<<

. 8
( 8)



Formula of Humanity, see Thomas E. Hill Jr. “Respect for Humanity,” in The
Tanner Lectures on Human Values, vol. 18, ed. Grethe B. Peterson (Salt Lake City:
University of Utah Press, 1997), 3“76.
37. For an interesting discussion of this issue, see Cummiskey, Kantian Consequen-
tialism, chap. 8.
38. Thomas Hill makes this point. See Hill, Dignity and Practical Reason, 49, 206.
39. Hill discusses grounds Kant might offer for destroying the humanity in one
person in circumstances in which this would preserve the humanity in others.
However, it is questionable whether these grounds are limited to ones implicitly
endorsed in the Formula of Humanity. To locate the grounds, Hill invokes
Notes to p. 190
220

Kant™s views on justice and the “kingdom of ends.” See Hill, Dignity and Practical
Reason, 207“225.
40. Granted, the agent™s view that in order to have suf¬cient incentive to conform
to EU she must rely on the prospect of maximizing aggregate well-being does
seem a bit odd. In some circumstances, might not she derive suf¬cient incentive
for abiding by EU from another source “ for example, from the notion that
doing so would promote her own happiness?
Index




nonmoral action, 23; and
absolute necessity (unconditional
overdetermined actions, 103, 210 n22;
bindingness): aim of proving in
Groundwork, 4, 5; and the a priori, 90; radically hedonistic interpretation, 23,
and categorical imperative, 10; and 25, 29“32; Reath™s interpretation, 23“24,
26“30, 32; see also incentive,
further criterion for supreme principle of
morality, 111“112; and ought implies can, Incorporation Thesis, material practical
162“164; of supreme principle of principles
morality, 2“3; and universal scope, 41, action, see will
188; see also basic concept of supreme agency, Kant™s theory of, see acting from
principle of morality inclination, capacity of desire,
absolute value, see unconditional goodness determining grounds of the will, end,
acting from duty (see also duty, good will, incentive, inclination, Incorporation
moral worth): and acting contrary to Thesis, maxims, will
duty, 96“98, 119“130, 208 n6; and acting agent-neutral value, see good
from inclination, 101“103; and acting in agent-relative value, see good
accordance with duty, 96; and best effort, agreeableness, see pleasure
129“130; and conscientious re¬‚ection, Allison, Henry, 18, 193 n8, 194 n14, 196“197
130; with inclination, 101, 209 n16; n15, 198 n28, 207 n25, 208 n4, 209
jointly suf¬cient conditions for, 129“130, nn12,16, 211 n9; and Groundwork
138; as limiting condition, 100“101; and derivation, 9“10, 74, 77“78, 194 n22; and
moral requiredness, 99; and moral worth, second Critique derivation, 11, 33“45, 158,
104“110, 114“124, 129“132, 164“165; 188, see also derivation of Formula of
necessary conditions for, 98“104, Universal Law, Allison™s reconstruction
129“130; and overdetermined actions, Ameriks, Karl, 67, 68, 194 n14, 201 n14
103; and perfectly rational beings, 205 animals, 60, 105“106, 108, 114“115, 134,
n45; as primary motive, 100“101; and 184“185
propositions (in Groundwork I), 79, 81, Arendt, Hannah, 129
84, 109, 147, 207 n20; and Aune, Bruce, 8“9, 74, 78“80, 82, 85“87, 94
representation of law as suf¬cient motive,
99“104; as secondary motive, 100“101; Baron, Marcia W., 206 n14, 209 nn10,16,
unconditionally valuable, 81 210 n22, 211 nn2,7, 217 n4, 219 n33
acting from inclination (see also inclination): basic concept of supreme principle of
and acting from duty, 99, 100“103; and morality: and Act Utilitarianism, 146; and
acting from sympathy, 133“134; categorical imperative, 47, 92; criteria
alternative interpretation, 24, 25“26, 29, contained in, 1“3, see also absolute
30“32, 198 n28; and animality, 105“106; necessity, practical principle, supreme
importance of account, 22“23; and norm for moral evaluation of action,
material practical principles, 30; and universal scope; and Formula of
moral worth, 106“108, 115, 134; and Humanity, 162“165; and Formula of


221
Index
222

consequentialist principles, 146“155; as
basic concept (cont.)
Universal Law 162“165; and further basis for eliminating nonconsequentialist
criteria, 3, 88“89, 112; and material principles, 155“159; as developed in
practical principles, 141; necessity of Groundwork I“II (additional criteria),
modifying, 164“165; and principle akin 80“86, 87“89, 91“93; and Kant™s
to Ten Commandments, 156“157; candidates for supreme principle of
provenance, 1, 3“4; relations between morality, 162“167; list, preliminary, 95;
list, revised, 139“140
criteria contained in,188; relations to
derivation and deduction, 14; role in criteria for supreme principle of morality,
book, 4; and unconditional goodness, 71 criticism: in basic concept of supreme
Beck, Lewis White, 197 n17, 198 n29 principle of morality, 164“165, 188;
bene¬cence, 8, 26“27, 44, 45, 116“119, 158, external, of ¬rst additional criterion, 115,
159, 177“178, 185, 218 n22, 219 nn31,33 116“119, 132“138, 190; internal, of ¬rst
Bennett, Jonathan, 214 n24 additional criterion, 119“132; of third
Benson, Paul, 209 n19 additional criterion (representation of
Bittner, R¨ diger, 6, 16“17,194 n14, 195 n3, law as suf¬cient motive), 189“190
u
196“197 n15 criteria for supreme principle of morality,
bizarre principle (BP), 45, 76, 158“159 interpretation (see also basic concept of
Blum, Lawrence, 132 supreme principle of morality, criteria for
Brandt, Richard B., 215 n11 supreme principle of morality): in basic
concept of supreme principle of morality,
capacity of desire, 24“25, 27, 28“29, 48, 50, 1“3; ¬rst additional criterion, 96“109;
51, 198“199 nn29,30, 199“200 nn37,39; fourth additional criterion, 88“89, 95,
167; relations between, 112“113, 188;
see also acting from inclination, will
second additional criterion, 109“110;
Categorical Imperative (see also Formula of
third additional criterion, 110“112
Universal Law): and proving validity of,
6“7; usage of term, 10, 140, 162; see also criterial reading of derivation of Formula of
categorical imperative, fact of pure Universal Law (see also criteria for
reason, supreme principle of morality supreme principle of morality): and
categorical imperative (see also Categorical apriority of supreme principle of
Imperative): and act utilitarianism, 146; morality, 89“91; conditions for success,
and good ends, 56“57; ground of, 54“55; 80; contrast with Aune™s reading, 79“80;
main usage of term in book, 10, 194 n27; and derivation of Formula of Humanity,
15, 160; development of criteria in
and material practical principles,
141“142; mere concept of, 86“87; and Groundwork I, 80“86, 88; and Groundwork
practical law, 10; and principle of II, 86“88, 91“93; main steps, 12, 73; and
happiness, 40, 41; and supreme principle ordinary moral reason, 87“89
of morality, 12, 47, 89; thick concept of, Critique of Practical Reason: and deduction,
92“93; and unconditional goodness, 6“7; and derivation, 33“34, 140“144, see
47“54; see also absolute necessity, supreme also derivation of Formula of Universal
principle of morality, universal scope Law, Allison™s reconstruction
character (see also good will): 66“67, 137, 213 Cummiskey, David, 153“155, 206 n53, 215
n3, 219 nn33,37
n20
conscience, 124“126, 163, 212 n19; postulate Curzer, Howard, 208 n5
of, 131“132, 214 n27
deduction (of Categorical Imperative), 5“7,
conscientious re¬‚ection (see also acting from
duty): 130, 135, 136, 137, 138, 190 90“91, 161
consequentialism (see also Kantian derivation (see also criterial reading of
consequentialism, perfectionism, derivation of Formula of Universal Law;
utilitarianism): 14, 94, 140, 143, 145, 153 derivation of Formula of Humanity;
criteria for supreme principle of morality derivation of Formula of Universal Law,
(see also basic concept of supreme Allison™s reconstruction; derivation of
principle of morality; criteria for Formula of Universal Law, in
Groundwork): and aims of book, 11“15,
supreme principle of morality, criticism;
187; and deduction, 4“6; and moral
criteria for supreme principle of morality,
particularism, 5, 6; and moral skepticism,
interpretation; criterial reading of
5, 6; use of term, 4
derivation of Formula of Universal Law):
in basic concept of supreme principle of derivation of Formula of Humanity:
morality, 1“3, 160; as basis for eliminating argument in outline, 47; categorical
Index 223

imperative and good ends, 56“59; 55“56; humanity as capacity to set, 46; in
maxims, 18; objective 47, 48; subjective,
categorical imperative and unconditional
goodness, 47“54; Korsgaard™s 48
reconstruction, 55“56; regressive end in itself (see also dignity): 175“176
argument (criticism), 65“71; regressive environmentalism, 62, 68“69, 70
argument (summary), 59“65; evaluator relativity, see good
unconditional goodness and
incomparable value, 72; see also Formula fact of pure reason: moral law as, 6“7
false promising, 9, 18, 168“169, 172“173,
of Humanity, humanity, incomparable
178“183, 217“218, nn6,7
value, unconditional goodness
formal principle, 83“85, 92, 141, 142, 200
derivation of Formula of Universal Law,
n40, 207 n25; see also material practical
Allison™s reconstruction: and desire-based
justi¬cation of action, 36“39; gap within, principles
43“45; main steps, 34; and ordinary Formula of Autonomy, 195 n29, 212 n15
moral reasoning, 45; and practical Formula of Humanity (see also derivation of
law-based justi¬cation of action, 39“42; Formula of Humanity): and criteria for
supreme principle of morality, 162“167;
and rivals to Formula of Universal Law,
43“45; stems from second Critique, 33; deriving duties from, 177“187;
and thick account of rational agency, equivalence to Formula of Universal Law,
34“36; and transcendental freedom, 33, 10“11, 161, 177; meaning of, 174“177;
35“36; see also Formula of Universal Law, and ordinary moral consciousness,
167“168, 174, 177“187; prospects for,
Incorporation Thesis, material practical
183, 187, 191
principles
Formula of the Kingdom of Ends, 10, 195
derivation of Formula of Universal Law, in
n29, 219“220, n39
Groundwork (see also criterial reading of
derivation of Formula of Universal Law): Formula of Universal Law (see also derivation
alleged gap in, 7“10; Aune™s reading, of Formula of Universal Law): and
8“9, 78“80; Korsgaard™s reading, 74“76; criteria for supreme principle of morality,
162“167; deriving duties from, 168“174;
relation to derivation of Formula of
Humanity, 47, 49“50; traditional reading, equivalence to Formula of Humanity,
7“10, 78“80; version discussed by Allison, 10“11,161, 177; meaning of, 168“169,
9“10, 77“78; see also rightness 171; and ordinary moral consciousness,
167“174; prospects for, 174
universalism
desire (see also acting from inclination, freedom, see transcendental freedom
capacity of desire, inclination): 23, 25, friend of humanity, see philanthropist
27, 28, 31, 199“200, n37 future generations: and Formula of
Humanity, 184, 185“186
determining grounds of the will: and
motivating reasons, 21; and incentives, 21;
and justifying reasons, 21“22 Gaut, Berys, 70, 203 n10, 204 nn20,32, 205
nn50,51,52, 206 n1, 214 n1
dignity (see also incomparable value,
unconditional goodness): 175“176, God, 2, 74, 75, 76, 81, 109, 110, 131, 138,
183 141, 142, 143, 144, 186, 194 n27, 205
duty (duties) (see also acting from duty, n45
categorical imperative, supreme good (see also incomparable value, price,
principle of morality): and bizarre unconditional goodness): agent-neutral,
principle, 45, 158“159; conforming to 49; agent-relative, 51“52; and evaluator
and acting from, 23, 96“98, 119“130; and relativity, 52; and well-being, 50
Formula of Humanity, 88, 167“168, good will, 62, 63, 66; and character, 213,
177“187; and Formula of Universal Law, n20; in derivation of Formula of
87“88, 167“174; and Kantian Universal Law, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80,
consequentialism, 153“154; and ordinary 81“82, 83; and effects, 120; and effort,
moral consciousness, 45, 87“89, 167; 129, 130; and moral permissibility,
transparency of, 97, 127“129; and 126“127, 206 n12; particular action
supreme principle of morality, 2; and conception, 66; and perfectly rational
weak principle of universalization, 159 beings, 205 n45; and rational nature, 68;
and unconditional goodness, 69“70; and
Eichmann, Adolf, 130 value reversal, 70; whole character
end: and action, 48, 109; de¬nition of, 175; conception, 66“67, 100“101; see also
in Formula of Humanity, 175“176; good, acting from duty, moral worth
Index
224

Green, T. H., 198 n24 immediate inclination, 106“107, 209
Grif¬ths, A. Phillips, 198 nn24,25 n16; and justi¬cation of action, 37“38;
mediate inclination, 106; and regressive
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: aims
and structure, 4“6, 77 argument, 60, 62; and unconditional
Guyer, Paul, 201 n14, 209“210 nn19,24, goodness, 54“55; see also happiness,
211 n7 impulse, incentive
incomparable value (see also dignity): 72,
165“166, 175“176, 177, 183
happiness (see also bene¬cence,
utilitarianism): de¬nitions of, 31, 103, Incorporation Thesis, 18, 21, 35“36,
200 n41; and good will, 67; having as 101“102; see also determining grounds of
end, 193 n4; and harmony, 52“53, the will, incentive, maxims
63“64; in Kantian consequentialism, 153, interest, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 199 n31, 199 n34,
154; principles of one™s own, 8, 21, 31, 209 n9; see also acting from duty, acting
40“41, 51, 52“53, 103, 202 n29; in from inclination
regressive argument, 60, 62“64, 65“66; Irwin, Terence, 198 n24
and unconditional goodness, 49, 62“64,
65“66 judgment (moral), 208 n3; errors in, 124,
Henrich, Dieter, 194 n14 125, 127“129, 163“164, 211 n9, 213 n20
Henson, Richard G., 209“210 n19
Herman, Barbara, 100, 107, 108, 169, 174, Kantian consequentialism (KC), 153“155
198 n22, 207 n20, 209 n15, 210 n26, 211 Kerstein, Samuel J., 197 n19, 198 n23, 203
n7, 214 n29, 218“219 n22 n9, 204 n22, 206 n1, 211 n8, 214 n1
heteronomy, 141“142, 144, 214“215 n2; see Korsgaard, Christine, 198 n26; and
also material practical principles derivation of Formula of Humanity,
Hill, Thomas E., Jr., 175“176, 194 n22, 202 11“12, 55“72, 154, 203 n10, 203“204
n1, 207 n20, 211 n12, 212 n19, 219“220 n19, 204 n22, 205 n50, see also regressive
nn26,33,36,38,39 argument; and derivation of Formula of
Universal Law, 74“76, 206 n12; and
humanity (rational nature) (see also
derivation of Formula of Humanity, interpretation of Formula of Universal
Law, 168“171, 213 n21, 217“218
dignity, end in itself, Formula of
Humanity, incomparable value, nn6,7,20,22
unconditional goodness): 46“47, 59“60,
202 n1 Laberge, Pierre, 197 n16
Humean theory of agency, 166 Latham, Noa, 209 n16
Hurka, Thomas, 152, 215 n13 law, see natural laws, practical law,
Hutcheson, Francis, 142, 145 representation of law, supreme principle
hypothetical imperatives (see also material of morality
practical principles): 46
material practical principles (see also acting
impartial rational spectator, 49, 54, 66, 67, from inclination): basic account of, 30;
69, 70 and formal principles, 83“85; and
principle of happiness, 31; rivals to
imperative (see also categorical imperative,
hypothetical imperatives): 2 Categorical Imperative as, 140“144
impulse, 7, 83, 196 n13, 207 n22, 214“215 maxims: basic account, 16“19, 195 n3; and
determining grounds of the will, 21; and
n2; see also inclination, pleasure
incentive: and action, 18; and ends, 18; and humanity, 60; and
Bewegungsgrund (motive), 198 n20; incentives, 18“19, 196 n13; and
German term, 195“196 n10; and justi¬cation requirement, 22, 34“35; and
Incorporation Thesis, 18, 35; knowledge other rules of same form, 19“20,
of, 196 n13; and maxims, 18; see also 196“197 n15; and rules of life
(Lebensregeln), 196“197 n15; and the will,
acting from duty, acting from inclination,
20, 197 n19; see also Incorporation Thesis
determining grounds of the will,
Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de, 142
inclination
moral commitment, 66, 100, 101, 107, 130,
inclination (see also acting from inclination):
de¬nition in Groundwork, 24“26; 135, 136“138, 190
de¬nition in Metaphysics of Morals, 27“29; moral content (of maxim), 105, 107,
further de¬nitions, 199 n36; having and 108“109
acting from duty, 101, 209 n16; moral law, see supreme principle of morality
Index 225

moral particularism, 5“6 imperative): 10; and acting from duty,
100; and Formula of Universal Law,
moral permissibility, see duty, conforming to
42“45; and harmony, 52“53; and
and acting from
moral skepticism, 5“6 justi¬cation of action, 39“42; knowable a
priori, 90; and material practical
moral worth (see also acting from duty): and
acting from duty, 104“110, 114“124, principles, 84, 111“112; and motivating
129“132, 164“165; and actions contrary reasons, 51, 52; and natural laws, 53,
to duty, 96“98, 119“127, 129“132; and 202“203 n5; and respect, 100
conscientious re¬‚ection, 130, 135; and practical principle: de¬ned, 3, 30; supreme
consequentialist principles, 145“155; and principle of morality must be, 3; see also
effects of action, 81“82, 92, 109“110; and basic concept of supreme principle of
helping actions, 116“119; and Kant™s aims morality, formal principle, material
in Groundwork, 77; as preeminent good, practical principles, practical law
115; and sympathy, 132“138; as practical reason, 60, 105, 124“125, 128,
unconditional good, 81 202“203 n5
motives, see acting from duty, acting from practical skepticism (normative skepticism),
58“59, 203“204 n19
inclination, determining grounds of the
price, 175, 183, 213 n20
will, representation of law
principle, see practical principle
Nagel, Thomas, 38, 211 n12 propositions (in Groundwork I), 79, 81, 84,
natural laws, 53, 195 n8, 202“203 n5 92, 109, 111, 147, 153, 207 n20
Neiman, Susan, 202“203 n5
nonconsequentialist principles (see also rational nature, see humanity
bizarre principle, Ten Commandments, reasons, see determining grounds of the will
weak principle of universalization): 14, Reath, Andrews, 23“24, 26“29, 30, 32, 200
155“159 n39, 201 n25, 201 n26
nonmoral action, see acting from inclination regressive argument (see also derivation of
Formula of Humanity): aim of, 59;
normative skepticism, see practical skepticism
criticism of, 65“71; and practical
Oakley, Justin, 211 n5, 214 n28 skepticism, 203“204 n19; steps of, 60“65
obligation, see duty representation of law (as suf¬cient motive):
and acting from duty, 99“104; and
ordinary moral consciousness (ordinary
rational moral cognition, ordinary moral criterion for supreme principle of
reason), 45, 67, 70, 105, 111, 120, morality, 82“86, 92, 110“112, 163,
127“128, 137, 193 n6; in criterion for 166“167, 189“190
supreme principle of morality, 13, 87“89, respect, 77, 79, 81, 100, 176, 177, 179, 180,
95; and prescriptions derived from Kant™s 181, 182, 183, 209 n12
formulas, 14, 167“174, 177“187 rightness, see duty
ought implies can, 48, 111, 162“164 rightness universalism, principle of (RU),
overdetermined actions, 101“103, 210 n22; 9“10, 77“78
see also acting from duty, acting from rivals to Kant™s principles (see also
inclination consequentialism, nonconsequentialist
principles): elimination of in derivation,
Paton, H. J., 205 n51, 209 n16, 211 n9 13“14, 139“140, 187; sweeping argument
perfectionism, 41, 143, 152“153 against, 140“144
philanthropist, 26“27, 106“107, 108, 198
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 193 n3
n28; see also bene¬cence, sympathy
pleasure (see also acting from inclination, skepticism, see moral skepticism, practical
inclination, material practical principles): skepticism
and agreeableness, 199 n32; and Slote, Michael, 200 n42, 214 nn24,31, 215
happiness, 31, 103; and heteronomy, 144 n8
Pogge, Thomas, 171“174, 196 n14, 213 n21, Sorrell, Tom, 209“210 n19
214 n26, 217“218 nn7,11,22, 219 n29 Stocker, Michael, 115, 116“118, 210 n1
Potter, Nelson, 195 n9, 196 n12 suicide, 121“123, 212 n16
power, principle of (PW), 49“51, 52, 53, 54, Sullivan, Roger, 211 n9
57, 71 supreme norm for moral evaluation of
action, 1“2, 164“165; see also basic
power of rational choice, see humanity
practical law (see also categorical concept of supreme principle of morality
Index
226

worth, 81, 207 n19; and practical
supreme principle of morality: apriority
of, 89“91; deduction, 5“7; derivation, skepticism, 58“59, 203“204 n19; in
4“6; establishment of, 4; represented in regressive argument, 60“65; and value
three ways, 10; search for, 4; see also basic realism, 68“71
universalization (of maxims), 168, 171
concept of supreme principle of morality,
Categorical Imperative, categorical universal scope: and absolute necessity
(unconditional bindingness), 41, 188; of
imperative, criteria for supreme principle
supreme principle of morality, 2, 3“4; see
of morality, derivation of Formula of Hu-
manity, derivation of Formula of Universal also basic concept of supreme principle
Law, duty, formal principle, good will, of morality
utilitarianism, 1, 14, 52, 71, 143, 190, 210 n1;
practical law, rivals to Kant™s principles
sympathy, 27, 79, 107, 117“118, 132“138, Act Utilitarianism (U™), 123“124,
145, 190, 210 n25, 211 n4, 214 n33 128“129, 145“148, 212 n17; Expectabilist
Utilitarianism (EU), 148“152, 190
Ten Commandments (principle akin to
[TU]), 155“158 valuational argument, 13“14, 153, 154, 156
transcendental freedom: de¬nition, 11, value realism, 62, 68“71, 204 n32, 205 n50
35“36, 201 n13; and derivation of virtue ethics, 135
Formula of Universal Law, 33“34;
and Incorporation Thesis, 35, 36; Walker, Ralph C. S., 209 n12
weak principle of universalization (WU), 44,
and justi¬cation of maxims,
37“38 45, 76, 158, 159
well-being (see also happiness): and good, 50,
51“52; and utilitarian principles, 145,
unconditional bindingness, see absolute
147, 148, 149“150
necessity
Wike, Virginia, 200 n41
unconditional goodness: of acting from duty,
81, 166; and agent™s own happiness, will, 20“21; and action, 20“21, 109;Wille, 20,
62“63; and categorical imperative, 197 nn16,17,19;Willk¨ r, 20, 197 n19; see
u
47“54; de¬nition, 49; and dignity, 175; of also capacity of desire, determining
end in itself, 175; and environmentalism, grounds of the will, good will,
62, 68“70; and everyone™s happiness, Incorporation Thesis
63“64, 65“66, 67, 166; and good ends, Williams, Bernard, 115, 118“119, 198 n24,
55“59; of good will, 66, 69“70, 80“81; of 210 n1, 215 n7
Wolff, Christian, 142
humanity (power of rational choice),
54“55, 61, 64“65, 68, 154, 165“166, 182; Wood, Allen, 9, 179, 195 n29, 202 n1, 204
and incomparable value, 72; and moral n21, 212 n15

<<

. 8
( 8)