. 3
( 11)


with the four
types of
feathering. Unfeathered Normal (inside/out) Inside Outside
feathering, feathering, feathering,
8 pixels 8 pixels 8 pixels
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54 Part I: The Basics

When you copy or move a feathered selection, you bring along a faint
border ” feathered copies of the original background pixels surrounding
the selection.

You can defeather your image by choosing Selections➪Modify➪Unfeather;
unfortunately, this command isn™t like the friendly Undo button, where it
magically undoes any feathering you have added. Instead, this command dis-
plays a dialog box in which you can set the threshold of how harshly you want
to strip any fuzziness from the edges of your selection; a low threshold gives
your selection a light shave, whereas a high threshold reduces your selection
to a sticklike skeleton of itself.

Because feathering a selection expands the marquee, it gives the appearance
of filling in holes in a selection (adding them entirely to the selection). It
doesn™t really add those holes entirely to the selection, however; the pixels
in them are simply feathered. As a result, if you feather a selection that has
holes in it and then cut, delete, or move it, you leave behind faint images of
those holes. If your selection has holes, try removing specks and holes or
smoothing the selection before you feather it.

Anti-Aliasing for Smoother Edges
Because computer images are made up of tiny squares (the pixels), when a
straight edge of a selection is anything other than perfectly horizontal or ver-
tical, those squares give the edge a microscopic staircase, or sawtooth, shape
known as aliasing. Any changes you make to the selected area, or any cutting
or pasting of the selection, may make that aliasing objectionably obvious.

To avoid aliasing when you next make a selection, click to enable the Anti-alias
check box on the Tool Options palette for your selection tool. Anti-aliasing is
available for only the Freehand tools, not the Magic Wand or the Selection
tool. (You can use feathering to reduce most aliasing problems.)

The anti-aliasing option, like other settings on the Tool Options palette, applies
to only selections you make after choosing that option, not to a current selec-
tion. You can™t fix an existing aliased selection by clicking that option.

Selecting All, None, or Everything But
Sometimes, you want a selection to be an all-or-nothing proposition! To select
the entire image, press Ctrl+A or choose Selections➪Select All.

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Chapter 3: Selecting Parts of an Image

The easiest way to select complex shapes
Selecting everything but and then inverting is a However, if you do have a complex background,
useful trick when you may have a complex you can use the Background Eraser to clear a
object on a comparatively uniform background. “moat” of transparent space around the shape
Rather than spend lots of effort selecting the you want selected and then switch to the regu-
object, you can more easily select the uniform lar Eraser tool to remove everything outside that
background with the Magic Wand tool and then, moat. Then use the Magic Wand to select the
by pressing Ctrl+Shift+I, invert the selection transparent space around your image and
(which selects the complex object). It doesn™t invert it.
work if the background is complex, but you
would be surprised at how much time you can

To select none (also known as clearing the selection or deselecting), press
Ctrl+D or choose Selections➪Select None. You can also clear selections (except
when the entire image is selected) by right-clicking anywhere on the image.

Sometimes, you may want to select everything but the part of the image that
is not selected. This process is known as inverting the selection. To perform
it, choose Selections➪Invert or press Ctrl+Shift+I.

An Example: Selecting Alex,
and Only Alex
So, you have a problem: Your dog (the one in our example is named Alex) is
sick of the snow. Sure, you could send him to a tropical paradise, but you
have decided that it™s much simpler to select him so that you can cut and
paste him into a picture of the Caribbean. Then you show him the picture
and tell him that he was in the tropics just last week.

The genius of dogs is that they require surprisingly little evidence to believe
anything you tell them. So, how do you complete the transfer?

1. Select the Magic Wand tool from the selection tool group.
Because you™re trying to select Alex and he™s the only really brown thing
in the picture, set the Magic Wand tool options to a match mode of Color.

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56 Part I: The Basics

2. Set the tolerance of the Magic Wand.
Here™s the trick: Even we hardened professional Paint Shop Pro experts
(we™re writing a book on it, aren™t we?) are never sure what number to use
for tolerance ” like everyone else, we guess.
We guess 100, which, as you can see in Figure 3-10, turns out to be way
too much. Right-click to clear the selection and try again. A little experi-
menting with the tolerance shows you that a tolerance of 25 is a solid
starting point.

Figure 3-10:
Alex, at 25
and 100
filled in
black for

25 tolerance 100 tolerance

3. Shift-click a few stray selections to clean up the edges.
The Magic Wand selected most of this cuddly retriever, but Alex™s ear,
the underside of his left foot, and his right rear foot are still not selected.
Those are also the areas where the color tends to vary a little more wildly,
by shifting from almost black to light green, so set the tolerance a little
higher, to 50, for example ” and then Shift+click in these areas to add
those places to your selection. As you can see in Figure 3-11, that action
adds the ears and feet, and also adds unwanted portions of the door to
your selection.

Figure 3-11:
Alex, with
more added,
and also
the door.

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Chapter 3: Selecting Parts of an Image

4. Fill in the small gaps.
Choose Selections➪Modify➪Remove Specks and Holes and set it to 70 x
100 pixels, which automatically chooses any gap smaller than 700 pixels.
Look back at Figure 3-8 to see the clear difference; click OK.
5. Ctrl+click the door away.
Although you can create some fancy shenanigans with the Select Color
Range option to remove that pesky door, you have a simpler solution:
Because it™s all in one place, you can just Ctrl+select it away. Remember
that Shift+select adds to your existing selection, whereas Ctrl+select
subtracts it. In this case, you switch to the Freehand tool, hold down
Ctrl, and draw a ring around the door to remove it.
6. Feather the edges.
Now, the edges are crisp ” too crisp, as you can see in Figure 3-12. A little
feathering makes the selection edge softer and blends it with any back-
ground in which you paste it. Choose Selections➪Modify➪ Inside/Outside
Feather and opt to feather the inside of the selection by two pixels.

Alex before feathering:
Notice the jagged, blocky edge?
Figure 3-12:
The two
sides of
Alex: pre-
and post-
Alex after feathering,
with his edges muted

Avoiding Selection Problems
in Layered Images
Layered images can cause both the selection and the editing of those selec-
tions to go apparently screwy. The Magic Wand tool and Smart Edge features
may appear neither magic nor smart, by selecting areas not at all like what
you had in mind. Also, whatever changes you try to perform to the selected
area (such as cutting, copying, or changing color) may apparently not take
place. (If you™re not sure whether your image has layers, see Chapter 11.)

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58 Part I: The Basics

The basic trick is to work on the right layer. Here are some more detailed
rules you can follow to keep the selection and editing process relatively sane:

Activate the right layer: Before you make any changes to a selected
area (such as fill-painting it), be sure to activate the layer you want to
change. Otherwise, you paint (or otherwise modify) whatever layer
happens to be active at the time.
Use Sample Merged for combined layers: Before you make a selection
with the Magic Wand tool or Smart Edge feature, if the object you™re
trying to select is the result of various layers combined, enable the
Sample Merged check box on the Tool Options palette. That way, the
Magic Wand tool or Smart Edge feature examines the combined effect,
not just the active layer. For example, if you added a party hat to Uncle
Charley™s head on a separate layer and now you want to select Charley-
with-hat by using the Smart Edge feature, you use Sample Merged.
Consider the effect of higher layers: If the changes you try to make to a
selected area aren™t visible or seem only partially effective, a higher
opaque or transparent layer may contain pixels that are obscuring your
work. You may have to merge layers, make your changes to the higher,
obscuring layer, or rethink your use of layers altogether.

Paint Shop Pro helps keep you sane. The preview window that certain adjust-
ments provide (such as Brightness/Contrast) shows you only the area you™re
affecting: the selected part of the active layer. If the wrong layer is active, you
don™t see the area you™re expecting!

When you make a selection, it extends to all layers ” no matter which one is
active at the time. Changes to selected image areas, however (like painting),
affect only the active layer. So, you can activate one layer, for example, to
make a selection with the Magic Wand tool and then switch to another layer
to make changes within that selected area.

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Chapter 4
Moving, Copying, and Reshaping
Parts of Your Image
In This Chapter
Moving, floating, copying, or deleting a selection
Using the Windows Clipboard
Reshaping selections

I n Chapter 3, we tell you how to select a chunk of your image in Paint Shop
Pro. In this chapter, you see how to move, copy, twist, and deform a selec-
tion ” in short, how to do almost anything that changes the physical loca-
tion or outline of a selection. (Paint Shop Pro also lets you rotate, flip, or
mirror a selection. Just select something and follow the same directions
Chapter 2 gives for rotating, flipping, or mirroring an entire image.)

If your image has multiple layers, make sure that you™re working on the
right layer. See Chapter 12 for help with layers.
You can press Ctrl+Z to undo any changes you make. The changes you
can undo include selecting, floating, moving, copying, pasting, or
The instructions in this chapter deal only with selections to bitmap or
raster images (images made from dots, not objects like rectangles or
text). To deal with vector selections (typically, text, lines, and geometric
shapes), see Chapter 12.

Floating, Moving, and
Deleting Selections
After you have made a selection, you can easily move it anywhere within
your image, move a copy of it, or delete it altogether. Here™s how to do it:

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60 Part I: The Basics

To move a selection: Choose any selection tool (Selection, Freehand,
or Magic Wand) and then drag the selection. Selection tool cursors
become 4-headed move arrows when you position them over a selec-
tion, as shown in Figure 4-1. On the Background (main) image layer,
dragging a selection in this way leaves behind background color. The
image on the left in Figure 4-1 shows you the effect.
To float a selection (make it moveable): A floating selection simply means
a moveable one. You can float a selection in one of two ways. When you
click an existing selection with a selection tool (as the preceding bullet
describes), that selection is floated automatically. Alternatively, you can
choose Selections➪Float or press Ctrl+F. Floating a selection in that way
(manually) leaves a copy of it behind. (Note that any floating selection
also appears on the Layer palette.)
To move a selection and leave a copy behind (as the right side of
Figure 4-1 shows you): Float the selection manually first (choose
Selections➪Float or press Ctrl+F) and then move it with the Mover tool
(the 4-headed arrow) or any selection tool.
To defloat the floating selection (or glue it back down): To defloat a
selection, press Ctrl+Shift+F or choose Selections➪Defloat. You can also
deselect (press Ctrl+D) to defloat. The defloating command leaves the
area selected in case you want to do additional work on it. Whichever
way you defloat the image, defloating glues the image down. It™s now
part of the underlying image (or image layer), and its pixels replace
whatever was there. If you move the selection again, you find that the
original underlying pixels are no longer there.

Simply dragging leaves background color

Figure 4-1:
Dragging a
Float the
image first
with Ctrl+F
to drag a

Float, then drag to move a copy

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Chapter 4: Moving, Copying, and Reshaping Parts of Your Image

To delete the selection: Press the Delete key on your keyboard. If the
selection is on the background layer, the Paint Shop Pro background
color appears in the deleted area. If the selection is on a layer, the pixels
within the selection simply go away. (Okay, technically, they™re made
transparent ” same thing.)
To move a floating selection to another layer: Drag the Floating
Selection layer up or down on the Layer palette. (Press F8 to display the
Layer palette if it™s not showing.) Leave the selection immediately above
the layer you ultimately want the selection to join. When you defloat the
selection, it joins the closest underlying (raster) layer.

You can also flip or mirror a selection. See the section in Chapter 2 about get-
ting turned around, mirrored, or flipped for information about using the Flip
and Mirror commands. Both commands leave a copy of the original image
underlying the selection.

Cutting, Copying, and Pasting
from the Windows Clipboard
To make lots of copies of a selection, use the conventional cut, copy, and
paste features that employ the Windows Clipboard. You can use these fea-
tures for copying selections to or from other Windows applications too
because nearly all Windows applications make use of the Clipboard.

If your image has multiple layers, first make sure that you have selected the
right layer to cut, copy, or paste the image you want. Click the layer™s name
on the Layer palette. (Press F8 if the palette isn™t visible). See Chapter 12 for
more help with layers.

Cutting and copying
In Paint Shop Pro, cut and copy work much the same as they do in any Windows
program. First, select an area in your image. Then, do any of these tasks:

Cut a selection: Press Ctrl+X, choose Edit➪Cut, or click the familiar
Windows Cut button (scissors icon) on the Paint Shop Pro toolbar. Paint
Shop Pro places a copy of the selected area on the Windows Clipboard.
If you™re cutting on the main (Background) layer of the image, Paint Shop
Pro fills the cut area with the current background color on the color
palette. On other layers, it leaves behind transparency.

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62 Part I: The Basics

Copy a selection: Press Ctrl+C, choose Edit➪Copy, or click the Copy
button (2-documents icon) on the Paint Shop Pro toolbar. Paint Shop Pro
puts a copy of the selected area (of the active layer) on the Windows
Clipboard. Nothing happens to your image.
Copy a merged selection from a multilayer image: The normal Edit➪
Copy command copies only from the active layer. If your image is made
up of multiple layers, you may want to copy the combined effect of all
layers. If so, choose Edit➪Copy Merged (or press Ctrl+Shift+C).
Cut or copy from other applications: Most Windows applications offer
the same Edit➪Copy and Edit➪Cut commands, so you can place text
or graphics on the Windows Clipboard. Paint Shop Pro enables you to
paste a wide variety of Clipboard content from other programs, such
as text, vector graphics, or raster graphics.

After your selection is on the Windows Clipboard, choose Edit➪Paste to
paste it into Paint Shop Pro (or nearly any other application). When you
choose Edit➪Paste in Paint Shop Pro, however, you get several different
paste options.

If you™re in the habit of using Ctrl+V for pasting in other programs, you need
to retrain yourself. In Paint Shop Pro, Ctrl+V creates a new image rather than
pastes your selection to the existing image, which is what you probably
expect to happen.

One pasting option we cover elsewhere in this book is Paste As New Vector
Selection. This command is used only for pasting text and shapes you create
by using the Paint Shop Pro Text tool and various shape tools. For more
about vectors, see Chapter 12.

For better paste jobs, see the section in Chapter 8 that gives you tips for
natural-looking pastes.

Pasting to create a new
picture: As New Image
The Paste As New Image option creates a new image containing the Clip-
board contents. The image is just big enough to contain whatever is on the
Clipboard. The background of the image is transparent, which means that if
your copied selection isn™t rectangular, you see transparent areas; erasing
also leaves transparency behind.

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Chapter 4: Moving, Copying, and Reshaping Parts of Your Image

Choose Edit➪Paste➪Paste As New Image or press Ctrl+V (the nearly univer-
sal keyboard command for Paste). Your new image appears in a new window.

If you prefer your new image to have a background color or to be slightly
larger than the contents of the Clipboard, create the new image first, sepa-
rately (refer to Chapter 1). Then paste a selection or new layer rather than
use the Paste As New Image command.

Pasting on an existing image:
As New Selection
The Paste As New Selection option pastes the Clipboard contents as a float-
ing selection on your image. This pasting option is the one most people want
for editing an image because it is the simplest and most intuitive.

If your image uses multiple layers, make sure to first activate the layer where
you want to paste (refer to Chapter 12).

Because the selection is floating, you drag the selection to move it anywhere
in the image. To defloat the selection (paste it down on the underlying layer),
press Ctrl+Shift+F or choose Selection➪Defloat. See the earlier section
“Floating, Moving, and Deleting Selections,” for details about moving and
defloating a floating selection.

Pasting for maximum flexibility:
As New Layer
Pasting directly on another image is fine, as far as it goes. For maximum flexi-
bility in making future changes, however, paste on a new layer instead. When
an image is on a layer, you can modify it to your heart™s content without wor-
rying about surrounding or underlying image areas. (In Chapter 12, we dis-
cuss the whys and hows of layers in detail.) Here™s how:

1. If your image already has more than one layer, activate (choose) the
layer above which you want the new layer to appear.
For example, click the layer on the Layer palette to activate it. See
Chapter 12 for more details on activating layers.
2. Choose Edit➪Paste➪Paste As New Layer (or press Ctrl+L).
Your pasted image appears on a layer of its own.

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64 Part I: The Basics

If the background of the image you pasted was transparent, the underlying
image layer shows through those background areas. Otherwise, the pasted
image and its background color fill an opaque rectangle. If you want to delete
the background (make it transparent), use the Magic Wand tool, or another
selection tool, to select it (refer to Chapter 12) and press the Delete key on
your keyboard. Alternatively, see the following section.

Moving or pasting without the background
color: As Transparent Selection
The most straightforward way to move or paste something (a picture of your
kid, for example) without the background is to make sure that you don™t
select the background in the first place! Refer to Chapter 3 for instructions on
making precise selections.

If, however, the background color is uniform (and this is almost never true of
a photograph ” only a painting or drawing), Paste As Transparent Selection
may be faster.

This approach is the same as pasting a new selection, but any color in your
selection that matches the current background color is made transparent.
Suppose that you have painted a black dot on a white canvas. You can select
the dot with a simple rectangular selection, copy and paste it, and not worry
about pasting the surrounding white too. Follow these steps:

1. Make the background color in the Materials dialog box match the
image™s background by right-clicking the background with the drop-
per tool.
2. Select around the thing you want to copy and don™t fret about includ-
ing the background. Use a rectangular selection, if you like.
3. Choose Paste As Transparent Selection (or press Ctrl+Shift+E).

For most work, where the background is somewhat, but not entirely, uniform,
we prefer to remove the background from the selection with the Magic Wand
tool. Refer to Chapter 3 for instructions on using the Magic Wand. Select a
rough area, as described in Step 2. Then, while holding down the Ctrl key,
click the background within that rough area with the Magic Wand. Holding
down the Ctrl key removes whatever you click from the selection. Then, copy
and paste (or move), background-free, to your heart™s content.

Pasting while scaling to fit: Into Selection
If you select an area in your image, you can fit the Clipboard contents exactly
into the height and width of the selection and scale the contents up or down
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Chapter 4: Moving, Copying, and Reshaping Parts of Your Image

as needed. This process is useful for copying the head of Person A onto the
body of Person B because rarely are their heads the same size!

Copy the image you want to paste (for example, the head of Person A from
Photo A) to the Clipboard by choosing Edit➪Copy. Then, select the area
you want to paste into (the head of Person B in Photo B) and choose Edit➪
Paste➪Paste Into Selection. The image doesn™t fit exactly because of irregular
shapes, but you can finesse the edges with other Paint Shop Pro tools.

Resizing, Rotating, Deforming,
and Perspective-izing
Okay, so perspective-izing isn™t a real word. Perspecting? In any event, you
can resize, rotate, deform, or move your selection by using the deformation
tool group, as shown in Figure 4-2.

Figure 4-2:
tool group,
has a

Making a shape look as though it™s seen in perspective is one of the cool
kinds of deformation you can do. You can make a rectangular area, for exam-
ple, look like a wall or road receding into the distance. You can paint a rail-
road track running vertically, flat, as though it™s on a map, and then make it
lie down realistically by applying perspective.

Preparing for deformation
The deformation tools are picky: They need a separate layer (other than the
background layer) to work with. If you™re trying to deform a selection, Paint
Shop Pro asks you whether it™s okay to promote that selection to a layer.

Are you using layers? These tools work on the active layer and encompass all
nontransparent areas in that layer. In other words, if you have a blob of pixels
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66 Part I: The Basics

on a layer, the tool encompasses (rather neatly, in our opinion) just that blob.
If you have multiple blobs separated by transparency, it encompasses all
blobs. If you want to deform just one blob, select it.

Doing the deformation
The easy and fairly intuitive way to make a deformation is by dragging vari-
ous parts of the deformation grid with the Deform tool. See “Deforming by
dragging,” coming up next.

The geeky, but precise, way to do the deformation is in the Deformation
Settings dialog box. See “Deforming by dialog box,” a bit later in this chapter.

Deforming by dragging
Select the Deform tool from the deformation tool group(if it™s grayed out, refer
to the earlier section “Preparing for deformation” for instructions), and your
cursor turns into that icon. Click your selection to get this cool-looking defor-
mation grid with tiny squares (called handles) on it, as shown in Figure 4-3.

Drag anywhere inside grid to move selection

Resizing handles

Figure 4-3:
The Deform
tool™s grid
rotating, and
dragging the

Rotation handle

This figure shows you what to drag for resizing, rotating, or moving the
image. Note that you can move the selection with this tool by dragging any-
where except on one of the handles. (In areas where dragging is possible, the
cursor changes to a 4-way arrow.) Here™s how to do various operations, by
using the handles of the deformation grid:

Resizing or repositioning sides: Adjust the width and height by drag-
ging the handle in the center of any side. Drag corner handles to change
both the height and width at the same time. (The Deform tool provides
no way to automatically keep the proportions constant while you drag,
so see the following section for help.)
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Chapter 4: Moving, Copying, and Reshaping Parts of Your Image

Rotating: Drag the handle, marked Rotation handle in Figure 4-4, in a cir-
cular motion around the center of the grid. (When your cursor is over
the rotation handle, the cursor depicts the pair of curved arrows shown
in the figure. The center of rotation is marked by a square that is at the
face™s nose.) Only the grid rotates until you release the mouse button;
then, the selection rotates.
Adding perspective: In the real world, the farther away an object is, the
smaller it appears to your eye. Here™s how to create that illusion with
your selection so that one end looks farther away:
• To shrink any side of the selection as though it were farther away,
first hold down the Ctrl key. With that key down, drag one of the
two corner handles that terminate the side; drag toward the center
of that side. To expand the side, drag away from the center. The
side shrinks or expands symmetrically about the center (both cor-
ners move). The perspective this distortion creates is symmetrical,
as though your eyes were level with the middle of the selection, as
the left side of Figure 4-5 shows you.
• To shrink or expand any side asymmetrically (move one corner
only), first hold down the Shift key. With that key down, drag a
corner handle toward or away from the center handle of that side.
When you apply this effect to the left or right side, as shown on the
right in Figure 4-5, the result is as though your eyes were at a level
above or below center. For example, to get the illusion of a tall
wall, drag the upper corner down.


Figure 4-4:
the rotation
Drag the
cursor away
from the
rotating to
get more

Rotation handle

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68 Part I: The Basics

Figure 4-5:
by dragging
a corner
pressing Ctrl
(left image)
or Shift

Shear (or skew) distortion: We created the shear effect shown in Fig-
ure 4-6 by dragging the right side of the selection down. To drag a side of
your selection, hold down either the Ctrl or Shift key and drag the center
handle on the side you want to move.

Shear is useful for perspective when you want the virtual horizon (the vanish-
ing point, in drafting terms) to be higher or lower than dead center. Apply
perspective distortion to shrink a left or right side first, and then use the
shear effect to drag one of those sides up or down. Dragging down, for exam-
ple, makes the image appear as it would if a viewer were looking up slightly
(it lowers the horizon).

Figure 4-6:
Dragging a
handle with
Ctrl or Shift

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Chapter 4: Moving, Copying, and Reshaping Parts of Your Image

Deformation consternations
The Deform tool can occasionally wrinkle your there, all right, but you have applied the Deform
brow with certain weirdnesses. Here are a few tool to a layer or selection that covers the entire
typical problems and their solutions: image. Change layers or make a new selection.
The tool encompasses the wrong area: You prob- An annoying background appears in the area
ably have the wrong layer active. Here™s what the selection outline has vacated: Well, Paint
happens: If you™re on a layer that™s transparent in Shop Pro has to put something there, and it can™t
the selected area, the Deform tool chooses the invent a background image. (Refer to “Preparing
nontransparent area instead. Press the F8 key to for deformation,” earlier in this chapter, for more
open the Layer palette and click the layer that information about backgrounds.) If Paint Shop
contains the image you want. Pro could stretch the surrounding area to stay
continuous with your newly deformed selection,
You can™t find the deformation grid; you see only
that would be nice, but it isn™t so.
two squares and a connecting line: The grid is

Deforming by dialog box
Dragging handles is convenient and intuitive, but not particularly precise.
What if you know that you need to rotate something 31.5 degrees, for exam-
ple? Or scale it down to 85 percent of its original dimensions?

Press F4 to bring up the Tool Options palette, and you can type the settings
you want. It provides a column for X, or horizontal values, and Y, or vertical
values, and rows for each of the various changes that the Deform tool can
make. Here™s how to choose the values you need:

Position: To move the selection, enter the X and Y coordinates where
you want the upper-left corner of the deformation grid to go. (Remember
that X and Y both equal 0 in the upper-left corner of the image.)
Scale: Enter X and Y scale factors. Enter 80 in the X% scale box, for
example, to reduce the horizontal size of the selection to 80 percent of
the original. To keep the original proportions, put the same value in both
the X and Y columns.
Shear: To slide the top edge to the right, enter a positive value; enter a
negative value to move the edge the other way.
Perspective: To make the right edge appear to recede into the distance
by pulling the upper-right corner down and inward, enter a positive
number in the Perspective X box. To make the top edge appear to
recede, do likewise in the Y box. Use negative values to make those
same edges appear to approach the viewer instead.

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Pivot: Normally, when you rotate a selection or layer, it rotates around
the center. If you want your image to revolve around a different point ”
around the upper-left corner of the selection, for example, or even around
a point that™s outside the selection entirely ” adjust the pivot values. The
numbers in the X and Y boxes vary, but unless you have changed the
pivot in the past, those numbers are the exact center of the image. Lower
X numbers move the pivot to the left, whereas higher Xs shift it right;
lower Y numbers move the pivot up, and higher numbers drop it down.
Angle: To rotate the selection clockwise, enter a positive number of
degrees (45, for example) into the text box. Use a negative value to
rotate the selection counterclockwise.

Other handy deformities
You should know about three other tools in the deformation tool group:

Mesh Warp: Using this tool covers your image with a grid of warp
points; you can click and drag each of these points to deform your image
in specific ways, as you can see in Figure 4-7.
In the left picture, the grid is untouched; in the right, however, we have
moved the warp points around and the image has stretched itself to fit
the new warp points. (You can control the number of warp points by
changing the Mesh Horizontal and Mesh Vertical controls on the Tool
Options palette; larger values mean more points. As usual, press F4 if
you don™t see the Tool Options palette.)

Figure 4-7:
Amy and
Alex; the left
image is
what you
see when
you first
open the
Mesh Warp
tool, and the
right is what
after some
of the points
have been

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Chapter 4: Moving, Copying, and Reshaping Parts of Your Image

You can accomplish some mighty strange effects with this feature, given
time and lots of patience; the most common use is to warp an existing
image to fit on another image™s contour.
Straighten: Did you ever spend an afternoon hanging paintings and
taking painstaking care to ensure that the bottom edges of the frames
were all perfectly parallel with the floor? This tool is an automatic
picture adjuster. Most images are at least a little tilted when they™re
scanned, so we discuss this tool in Chapter 5, in the section about
scanning into Paint Shop Pro.
Perspective Correction: This tool does the reverse of the Deform tool: If
you have an image that™s already a little skewed or sheared, you can use
this tool to attempt to remove the skew or shear. Dragging the Perspective
tool around an image creates a box; you can then drag the points on the
edge of the box, just as you would with the Deform tool ” but in this
case you™re trying to re-create the shear or skew that™s already present.
Align the box sides with vertical and horizontal edges in your image.
When you™re done, double-click the image and Paint Shop Pro attempts
to remove the shear. See color plate C-8 in the center of this book for an

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72 Part I: The Basics

TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Part II
Prettying Up

TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
In this part . . .
E ver since Kodak sold its first Brownie camera, folks
have been snapping pictures like mad ” and often,
not liking them much. They™re too dim, too bright,
scratchy, speckly, or simply contain far too much Aunt
Martha. But, even Aunt Martha can get an extreme
makeover in Paint Shop Pro, even without (much to the
disappointment of certain relatives) ever going under the
knife. And, if the makeover doesn™t work, this section tells
you how to remove her altogether and get rid of that terri-
ble wallpaper behind her, too.

The problem goes beyond family snapshots. There™s noth-
ing uglier than a bad screen capture of some image or an
amateurish scan of a printed image (except perhaps for
Uncle Dave). And, of course, you need to be able to get
your digital picture into Paint Shop Pro in order to use it.
No matter if your problem is unsightly blemishes or look-
ing a bit green, you can hack your way to beauty in Part II.

TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 5
Capturing Pictures from Paper,
Camera, or Screen
In This Chapter
Downloading pictures from digital cameras and scanners
Using TWAIN software
Making e-mail-ready photos
Scanning images from paper
Getting better scans
Scanning printed images
Capturing images from the screen

W here do your pictures come from? From your new digital camera?
From a piece of paper? Or, from your PC screen?

Ironically, most people don™t paint pictures in Paint Shop Pro. They get an
image from somewhere and then mess around with it. This chapter tells you
how to use Paint Shop Pro to get that image onto your hard drive. After the
image is on your computer, then you can start making your pictures prettier.

Connecting to Your Scanner or Camera
Paint Shop Pro has lots of built-in ways to transfer images from a scanner or
camera to your hard drive ” but the most common methods involve a soft-
ware program called TWAIN. Much like a career bureaucrat, TWAIN doesn™t
do anything by itself; instead, it acts as an interpreter, translating your scan-
ner or camera™s language into native Windows-speak. If your camera or scan-
ner came with an installation disc, chances are good that the software it

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76 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

installed is TWAIN-compliant, which means that Paint Shop Pro (a Windows
program) can use TWAIN to get images from your scanner or camera.

Another method of getting computers and cameras to talk to each other is
the Microsoft Windows Image Acquisition (WIA) method, which serves the
same function as TWAIN but isn™t quite as popular. If your scanner or camera
supports WIA, follow the instructions that came with the device for installing
and using WIA.

In this chapter, our instructions usually assume that you™re using the long-
time standard, the TWAIN software interface. However, the instructions also
give general scanning tips for everyone, regardless of what form of connec-
tion you use.

Getting Images from a Digital Camera
Digital cameras were made for family get-togethers. You can preview your
photo seconds after you have taken it and share the fun with your friends.
You can take 200 snapshots over the course of an afternoon without changing
film. And, if an unflattering photo highlights your bald spot, you can quietly
delete the evidence before anyone else sees!

The good news is that Paint Shop Pro can be a great tool for enhancing your
digital photos. First, however, you have to get the pictures off the camera and
onto your PC, which means that you need to get your PC and camera talking
to each other. They have to connect (or interface, in geekspeak) both physi-
cally and with their software.

Getting RAW power from your camera
On certain high-end cameras, you can elect to they feel that the autocorrected images are too
save your pictures in RAW format, which is a spe- synthetic and artificial. If you too rage against the
cial file type that sidesteps the automatic correc- machine, rejoice! Paint Shop Pro 9 can now read
tions that most digital cameras make to fix photos RAW files. (You have to read your camera™s
taken by everyday doofuses like you and us. Most manual to find out how to get your digicam to
digital cameras automatically perform rudimen- produce them, however.)
tary sharpening and color correction before
For most people, however, regular ol™ JPEGs or
saving a file. When a camera saves an image in
TIF files ” the two formats that cameras usually
RAW format, however, it does no processing to
save in ” are just fine. If all you want is photos of
the image. What you saw is what you get.
your latest cookout, RAW is probably irrelevant.
Professional photographers refer to RAW files as
“true digital negatives” and prefer them because

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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen

Connecting hardware-wise
We wish that we could give you exact instructions on how to hook your
camera into your PC, but digital cameras ” particularly, older ones ” con-
nect in all sorts of mysterious ways. Your physical connection may be a serial
port (a connector on the back of most PCs, if a modem or something else
isn™t already using it), a parallel (printer) port, a USB port, a FireWire port, a
memory card that plugs into your computer, a floppy disk, an infrared beam,
X-rays, semaphore flags, or magical auras ” who knows what the camera
people will come up with next? You have to consult your camera manual for
precise details.

However, the way most cameras connect to your computer these days is via
a USB port ” a small, rectangular socket about the size of a Chiclet held side-
ways. You simply plug one end of a USB cable into your camera™s input port
and plug the other end into the USB port, and you™re ready to go.

Some cameras save their pictures on a small chip called a flash card (or, some-
times, memory stick). If that™s the case, you need to remove the stick from your
camera and insert it into a small device called a flash card reader. You then plug
the reader into your computer.

Many cameras also require you to flip a switch or open the camera lens to
put the camera in “upload pictures” mode. Again, check your friendly manual
if simply plugging it in isn™t enough.

Connecting software-wise
You can use one of four methods to move pictures from your camera to your
PC. All but one of them (the easiest way) involves installing the camera™s inter-
face software, which comes on a disc with the camera. Most cameras use
either a TWAIN-compliant interface or a Windows Image Acquisition (WIA)
interface; Paint Shop Pro knows how to use both to transfer your pretty
images from your camera™s memory to your hard drive.

If the installation program lets you, avoid installing any freebie image soft-
ware (basically, a cheaper Paint Shop Pro) that comes with the camera. If
you do, the installation process may assign certain image file types to that
program rather than to Paint Shop Pro. If that happens, refer to the Chapter 1
sidebar that talks about the secrets of opening a file by double-clicking, for
making Paint Shop Pro open the right file types when you double-click.

Copying pictures from mounted drives
If your camera is plug-and-play enabled (a fancy way of saying that it™s smart
enough to work with Windows automatically), Windows thinks of your camera
as nothing more than a separate hard drive. When you plug in your camera
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78 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

and turn it on, a new drive ” helpfully named something like E: or F: ”
appears in My Computer, as shown in Figure 5-1.

You can copy, delete, or move files on and off your digital camera just like it
were any other drive. Simply copy the files to a folder on your computer and
open them in Paint Shop Pro ” or, if you like, you can even open and edit
files while they™re still on your camera!

It™s not a good idea to edit files while they™re still on your camera ” not that
it does any harm. But, if you™re anything like us, you may forget that the
image you™re altering is still on your camera, and you won™t save a copy of
your carefully tweaked photograph to your hard drive. Later, when you
absent-mindedly clear your camera™s memory in order to take more pictures,
you lose everything.

Using TWAIN to transfer photos
TWAIN, which is the industry standard software that acts as a go-between to
Windows and your digicam, is used widely to translate native camera dialects
into fluent Windows-speak. If your camera isn™t plug-and-play, chances are
excellent that TWAIN can get the photos off your memory stick and onto your
hard drive.

If you want to import photos directly from Paint Shop Pro, you can some-
times use TWAIN even if your camera supports plug-and-play.

Figure 5-1:
When you
have a
digicam is
just another
hard drive
as far as
Windows is
That thing
Disk E is
one of our

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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen

If you have on your computer more than one TWAIN device (a scanner and
your camera, for example), first choose File➪Import➪TWAIN➪Select Source.
In the Select Source dialog box that appears, click the camera and then click

To begin the downloading process, choose File➪Import➪TWAIN➪Acquire.
Some form of dialog box, similar to the one shown in Figure 5-2, arrives on
the scene.

Figure 5-2:
one or more
photos to
your PC with
camera ”
in this case,
an Olympus

If you have more than one TWAIN source set up (like a scanner and a camera
on the same computer), choosing From Camera or Scanner starts up the
scanner rather than the camera. Yes, that is irritating if you use your camera
more than your scanner.

If that™s the case, choose File➪Import➪TWAIN➪Select Source to access your
camera; a small dialog box appears that shows you all your TWAIN-compliant
devices. Click the one that has a name something like your camera model
(ours was Olympus Digital Vision 3.0 33-32) and click OK. Then, choose File➪
Import➪TWAIN➪Acquire to start your camera™s download.

Alas, we can™t tell you exactly how this happens because the interface that
downloads the pictures is unique to each camera. Fortunately, most of them
are similar; they present a selection of thumbnails or preview images that
you can flip through in some manner.

If you don™t see a set of thumbnail images, you may need to hunt for a Get
Previews button or menu option.

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80 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

You see buttons or menu options that allow you to accomplish these
common camera tasks:

Download photos ” the whole enchilada: Look for a Download All,
Save All, or perhaps (as in our Olympus example) Select All command
before you can click the Download button. Downloading means that your
photos go directly to your PC™s disk drive, as files. You don™t see them in
Paint Shop Pro. You then can open them in Paint Shop Pro by choosing
File➪Open, as you can any other image file (refer to Chapter 1).
Download selected images ” the ones where your child isn™t sticking
out his tongue: Browse through the thumbnails (which are sometimes also
called previews), which you can generally do by clicking the left and right
arrows under the thumbnail image or scrolling up and down. The expo-
sure number, date, and time appear next to the image in some cameras,
and others may have an Information or Details button to display details.
When you come to a desirable photo that you want to download to your
PC, click the image you like and then look for a Save to Disk or Download
button or something similar. (You can select multiple images by holding
down Ctrl while you click.) You then can open them in Paint Shop Pro by
choosing File➪Open.
Erase the images where your child is sticking out his tongue: Browse
through the thumbnails and find the offending images. Click that image
and first try pressing Delete, and then look for a Delete, Erase, or Trash
button. Clicking this button removes the image from your camera.
Open a particular image in Paint Shop Pro: Browse through the thumb-
nails (as the preceding bullets describe) to that image. Click the image
and then look for an Open button. You can also open all images in Paint
Shop Pro if you select them all and then press Open. That choice may
use so much memory, however, that Paint Shop Pro becomes sluggish.
To save an open image to disk, refer to the instructions for saving a file
in Chapter 1.

For most makes of digital cameras, downloading images doesn™t delete them
from the camera. Erasing images, however, generally does wipe them from
the camera, which you want to do to clear out space for future photos.

Retrieving pictures with WIA
WIA serves the same function as TWAIN, but was never as popular. However,
some digital cameras only use WIA, so Paint Shop Pro supports it.

In Paint Shop Pro, choose File➪Import➪From Scanner or Camera to open
camera files by using the WIA method. Depending on your camera™s make,
the program either shows you the photos as though they resided on a hard
drive (in which case you would follow the instructions in the earlier section
“Copying pictures from mounted drives”) or presents you with some sort of
preview interface (in which case events are similar to what happens in the
earlier section “Using TWAIN to transfer photos”).
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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen

EXIF, stage left
Once upon a time, taking a photo was an out by examining the image™s EXIF (Exchangeable
intensely complicated process: You had to be Image File) data. EXIF data is saved as part of a
able to set a camera™s F-stops, whatever those JPEG file on most cameras, and it contains all the
were, read lighting exposures, and, um, snorkel camera™s settings at the time the photo was
the defibrillating valve. If any of those cryptic taken.
settings was set wrong, your pictures of Aunt
One other part of EXIF files is handy, even if you
Flo may have developed as blurry brown
don™t give a darn about metering patterns: It
stores the date and time the photo was taken
Fortunately, today™s digital cameras handle those and can contain optional extras, such as the
fine details automatically. Normally, this is a good artist™s name, the artist™s comments, and the
thing ” but sometimes you want to know why make of the camera that took it. Some photo
one picture looks fantastic and another photo, albums use EXIF data to help sort through thou-
taken seconds later, looks as though it were sands of stored pictures; for example, you can
taken from behind the glass of an uncleaned search through keywords stored in the EXIF
aquarium tank. The difference is usually because, comments to find a specific photo, even if you
for some reason, the camera quietly changed one don™t know the name of the file.
of its many settings.
You can edit some parts of a JPEG™s EXIF infor-
If you want to study differences in camera set- mation by choosing Image➪Image Information
tings to find out what sorts of F-stops and focal and selecting the EXIF Information tab. The
lengths create the clearest pictures, you can find editable bits are marked with asterisks.

Your last resort: The camera™s native software
If all else fails, it may be that your camera is either very old or very cranky,
and it allows you to snarf photos off it only via its custom-written interface
software. In that case, Paint Shop Pro can™t get the images for you; read your
camera™s manual™s for the directions. Sorry ™bout that. You can still save the
image from that software to your hard drive by using its File➪Save command;
then open the file in Paint Shop Pro.

Making E-Mail-Ready Photos
William™s family means well. About twice a month, they send him pictures of
his niece, Amanda. Unfortunately, the pictures are the size of billboards and
take about an hour-and-a-half to download, which prevents him from doing
anything else while he waits for the new picture to arrive.

He loves Amanda, but it™s not worth waiting 90 minutes just to see a picture
of her.

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82 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

Chances are, your friends feel the same about your pictures: They want to
see your little bubbeleh, but they want to see her quickly. Unfortunately,
scanners and digital photos, left to their own devices, give you the biggest,
the most detailed, and, above all the largest files they can possibly produce.
On the Internet, large files mean large download times ” and long waits.

Shrinking Photo Download Times
Your friends never tell you that they hate waiting four hours for a picture of
your newborn; they just force a smile and say “Those humongous photos
were lovely.” Be proactive and take these steps to condense your photos ”
and save your friendship!

1. Crop the photo so that it shows you only the important parts.
If Amanda is on the right side of the picture, there™s no sense in showing
everyone the wallpaper in the left half of the room. Cropping is ridicu-
lously easy, and we show you how to do it in Chapter 2.
2. Reduce the physical size of the photo.
Most digital cameras produce photos roughly the size of this page; the
smaller the photo, the quicker it downloads. Again, this information is in
Chapter 2.
3. Reduce the quality of the image.
It sounds horrible: Our darling Amanda, in a low-grade image? ” but the
fact is that most images can have their quality reduced by 10 or 20 per-
cent without anyone noticing a thing ” and it saves lots of download
time. We show you how to compress photos in Chapter 15.

Scanning into Paint Shop Pro
With digital cameras so cheap these days, you may wonder why anyone
would use a scanner. After all, putting a photo on a flatbed and going through
the hassle of aligning it properly is much more trouble than simply clicking
Download in your camera™s software program. Why would you bother?

For one thing, digital cameras are still a recent development. Chances are
good that you have a drawer full of old, paper photos that you want to send
to your friends. Or, maybe you have a magazine cover that you want to share
with the world. Other scanning candidates are line drawings, original art-
work, and documents that you have only in paper form. If that™s the case,
your only option is a scanner.

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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen

Many people are surprised to discover that scanning is a fairly involved
process. Getting an image from paper isn™t quite as simple as putting an
image on paper ” unless quality isn™t all that important.

If your PC is equipped with more than one TWAIN-based image-acquiring
device (scanners or cameras, for example), you need to tell Paint Shop Pro
which one you™re using before going through the following steps. Choose
File➪Import➪Twain➪Select Source. The Select Source dialog box appears.
Select your scanner (source) and then click Select.

In most instances, these steps scan an image from a properly installed scan-
ner that has a TWAIN interface (although your scanning software may differ):

1. Launch the scanning software that came with your scanner.
To do that, choose File➪Import➪TWAIN➪Acquire. (If your scanner uses
WIA, choose File➪Import➪Scanner or Camera.)
Or, press the Scan button on your scanner, if it has one.
Some special software designed to run your scanner should appear, and
Paint Shop Pro enters into a special TWAIN mode. (If the software doesn™t
appear, read the literature that came with your scanner and check to
make sure that your scanner is properly installed.) Because that software
depends on the scanner manufacturer, we can™t tell you many details
about it. We give you some tips, however, in the following section.
Figure 5-3 shows you the software that appears if, for example, you™re
using a Canon Multipass.

Figure 5-3:
An example
of scanning
may be

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84 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

2. Find and click the Preview button.
In Figure 5-3, for example, the Preview button is in the Preview window.
If you don™t find a button labeled Preview, look for a similar word. The
scanner starts to scan and then shows you a small preview image, as
shown in the Preview window in the figure. This preview image shows
you the entire scanning area of the scanner (the glass area in a flatbed
3. Define the area you want to scan.
In most scanner software, you create a rectangle in the Preview area to
define the area you want to scan. (Drag from one corner of the part you
want to the opposite corner.) Usually, you can then drag this rectangle
to adjust its position or drag its sides or corners to adjust its size. If you
don™t define the scan area in this way, you may end up with an enormous
image (your scanner™s entire field of view) that you have to crop (trim)
to the area you want. (Chapter 2 shows you how to crop a photo after
it™s in Paint Shop Pro ” a vital skill that everyone should know.)
Most scanner software allows you to enlarge (zoom in on) the preview
image. Look for a magnifying glass icon, click it, and then click the
4. Adjust settings that control the resolution or number of colors or that
improve the appearance of the preview picture.
Scanner software often offers important features and controls, including
whether you want color or black-and-white scanning. In the ScanWizard
software shown in Figure 5-3, the controls are in the right window. We
describe these and other useful controls in the following section.
5. Find and click the Scan button.
If you can™t find a Scan button, look for a Start or Begin button. Figure 5-3
shows you a Scan button under the Preview button. The scanner begins
to scan again. (It may take longer or shorter than it did in Step 2.)
After the scanner is done, an image appears in Paint Shop Pro. You can
now close the scanner software window or continue to scan more
images (starting with Step 2). Each image gets its own window in Paint
Shop Pro.
6. When you™re done scanning, close the TWAIN session.
If you™re using TWAIN software to run your scanner, as we suspect, Paint
Shop Pro will have put you into a special TWAIN-handling session where
you can save files but not edit them. To return to “normal” mode, choose
File➪End TWAIN Session. You return to Paint Shop Pro, where your
scanned images are waiting for you.

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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen

Getting the most from your
scanning software
Whatever software your PC uses to control your scanner, it undoubtedly
offers certain settings to play with. For casual scanning of images that don™t
have problems (such as underexposure), you can often ignore lots of those
settings and do all your fiddling in Paint Shop Pro. Sometimes, however, the
controls in your scanner software can improve your image in ways that Paint
Shop Pro alone can™t ” especially with moir© problems that occur when you
scan newspaper photos. (Although Paint Shop Pro has an adjustment that
removes moir© patterns, it™s not nearly as effective as fixing it at the source.
See “Forever plaid: Scanning printed images,” later in this chapter, for more
about moir©.)

You can usually adjust these settings after you do the preview. Except for res-
olution and color settings, the preview image reflects the changes without
running your scanner again.

Choosing the number of colors
To achieve the best quality possible with color photographs (and other
images that have either many colors or gradual, subtle shadings), you want
the maximum number of colors the scanner can produce. Usually, this maxi-
mum is expressed as 24-bit or 32-bit color. If your PC has disk space for the
large files this produces, scanning at this number of colors is best even if
your final application requires fewer colors.

Here are some scanner settings you may find, labeled Type or Color Depth in
the scanner software, that usually work well for the following uses:

Business or highest-quality personal use: Choose 16 million colors (24-
or 32-bit). (You can then color-reduce these images in Paint Shop Pro for
faster downloading in Web or e-mail applications; see Chapter 15.)
Casual family or business Web page illustrations or snapshots to be
sent by e-mail: Choose 256-color if it™s available, although it™s not always
offered as a scanner option. Use 16 million colors if the 256-color option
isn™t available.
Black-and-white photos, pencil drawings and sketches, or line draw-
ings with lines of varying weight: Choose 256 shades of gray, or some-
times Newsprint. Scanners typically scan these types of image by
looking for one particular color. If your drawing is all in one color of
pencil, such as green, it may not appear! Check your scanner manual for
notes on scanning grayscale (black-and-white) images or line drawings,
or avoid red, blue, or green pencils.

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86 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

Clear, original printed text with good contrast or line drawings in
dark ink or with thick lines: Choose two colors (1-bit), or line art, if it™s
available; otherwise, choose 256 shades of gray. If you have a line draw-
ing with uneven line darkness, you can sometimes turn it into good line
art by adjusting either the Line Art Threshold or Highlight/Midtone/
Shadow settings. See the section “Setting contrast and other adjust-
ments,” later in this chapter, for more information about the latter setting.

Choosing resolution
Resolution is the number of dots (or samples) per inch that your scanner
reads from the paper image. Your scanning software has a control for

Higher resolution means that you get more detail ” more pixels ” which is
generally A Good Thing. For example, if you scan a 4-inch x 6-inch snapshot
at 300 dots per inch (dpi), you get an image of 4 — 300 (1200) pixels high and
6 — 300 pixels (1800) wide. (That™s even more pixels than most PC screens can
show at the same time.) You can always make a picture lower in resolution
(reduce its size in pixels) in Paint Shop Pro, if necessary, but you can™t add
detail that isn™t there in the first place.

Higher resolution also poses some problems. First, high resolution means
bigger files! If you™re just scanning a photo to e-mail to someone or to put on
the Web, the people viewing your photo won™t appreciate the long wait for a
large photo to download ” especially if it™s bigger than their screen! You can
reduce a photo in Paint Shop Pro, of course, but why bother if you don™t need
to? Besides, sometimes the shrinking process (also called resampling) doesn™t
give quite as good a result as if you had chosen the lower resolution in the
first place.

To judge which resolution to use, answer these questions:

“How big an image do I need?” For most Web and e-mail work, an
image 300 to 400 pixels on a side is plenty. Multiply the width or height
of the region you™re scanning (6 inches wide, for example) by the scan-
ner resolution you™re thinking of using (300 dpi, for example) to figure
out the resulting width or height in pixels (1800 pixels wide, in this
example). Select a lower resolution to get a smaller image in pixels.
“How big a file do I want?” Scanning a 4-inch x 6-inch color snapshot at
300 dpi (and 24-bit color) can give you a file as large as 6 megabytes.
Cutting the resolution in half can reduce the file size by as much as a
factor of four.
“How finely detailed does the image need to be?” With the setting at
300 dpi, you can begin to see an individual human hair placed in your

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