
Van Cleve, James. “Four Recent Interpretations of Kant™s Second Analogy.”
Kantstudien 64 (1973): 69“87.
Problems from Kant. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Van Cleve, James and Robert E. Frederick, eds. The Philosophy of Right and
Left. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991.
Walker, Ralph C. S., ed. Kant on Pure Reason. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1982.
Walsh, W. H. Kant™s Criticism of Metaphysics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Uni-
versity Press, 1975.
White, Morton. “The Analytic and the Synthetic: An Untenable Dualism.”
Reprinted in Semantics and the Philosophy of Language, ed. Leonard Lin-
sky, 272“86. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1952. (First published
1950.)
Wolff, Robert Paul. Kant™s Theory of Mental Activity. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1963.
Wood, Allen. Kant™s Rational Theology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,
1978.
Works cited
316
Young, J. Michael. “Kant™s View of Imagination.” Kantstudien 79 (1988):
140“64.

g ener al wo rks not c it ed
Beck, Lewis White. Studies in the Philosophy of Kant. Indianapolis: Bobbs-
Merrill, 1965.
Dicker, Georges. Kant™s Theory of Knowledge: An Analytical Introduction.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
H¨ ffe, Otfried. Immanuel Kant. Trans. Marshall Farrier. Albany: State Uni-
o
versity of New York Press, 1994.
Nagel, Gordon. The Structure of Experience: Kant™s System of Principles.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.
Pippin, Robert B. Kant™s Theory of Form: An Essay on the Critique of Pure
Reason. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
Walker, Ralph C. S. Kant. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.

a nth olog ies not c it ed
F¨ rster, Eckart, ed. Kant™s Transcendental Deductions: The Three ˜Critiques™
o
and the ˜Opus postumum™. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989.
Harper, William A. and Ralph Meerbote, eds. Kant on Causality, Freedom,
and Objectivity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
Kitcher, Patricia, ed. Kant™s “Critique of Pure Reason”: Critical Essays. Lanham,
Md.: Rowman & Little¬eld, 1998.
Wolff, Robert Paul, ed. Kant: A Collection of Critical Essays. Garden City,
N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor, 1967.

b ib li og ra phies
Ameriks, Karl. “Recent Work on Kant™s Theoretical Philosophy.” American
Philosophical Quarterly 19 (1982): 1“24. Contains an extensive bibliog-
raphy of works before 1982.

The North American Kant Society (NAKS) maintains comprehensive on-
line bibliographies of works on Kant, from 1986 to the present, intended for
use by members of the Society. They may be accessed at www.naks.ucsd.edu.
The website also has information for those wishing to join NAKS.
Index




absolute 14“15 Ameriks, Karl 191n, 213n, 220n, 222n, 312
absolute subject see Paralogisms of pure Amphiboly of concepts of re¬‚ection 66,
reason 82n, 170, 201, 204“7, 241
absolute whole see illusion, transcendental Analogies of experience 76, 98, 163“92
action, empirical versus intelligible First, Principle of substance 166“73, 176,
character 259“61 191, 288
see also freedom Second, Principle of causality 173“83,
actuality 248, 288
category of 98“9 Third, Principle of causal
schema of 141 interaction 183“6
see also quality, categories of analytic and synthetic judgments see
Adams, Robert 224n, 311 judgment, analytic and synthetic
Adickes, Erich 307, 311 analytic and synthetic methods 290“8
aesthetic, transcendental 36“72 Analytic of principles 136“7, 143“61,
arguments of 47“57 163“92
strategy of 46 Anselm, Saint 268, 271, 312
affection, double, doctrine of 307“8 Anticipations of perception 97, 149“62
af¬nity, principle of see continuity of forms Antinomy of pure reason 201, 213, 226“63,
agreement and opposition see re¬‚ection, 266, 277, 298
transcendental First 228“9, 232“9, 247, 256
Al-Azm, Sadik J. 227, 234n, 238n, 240n, Fourth 229, 248“53, 262, 267, 276,
243, 246“7, 311 300
algebra 292“3, 297 mathematical and dynamical 257, 262“3
Allison, Henry E. 311“12 meaning of 227
and Analogies of experience 168, 169, 173, organization of 228“30
Second 67, 229, 239“44, 256“7
176, 178
and Antinomy of pure reason 230n, 234, solutions to 230, 253“63, 287
Third 229, 244“8, 249“50, 257“61
235, 236n, 258“9, 260“1
and categories 96n, 98n, 99, 112, 116“17, veri¬cationist reading of 230“1
see also God; in¬nity
118n, 121, 125, 125n
and Paralogisms of pure reason 215, 218 appearance 104“5, 113
and Refutation of idealism 190n, 191n, contrast to illusion 60
contrast to things in themselves 21, 306
192n
and Schematism 136, 140“1, 142, 142n meaning of 37, 39“40, 41“2, 44
and Transcendental aesthetic 59, 62 real in appearance 151
and transcendental idealism (two-aspect transcendental vs. empirical 62“3
see also idealism, transcendental;
view) 65, 306, 307
alteration, de¬nition of 169 phenomena and noumena


317
Index
318
apperception, transcendental (transcendental Buroker, Jill Vance 65n, 312
Space and Incongruence: the Origin of
unity of, t.u.a.) 100, 110“15, 118“23,
Kant™s Idealism 4, 26, 65“6, 202n,
192
as opposed to empirical 113“14, 119, 203n, 306
124
in Paralogism of pure reason 213“25 Canon of pure reason 298“304
presupposes a manifold 120 Carson, Emily 292n, 295n, 296, 312
principle of is analytic 119, 217 Cassirer, Ernst 2n, 4, 310
and time-determination 164 categories (pure concepts of understanding)
see also “I think” as conditions of the possibility of
apprehension experience 127“31
is always successive 159“61 de¬nition and meaning of 93“100
synthesis of 107“9 mathematical contrasted to
a priori (cognition), de¬nition and criteria dynamical 95“6, 144“5, 230
of 27“9 metaphysical deduction of 73“101
see also cognition; judgment and principles of pure understanding 163
Aquinas, Saint Thomas 275, 278, 312 table of 95“9
architectonic transcendental deduction of 16“17, 73,
of pure reason 1 103“34
and structure of Critique 10 see also Schematism
argument from design 267, 278“82 Caterus 271
causal interaction see Analogies of
Aristotle 7, 18, 74, 84
categories of 76, 80 experience, Third
arithmetic causality
construction in 292“3 category of 163
lacks axioms 148, 297 empirical laws 178“81
as synthetic a priori cognition 32“3, 56“7, ¬rst 229
and freedom see Antinomy of pure reason,
68“70
association of perceptions 110, 118, 123“4, 125 Third
see also Hume principle of 173“83
axioms 284, 291 schema of 174, 183, 185
in mathematics 146 simultaneous with effect 182“3
none in philosophy 291 character, empirical versus intelligible (of
see arithmetic; geometry action) 259“61
axioms of intuition 145“9, 150, 152, Chipman, Lachlan 142, 143n, 313
Clarke, Samuel 44, 228, 239
297
coexistence see Analogies of experience,
backdrop thesis 168“9, 175, 176“7 Third; simultaneity of cause and
belief, contrast to knowledge and effect
cogito, see “I think”
opinion 302“3
Bennett, Jonathan F. 161n, 169, 178n, 236n, cognition 107, 122
a posteriori (empirical) and a priori
249, 312
Berkeley, George 7“8, 45, 47, 74, 312 (pure) 19, 27“9
limits of see idealism, transcendental
dogmatic idealism of 12, 25“6,
philosophical as opposed to
189
Bird, Graham 98n, 312 mathematical 291“7
Blomberg Logic 101n requires synthesis 108
synthetic a priori 9, 27“34, 36, 44, 68“72,
Boyle, Robert 25
Brittan, Gordon G., Jr. 68n, 70, 70n, 71, 135, 143
see also objective reality; objective validity
173n, 291n, 312
Broad, C. D. 91, 98n, 312 color 40, 43, 48, 49, 61, 62, 67“8, 155,
Brook, Andrew 106, 312 159
Index 319
concepts of categories (in ¬rst edition) 106“15
de¬nition of 38“9 of categories (in second edition) 116“34
empirical, formation of 286“90 strategy of 197“9
as functions of judgments 80“4 de¬nition, in mathematics and in
and intuitions 38“9 philosophy 284, 290, 295“6
logical as opposed to real use of 99 demonstration 284, 294“5, 297
mathematical 80, 104, 290 Descartes, Ren´ 1, 25, 61, 156n, 313
e
and cogito 7, 132, 190
objective reality of 106“7, 127“8
pure (a priori) 104 and dualism 166, 196“7, 223“4
of re¬‚ection see re¬‚ection, transcendental and ontological proof 268, 271
schematism of see Schematism and personal identity 221, 222
and singular judgments 101, 102 and problematic idealism 12, 76, 136, 186,
thoroughgoing determination of see 189“97
thoroughgoing determination, rationalism of 7, 15, 20, 39, 74
principle of determinability, principle of 265
determination see thoroughgoing
transcendental vs. empirical uses of pure
concepts 202“3 determination, principle of; time
see also categories; deduction discipline of pure reason 290“8
Concerning the ultimate ground of the divisibility, of matter in space see Antinomy
differentiation of directions in space 4 of pure reason, Second
consciousness see apperception Dohna-Wundlacken Logic 101
constitutive principles see principles, D¨ r¬‚inger, Bernd 80n, 85n, 313
o
constitutive vs. regulative Dummett, Michael 35, 313
construction
ens entium 266
in mathematics 140, 201, 284, 290“5
ens originarium 266
ostensive vs. symbolic 292“3
ens realissimum 265“7, 284
of spaces and times 148n
ens summum 266
contingency, empirical as opposed to
intelligible 251 Erdmann, Benno 172n, 173n
continuity of forms, principle of 286, 287“8 Euclid 70, 294“5
event see Analogies of experience, Second
contradiction, principle of 265
and analytic judgments 29, 144 existence
Copernicus, Nicolas 1 cannot be constructed 165
Copernican revolution 17“21 not given by concepts 196
cosmological proof of the existence of and ontological argument 269“74
God 267, 274“8, 282 experience 164
analogies of see Analogies of experience
cosmology, rational 211“13, 226“63
explanation, empirical see science,
critical project 6“9
Critique of the Power of Judgment 5, 6, 204, methodological principles of
extensive magnitude see magnitude
264, 288
Critique of Practical Reason 5, 6, 19, 253, 258,
faith see belief
282, 304
Critique of Pure Reason Falkenstein, Lorne 96n, 148n, 149, 149n,
Second (B) edition of 12 150, 155n, 161, 313
structure of 10 on innate ideas 133“4
on transcendental aesthetic 37, 41, 47, 49,
deduction 50, 54n
empirical vs. transcendental 104 on transcendental idealism 66“8
metaphysical deduction of Feder, Johann Gottlieb Heinrich 12
categories 73“101 Fischer, Kuno 64
objective and subjective 103, 106 form, contrasted to matter 42
transcendental 9, 103“34 Frederick II (the Great) 5
Index
320
Frederick William II 5“6 happiness 299, 300“2
freedom Henrich, Dieter 116, 313
as idea of reason 212“13 Herder, Johann Gottfried 3
as opposed to determinism 23“4, 229, Herz, Marcus 4
highest good, concepts of 212“13, 299, 300“2
244“8, 257“61
see also Antinomy of reason, Third Hintikka, Jaakko 39n, 101, 102, 313
practical 9, 245, 258“9, 299“304 Hume, David 105“6, 130, 135, 314
transcendental 244“8, 253, 257“61, 300 and the argument from design
Frege, Gottlob 18, 34, 76, 85, 89, 91, 273, (physico-theological proof ) 278“81
and empirical idealism 63
282, 313
Frege“Russell program 68“70 empiricism of 4, 7“9, 74, 195
Friedman, Michael 173, 173n, 180“1, 243n, and self-consciousness 113“14
skepticism of 75“6, 136, 163, 166, 170, 173,
291n, 292“3, 293n, 313
functions see judgment; understanding 176, 198, 246, 298
future life see soul, immortality of and synthetic a priori knowledge 19, 20,
27“8, 30, 58
Galilei, Galileo 1, 21 theory of association 16, 33“4, 105“6,
Gardner, Sebastian 231, 231n, 305n, 306, 123n, 124, 198
307, 307n, 308, 313
Garve, Christian 12, 226 idealism
Gaunilo 271 dogmatic as opposed to problematic 189
genera, principle of 286“8 empirical 189“96, 197
geometry kinds of 24“7
see also idealism, transcendental;
axioms of 146n, 297
construction in 292“5 Refutation of idealism
non-Euclidean 68, 70“1 idealism, transcendental 9, 36, 57“64, 131,
and pure intuition of space 56 182, 224, 299, 305“9
as synthetic a priori cognition 32“3, 68, meaning of 190
non-spatiotemporality thesis (NST) 60,
70“1
see also demonstration; mathematics 64“8, 305“6, 308“9
Gibbons, Sarah 140, 142, 143, 313 and proofs for the existence of God 264,
Gochnauer, Myron 190n, 313 269
God and skepticism 197
idea of 227, 264, 289“90 two worlds vs. double-aspect views 305“9
as ideal of reason 265“7, 299, 301“3 unknowability thesis (UT) 21“4, 26“7,
and moral laws (moral theology) 264, 36, 64“8, 203, 305, 307“9
use to resolve antinomies 226, 230“1,
267, 282, 284, 301“3
proofs of existence of 201 254“63
see also things in themselves
in rational theology
(unconditioned) 211“13, 264“79 ideas of reason 201
Gram, Moltke 174n deduction of 208“13
gravity 151, 181, 281 positive (regulative) use of 284“90
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals 5, identity
and difference see re¬‚ection,
6, 253, 258, 304
Grice, H. P. 34, 313 transcendental
of indiscernibles see Leibniz, on identity
Grier, Michelle 288“9, 313
on the Antinomy of pure reason 227, 228, of indiscernibles
personal 221
231n, 240n, 241, 242, 249“50
on the paralogism of pure reason 219“20 illusion, transcendental 201“13, 224n,
on transcendental illusion 207n, 208, 226“63, 264“79, 290
image see Schematism
209“10, 225
Guyer, Paul 75n, 138n, 142, 160, 192n, 227n, imagination 128“9, 131
in synthesis 94, 109“10
230n, 233n, 306, 313
Index 321
presupposes outer sense 194“5 of experience and of perception 125n
faculty of see understanding
productive and reproductive 128“9, 148
role in Schematism 136 and ideas of reason 211“12
immateriality of soul see soul, immateriality logical forms or functions of 80“100
of modality of 85, 90“2
and objectivity see objective reality;
immediacy of knowledge 195“6
immortality of soul see soul, immortality of objective validity
impenetrability 152, 243 power of 137
imperative, categorical 18“19 problematic 81, 91“2
incongruent counterparts argument 4, 65“6 quality of 87“8
in¬nity quantity of 86“7
concepts of 233“4 re¬‚ective as opposed to determinative 82,
of space and time 54“5 204“6, 288
in¬‚uence (in¬‚ux), physical see interaction, of relation of 88“90
mind with body supreme principle of analytic 144
innate ideas and knowledge 7, 20, 74, supreme principle of synthetic 144
and synthesis 121, 124“7
132“4
inner and outer see re¬‚ection, synthetic a priori 9, 27“34
transcendental
inner sense Kant, Immanuel, life and works 6
and apperception 131“2 Kemp Smith, Norman 106n, 112n, 148n,
and outer sense 37, 42“3, 189, 224 204n, 227n, 233n, 234n, 249, 314
time as form of 112“13 Kitcher, Patricia 220n, 314
knowledge see cognition
intellect
intuitive vs. discursive 116n, 119 Knutzen, Martin 2
see also reason; understanding Kuehn, Manfred 2n, 310
intensive magnitude, see magnitude
interaction Langton, Rae 306, 314
of mind with body 223“4 law of least action 287“8
see also causality laws
of freedom (moral laws) see freedom,
intuition
de¬nition of 37“40, 43 practical
of nature see causality, empirical laws
empirical 40, 130“1
Lectures on the Philosophical Doctrine of
formal 130“1, 140“1
Religion 264
intellectual 7, 39, 116n, 119, 135, 203“4,
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 2, 27, 63“4,
206
space and time as pure forms of 36, 287, 314
on arithmetic 68“9
44“64, 77
see also axioms of intuition; cognition; idealism of 26
concepts; sensibility on identity of indiscernibles 202, 205“6
irreversibility 175, 177“80 on phenomena and noumena 202
see Analogies of experience, Second on pre-established harmony 223“4
“I think” 118“23, 132 and Principle of Suf¬cient Reason 243
and transcendental illusion 213“25 rationalism of 4, 7, 15, 20, 39, 74, 202“6,
see also apperception; Descartes 228
on space and time 26, 44n, 45, 47, 66,
Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich 305 202, 238
James, William 112 Locke, John 1, 47
J¨ sche Logic 39n, 79n, 101
a empiricism of 7“8, 15, 74, 75, 105,
judgment 288
aesthetic 137 on personal identity 221, 222
analytic and synthetic 27, 29“35 on primary and secondary qualities 25,
de¬nition of 81“2, 124“7, 137 61
Index
322
logic method
division into analytic and dialectic 79“80 analytic and synthetic 290“8
general as opposed to critical 298
transcendental 78“9 doctrine of 201, 290“303
Kant and contemporary 85“93 mathematical and philosophical
pure as opposed to applied 78“9 290“8
as a science 17“18 modality
transcendental 77“9, 137 categories of 98“9, 186
Longuenesse, B´atrice 161n, 314
e of judgments 85
principles of see Postulates of empirical
Lovejoy, Arthur O. 174, 177, 314
thought
magnitude schemata of 141“2
see also actuality; necessity; possibility
extensive 145“9, 154, 156
intensive 145, 149“62 Moore, G. E. 236n
morality see freedom, practical; freedom,
mathematics
method of, contrasted to philosophical transcendental
method 290“8
see also algebra; arithmetic; geometry Naragon, Steven 94n, 314
matter nature
contrasted to form 37, 42 unity of 185
see also re¬‚ection, transcendental see also causality, empirical laws
divisibility of see Antinomy of pure necessary being 229, 248“53, 262, 267“82
see also Antinomy of pure reason, Fourth;
reason, Second
Maupertuis™s law of least action 287“8 theology, rational
maxims of reason see reason, principles of necessity
of a priori cognition 19“21, 28“9, 32“3, 51,
(maxims)
McGinn, Colin 273“4, 314 63, 100
measurement see magnitude; scales; category of 98“9
synthesis and causality 178
mechanics 57 empirical 144, 180“1, 188
Melnick, Arthur 163n, 314 epistemic 51, 63
and freedom see Antinomy of pure reason,
on the Antinomy of pure reason 231n,
Third
233“5, 238, 257
on the First Analogy 166“7, 170“3 of judgments 92, 199
on pure concepts 89n, 90n, 93, 96n, 98n logical (as form of judgment) 91
postulate of see Postulates of empirical
on the Second Analogy 173“81
on space and time 52n, 55, 148n, thought
schema of 141“2
148“9
on the Third Analogy 183“5 subjective 208, 210
see also judgment, modality of
Mendelssohn, Moses 155
mereology 53“4 negation
metaphysical deduction of categories see as logical operator 87“8
see also quality, categories of
deduction
Metaphysical Foundations of Natural New Elucidation of the First Principles of
Science 5, 28, 57, 65, 99n, 151n, 152, Metaphysical Cognition (Principiorum
primorum cognitionis metaphysicae
173, 173n, 181n, 243n
nova dilucidatio) 3, 266n
metaphysics
possibility of 14“17 Newton, Isaac 1“2, 183, 314
as synthetic a priori cognition 33 on space and time 44
non-spatiotemporality thesis (NST), see
metaphysics of morals 298
Metaphysik Mrongovius 134n idealism, transcendental; things in
Metaphysik Vigilantius 134n themselves
Index 323
noumena see phenomena and noumena; see also appearance
things in themselves philosophy, method of 290“8
number physico-theological proof of the existence of
concept of 95, 109, 111, 293, 308 God 267, 278“82
physics, as synthetic a priori cognition 33
and Schematism 141, 147“8
Plato 15, 39, 74, 138, 143, 265
Port-Royal Logic 87n, 89n, 90n
object
meaning of 60“1, 82“3 possibility
principle of see Postulates of empirical
transcendental 113“14, 203
objective reality 219, 265, 301 thought
of categories 106“7, 117, 127“8, 140, 198“9 real as opposed to logical 187
schema of see Schematism
Descartes™s notion of 193
see also modality; necessity
objective validity 148, 288
of categories 106, 117, 198“9 postulates, meaning of 188
of representation 121, 122, 123“4, 125 Postulates of empirical thought 163, 176,
of space and time 60 186“8
Occam™s razor 286“7 Posy, Carl 230n, 315
On a discovery whereby any new critique of practical reason see reason, practical
pure reason is to be made super¬‚uous Prauss, Gerold 306, 315
by an older one 133 pre-established harmony 223“4
On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and Prichard, H. A. 227n, 315
Intelligible World (De mundi sensibilis principles
atque intelligibilis forma et principiis) constitutive vs. regulative 145, 163, 165“6,
(inaugural dissertation) 4, 233 208“9, 285
Only Possible Ground of Proof for a dynamical vs. mathematical 144“5, 165“6
Demonstration of the Existence of immanent vs. transcendental uses
God 266n of 207“8
ontological proof of the existence of transcendent (ideas of reason) 207“8,
God 249, 267“74, 282“3 286“90
see also Analogies of experience;
critique of 70, 269“74
relation to other proofs of existence of Anticipations of perception; Axioms
God 267, 275, 276“7, 280 of intuition; Postulates of empirical
Opus postumum 6 thought
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics 5, 8,
outer sense 37, 42“3
space as the form of 42“3 33, 65, 99n, 125n, 226
see inner sense, and outer sense psychology
empirical 78“9
Paley, William 278 rational 201, 211“25
paralogisms of pure reason 155, 189, 197, 201, purposiveness, in nature 288, 289“90,
243“4, 266 302
analysis of 213“25
revision of 213“14 quality
Parsons, Charles 39n, 54n, 291n, 314 categories of 96“7
principles of see Anticipations of
Paton, H. J. 65, 98n, 106n, 107, 146n, 147,
perception
148, 150, 151, 159“60, 161, 192n, 314
perception see Anticipations of perception; schema of 141, 158
Postulates of empirical thought quantity
persistence categories of 96, 147“8
of the soul see paralogisms of pure reason of judgment 86“7
of substance see Analogies of experience, principles of see Axioms of intuition
First schema of 141
phenomena and noumena 201“4 Quine, Willard Van Orman 34“5, 315
Index
324
realism, empirical 57“63 of concepts of the understanding 99,
reality, category of see quality, categories of 136“43
reason 137 of ideas 210
autonomy of 298 and images 139“40, 142“3
see also Schematism
concepts of 201
contradictions of 15 Schematism 73, 136“43
see Antinomy of pure reason science, methodological principles
de¬nitions of 16 of 286“90
errors of see illusion, transcendental secondary qualities 61“3
self see apperception, transcendental; inner
lazy 289
perverted 289 sense; soul
practical 18“19, 23“4, 201, 282, 284, self-knowledge 196
paradox of 128, 131“2
298“303
principles of (maxims) 201, 209“12, sensation
and actuality 187
286“90
regulative function of 210, 284“90 causes of 161
relation to understanding 284, de¬nition of 37, 39“40, 41, 43,
285“6 77
theoretical, logical vs. real uses of 207, and intensive magnitude 149
and reality 96“7
285“9
unity of 16, 210 sensibility 43
reciprocity thesis 121“3 contrasted to understanding 36“9,
recognition, synthesis of 107“11 77“8
re¬‚ection, transcendental 204“6, 306 Shabel, Lisa 46n, 294“5, 315
simplicity of substance see substance,
Refutation of idealism 12, 43, 76, 136, 137,
simplicity of
163, 172, 186, 188“96, 214
see also idealism, empirical simultaneity of cause and effect 182“3
regress, empirical skepticism 75“6, 163, 298
in¬nite vs. inde¬nite 255“7 refutation of 186, 197“9
regulative principles see principles, see also Hume; Refutation of idealism
Smith, Norman Kemp see Kemp Smith,
constitutive vs. regulative
relations Norman
categories of 97“8 soul
reducibility of 241 idea of 227
schemata of 141 immateriality of 222“4
see also causality; space; time immortality of 155, 212“13, 223“5, 284,
religion see theology 299
representation numerical identity of 213, 221“2
clear and distinct 155 and rational psychology 211“5
see also appearance; cognition; concepts; simplicity of 213, 220“1, 243“4
ideas of reason; intuition substantiality of 213“20
reproduction, synthesis of 107“10 space
Robinson, Hoke 305n, 306, 315 absolute theory of 4, 44, 60
rules in the antinomies 237“9
and causal laws 174, 178“80 empirical reality of 57“63
see also concepts; imperative; schemata; empty 50“1, 152, 168, 256
understanding as form of outer sense 36, 42“3,
Russell, Bertrand 68“70, 76, 85, 235“6, 273, 59
and geometry 56
282, 315
in¬nite extension and divisibility of 54“5,
scales, ratio as opposed to interval 156“8 108
schemata 136“43 Leibniz™s relational theory of 4, 45, 238
Index 325
and synthesis of understanding see axioms tables
of intuition of categories 95“9
transcendental ideality of 57“64 of logical forms of judgment
speci¬cation, maxim of 286“8 84“92
Spinoza, Baruch 7, 74, 250, 315 theology
spontaneity rational 201, 213, 264“79
see also God
of apperception 132
of understanding 77 things in themselves 21
Stahl, George Ernst 21 non-spatiotemporality of (NST) 60,
Strawson, P. F. 34, 177, 178n, 190n, 230n, 64“8, 305“6, 308“9
opposed to appearances 42, 306
236, 246, 313, 315
subject, thinking see apperception, unknowability of (UT) 21“4, 26“7, 36,
transcendental; “I think” 64“8, 203, 305, 307“9
see also idealism, transcendental
substance
thinking see understanding
absolute permanence of 167, 169, 171
action as criterion of 170 Thompson, Manley 39n, 101“2, 291n,
category of 163 315
concepts of 169 thoroughgoing determination, principle
conservation of 167, 173 of 265“6
necessity of see Antinomy of pure reason, time
absolute theory of see space, absolute
Fourth
needs intuition of space 191“4 theory of
principle of 166“73 and arithmetic 292“3
schema of 169, 219 empty 168
and self see paralogisms of pure reason as form of inner sense 36, 42“3, 59
simplicity of 220“1, 239“44, 256“7 Leibniz™s view of (relational theory) 45,
see also Antinomy of pure reason, 238
Second modes of 165, 166“7
as substratum of time 167“71 objective time determination 163“6
succession see causality represented by spatial ¬gure 129
suf¬cient reason, principle of 237“9, 243, in schematism 140“2
substratum of see substance
248, 252“3
syllogisms in transcendental deduction 128“31
and ideas of reason 208, 211“12 transcendental ideality of 57“64
synthesis unity of 171
of apprehension 107“15, 130“1 Torricelli, Evangelista 21
and combination 117 transcendent
and dynamical principles 163“92 meaning of 34
of extensive and intensive principles 299
see also transcendental
magnitude 145“62
¬gurative 128“31 transcendental
in the metaphysical deduction 93“5, freedom 244“8, 253, 257“61,
102 300
presupposed by analysis 94“5, 117 idealism 21“3, 24“7, 57“64
progressive and regressive 212, 228“9 illusion 201“24
pure and empirical 109 object 113“14
and Schematism 140“1 philosophy 34
threefold in the A-edition 107“15, 135 realism, and the Antinomy of pure
in the transcendental deduction reason 231, 235, 241
re¬‚ection see re¬‚ection, transcendental
(B-edition) 106, 117“31
synthetic a priori knowledge see cognition see also deduction; idealism,
synthetic judgment see judgment transcendental
Index
326
Trendelenburg, Adolf 64“5 Vaihinger, Hans 64, 148n, 315
truth Van Cleve, James 66n, 178, 182n, 268n,
meaning and criteria of 79“80 309n, 315
objectivity of 20 veri¬ability, principle of 15
t.u.a. see apperception Vienna Logic 101, 101n

unconditioned 22, 284 Walker, Ralph C. S. 316
and transcendental illusion 209“12, Walsh, W. H. 227n, 228n, 315
White, Morton 34, 315
227“62
understanding 36“9, 73“101 wholes, analytic and synthetic 231, 234“5,
analysis of 103 240n
errors of 201“7 will
animal (arbitrium brutum) 299
as faculty of cognition 121“31
as faculty of concepts 137, 143, 144 freedom of 212“13
see also freedom, practical; freedom,
and faculty of judgment 82“4, 137
as faculty of rules 144 transcendental
logical and real use of 77 Wolff, Christian Freiherr von 2, 4, 26, 63,
and reason 285“6 294
and sensibility 77“8 Wolff, Robert Paul 148n, 178n,
see also categories; judgment 315
unity Wood, Allen 264, 266n, 272,
analytic and synthetic 120“1 315
category of 96, 118 world
beginning of see Antinomy of pure reason,
of object 113
objective as opposed to subjective 123“4 First
see also apperception idea of 227
Universal Natural History and Theory of the intelligible vs. sensible 204, 238
Heavens 3 see also Antinomy of pure reason; things
unknowability thesis (UT), see idealism, in themselves; noumena
transcendental; things in themselves,
unknowability of Young, Michael J. 109, 316

<<

. 9
( 9)