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For advanced users, TIFF is a good choice because it can store information in
not only RGB (red, green, blue) primary colors, but also in CMYK (cyan,
magenta, yellow, and black), which is used for some high-quality printed
images. It can also store advanced data for color accuracy, such as gamma.



GIF
The Web uses CompuServe GIF images all over the place. GIF is the most pop-
ular of three common file types used on the Internet. (JPG and PNG are the
other two.)

Many programs read GIF files. (Older programs may read only the older
GIF standard, GIF87, rather than the newer GIF89a. Paint Shop Pro lets you
choose which standard to use when you™re saving a GIF file ” just click the
Options button in the Save As or Save Copy As dialog box.)

Saving your Paint Shop Pro work as GIF usually means that it loses some-
thing, but perhaps not enough to matter. GIF images have a maximum color
depth of 256 colors, which allows fairly realistic images. That number of
colors, however, isn™t enough to enable Paint Shop Pro to do all operations,
so it may at some point suggest that you let it increase the number of colors.
(See the section “File Types and Auto-Action Messages about Colors,” later in
this chapter.)

GIF enables you to use some special features, such as a transparent color
(which lets the backgrounds of Web pages show through), and interlaced dis-
play (in which the entire image gradually forms as it™s downloaded from the
Web).

A special Paint Shop Pro tool called the GIF Optimizer can help you set trans-
parency and otherwise optimize the image for Web use. See Chapter 15 for
the details of creating GIF files for the Web using this tool.

Some GIF files contain a whole series of images to be displayed as an anima-
tion. You can view these images by using Animation Shop; Paint Shop Pro
shows you only the first image of the series.



JPEG
JPEG (or JPG) stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, which sounds
impressive. JPEG images are common on the Web for color photographs and
other realistic color images because their files are small (relative to other file
types) and download quickly.



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Chapter 1: Opening, Viewing, Managing, and Saving Image Files

The disadvantage of JPEG is that it uses a kind of compression, called lossy
compression, to make its files small. Lossy compression means that the image
quality is reduced a bit, especially around sharp edges, like text. Storing an
image as a JPEG is kind of like stuffing a pie into a little plastic bag in your
backpack for a hike. If it gets squeezed, the basic taste and nutrition are still
there, and it doesn™t take up lots of space, but you may not like the result.

You can choose just how much squeezing you want in the JPEG format, but
first storing your work in some other format (preferably, PSP) is a good idea.

1. Choose File➪Save Copy As.
The Save Copy As dialog box appears.
2. Select JPEG in the Save As Type box.
3. Click the Options button.
In the Save Options dialog box that appears, drag the Compression
Factor slider to the left for higher quality and larger files, or to the right
for lower-quality and smaller files.
4. Click the Save button.

The geeks at the Joint Photographics Experts Group have also come up with
a lossless (unsqueezed) variety of JPEG. To save your files in this maximum-
quality-but-largest-file-size format, first select JPEG 2000 in the Save As Type
selection box. Then click the Options button, and in the Save Options dialog
box that appears, choose Lossless. Be aware that not all software can read or
display JPEG 2000 files, though.

If you™re reading JPEG files, Paint Shop Pro offers an effect that removes some
image distortions, called artifacts, that result from compression. (See Chapter
6 for instructions for removing JPEG artifacts.)

As with GIF, Paint Shop Pro offers a special tool, the JPEG Optimizer, for
adjusting JPEG images for the Web. See the section in Chapter 15 about
creating JPEG files for the details of fine-tuning JPEG images with this tool.



PNG
PNG (Progressive Network Graphics) was designed to take over for GIF on the
Web, although it™s catching on slowly. It does have some advantages over GIF
and accomplishes the same functions as GIF, so it may yet take over. Because
its main use is Web graphics, we discuss it a bit more in Chapter 15.




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24 Part I: The Basics


Using Vector File Types (Drawing Files)
Graphics images come in two main flavors: raster (also called bitmap) and
vector. Here are the differences between them:

Raster (bitmap) images are made up of dots (pixels). Most computer
images are of this kind, and Paint Shop Pro is principally designed for
this kind of image. It both reads and writes a wide variety of raster
images.
Vector images are made up of lines, shapes, filled areas, and text. You
can change text, lines, and shapes more easily if they™re stored as vec-
tors than if they™re stored as bitmaps. Although Paint Shop Pro is princi-
pally designed for raster images, it allows you to create vector layers
that contain lines, text, and preset shapes. If you use these layers, store
your image as a Paint Shop Pro file to retain any vector graphics you
create. If you store your images as other file types, PSP may convert
your vector graphics to bitmap form, which may make editing more
difficult.

Vector files are typically created by popular drawing software (as opposed
to painting software). AutoCAD, for example, a popular drafting application,
writes DXF (Drawing eXchange Format) files. Corel Draw writes CDR files, and
Corel WordPerfect uses WPG files. Many other vector file types are in use too.

Like Paint Shop Pro files, some other file types can also contain a mix of
vector and bitmap graphics. These include Windows Enhanced Metafiles
(EMF, a Microsoft Windows standard), Computer Graphics Metafiles (CGM,
a standard by the American National Standards Institute), PICT (a Macintosh
standard), and embedded PostScript (EPS, by Adobe). Some files (like embed-
ded PostScript) may contain in some cases both a bitmap and a vector ver-
sion of the same image.



Opening vector files
Paint Shop Pro can open many kinds of vector (or mixed vector and bitmap)
files. You can also copy drawings, using the Windows Clipboard, from most
vector programs that run under Windows and paste the images into Paint
Shop Pro.

Paint Shop Pro 9 opens many types of vector files and keeps them as vector
files. If you open an AutoCAD DXF file, for example, the lines and other
objects are translated into Paint Shop Pro vector objects.

Because Paint Shop Pro also lets you work with bitmap graphics, however,
whenever you open a vector file, you have to add information about what
size, in pixels, you want the image to be. Paint Shop Pro pops up a dialog box
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Chapter 1: Opening, Viewing, Managing, and Saving Image Files

that requires you to enter dimensions in pixels (or dimensions in inches and
pixels per inch) for the resulting bitmap image. If a Maintain Original Aspect
Ratio check box appears, select it if you want to keep the same proportions
as the original image.

For a PostScript file, for example, Paint Shop Pro displays the PostScript
Renderer dialog box. To enter the page size, we generally find the Bounding
Box option (which refers to the outside of the drawing area) to be the best
solution; for resolution, the 72 dpi that is already entered in the Resolution
box usually does well. The image size you get (in pixels) is the image dimen-
sion (say, 8.5 x 11 inches) times the Resolution (say, 72 dpi, gives you an
image that is 8.5 x 72 pixels wide and 11 x 72 pixels high). For more detail or a
bigger picture, choose a higher resolution.

Because Paint Shop Pro is translating between two different kinds of image
data, it may make a few mistakes that you have to clean up afterward.



Saving vector files ” not
You can™t save pure vector-type image files, such as DXF, in Paint Shop Pro.
You can, however, save your work as one of the file types that is allowed to
contain a mix of vectors and bitmaps, such as EPS or CGM.

In those instances, however, Paint Shop Pro simply stores all your edits as a
bitmap image and stores nothing in the vector part of the EPS, CGM, or other
combined bitmap or vector file. Your vector objects become part of a single
bitmap image. Because no vector objects are stored, a program that handles
only vector graphics may not be able to read the file.




Converting or Renaming Batches of Files
If you have lots of image files and need copies of them in a different file type,
try the Paint Shop Pro batch processing feature. Batch processing also lets
you create an ordered series of related names, like hawaii0001 through
hawaii9579, for your 9,579 vacation photos.

To copy a bunch of files to a new file format, follow these steps:

1. Choose File➪Batch➪Process.
The Batch Process dialog box appears.
2. Click the Browse button at the top of the Batch Process dialog box.
A Select Files dialog box appears.
3. In the Select Files dialog box, open the folder containing your files,
hold down the Ctrl key, and click all the files you want to convert.
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26 Part I: The Basics

4. Click Select to close the Select Files dialog box.
Your selected files are now listed in the Files to Process box of the Batch
Process dialog box. To add files from another folder, repeat Steps 2
and 3.
5. In the Save Options area at the bottom of the Batch Process dialog
box, in the Type selection box, choose the file type you want as the
result of your conversion.
6. To put the newly generated files in a different folder, click the Browse
button at the bottom of the dialog box and choose a new folder.
7. Click the Start button.

In a few seconds or minutes, you have copies in the new file type you need.

To give a bunch of files similar names, differing by only a number (as in
hawaii01, hawaii02, and so on), take these steps:

1. Choose File➪Batch➪Rename.
2. In the Batch Rename dialog box that appears, click the Browse button.
3. In the Select Files dialog box, open the folder containing your files,
hold down the Ctrl key, and click all the files you want to convert.
4. Click Select to close the Select Files dialog box.
Your selected files are now listed in the Files to Process box of the Batch
Rename dialog box. To add files from another folder, repeat Steps 2
and 3.
5. Click the Modify button.
The Modify Filename Format dialog box appears. The idea is to combine
various naming and numbering elements into a sort of formula for Paint
Shop Pro to follow. For example, hawaii50 is a custom text element of
our choosing, followed by a 2-digit sequence.
6. Click an element in the Rename Options panel to choose the first part
of the new name, such as Custom Text.
7. Click the Add button to add that element to your formula, which gets
assembled in the right panel.
Depending on what kind of element you choose, a 1-line text box
appears on the right for you to make a choice or enter some text. We
stick with our simple example. If you have chosen Custom Text, type
your text (hawaii, for example) in the Custom Text box that appears. If
you have chosen Sequence, type a starting number in the Starting
Sequence box that appears; use as many digits as you need for the batch
(type 1 for as many as 9 images and 01 for as many as 99 images). For
today™s date, choose a date format.


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Chapter 1: Opening, Viewing, Managing, and Saving Image Files

8. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to add more elements. Make sure that one of
your elements is Sequence, or else you™re asking the impossible: for
each file to have the same name.
The order in which you add elements on the right is the order in which
they appear in the filenames.
9. Click OK. When the Batch Rename dialog box returns, select the files
to be converted.
The files are all renamed, and each name includes a different number.



File Types and Auto-Action
Messages about Colors
When you try to use certain Paint Shop Pro features or save your work in a
non“PSP format, you may see an Auto Actions message box from Paint Shop
Pro. For example, you may open a GIF file and want to use one of the Paint
Shop Pro commands on the Adjust or Effects menu. Or, perhaps you want to
add a raster layer to that GIF file. Paint Shop Pro displays an error message
like the one shown in Figure 1-3.



Figure 1-3:
First, Paint
Shop Pro
may need to
improve the
image
quality.



Don™t worry ” be happy; just click OK. The issue is that certain file types,
like GIF, can handle only a limited number of colors (they have limited color
depth) and many Paint Shop Pro features work only on images able to handle
as many as 16 million colors. Paint Shop Pro is offering to create a 16-million-
color image for you so that it can apply the tool you want to use.

If you get one of these messages, and if you later save your work in the origi-
nal, color-limited file type (GIF, for example), you also get a message request-
ing permission to reduce the number of colors back to whatever that type of
file can handle. Simply click OK in whatever dialog box or boxes result, and
you™re likely to be happy with the result.

If you™re a professional and are picky, you understand what™s going on and
can take the necessary steps to control the result. You can always change the
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28 Part I: The Basics

number of colors manually by choosing Image➪Increase Color Depth or
Image➪Decrease Color Depth.

To turn off these messages and always have Paint Shop Pro proceed (or not
proceed), choose File➪Preferences➪General Program Preferences. Click the
Auto Actions tab in the dialog box that appears. For each type of conversion,
you can choose to never do it or to always do it or to have the program
prompt you. Or, click Never All or Always All to never or always do any of the
conversions.




Obtaining Image Files from the Web
The Web is a grab bag of goodies for graphics gurus. Here™s how to get your
hands on these fabulous fruits.

One of the best ways to get graphics is to find a Web site offering them free
and clear. Most of these sites provide instructions for downloading those
image files. Other Web pages may copy-protect their images so that you can™t
use the procedures we list in this section.

To save an image that you™re viewing in your Web browser, use either of these
methods:

Right-click the image and, on the pop-up menu that appears, look for
Save Picture As or a similar choice. You™re prompted for the location on
your hard drive where you want the image saved.
Right-click the image and, on the pop-up menu that appears, choose
Copy. This choice copies the image to the Windows Clipboard; open
Paint Shop Pro and press Ctrl+V to paste the image as a new image.
(Choose the Edit➪Paste command to see ways to paste the image into
another open image.) Save the image by choosing File➪Save.

A fair number of graphics images on the Web have transparent portions,
especially their backgrounds. The transparent parts of these types of image
have a hidden color (typically white), and that color may become visible in
Paint Shop Pro. See Chapter 15 for more information about transparency in
Web images.

Most Web images are one of only a few different file types: GIF, JPEG, or PNG.
GIF and some PNG images are palette images, with a limited number of colors
(typically, 256 colors).

Many animations on the Web are GIF files. You should open animated GIF files
in Animation Shop, not in Paint Shop Pro (which displays only the first frame
of the animation). Some animations are, however, in a private vector format
(Flash) that neither Animation Shop nor Paint Shop Pro can read.
TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 2
Getting Bigger, Smaller,
and Turned Around
In This Chapter
Resizing your image
Cropping (trimming edges)
Rotating an image
Getting a mirror image
Flipping an image top for bottom
Creating borders
Making images an exact size




I t happened several times to Alice, of Wonderland fame: She needed to be
bigger or smaller or to change her orientation. Fortunately, you don™t have
to adopt her dubious pharmacological methods ” eating and drinking myste-
riously labeled substances ” to change the size or orientation of your
images.

No, to make your pictures bigger, smaller, rotated, or otherwise reoriented,
you need to indulge in only a few clicks on well-labeled commands or icons.
In this chapter, we illuminate your choices as you navigate the Paint Shop Pro
rabbit hole.

If your image appears smaller than you think it should be when you first open
it, Paint Shop Pro has probably zoomed the image out to fit your window. To
zoom in, click the Zoom (magnifier) tool from the pan and zoom tool group
and then left-click the image.




Getting Sized
Size may not be everything, but it™s important. You don™t need a 1024-x-768-
pixel image, for example (full-screen size on many PCs), for a snapshot of

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30 Part I: The Basics

your new company CEO on your Web site. If you didn™t get an appropriately
sized CEO (okay, an image of a CEO) in the first place, you can trim that
person in Paint Shop Pro. Likewise, if you™re rushing to prepare the opening
screen for a company presentation and the only way you can get a logo is to
scan in the tiny one on your letterhead, Paint Shop Pro can help you size it up
to a more presentable image.

If you™re preparing an image that someone else plans to place in a profession-
ally prepared and printed document, don™t scale it down yourself. Let your
graphics designer or printer do the scaling to suit the printing process.

Start resizing by choosing Image➪Resize or press Shift+S. The Resize dialog
box appears in order to help you size the situation up ” or down (see
Figure 2-1).



Proportioning
The Resize dialog box normally keeps an image™s proportions (relationship of
width to height) constant while you resize. If you set the width, therefore,
Paint Shop Pro sets the height for you (and vice versa). Keeping image pro-
portions constant avoids distortion.




Figure 2-1:
Sizing your
image up ”
or down.

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Chapter 2: Getting Bigger, Smaller, and Turned Around

If you prefer to change the proportions (which distorts your image), you can
click to clear (deselect) the check box labeled Lock Aspect Ratio to 1. (The
box appears checked in Figure 2-1) Paint Shop Pro then lets you set the width
and height independently.



Dimensioning
Using the Resize dialog box (refer to Figure 2-1), you can adjust the size in
one of three ways, all of which do the same thing: change the image™s size in
pixels. Use whichever way suits your mindset:

Specify size in pixels: If you™re using the image on the Web or in e-mail,
you most likely have a pixel size (probably a desired width) in mind.
Select Pixels from the drop-down menu next to the Width and Height
controls and then enter a value for Width (or Height).
Make it X% of its current size: Select Percent from the drop-down menu
next to the Width and Height controls and then enter a Width (or Height)
value. In Figure 2-1, for example, the 66 setting makes the image 2„3 (66
percent) of its current size. To double the image size, use 200.
Make it print bigger or smaller: Select which measurement you want
to use (inches or centimeters) from the menu on the right side and then
use the Width or Height controls in the Print Size section to make the
image print as large as you want. Paint Shop Pro multiplies this physical
size (in inches, for example) by the resolution setting (pixels per inch)
in this dialog box and calculates a new image size in pixels. You can also
change the value in the Resolution text box to adjust the image resolu-
tion (pixels per inch or centimeter). Don™t confuse this setting with the
printer™s resolution (typically, 300 to 600 dpi); see Chapter 14 if you are
confused about printing and resolution!

If your image has several layers and you want them all resized the same,
make sure to check the Resize All Layers check box. If you clear that check
mark, you resize only the active layer. Click OK to make the resizing happen.



Avoiding degradation
Resizing sounds easy: Just make the image bigger or smaller. What™s to think
about? Well, usually, you don™t have to think about anything. Occasionally,
however, your image™s appearance degrades after resizing. It has jagged or
fuzzy edges. These situations call for a little thought.

Behind the resizing issue is another difference between how computers and
humans think. If you want your image to be 25 percent bigger, Paint Shop Pro
has to figure out how to spread 100 pixels over 125 pixels. To get an idea of

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32 Part I: The Basics

the scope of the problem, imagine dividing 100 cookies among 125 kids who
don™t accept broken cookies. Fortunately, Paint Shop Pro is pretty smart, so
you don™t have to smoosh up and bake these cookies again yourself. Unless
you instruct Paint Shop Pro otherwise, it uses the Smart Size feature to make
these decisions ” it chooses the right way to do it based on what your image
looks like.

If your image doesn™t look so hot after resizing, try second-guessing the smart
resizing that Paint Shop Pro uses by default. Press Ctrl+Z to undo the ugly
resizing you just did. Then choose Image➪Resize again. In the Image Resize
dialog box that appears, click the Resize Type selection box to see the spe-
cific choices of ways to resize. Here™s what to do with those choices:

Bicubic Resample: Choose to enlarge a realistic-looking or complex
image (like a photo) or to avoid jagged edges.
Bilinear Resample: Choose to reduce a drawn image, one with well-
defined edges, or one with text.
Pixel Resize: Choose to enlarge a drawn image or one with well-defined
edges. (Paint Shop Pro then simply removes or duplicates pixels in order
to resize.)
Weighted Average: Choose to reduce a drawn image, one with well-
defined edges, or one with text if the Bilinear Resample option doesn™t
work out.

Click OK to proceed with the resizing. If your image doesn™t look better, press
Ctrl+Z to undo the last resize. Choose a different resizing method and try
resizing again.

Bilinear and bicubic resampling work for only 24-bit color images (or
grayscale images). You can use them on fewer-color images by first increas-
ing the color depth to 24-bit: Press Ctrl+Shift+0.




Cropping (Trimming) Your Edges
Is your image a bit shabby around the edges and in need of a trim? You can
improve the composition of many pictures by cropping (trimming) a bit off
the top, bottom, or sides. Often, for example, snapshots are taken from too
far away, so the subject is too small. You can enlarge the image in Paint Shop
Pro, but you also need to trim it so that the overall picture isn™t yards wide.

In a layered image, cropping affects all layers.




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Chapter 2: Getting Bigger, Smaller, and Turned Around

Paint Shop Pro provides a special tool for your crops. Take these steps to
trim your image:

1. Click the Crop tool (shown in the margin) on the Tools toolbar.
The cursor icon displays a set of crosshairs.
2. Visualize a rectangular area that defines the new boundaries of your
image.
For example, if you™re cropping a family photo taken in the backyard,
next to the trash barrels, visualize a rectangle around the family, exclud-
ing the barrels.
3. Move the crosshairs of your cursor to one corner of that visualized
rectangle and then drag diagonally toward the opposite corner.
As you drag, a real rectangle forms and items outside the rectangle are
dimmed. The status bar at the bottom of the Paint Shop Pro window
gives you the exact pixel column and row where the cursor is posi-
tioned, in case you need that information. As you drag, the status bar
also gives you the cursor position and the crop™s size, as shown in
Figure 2-2.
If the cropping rectangle isn™t quite right, you can modify it in one of
these three ways:
• To remove the rectangle and try again, right-click anywhere on the
image. The rectangle disappears.
• To change any side or corner of the rectangle, drag that side or
corner or adjust the edge values on the Tool Options palette, as
indicated in Figure 2-2.
• To position the rectangle, move your cursor within that rectangle;
the cursor becomes a four-headed arrow and you can drag the rec-
tangle to any new location.
4. When the rectangle is correct, double-click anywhere on the image.
Paint Shop Pro crops the image. If you don™t like the result, press Ctrl+Z
to undo the crop and then try these steps again.


To adjust, drag sides by handles. Fine-tune edges.




Figure 2-2:
Cropping a
furry dog.

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34 Part I: The Basics


Getting Turned Around,
Mirrored, or Flipped
We can™t tell you how many people we have seen bending their necks to view
a sideways image! Apart from providing work for chiropractors, this habit
does nobody any good.

Paint Shop Pro makes rotating, mirroring, or flipping an image simple.
Mirrored or flipped images are particularly useful for imaginative work, such
as creating a reflection that isn™t present in the original or making a symmetri-
cal design, such as a floral border. Mirroring can also correct a transparency
that was scanned wrong side up.

Does your image have layers, or have you selected an area? As with many
Paint Shop Pro functions, the mirroring, flipping, and rotating commands
apply to only the active layer. If you have a selected area, mirroring and flip-
ping also restrict themselves to that area.



Rotating
To rotate an image, choose Image➪Rotate➪Free Rotate or press Ctrl+R. The
Rotate dialog box appears, with a variety of option buttons:

To rotate the image clockwise, click Right.
To rotate counterclockwise, click Left.
Choose 90 degrees (a quarter-turn, good for righting sideways images),
180 degrees (a half-turn), or 270 degrees (a three-quarter turn) of rota-
tion, or choose Free (see the next bullet).
To rotate any desired amount, choose Free and enter any rotation (in
degrees) in the highlighted text box.

If you™re rotating an image taken with the camera turned sidewise, just
choose Image➪Rotate➪Rotate Clockwise 90 or Rotate Counterclockwise 90.

Although you can use the Rotate dialog box to straighten an off-kilter photo,
you have a better way: the Straighten tool, which we cover in Chapter 5.

If your image has multiple layers (or if you aren™t sure whether it does) and
you want to rotate the entire image, click to place a check mark in the All
Layers check box in the Rotate dialog box. Otherwise, Paint Shop Pro rotates
only the active layer. Click OK to perform the rotation.



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Chapter 2: Getting Bigger, Smaller, and Turned Around

To rotate a portion of an image, select that portion with a selection tool and
then use the Deform tool. See Chapter 3 for help with selection and Chapter 4
to rotate a selection with the Deform tool.



Mirroring and flipping
To mirror an image is to change it as though it were reflected in a mirror held
alongside the image. To flip an image is to exchange top for bottom as though
the mirror were held underneath the image. Note that both transformations
are unique: You can™t achieve the same result by rotating the image!

If your image has layers, the mirroring and flipping commands apply to only
the active layer. If your image has an area selected, these commands float
that selection and then work on only that floating selection. See Chapter 4
for more information about floating selections.

To mirror an image in Paint Shop Pro, choose Image➪Mirror. Your image is
transformed into its mirror image.

To flip an image, choose Image➪Flip. Your image is turned head over heels.




Taking on Borders
Paint Shop Pro can add a border of any color and width to any image. (If your
image uses layers, however, Paint Shop Pro has to merge them. For that
reason, borders are often best left as the last thing you do to your image.) To
create a border around an image, follow these steps:

1. Choose Image➪Add Borders.
The Add Borders dialog box appears. (If Paint Shop Pro first displays a
dialog box warning you that the layers must be merged to proceed, click
OK to proceed.)
2. Choose your color.
Click the color box to bring up the Material Properties dialog box and
then click the shade you want to see surrounding your picture. Click OK.
If this strange array of circles and boxes proves too daunting for you,
check out the section in Chapter 10 about choosing a color for the very
picky, where we explain the Material Properties dialog box.
3. Set your border widths.
For a border that is the same width on all sides, leave the check mark in
the Symmetric check box and enter your border width in the Top, Bottom,
Left, or Right box. (It doesn™t matter which one you use; they all change

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36 Part I: The Basics

together.) For different border widths on all sides, clear the Symmetric
check mark and enter the border widths in all the boxes individually. To
set a border in inches or units other than pixels, choose your preferred
unit from the selection box in the Original Dimensions area.

Click OK. Your image is now larger by the borders you have set.

Borders are no different from any other area of your image; they™re just new
and in all one color.




Achieving a Particular Canvas Size
Paint Shop Pro enables you to expand the canvas size of any image: that is, to
add a border area around the image to achieve a particular image width and
height. The Canvas Size command has the same effect as Add Borders.

“But,” you say, wisely, “if Add Borders does the same thing, why would I
bother with Canvas Size?” You would bother if you were looking to have an
image of a particular size ” and didn™t want to do the arithmetic to calculate
how much border to add to the existing dimensions.

You may use the Canvas Size command, for example, if you™re making a cata-
log using images of various heights and widths and want all the images to be
of uniform height and width. You can™t resize the images because that would
distort them. If you use the Add Borders command, you have to calculate
border widths to fill out each image to the right dimensions. With canvas
sizing, however, you can simply place each image on a uniformly sized
background.

Here™s how:

1. Choose Image➪Canvas Size.
The Canvas Size dialog box makes the scene.
2. Choose your color.
Click the Background swatch in this dialog box to display the Material
Properties dialog box. Choose the shade you want to see surrounding
your picture, and then click OK. (We explain the Material Properties
dialog box in Chapter 10). Alternatively, click with your cursor, which is
now an eyedropper, on any color in your image.
3. Enter in the Width and Height boxes a new width and new height for
your canvas.
These numbers define how big your overall image will be, including its
expanded canvas (borders). A selection box in this area lets you use
units of pixels, inches, centimeters, or millimeters.
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Chapter 2: Getting Bigger, Smaller, and Turned Around

To keep the canvas proportions the same as your original image, check
the Lock Aspect Ratio check box.
4. Choose where you want your image positioned on the canvas.
As you can see in Figure 2-3, you can press one of nine placement but-
tons to select which corner your image will be flush with on the canvas.
(The button in the center centers your image.)
If these ten positions aren™t good enough for you, you can place your
image on the canvas with exacting precision by using the Placement set-
tings. The values in these boxes tell Paint Shop Pro how far away the
image should be from each of the four borders, in whatever units you
chose in Step 3. For example, if you want to set your image so that it™s
20 pixels away from the left side of the new canvas, enter a value of 20
in the Left Placement box.
For artistic purposes, you may want to crop the image at the canvas
edge (an effect called a full bleed). Using negative numbers in any of the
placement boxes places at least part of the image outside the canvas
border and effectively crops it. For example, a value of “20 pixels in the
Left placement box sets your image 20 pixels outside the left border of
the canvas. This action effectively trims 20 pixels off your image™s left
side.




Figure 2-3:
In the
Canvas Size
dialog box,
buttons with
arrows point
to a corner
or edge of
the new
canvas.
Click to
place your
image
against that
edge.



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Click OK and your image is mounted on a fresh canvas of your chosen size
and background color. If you™re trying to put lots of variously sized images on
same-size canvases (as in a catalog), you may find it convenient that your
preceding canvas size settings remain as you open each image. Just choose
Image➪Canvas Size for each subsequent image and click OK.




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Chapter 3
Selecting Parts of an Image
In This Chapter
Selecting areas
Disabling the selection marquee
Feathering and anti-aliasing
Selecting, deselecting, and inverting
Coping with layers in making and using selections




I f Uncle Dave is the only one looking a bit dark and gloomy in your wedding
picture, how can you lighten him ” and only him ” up? If the model in
your catalog is wearing last spring™s Irish Spring Green sweater, how can you
make it Summer Sunset Magenta without making your model magenta too?

Sometimes, you want Paint Shop Pro to do something to just one portion of
an image, like lighten Uncle Dave or color the model™s sweater, and leave the
rest of the image alone.

The solution is to select an area of the image. Just as you can select some text
that you want to modify in a word processor, you can select an image area to
modify in Paint Shop Pro. With that area selected, you can do, well, nearly
anything Paint Shop Pro can do, such as paint the area, change its color,
improve its contrast, erase it, copy it, or paste it.

You can hand-select an area by outlining it or automatically select an area by
its color. You can even get Paint Shop Pro to help you outline by finding edges.
Paint Shop Pro offers lots of features for getting a selection just right.

Paint Shop Pro has two other features that let you focus your actions on cer-
tain parts: the Background Eraser and layers. If you want to erase around
Uncle Dave, try the Background Eraser (see Chapter 9). Another feature, the
Paint Shop Pro layers, lets you transfer selections to independent layers so
that they can stay independent of the rest of the image (see Chapter 11).




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In this chapter, we deal with selecting parts of your image that are raster
(bitmap) images. We don™t, however, deal with the special case of selecting
vector objects. The text and shapes that the Text, Draw, and Preset Shapes
tools make are almost always vector objects. To read about selecting vector
objects, see the section in Chapter 12 about controlling your objects.




Selecting an Area
Selecting is creating a restricted area in which you want Paint Shop Pro to do
its thing ” a sort of construction zone. Paint Shop Pro™s “thing” is whatever
operation you choose, whether it™s moving, changing color, painting, filling,
smudging, filtering, erasing, copying, pasting, or mirroring ” essentially, any
image change Paint Shop Pro can perform. For example, you can select an
elliptical area around Aunt Elizabeth in a group photo, copy that area to the
Windows Clipboard, and then paste it as a new image to create a classical
cameo-style oval image.

If you have layers in your image, selection can be slightly more complicated.
See the section “Avoiding Selection Problems in Layered Images,” later in this
chapter.

The selected area has a moving dashed line, or marquee, around it. Figure 3-1
shows you Alex the Wonder Dog in his very own marquee.


Tool used here for outlining an area
Figure 3-1: Selection tool group
The
dashed-line
marquee
shows you
your
selection.
We created
this
selection
with the
Freehand
(lasso) tool
and chose
the Smart
Edge option
from the
Smart edge
Tool Options Marquee
with freehand tool
palette.
makes outlining
Tool for selecting
easier
an area by color

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Chapter 3: Selecting Parts of an Image

The keys to selecting an area lie in two places in Paint Shop Pro:

Selection tools on the Tools toolbar (along the left edge of the Paint
Shop Pro window)
Commands on the Selection menu (on the Paint Shop Pro menu bar)

The three Paint Shop Pro selection tools are in the fifth tool group from the
top of the Tools toolbar, as shown in Figure 3-1. They give you three different
ways to select an area:

Selection: Use the Selection tool to drag a rectangular, circular, or other
regular shape.
Freehand: Use the Freehand tool, as we did in Figure 3-1, to draw an
outline.
Magic Wand: Use the Magic Wand tool to click an area that has a more-
or-less uniform color or brightness.

To make these tools work exactly the way you want, you need to use the Tool
Options palette (press F4 if you don™t see it). The Tool Options palette is
where, in Figure 3-1, you see Smart Edge chosen as the selection type.

You can add to or subtract from a selection with any selection tool, so you
may also find yourself switching between tools to build or carve out a selec-
tion of a particularly tricky shape.

The Selection menu on the menu bar also holds various commands for refin-
ing your selection and coping with technicalities. See the section “Modifying
Your Selection,” later in this chapter.

You may wonder why selecting gets all the attention it does in Paint Shop Pro.
The reason is that making a precise selection is the key to editing a bitmap
image cleanly. Check out Figure 3-2, which shows William™s daughter™s snow
creation, the Snowduck. (What, you didn™t recognize it? See the beak, the
eyes?) It has been selected from a photograph and then copied and pasted
on a white background.




Figure 3-2:
Careful
selection
gives you
the paste
job you
want.

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The selection pasted on the right had all the black removed from it, although
a dark gray fringe remains. The figure on the left had the black color range
subtracted from it, and looks much cleaner.



Selecting by outlining: The Freehand tool
We find the Freehand tool to be one of the most useful of the selection tools,
especially in Smart Edge mode. It lets you define the area you want by outlin-
ing. It even helps you with that outlining so that you don™t have to scrutinize
every pixel you include or exclude.

On the Tools toolbar, click the lasso icon (the Freehand tool), as shown in
Figure 3-1. The Tool Options palette then looks something like the one shown
in Figure 3-3. (Press the F4 key to flash the Tool Options palette on or off if
you have misplaced it.)



Figure 3-3:
Four ways
to outline
your selec-
tion with
the lasso
(the Free-
hand tool).



The Freehand tool gives you four ways to snare a selection. From the Selection
type drop-down list, choose whichever of these methods best suits the area
you™re trying to select:

Freehand: Drag an outline around the area you want to select. At what-
ever point you release the mouse button, Paint Shop Pro finishes the
outline with a straight line to your starting point. This method is best for
an area with a complex shape, especially if it doesn™t have a clear edge.
(If it does have a clear edge, try the Smart Edge method instead.)
Point to Point: Click at points around the area you want to select. As you
click, the outline appears as straight line segments connecting those
points. To close the loop, double-click or right-click, and Paint Shop Pro
draws the final line segment from that point back to the starting point.
This method works well for areas with straight edges.
Smart Edge: If the area you want to select has a noticeable edge ” a
transition between light and dark, such as the edge of someone™s head
against a contrasting background ” choose this type of selection. To


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Chapter 3: Selecting Parts of an Image

begin, click at any point along the edge. A skinny rectangle appears, with
one end attached to the cursor. Move the cursor to another point along
the edge so that a portion of the edge is contained entirely within the
rectangle and then click. Paint Shop Pro selects along the edge. Continue
clicking along the edge in this way; Figure 3-4 shows you the result.
Double-click or right-click, and Paint Shop Pro finishes the outline with
a straight line back to your starting point.
Edge Seeker: This option works much like Smart Edge, except that you
can set how wide an area it searches to find an edge (called the Range,
it™s measured in pixels). As with most Paint Shop Pro elements, you can
change the Range on the Tool Options palette.




Figure 3-4:
Alex™s coat
forms an
edge that
Smart Edge
can detect.



Here are a few tips for selecting with the Freehand tool:

Aborting: You can™t abort the selection process after you begin. Instead,
right-click (or release the mouse button if you™re dragging) to finish the
loop, and then press Ctrl+D or right-click again to remove the selection.
Undoing segments: If you™re in the middle of using Point to Point or
Smart Edge and make a mistake, you can undo segments by pressing the
Delete key on your keyboard.
Being precise: When you™re using Smart Edge, click directly on or near
the edge as you go around the shape. (Put another way, don™t overshoot
any bends in the edge or let the edge exit the rectangle from the side of
the rectangle.)
Smoothing edges: The Freehand tool provides anti-aliasing and feather-
ing, which, if you™re going to use them, you should set up before making
the selection. See the later sections “Feathering for More Gradual Edges”
and “Anti-Aliasing for Smoother Edges.”
Using layers: If your image uses layers, Smart Edge normally looks for
the edge within only the active layer. If you want Smart Edge to look at
all layers combined, click to enable the Sample Merged check box.

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Selecting a rectangle or other
regular shape
Selecting a rectangular area is particularly useful for copying portions of an
image to paste elsewhere as a separate image. This technique is also useful
for working on portions of your image that happen to be rectangular. The
Selection tool lets you select rectangles, circles, and other predetermined
shapes.

To create a selection area, click the Selection tool (see Figure 3-5) or press
the S key, and then drag diagonally on your image. You determine the shape
you drag on the Tool Options palette, as shown in Figure 3-5.


Selection shape


Figure 3-5:
Choose the
Selection
tool and
then a
shape (here,
a circle) and
any edge-
smoothing
options.
Drag to
select
an area.


Selection tool Edge-smoothing options


Choose one of the many shape selections from the drop-down list. Drag diag-
onally to give your area both width and height. Here are a few tips for making
and changing your selection:

Try again: After you define a selection, you can™t resize it by dragging
sides or corners, as you may expect. (Try it, and you drag the entire
selection instead.) Right-click anywhere to clear the shape to try again.
Or, you can simply drag a fresh shape if you begin your new drag opera-
tion anywhere outside the existing selection.




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Chapter 3: Selecting Parts of an Image

Drag: After you have selected an area, you can drag to move that por-
tion of the image and expose whatever background color or underlying
layer lies beneath your picture. Accidental dragging is very easy, but, as
with any accident, just press Ctrl+Z to undo an accidental drag.
Modify: To move, add to, or subtract from the selection, see the section
“Modifying Your Selection,” later in this chapter.



Selecting by color or brightness:
The Magic Wand tool
Sometimes, you want to select an area so uniform in appearance that you want
to simply tell Paint Shop Pro, “Go select that red balloon” or whatever it is.
To you, with your human perception, the area is an obvious thing of some
sort. In software, anything that even slightly mimics human perception is
often called magic. The Magic Wand selection tool is no exception. It can
identify and select areas of uniform color or brightness, somewhat as your
eye does.

One benefit of this tool is that you can select areas with complex edges that
would be a pain in the wrist to trace with the Freehand tool. For example, a
selection of blue sky that includes a complex skyline of buildings and trees
would be relatively easy to make with the Magic Wand tool.

The Magic Wand tool doesn™t, however, work as well as your eye. In particu-
lar, if the color or brightness of the area you™re trying to select isn™t uniform
or doesn™t contrast strongly with the surroundings, the selection is likely to
be spotty or incomplete or have rough edges.

Paint Shop Pro gives you lots of ways to improve an imperfect selection. See
the section “Modifying Your Selection,” later in this chapter, and particularly
the subsection “Removing specks and holes in your selection.”

Making the selection
To make a selection, select the Magic Wand from the selection tool group,
as shown in Figure 3-6. Your cursor takes on the Magic Wand icon. Click
the Magic Wand cursor on your image and it selects all pixels that match
(or nearly match) the pixel you clicked.

To get the selection you want when you use the Magic Wand tool, consult the
Tool Options palette. The Tool Options palette for the Magic Wand tool looks
like the one shown in Figure 3-6. The palette lets you define (by using the




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46 Part I: The Basics

Match Mode list box) exactly what you mean by match and lets you adjust
(by adjusting the Tolerance setting) how closely the selected pixels should
match the one you clicked.


Match mode Tolerance




Figure 3-6:
Choosing
tolerance
and other
options for
the Magic
Wand
before using
it ensures
better
magic.



To select a contiguous area of similar pixels around the point where you click
(all of Alex, for example), make sure that Contiguous is selected on the Tool
Options palette. To select all similar pixels regardless of where they are in the
image ” any Alex-colored pixel anywhere, for example ” deselect the
Contiguous check box.

If your image uses layers, be sure that the active layer is the one containing
the pixels you™re trying to click with the Magic Wand. If you want the Magic
Wand tool to examine all layers combined, enable the Sample Merged check
box on the Tool Options palette. Otherwise, the Magic Wand tool selects a
totally wrong area and you wonder what™s happening!

Choosing Match mode for better results
Click the Match Mode list box and you can choose exactly how you want
Paint Shop Pro to select the pixels around the place you clicked. Some of the
choices are shown in this list:




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Chapter 3: Selecting Parts of an Image

RGB Value: When you choose this option, you tell Paint Shop Pro to
“select pixels that match in both color and brightness.” Clicking a red
apple by using this choice may select only the highlighted side where
you clicked, for example. Technically, it selects all adjacent pixels with
red (R), green (G), and blue (B) primary color values that match the one
you clicked.
Hue: You™re telling Paint Shop Pro to “select pixels that match in color”
when you choose Hue. Hue, however, is somewhat more independent of
brightness than the RGB value. Clicking a red apple with this choice is
more likely to select the entire apple than if you choose RGB Value.
Technically, this option selects all adjacent pixels with hues (in the
Hue/Saturation/Lightness color system, or color wheel) that match
the hue of the pixel you clicked.
Brightness: Brightness disregards color and selects all adjacent pixels
whose brightness matches the one you clicked. This choice is useful for
selecting things that are similarly illuminated, like shadows and high-
lights, or that are in a notably light or dark color compared with the
background.
Opacity: Opacity is a measure of how transparent your image is. Opacity
mode selects anything that™s suitably close to the transparency of the
selected pixel. For example, if a layer contains brush strokes at various
opacities, Opacity lets you select strokes of a specific range of opacity.
All Opaque: This option is a special choice for when you™re working on
an image or a layer that has transparent areas ” areas of no content
whatever ” usually displayed with a checkered background. All Opaque
tells Paint Shop Pro to select the area that has content around the pixel
where you clicked. For example, you may have photos of various air
freshener products on an otherwise transparent layer, artistically float-
ing over a cow pasture on the background layer. With this choice, you
can just click one of the products to select it in its entirety.

Experiment to get the mode that works best for you! Press Ctrl+D to deselect
each failed experiment, change match modes, and click again with the Magic
Wand tool.

Setting tolerance to include more or fewer pixels
The Tolerance setting on the Tool Options palette helps you determine how
much of an area is selected by the Magic Wand tool. You may have to undo
your selection by right-clicking, adjust the tolerance, and click again with
the Magic Wand tool several times to get the best selection possible. For an
easier solution, see the discussion of expanding and filling in selections in the
following section.




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Tolerance tells Paint Shop Pro how closely the pixels it selects should match
the pixel you clicked ” in RGB value, hue, or brightness, depending on which
match mode you chose. (Tolerance doesn™t matter for All Opaque match mode.
A pixel either has content or it doesn™t.) Here™s how it works:

Lower the tolerance value to select fewer pixels the next time you click.
Raise the tolerance value to select more pixels the next time you click.

In Paint Shop Pro, low tolerance means that the Magic Wand tool tolerates
little variation in color or brightness from the pixel you clicked. The toler-
ance value itself has no particular meaning; it™s just a number.

The Tolerance value box on the Magic Wand tool™s Tool Options palette has
a clever adjustment feature you find in similar boxes throughout Paint Shop
Pro. As with these types of boxes in any Windows program, you can type a
value (from 0 to 200) in its text box or click its up or down arrow to adjust
the value. We find that the best way is to click the down arrow, or clever
adjustment feature, and hold the mouse button down. A tiny slider appears,
which you can drag left or right to set the tolerance value lower or higher.

Tolerance can be a sensitive and picky adjustment. A small change can some-
times make a big difference in what gets selected. Unless you™re trying to select
an area well differentiated by color, brightness, or content, you probably have
to adjust your selected area afterward. We tell you how to do that in the next
section.




Modifying Your Selection
If you didn™t select exactly the area you want with one of the Paint Shop
Pro selection tools, don™t despair. You can fine-tune or completely rework
your selection in any of these ways:

Drag the selection outline to another area of your image.
Add to or subtract from your selection by using the selection tools.
Expand or contract the selection™s boundary by a given number of pixels.
Remove holes or specks in your selection.
Edit the selection with the Paint Brush or Eraser tool.
Grow the selection to include adjacent pixels of similar color or
brightness.
Select pixels of similar color or brightness anywhere in the image.

The following sections tell you how to make each one of those modifications.
Read on!
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Chapter 3: Selecting Parts of an Image


Moving the selection outline
To move the selection outline (marquee) to another area of your image, first
click the Move tool, as shown in the margin (or press the M key). Then hold
down the right mouse button anywhere in the selection area and drag to
move the outline elsewhere.



Adding to or subtracting
from your selection
You can use the selection tools to add to or remove from your selection. You
can add any area at all, and using any selection tool ” not just the one you
used to create the selection.

Performing the addition or subtraction is as simple as, well, arithmetic ”
simpler, even. Do either of the following:

To add areas to an existing selection: Hold down the Shift key (or choose
Add [Shift] as your mode on the Tool Options palette). Then, as with any
selection tool, make a new selection outside (or overlapping) the origi-
nal selection. A + sign appears next to the tool™s cursor to remind you
that you™re adding.
To subtract areas from an existing selection: Hold down the Ctrl key (or
choose Subtract [Ctrl] as your mode on the Tool Options palette). Then,
make a selection within (or overlapping) the original selection. A “ sign
attaches itself to the selection tool™s cursor.

Here™s an example. In Figure 3-7, we originally clicked with the Magic Wand
tool on the blue clothing worn by Dave™s wife, Katy, and used Brightness for
the match mode. (We chose Brightness over Hue because the contrast in
brightness between dark blue clothing and white snow was stronger than the
uniformity of the blue.) The selection extended over to sled dog Starr™s
darker markings, however, which we didn™t want.

To remove Starr from this selection, we held down the Ctrl key and used the
Freehand tool (set to the Freehand selection type) to draw a loop around
Starr. Figure 3-7 shows you this loop nearing completion. Note the “ sign near
the lasso cursor, indicating subtraction. When we released the mouse button,
Paint Shop Pro completed the loop and subtracted Starr from the selection.
We could just as easily have used the Selection tool and (with the Ctrl key
pressed) dragged an elliptical selection around Starr. In real life, Starr was
never this easy to lasso.




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Figure 3-7:
Removing
Starr from
the selec-
tion by
outlining her
with the
Freehand
tool while
pressing
the Ctrl key.




Expanding and contracting by pixels
Expanding or contracting a selection in Paint Shop Pro simply means adding
or removing a set of pixels around the edge of the selection area. It™s like pack-
ing snow onto a snowman or melting it away. You can expand or contract a
selection by as many snowflakes, er, pixels as you like. Follow these steps:

1. Choose Selections➪Modify➪Expand, or Selections➪Modify➪Contract.
The Expand Selection, or Contract Selection, dialog box appears.
2. Set the Number of Pixels control to however many pixels you want to
add or remove.
To examine the effect closely, zoom in by clicking the magnifying glass
icon marked with a + in the dialog box. Drag the image in the right panel
to move it around. To see the effect in your actual image, click the Proof
button (with the eye icon).
3. Click OK when you™re done.



Removing specks and holes
in your selection
If the current selection has holes in it that you want selected or has specks of
selected areas you don™t want, you can fix it. This feature is especially useful
for selections made with the Magic Wand.

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Chapter 3: Selecting Parts of an Image

This feature works in a more understandable fashion if your selection has no
feathering (see the following section).

After you have an area selected, follow these steps:

1. Choose Selections➪Modify➪Remove Specks and Holes.
You™re presented with a Remove Specks and Holes dialog box, as shown
in Figure 3-8, which shows you the selected area on the left and the
despecked or deholed area on the right. This box needs to know the
maximum size of the speck or hole to be filled in (as measured in pixels,
the smallest element of the picture that can be measured).




Figure 3-8:
A gappy
Alex,
filled in.



2. To select the Remove Specks, Remove Holes, or Remove Specks and
Holes option, click the appropriate option box.
3. In the two boxes labeled Square Area Smaller Than, enter the size
(the area in total pixels) of the largest holes or specks to be removed.
The numbers in the boxes are a bit confusing, so think of it as a multipli-
cation project: In Figure 3-8, the left number is set to 70 and the right
number is chosen to be 100. (The number on the right goes up in multi-
ples of 10.) Any speck of selection in Figure 3-8 that is smaller than 7,000
pixels is removed; any hole smaller than that is filled.



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4. When the picture on the right looks correct, click OK.
If you™re not sure whether all the holes and specks are fixed, zoom in by
clicking the magnifying glass icon marked with a + and move your view
by dragging on the image in the right panel. To see the selection in your
actual image, click the button with the eye icon. Change the left number
in Step 3 to fine-tune the result.

As you can see, the holes in Alex™s interior get filled in, but they™re not
expanded out along the border. The danger is that if you select too wide an
area, Paint Shop Pro may well decide that your entire selection is one huge
gap and erase it.



Editing the selection
Tired of all that adding and subtracting to get exactly the selection you want?
Wish that you could just paint the selection area? Well, here™s how:

1. Choose Selections➪Edit Selections.
The selected area turns a stimulating reddish orange. (This color, and in
fact the procedure, should be familiar if you have used “masks” in image
editing.)
2. In the Materials palette, choose white as your foreground/stroke color
and black as your background/fill color.
In the Foreground/Stroke Properties box or Background/Fill Properties
box, you can right-click to quickly choose black or white. Choosing gray
gives an intermediate degree of selection (a sort of transparency), which
may confuse the heck out of you.
3. Use the Paint Brush tool to paint the new selected area, or the Eraser
tool to remove the selected area.
4. Choose Selections➪Edit Selections to exit the editing process.




Feathering for More Gradual Edges
When you copy or modify selected areas, you may notice that the edge
between the selection and the background becomes artificially obvious. To
keep a natural-looking edge on these types of objects, use feathering in your
selection.

Feathering creates a blending zone of several pixels (however many you
choose) extending both into and out of your selection. Whatever change you
make to the selected area fades gradually within that zone, from 100 percent
at the inner edge to 0 percent at the outer edge of the zone. For example, if
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Chapter 3: Selecting Parts of an Image

you were to increase the brightness of the selected area, that increase fades
gradually to 0 at the outer edge of the feathered zone. If you delete, copy, cut,
or move a feathered selection, you also leave a feathered edge behind.

You can apply feathering in either of two ways:

Before making the selection: On the Tool Options palette for whatever
selection tool you™re using, set the Feather value to something greater
than zero. When you next make a selection, the feathering is applied and
the marquee™s enclosed area expands to include the outer feathered
pixels.
After making the selection: Choose Selections➪Modify➪Feather and
the Feather Selection dialog box appears. Set the Number of Pixels value
in that dialog box to the number of pixels you want the selection feath-
ered, and then click OK. The area within the selection marquee expands.

The value you set in the Feather control tells Paint Shop Pro how wide to
make the feather zone ” how many pixels to extend it into, and out of, the
selection. (A setting of 4, for example, creates a feathered zone 4 pixels into
and 4 pixels out from the edge of the selection, for a total of 8 pixels wide.) A
larger value makes a wider, more gradually feathered edge. When you feather,
the marquee expands to include the pixels that are in the feathering zone.

If feathering in all directions is too clumsy for you, you can choose to feather
the edge in one direction only, either into the interior of the selection or
feathering out beyond its borders. Choose Selections ➪Modify➪ Inside/Outside
Feather to display a dialog box that offers exactly the same pixel control of
the regular Feather control, except that you get to choose which way you
feather.

Figure 3-9 shows you the difference that feathering makes. Normally, Alex is
fairly fuzzy around the edges anyway. Feathering makes his edges even fuzzier.
From left to right, this is the same image copied without feathering, with feath-
ering in all directions, with inside-only feathering, and with outside-only
feathering.



Figure 3-9:
Alex,
selected
and pasted
on a white

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