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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen

You probably won™t see any changes you make to the resolution in your pre-
view image . To see the effect of resolution settings, you have to scan an
image into Paint Shop Pro (click the Scan button in your scanner software).

Setting contrast and other adjustments
Some other adjustments that are available in your scanner software can make
an enormous difference in the quality of your image. Fiddle with these after
you have clicked the Preview button in your scanner software so that you
have a preview image to look at as you make your adjustments. You may
have to poke around to find a button or command (usually Advanced or More
Options) that reveals these adjustments, or even discover that your software
doesn™t offer them.

Many adjustments that scanning software offers are technical. We don™t have
room to fully do them justice here, but you probably don™t need them
anyway. We describe here a few of the important ones you may find:

Brightness: Brightness makes all areas darker or lighter to the same
degree.
Contrast: The Contrast adjustment makes dark areas darker and light
areas lighter.
Exposure: Increasing the Exposure setting makes dark pixels dispropor-
tionately darker and brings out detail in the light areas.
Shadow/Midtone/Highlight: The Shadow and Highlight values are also
called the black and white points, respectively. Sometimes they™re
unnamed and appear as sliding arrows under a histogram chart. These
three settings are something like Contrast and Exposure, but more pre-
cise, which make an image™s dark areas darker and its light areas lighter.
The settings also bring out detail in the middle ranges of darkness and
adjust a too-dark or too-light image to a more pleasing appearance. Each
setting ranges from 0 to 255 (the numeric values correspond to bright-
ness: 0 is black and 255 is white). The choices are shown in this list:
• Shadow: To make the darker areas as dark as possible, adjust the
Shadow value upward. All pixels below that value become as dark
as you can make them without radically changing any colors.
• Highlight: To make light areas as light as possible, adjust the
Highlight value downward. All pixels above that value become as
light as possible without radically changing their colors.
• Midtone: If the rest of the image is, overall, kind of dark, adjust the
Midtone value downward; if the image is light, set the value higher.




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Descreen: Some software has special descreen capabilities, which
means that they can minimize the moir© patterns that arise when you
scan printed images. Generally, the software offers several settings that
depend on whether you™re scanning from a newspaper, magazine, or
higher-quality printed source, like a book. (You probably have to scan
to see the result of descreening ” it™s unlikely that you can see it in the
preview.)
Unsharp Mask: Try this feature (it often lurks in an area named Filter or
something similar) if your photo doesn™t look quite as sharp as it should.
Without making the image sharper, this feature gives the illusion of sharp-
ness. It raises the contrast around edges (where the pixel values change).
Unsharp masking usually has four settings:
• Strength: Adjusts the degree of contrast enhancement (sharpness).
• Radius: Determines how far from an edge the effect extends.
• Clipping: Sets a limit, below which an edge isn™t enhanced. A set-
ting that™s too low may make the image speckly.
• Luminance Only: Sometimes, unsharp masking may mix up the
colors and produce strange new hues that have no place in your
image. If that™s the case, set the Unsharp Mask to Luminance Only,
which means that it changes only the black-and-white bits and
leaves the colors alone. Although this option sounds horrible,
often it produces a much clearer picture.
(The numbers used in these settings have no intuitive meaning, so don™t
look for one. Just adjust them up or down.)

If you forget to use Unsharp Mask while scanning, you can use the Paint Shop
Pro Unsharp Mask effect after scanning. Choose Adjust➪Sharpness➪Unsharp
Mask and the Unsharp Mask dialog box appears. Make the same adjustments
listed in the last bullet in the preceding list. Figure 5-4 shows you the Unsharp
Mask effect, as shown on a picture of one of the authors as a young Gene
Simmons.

Many scanner programs offer check boxes to turn on automatic features
(typically auto contrast and auto color correction). These features attempt
to adjust various settings for you, based on the preview scan. Sometimes
they work well and sometimes they don™t. Try enabling and disabling their
check boxes to see the result in the Preview area.

You can find an excellent, detailed guide to using the features of scanning
software ” in fact, to using your scanner in general ” on the Web at www.
scantips.com.




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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen


Figure 5-4:
KISS and
makeup ”
unsharp
masking
refers to the
effect
illustrated
by this
before-and-
after pair of
images.

Before After




Forever plaid: Scanning printed images
When you scan a printed image from a newspaper, magazine, or book, your
image often acquires a blurry checkered plaid or barred pattern. This pat-
tern, called a moir© (“mwah-RAY”) pattern, is caused by conflict between the
dots used to print your image and the dots that happen during scanning.

The next time you put your window screens up or down, you can see this
same effect if you look through two screens at the same time. Or, if you have
a screen porch, stand outside and look through the two screens where they
meet at a corner.




Dots not nice!
Why do scans of printed images get moir© pat- spacing (your chosen resolution in dots per
terns? Unlike photographic prints and painted inch). The samples don™t align exactly on the
or drawn artwork, printed images are made up printed dots, except every 10 or 20 pixels, for
of ink dots of varying sizes at a certain spacing. example; the rest of the time, they align partly
This effect wouldn™t be a problem, except that on the dots and partly on the white background.
your scanner also uses dots ” and they™re of a The usual result is a checkered or barred pat-
different size and spacing. terning on the image. Something similar can
happen when Paint Shop Pro displays the
Your scanner reads the image by sampling it
image on your PC screen, which also uses dots.
(looking at tiny spots on the image) at some




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The moir© pattern may exist only on your PC screen in Paint Shop Pro and
not in your image file, as Figure 5-5 illustrates. In this figure, the zoom of 1:3
(noted on the title bar) is responsible. Try viewing the image at full scale
(press Ctrl+Alt+N) or larger. If the pattern disappears, the pattern is just the
effect of using a zoom of less than 1:1. Don™t worry about it. When the image
is printed at a high printer resolution or used on the Web at full size, that pat-
tern probably doesn™t appear. If the pattern is still visible at a 1:1 zoom, it™s
permanent and you need to do something about it.




Figure 5-5:
A moir©
pattern
appears on
this roof, but
isn™t an
image flaw.



Permanent moir© pattern problems? Try these solutions:

Higher resolution: The pattern may fade if you set the resolution of
your scanner™s software (the dots-per-inch value) higher.
Descreening: If your scanner software provides descreening, use this
option. See the section “Setting contrast and other adjustments,” earlier
in this chapter, for more information.
Special filter: Choose Adjust➪Add/Remove Noise➪Moir© Pattern
Removal (see Chapter 6).

Printed images pose more problems than just moir© patterns. Although the
images appear to have a wide variety of tones, printed images are composed
of alternating dots of primary colors (black-and-white photos have only two
colors, for example). When these images are scanned (particularly at high
resolution), they retain that spotty, dotty character. Zoom in to see them.

As a result, Paint Shop Pro features that use color selection and replacement
don™t work as your eye would lead you to expect. An area that looks uni-
formly green, for example, may be made up of blue and yellow dots. You can™t
select that green area of your scanned-in logo, for example, because it™s not
really green! This problem gets worse at higher resolutions.



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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen

To partially solve this problem, you can apply the Paint Shop Pro blur adjust-
ment (see Chapter 8) to make the dots blur together. If you have problems
selecting a colored area with the Magic Wand tool (refer to Chapter 3), try
increasing the Tolerance setting in the Tool Options dialog box.



Straightening crooked scans
Lining up your photos neatly across the bottom of most scanners is a pain ”
and even then you normally don™t get it quite right, which leads to a tilted pic-
ture of your sweet snookielumps. Fortunately, Paint Shop Pro has a useful
tool that straightens your pictures for you.

Here™s how to get your pictures to straighten up and fly right:

1. Select the Straighten tool from the deformation tool group, as shown
in Figure 5-6.




Figure 5-6:
The
Straighten
tool, hidden
among the
deformation
tool group.



2. Find a horizontal line in your crooked picture that should be level,
but isn™t.
In Figure 5-7, which we show you momentarily, that line is the top edge
of the photo. In other images that don™t have easily accessible photo
edges to work with, try looking for flat horizons (oceans disappearing
against the sky are usually a good bet), pictures, benches, kitchen coun-
ters, or windows.




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Figure 5-7:
The
Straighten
line, and a
truly twisted
image.



This tilted straight line is your way of telling the Straighten tool, “If you
rotate the image until this line is perfectly level, the image will be fixed.”
So choose it carefully!
If your image has no horizontal lines that you can use but it does have
vertical ones, you can use the Straighten tool on a vertical line as well.
Paint Shop Pro notices that your baseline is vertical, not horizontal, and
instead rotates your image so that the baseline is perfectly north-to-
south.
3. Position the Straighten line so that it™s next to your baseline.
A straightening line, complete with a handle on each end, appears
in your picture. Move your mouse over it until the cursor becomes
a four-headed arrow with a line over it, as shown in Figure 5-7.
Click and drag the Straighten line to the tilted line you have chosen to
use as a baseline.
4. Click and drag the handles on each end of the Straighten Line until
both of them are on the tilted line you have chosen.
When you™re finished, the Straighten tool should be lying along the edge
of your baseline.
If you want to have your image automatically cropped to snip out the
blank spaces around the edge of the picture after it has been straight-
ened, check the Crop Image box on the Tool Options palette (press F4 if
you don™t see the palette).




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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen

Double-click your image to straighten it (and crop it, if you have
chosen to).
5. Make sure that it™s straight!
For the picture shown in Figure 5-7, we chose to use the top edge of the
photo as a baseline for straightening . . . and we were wrong. As you can
see in Figure 5-8, we have adjusted the image so that the photo is level,
but the photo itself was taken at an angle (as though it weren™t embar-
rassing enough)! On the right side of the figure, William is on the level ”
a feat he would not manage to duplicate until years later.
Press Ctrl+Z to undo any changes. Note that when we went back and
straightened the image again using the top line of the television set as
a baseline, it came out much better.




Figure 5-8:
The image
on the left
has been
adjusted so
that the
photo is
straight, but
the photo
itself is
crooked.




Capturing Images from Your PC Screen
There it is, onscreen: the exact image you need. But it™s in some other pro-
gram, not Paint Shop Pro. You figure that there must be some way to get it
into Paint Shop Pro ” after all, it™s already in your computer.

You™re right. Paint Shop Pro has several different ways to capture that image.

When an image appears in a window on your PC, it comes with all kinds of
other stuff that is part of the program displaying the image: toolbars, status
bars, a title bar, and a sushi bar, for example. Maybe you want that stuff, and
maybe you don™t. Paint Shop Pro helps you capture only the part of the




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window you really want: It™s most likely an image, but if (like us) you™re illus-
trating software, you may want to see just a toolbar from the program
window or where a mouse cursor is pointing. For all these captures, use the
Paint Shop Pro capture features, on the Capture menu.



Preparing to capture
To set your snare, follow these steps:

1. Choose File➪Import➪Screen Capture➪Setup from the menu bar.
The Capture Setup dialog box, as shown in Figure 5-9, comes to your aid.




Figure 5-9:
Setting your
snare for
elusive
Windows
wildlife.



From left to right in the figure, you can see that you have three kinds of
choices: what you want to capture, how you want to trigger (activate)
the snare, and a couple of options (Include Cursor or Multiple Captures).
2. Choose what to capture.
Paint Shop Pro can capture five different species of Windows wildebeest.
In the Capture Setup dialog box, choose one of the possibilities listed in
Column 1 of Table 5-1.


Table 5-1 Using Different Types of Capture
Type of Capture What It Does
Area Captures a rectangular area that you define anywhere
onscreen.
Full screen Captures the whole nine yards, the entire enchilada, the
full Monty ” everything onscreen.




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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen


Type of Capture What It Does
Client area Captures everything in a window except the title bar.
Window Captures the application window you specify (don™t use
for a document window; use Object for that).
Object Captures an application window, a document window, or
any individual feature in a window, like a toolbar ” a
useful catchall category that works for toolbars, menu
bars, scroll bars, palettes, and sometimes portions of
those objects.


3. Choose your trigger.
You must choose a trigger, which is an action (such as pressing a particu-
lar key) that you take, after setup finishes, to tell Paint Shop Pro to start
capturing images. Without a trigger, the capture would start immedi-
ately. All you would ever capture is Paint Shop Pro itself! In the Capture
Setup dialog box (refer to Figure 5-9), you can see that you have three
choices for triggering the capture. Select one of these options:
• Right mouse click: A right mouse click begins the capture.
• Hot key: From the Hot Key selection box, choose a key to serve as
a trigger. You can choose any of the function keys, F1 through F12,
alone or in combination with Shift, Alt, or Ctrl. F10 is initially
chosen for you.
• Delay timer: Select this option and then enter a delay time (in sec-
onds) in the Delay Timer box.
4. Choose options.
Paint Shop Pro gives you two options:
• Capture multiple images: If you plan to capture a series of
onscreen images, select the Multiple Captures check box in the
Capture Setup dialog box (refer to Figure 5-9). You then can simply
snap a series of images without returning to Paint Shop Pro each
time. If you™re creating a tutorial for using some software, for exam-
ple, you can set up Paint Shop Pro and then easily capture a screen
for each step.
• Include mouse cursor in capture: You may want to show the
mouse cursor in your screen captures to point out some feature. If
so, select the Include Cursor check box in the Capture Setup dialog
box (refer to Figure 5-9).




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Using the Include Cursor option may not work if you™re only capturing an
object. You need to use your cursor to select the object and place the cursor
somewhere other than where you want it in the picture. If you™re capturing a
client area or window, you have to be sure that your cursor is within the cap-
tured area.



Making the capture
After you™re set up to capture from the PC screen in Paint Shop Pro, you™re
ready to make the capture. To capture an image, follow these steps:

1. Click the Capture Now button in the Capture Setup dialog box.
The Capture Now command starts the capture process. (Or, you can
press Shift+C.) Paint Shop Pro discreetly shrinks to a button on the
taskbar to get out of your way.
2. Make any last-minute changes to the thing you want to capture.
You have a final opportunity to adjust the appearance of the screen area
that contains the image ” before you trigger the capture. If you have
chosen the option of capturing the mouse cursor, position the cursor now.
3. Trigger the capture (or wait for the timer to trigger it).
Depending on the kind of trigger you chose (refer to Step 3 in the pre-
ceding section), either right-click with your mouse, press the hot key
(F10, for example), or wait for the time interval to elapse.
If you™re capturing a full screen, Paint Shop Pro restores itself to full
window size now. You™re done and can skip the following steps.
Otherwise, Paint Shop Pro waits for you to choose your capture area.
4. Choose the capture area (unless you™re capturing the full screen).
How you choose the capture area depends on what kind of capture you
have chosen, as shown in Table 5-2.
After you choose the capture area, the capture occurs instantly. Paint
Shop Pro immediately restores itself to its original window size (unless
you have chosen the multiple capture option) and displays the capture
as a new image.
5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 if you have chosen the multiple capture option.
Paint Shop Pro acquires each capture as a separate image. You don™t see
them because Paint Shop Pro remains minimized as a button on the
taskbar. To restore Paint Shop Pro, click its button on the Windows
taskbar.




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Chapter 5: Capturing Pictures from Paper, Camera, or Screen


Table 5-2 Pointing Out Your Quarry to Paint Shop Pro
Type of Capture What to Do after Triggering the Capture
Area Left-click once where you want one corner of the area.
Then, with your mouse button released (don™t drag), move
your cursor diagonally to where you want the opposite
corner and click again.
Full screen Do nothing, except for switching back to Paint Shop Pro if
you want to edit your images.
Client area Left-click the window you want.
Window Left-click the window you want.
Object A black rectangle encloses whatever object is directly
under the mouse cursor. You don™t have to keep that
object. Move your cursor around and, when the black
rectangle encloses the object you want, left-click.


For better and easier captures, read and heed these tips:

Set up your screen the way you want it to look before you enable the
trigger (before you press the Capture Now button or press Shift+P). If
you try to make adjustments after you set the trigger, you may acciden-
tally trigger the capture.
To enhance colors ” for those captured colors that come out fairly
accurate, but faded, murky, or otherwise less than satisfactory ” see
Chapter 7.
If you™re capturing an image from your Web browser, use the browser™s
Save As or Copy command rather than the Paint Shop Pro screen cap-
ture. To save an image as a file in Internet Explorer, for example, right-
click the image and choose Save Picture As.




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TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 6
Fixing Broken Pictures: Removing
Scratches, Blurry Parts,
and Red Eye
In This Chapter
Removing scratches
Removing red eye
Color-correcting photos
Sharpening blurs
Fixing grainy shots
Correcting moir©
Cleaning up JPEG artifacts




C ommon wisdom states that beauty is in the eye of the beholder, but
common wisdom is wrong. Beauty is in the lens of your camera ”
because when you have broken photos, nobody looks good. Your cousin
Freddy may be a heartthrob, but if your photos of him are scratched and his
eyes are glowing a dim red, who can tell the difference between Freddy-your-
cousin and Freddy-the-stalker from Nightmare on Elm Street?

Fortunately, Paint Shop Pro has many tools to fix common photo mistakes.
The problems that Paint Shop Pro is good at fixing are shown in this list:

Scratch removal
Red-eye removal
Tinted photos
Blurry areas
Grainy photos
Moir© patterns
JPEG artifacts
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100 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

Note that this chapter is dedicated to fixing broken photographs ” pictures
where something is obviously very wrong. If you have an otherwise-
unremarkable image and you want to make it look better, that™s easily done.
But, you have to find out how in Chapters 7 and 8.

If your image has a color depth of fewer than 16.7 million colors, Paint Shop
Pro needs to increase the number of colors in your image before you can use
any of these tools and adjustments; if you™re tired of it always asking you
whether it™s okay to increase the colors, see Chapter 16.




Removing Scratches
Photographic scratches usually fall into one of two categories:

Individual scratches that arise from creased photos or scratches on the
negative
Masses of tiny scratches that arise from a photo being stored in a drawer
for a long time, where it has been rattling around with dusty pencil shav-
ings and spare screws.

Fortunately, Paint Shop Pro is adept at handling either type of scratch. (Then
again, if it weren™t, we probably wouldn™t be writing this section.)



Patching up single scratches
Having photos come back from the developer with a scratch is heartbreaking.
Usually, it means that a scratch is on the negative, so making a new print can™t
help. Equally traumatic is having a valued print creased, torn, or scratched
when you don™t have a negative and can™t replace the print. Thankfully, Paint
Shop Pro has an answer for all your folds, creases, and scratches. After you
scan the picture into Paint Shop Pro (refer to Chapter 5), here™s what to do:

1. Zoom in on your scratched area so that it fills the screen.
Select the magnifying-glass icon from the pan and zoom tool group and
zoom in; refer to Chapter 1 for details.
2. Click the Scratch Remover tool from the clone tool group, as shown in
Figure 6-1.
This tool is the trowel-looking icon shown in the margin.




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Chapter 6: Fixing Broken Pictures




Figure 6-1:
The Scratch
Remover
tool, and
where to
find it.



3. Position your mouse cursor at one end of the scratch and drag along
the scratch.
As you drag, a frame area stretches to follow your mouse cursor and
extends across the width of the scratch, as shown in Figure 6-2.




Figure 6-2:
Having a
dog requires
familiarity
with
scratching.
Here, Alex
looks
pleased as
we remove
a scratch.



4. Release your mouse button at the end of the scratch.
If you™re following a curved or irregular scratch, release your mouse
button at the point where the curve can no longer fit within the frame.
(Later, you can go back and remove remaining segments of the scratch.)
When you release the mouse button, the Scratch Remover tool picks up
paint from either side of the scratch and pushes it into the scratch. If
you had to stop short of the end of the scratch, drag a second time to
cover the remaining portion.
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That™s it! You now have a slightly fuzzy band where the scratch was, but it™s
probably much better than a scratch.

If the scratch wasn™t completely filled in, you may need to repeat your action
for another segment of scratch or adjust some tool options and try again. For
irregular scratches, remove the scratch in sections. To adjust options, first
undo any failed attempt (press Ctrl+Z). Next, open the Tool Options palette
(press F4 to toggle the window on or off). Follow one of these methods:

If the scratch didn™t fill in because the scratch was wider than the tool™s
frame: A value box on the Tool Options palette allows you to adjust the
Scratch Remover™s width in pixels. Increase the value in that box and
again try to remove the scratch. With tool settings larger than 20, the
frame exhibits an inner and outer zone as you drag. As you drag, make
sure that the scratch fits in the inner zone and that the outer zone is com-
pletely filled with the bordering colors you want to use for filling in.
If you end up with an unacceptably wide, fuzzy band where the scratch
was: The tool™s width was set too high. Lower the width value on the Tool
Options palette.
If the end points of the scratch didn™t properly fill in: An outline option
gives you an alternative shape to drag; one that has pointed ends rather
than square ones. That shape is good for clicking in tight spaces or cor-
ners. Click that alternative shape button and then try scratch removal
again.

If the scratch runs along an edge in the image, use the smallest width possible
to avoid blurring that edge. For example, in Figure 6-2, the scratch grazes
Dave™s shoulder, where his shirt ends and the trees begin. The scratch remover
blurs that edge. Rather than remove the entire irregular scratch in one broad
attempt, he may do better to remove that shoulder-grazing portion of the
scratch separately, with the width value set very low. If all else fails, use the
Clone Brush tool, as shown in Chapter 8.



Smoothing masses of scratches
Some photos or their negatives can get pretty seriously abused, picking up
tiny scratches, pits, or other imperfections while being handled, while living
in suitcases or sandy beach bags, or while being badly processed. Hey, who
wouldn™t get a little abraded under those circumstances?

Choose Adjust➪Add/Remove Noise➪Automatic Small Scratch Removal to
display the Automatic Small Scratch Removal dialog box. You can see its
effects on your screen, as shown in Figure 6-3.




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Chapter 6: Fixing Broken Pictures




Figure 6-3:
Automatic
Scratch
Removal
helps this
neglected
photo look
less rough.


Scratchy image Post-Automatic Scratch Removal


If only a part of your picture is scratched, you can use the selection tool
group to restrict the Scratch Removal tool to a limited area. For further selec-
tion details, see Chapter 3.

First, determine whether your scratches are light or dark or both. Next,
select Remove Light Scratches, Remove Dark Scratches, or both. If the pre-
view image on the right side isn™t already adequately cleaned up, change the
Strength setting from Normal to Aggressive. If the effect is removing things
that aren™t scratches or making your photo too fuzzy, try changing Strength
to Mild. (A necessary side effect of cleaning up scratches with this effect is a
bit of added fuzziness, so you can™t be too picky.) If the effect is removing too
many tiny features, try adjusting the Local Contrast Limits option. To restore
low-contrast features, drag the pointer at the left end of the line to the right.
To restore high-contrast features, drag the pointer at the right end of the line
to the left.

If the result is still too fuzzy, check out the section “Removing Noise from
Grainy Shots,” later in this chapter, for alternative methods, like the Salt-and-
Pepper filter.




The Red-Eye Remover
In our youth, we longed for something to remove the telltale morning red eye
that bespoke a long, hard night out. Regrettably, Paint Shop Pro doesn™t
remove that kind of red eye, where the blood vessels in the whites of your
eyes throb reproachingly.

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The Paint Shop Pro red-eye remover does, however, fix the evil red glow that
sometimes appears in photographs and emanates from the pupils of the eye
as the result of a camera™s flash. In animals, that glow may not be red, but,
rather, yellow or other colors.

The red-eye remover in Paint Shop Pro is a red-eye replacer. Rather than
attempt to restore the original pupil of the eye, Paint Shop Pro says “The
heck with it!” and paints a whole new pupil, complete with the glint of the
flash bulb. In fact, the red eye remover can even construct a new iris (the
colored portion of your eye) if the camera™s flash has obliterated it!



Reconstructing the pupil
Usually, red eye affects only the pupil. If it has affected the iris in your photo,
see the section “Replacing pupil and iris,” later in this chapter. Here™s how to
get rid of red eye if the flash hasn™t affected the iris area:

1. Choose Adjust➪Photo Fix➪Red Eye Removal.
The amazingly complex-looking Red Eye Removal dialog box appears.
Figure 6-4 gives you the picture.
2. Zoom in close on one of the red eyes, in the preview windows.
To zoom in, click the button displaying a magnifying glass with a + sign,
underneath the left window. Repeat until the eye practically fills the
windows.
To move the photo around behind the window, drag in the right (not left)
window. Your cursor displays a hand icon when it™s over the right window.




Figure 6-4:
If this figure
were in
color, the
left eye™s
pupil would
be a scary
red. Color
Plate C-1b
in the color
insert of this
book shows
the actual
color.


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Chapter 6: Fixing Broken Pictures

If you mistakenly drag or click in the left window, click the Delete Eye
button to remove the replacement iris you have accidentally created.
3. Choose Auto Human Eye (if you™re working on a human) from the
Method selection box.
If you™re working on an animal, choose Auto Animal Eye.
4. Set Iris Size to zero.
Or, if you have changed your mind and decided that the red really does
afflict the iris, see the section “Replacing pupil and iris,” later in this
chapter.
5. Click once on the dead center of the (red) pupil of the eye in the left
window.
A circle appears, with a dot in the center and a square frame surround-
ing the circle. The circle has handles on it (tiny squares you can drag).
Figure 6-4 shows this tool.
You want the circle to just cover the red pupil and be centered over it.
6. Adjust the circle™s position or size if the circle doesn™t cover the red
pupil.
You can drag the circle by the dot in its center. To resize the circle, drag
one of the handles on the box surrounding the circle.
7. Looking at the right window, adjust the Refine control left and right
until the red is just covered by a dark spot (the new pupil).
The Refine control determines to what extent the new pupil covers the
red. When you™re done, little or no red should be showing. For precise
control of Refine, click the slider and press the left- and right-arrow keys
on your keyboard to decrement or increment the slider. The new pupil
should be no larger than the original and shouldn™t cover the eyelid. If
you can™t achieve a result you like, return to Step 5 and resize the circle.
8. Adjust the Pupil Lightness value box to set the lightness of your new
pupil to your liking.
Decrease the value for a darker pupil. For a normal appearance, the
pupil should be darker than the iris.
9. Check the new, white glint in the right window against the original in
the left window.
If the new glint isn™t roughly the same size as the original, adjust the
Glint Size control up or down until they match. Feel free, however, to
make the new glint any size you like, including removing it altogether
by setting the glint size to zero. If you prefer the glint in the center of
the eye, click to enable the Center Glint check box. Otherwise, the glint
tracks the original one. Adjust the Glint Lightness control up or down
to match the brightness of the original glint. If the new glint has a notice-
ably sharper edge than the old, adjust the Blur control upward.

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10. Increase the Feather control to get a softer edge or to mute any
remaining red spots around the edge.
Alternatively, if the original photo is a bit blurry, try adjusting the Blur
control upward instead. Fool around with these two controls until the
edges look properly blended into the rest of the eye.
11. Click the Proof button (with the unlocked eye icon) to check your
results in the main image window.
(Drag the Red Eye Removal dialog box out of the way, if necessary; don™t
close it yet.)
Return to any earlier steps that seem necessary to adjust size, darkness,
coverage, glint, and so on.
If you decide that you need to give up and start again, click the Delete
Eye button. If you want to return all the settings to their original posi-
tions, click the Reset button in the upper-right corner.
If you can™t get acceptable coverage of the pupil, click the Cancel button
and see the following section.
12. Click OK.

When you™re done with one eye, repeat those steps for the other eye. When
you proof your work in Step 10, make sure that the eyes match!



Outlining problem pupils
As you undoubtedly remember from school, some pupils are troublemakers.
They don™t cooperate if you try to doctor their red eye. In that case, change
from using automatic red-eye removal to manual outlining.

Open the Red Eye Removal dialog box and zoom in as directed in Steps 1 and
2 in the preceding section. Rather than choose Auto Human (or Auto Animal)
Eye in Step 3, which tells Paint Shop Pro to automatically outline the red area,
choose one of these two manual outlining options:

Freehand Pupil Outline: Choose this option if you prefer to drag a con-
tinuous line around the red area to outline it. (This technique requires
a steady hand, but can give a more rounded outline.) When you release
the mouse button, Paint Shop Pro connects the line™s end with its
beginning.
Point-to-Point Pupil Outline: Choose this option if you prefer to click a
series of points around the red area. Paint Shop Pro draws a straight line
between the points. When you™re ready to complete the circle, don™t
click the starting point again. Instead, double-click somewhere short
of that point. Paint Shop Pro completes the circle for you.


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Chapter 6: Fixing Broken Pictures

Drag or click an outline, according to your choice of options. After you out-
line the pupil, resume with Step 7 in the steps in the preceding section to
refine the red-eye correction.



Replacing pupil and iris
If the flash has affected the colored iris of the eye, first follow Steps 1 through
4 in the steps in the section “Reconstructing the pupil,” earlier in this chap-
ter. (In those steps, you open the Red Eye Removal dialog box, zoom in on an
eye, and click in its center.)

Then, after Step 3, follow these steps:

1. Enlarge the circle in the left window to cover an area equal to the iris
(not just the pupil) you need.
Drag any corner handle of the square frame surrounding the circle to
enlarge the circle. Often, the circle needs to overlap the top eyelid and
possibly a bit of the bottom.
2. Adjust the value in the Iris Size value box up or down, a little at a
time, until the iris and pupil size either matches the other eye or
simply looks correct.
Click the tiny up arrow or down arrow adjoining the Iris Size value box
to change the value by one.
3. Click the Hue selection box and choose an iris color from the list.
Choose from Aqua, Blue, Brown, Grey, Green, or Violet.
4. Click the down arrow to the right of the Color sample box and choose
a precise shade of color from the gallery that appears.
5. Adjust the Refine control left or right to set the shape and extent of
the iris.
The optimal setting of the Refine control occurs when the iris doesn™t
significantly overlap an eyelid and is reasonably round elsewhere. A
black spot with a white glint should cover the pupil of the eye.

Resume with Step 8 in the earlier section “Reconstructing the pupil.” From
here, you adjust the darkness of the pupil, set any feathering or blurring you
need, and adjust the glint size, if necessary.




Color-Correcting Photos
Sometimes, you take a photo and the entire thing is tinted with a color that
wasn™t there when you took the picture. The white drapes look a milky green,
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the yellow sunflowers are a bright emerald, and your family now possesses
an alien skin tone that makes them look like they™re auditioning for The
X-Files.

Would you recognize the correct color of that skin if you saw it? If so, you
have an easy way to correct the color of your photo: the Paint Shop Pro
Manual Color Correction effect.

Note that the Manual Color Correction effect adjusts the color of the entire
image so that your selected object (skin or fur, for example) is then the cor-
rect color. It presumes that every object in your photograph was shot in the
same terrible light. If it gets your selected portion of the image correct, the
entire image is then correct.

As with any other Adjustment tool, you can select a part of the image and
then color-correct only that area. So, if you want to keep your family a sickly
green while making the sunflowers yellow again, you can. Refer to Chapter 3
for details.

Ready? Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Manual Color Correction to give this
targeted tool its instructions. The Manual Color Correction dialog box
appears, as shown in Figure 6-5. (Refer to the color section of this book to see
the difference in colors.)




Figure 6-5:
Correcting
the entire
photo so
that Katy™s
skin tone is
correct.



1. Click the Preset Colors radio button and choose a likely-sounding cat-
egory from the menu that matches some portion of your object, like
Skintones or Hair.

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Chapter 6: Fixing Broken Pictures

2. Click and drag in the left preview window to select a small swatch in
your image that matches the menu selection.
In this case, we have selected Skintones and have selected a tiny box of
skin on Katy™s cheek. We could also have selected Hair and selected her
bangs, if we had wanted.
Drag diagonally to define a rectangular area. For example, drag across
the forehead of your subject, to create a rectangle that surrounds a fairly
uniform skin color, if you intend to match the person™s skin tone to a
color. Choose an area that isn™t strongly affected by highlights or shad-
ows. Drag again if you want to change your selection.
If the area you want to define is irregular in shape, enable the Freehand
Selection check box. Then, drag (draw) the irregular shape you want to
use on the left window.
Use the zoom, drag, and locating features in the dialog box (see the sec-
tion in Chapter 7 about understanding the Paint Shop Pro dialog boxes)
to get to the right place in the left preview window, if necessary.
3. Click the down arrow to the right of the colored box next to the
Preset Target Color radio button.
A gallery of color appears.
4. Choose a color from the gallery that is what that swatch should look
like.
If you can™t find the color you want, click the Manual Target Color button
and then click in the Target box to choose a color from the Paint Shop
Pro Color dialog box. See Chapter 9 for the details of using this dialog
box.

Paint Shop Pro then alters the image in the right preview window, to match
the hue of your selected area to the hue of the color you chose in Step 4.

“But,” you may say, “the color doesn™t match exactly.” Don™t panic. Unless
you have previously fiddled with the check boxes in the Options section of
the Manual Color Correction dialog box, the color shouldn™t match exactly ”
yet. The Preserve Lightness and Preserve Saturation check boxes, which are
initially selected, cause your photo™s color to be corrected only to the hue (a
kind of fundamental color) of the color you have selected, and not to its satu-
ration or lightness. If you want to make the color match your chosen sample
exactly, you must clear both check boxes. However, you may find that you get
good results more easily by leaving both check boxes selected and choosing
different colors.



Bringing Your Photo into Focus
Paint Shop Pro offers three ways to clarify a blurry photo ” though none of
them is a complete fix for a bad shot. Remember that Paint Shop Pro can
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110 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

work with only the information you have given it, and although it can make
some educated guesses about what a picture should look like, there are limits
to its power. If your picture looks like a patch of white fog, all the sharpening
in the world won™t turn it back into the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

That said, Paint Shop Pro does a bang-up job of fixing photos that are slightly
out of focus. You can deblurrify a picture with two methods: sharpening and
edge enhancing.

How do sharpening and edge enhancing compare? The Enhance effect is
more dramatic, by focusing directly on even the tiniest edge, as shown in
Figure 6-6. The Sharpen adjustment makes a subtler (and usually more effec-
tive) change that influences a range of pixels around the edges of items in
your photo.



Figure 6-6:
The picture
on the
right is
sharpened;
the picture
on the left
is edge
enhanced.
The picture
in the middle
is William™s
godchild
Andy, and
you should
bow to his
cuteness.




Sharpening your snapshots
Sharpening is the first method you should try for fixing blurry photos, mainly
because it™s the most effective. To give it the old college try, choose Adjust➪
Sharpness and then choose one of these options from the menu that appears:

Sharpen: Does a little bit of metaphorical grinding and filing on the vari-
ous edges of your photo, by boosting the contrast at those edges. No
dialog box appears ” your image simply gets sharper.
Sharpen More: The same as Sharpen, but more so.


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Chapter 6: Fixing Broken Pictures

Unsharp Mask: Sharpens like its two siblings (Sharpen and Sharpen
More), but operates incognito, like the Lone Ranger. No, just kidding. It
wears not a mask, but rather an adjustment dialog box. To use this box™s
controls, refer to Chapter 5, where we discuss unsharp masking for set-
ting contrast and other adjustments in scanning software.

As with all these other photo fixers, you can apply them to a selected area.
Refer to Chapter 3 for details.



Edge enhancing
The Paint Shop Pro Enhance Edge effect is a close cousin to its sharpening
effect. Both find adjoining pixels that contrast in lightness (an edge) and then
make the contrast stronger by darkening or lightening those pixels. The pixels
gradually move toward fully saturated primary colors, plus white and black.

Choose Effects➪Edge Effects➪Enhance or its more powerful sibling, Enhance
More. Neither uses an adjustment box, but just immediately does its thing.




Removing Noise from Grainy Shots
Removing noise from an image sounds a bit illogical, like subtracting apples
from oranges or removing odor from a TV program. Okay, you can perhaps
imagine ways to do the latter, but apply that same imagination to how your
TV looks when you run a vacuum cleaner: The screen is covered with speck-
les. That™s graphical noise: pixels altered at random locations and in random
colors.

The trick with removing speckles is to avoid removing freckles or other
speckly stuff that™s supposed to be in the picture. (Unless, of course, you
want to get rid of the freckles!) For that reason, Paint Shop Pro offers several
choices, depending on what you need. Choose Adjust➪Add/Remove Noise
and then one of these menu selections:

Despeckle: Removes smaller, isolated speckles altogether and is good
for removing a light coating of dust. Speckles that are closer to each
other tend to form clumps, however.
Edge-Preserving Smooth: Gives an effect like rubbing carefully within
the shaded areas of a pastel drawing, using your finger. Speckles disap-
pear into a uniform shade, and you keep the sharp edges of those larger
areas. This effect is also good for removing the random discoloration of
pixels that often results from shooting digital photos in low light. In the
adjustment dialog box that appears, drag the Number of Steps slider to
the right to make a smoother image.

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The Edge-Preserving Smooth effect, turned up high, creates a nice oil-
painting-like effect on photos! See Color Plate C-11 in the color insert in
this book.
Median Filter: Removes speckles by removing fine detail, a kind of blur-
ring process in which each pixel is recalculated to be the average of its
neighbors. Contrast is lost at the detail level. An adjustment dialog box
appears in which you drag the Filter Aperture slider to the right to
remove increasingly large details.
Salt-and-Pepper Filter: Removes speckles of a particular size (or up to a
particular size) you choose. A Salt-and-Pepper Filter adjustment dialog
box appears, with these adjustments:
Speck Size: Adjust this value to match or slightly exceed the size
of the speckles you™re trying to get rid of. (You may have to zoom
in close to figure out how big your speckles are.)
Sensitivity to Specks: If the right preview window shows clusters
of specks remaining, increase this value. Too high a value blurs
your photo.
Include All Lower Speck Sizes: Enable this check box to remove
specks of Speck Size and smaller. Otherwise, you just remove
specks close to Speck Size.
Aggressive Action: Enable this check box to remove specks
more completely. Otherwise, you may simply reduce the specks™
intensity.
Texture-Preserving Smooth: Sounds like a sophisticated grade of
peanut butter, but in reality blurs and reduces the contrast of tiny
specks while preserving the larger variations that give texture to grass,
wood, water, and the like. The result is sort of like a crunchy peanut
butter without small, gritty chunks. An adjustment dialog box appears in
which you adjust the Amount of Correction value upward to minimize
specks.

You can always select an area by using the Paint Shop Pro selection tools, to
add or remove noise from only that specific area (refer to Chapter 3).




Don™t Want No Moir©
Scanned-in photos from print media (books, magazines, newsletters, and PC-
printed images, for example) often have moir© patterns. (Refer to Chapter 5
for more information about moir© and ways to avoid it in the first place.)

You can fix moir© patterns by choosing Adjust➪Add/Remove Noise➪Moir©
Pattern Removal. The rather simple Moire Pattern Removal dialog box
arrives, to do your bidding.
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Chapter 6: Fixing Broken Pictures

The Moire Pattern Removal dialog box offers two controls: Fine Details and
Remove Bands. Adjusting Fine Details upward (sliding it to the right) blurs
your image and removes fine, grainy moir© patterning. Adjusting Remove
Bands upward counters the distracting bands that often are part of moir©
patterning.




Unearthing JPEG Artifacts
When photos are stored in JPEG format, as they often are, the result is nice,
small files. But JPEGs that have been heavily compressed to save space often
exhibit strange patterns and checkerboard patterns around text and other
objects with sharp edges. Figure 6-7 shows those patterns, also called artifacts.



Figure 6-7:
This dog
grew a few
artifacts
when it was
stored as a
JPEG
image. The
JPEG
Artifact
Removal
effect
uproots
them.



Compressing JPEG files is normally something you should do ” done cor-
rectly, it squeezes the file size down to as much as 10 percent of its original
size without noticeable image degradation. To find out how to compress a
JPEG file effectively, see Chapter 15.

To clean up JPEG images, choose Adjust➪Add/Remove Noise➪JPEG Artifact
Removal. The JPEG Artifact Removal expert appears on your doorstep, in the
form of the dialog box shown in the figure.

After checking your image by either looking in the right preview window or
proofing your choice, choose the strength (Low, Normal, High, or Maximum)
needed to clean up your artifacts. Another casualty in JPEG files is a certain
amount of detail, which you can restore by increasing the value in the
Crispness value box.

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TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 7
Adjusting Your Picture™s
Brightness, Contrast, and Color
In This Chapter
Improving your photos with a single click
Comprehending the complex Paint Shop Pro dialog boxes
Spot-correcting lighting problems
Adjusting overall lighting issues
Bringing your picture™s colors to life
Fun with colors




W hen William does his own laundry ” which, thankfully, isn™t often ”
the colors in his clothing all run together. Pure white socks become a
dull gray, bright red shirts lighten to a washed-out pink, and we don™t discuss
what happens to his underwear.

But, if you hadn™t seen the way William™s shirts looked originally, you may
not realize that anything was wrong. You may think that his shirt was supposed
to be an ugly pink and that he had chosen to wear gray socks. Eventually,
William™s wife, Gini, would sigh and do his laundry for him, at which point you
would be amazed at how much better William looks when someone compe-
tent cleans him up.

Photos are much like William in that their colors are usually a little off by
default. Although some photos are obviously miscolored, like being too
bright or too murky, almost all pictures benefit visibly from a good color
adjustment. With very little effort, you can make the colors in your picture
“pop” and turn an ordinary photo into a portrait-quality image.

The secrets to brightening your family™s dirty laundry lie within Paint Shop
Pro. Be warned that not all remedies are intuitive. The remedy for what you
may call a brightness problem, for example, may turn out to be something
called lightness, or both lightness and contrast.



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116 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

Some photographs are tinted a specific hue, where everything is a shade of
sea blue. If that™s the case, we consider the photo to be almost unusable,
which is why we show you how to fix that image in Chapter 6, in the section
about color-correcting photos, which deals with fixing broken photos. After
you have chased the blues away, come on back to see how to improve it even
further.




The One Step Photo Fix
If you™re in a hurry and don™t want to read the rest of this chapter, here™s some
good news: You don™t have to! Paint Shop Pro has a one-click solution that
solves many common color problems, and it™s called the One Step Photo Fix.

On the Photo toolbar, at the top, you should see a drop-down menu that says
Enhance Photo; select it and choose One Step Photo Fix. (If for some reason
you don™t see it, choose View➪Toolbars➪Photo.) Paint Shop Pro then adjusts
your picture™s color, sharpens the image, fixes the contrast and clarifies it,
does an Edge-Preserving Smooth for good measure, and then tops off your
gas tank. (Okay, we™re just kidding about that last one.)

Be warned, however, that the One Step Photo Fix isn™t a universal solution.
For one thing, it doesn™t fix photographs that have obvious flaws, like red eye
and scratches. (To fix those problems, refer to Chapter 6.) Also, sometimes
pictures have specific problem areas, like underexposed shadowy places
underneath a tree or a single wall that™s too bright. To spot-fix problems like
that, you need to use the Backlighting and Fill Flash tools, as shown later in
this chapter.

Lastly, much like baking store-bought chocolate chip cookie dough, the One
Step Photo Fix isn™t quite as good as doing it by hand ” it tends to err on the
light side, which creates slightly washed-out photos. But, if you™re pressed for
time, it can be a lifesaver.

If you don™t like the results of the Photo Fix, read on! Sometimes, you just
have to roll up your sleeves and get a little dirty to create the vibrant picture
that your friends deserve to see.




Understanding the Paint
Shop Pro Dialog Boxes
All the dialog boxes for color adjustments have similar controls, and some-
times they can be confusing. So, it can™t hurt to walk you through it first. The

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Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color

Brightness/Contrast dialog box, as shown in Figure 7-1, provides an example.
Note that the slider shown in the figure appears only when you click and hold
down the mouse button on the larger down arrow at the far right end of a
value box.


Click and drag here
Zoom in or out. to move about the image.




Figure 7-1:
Making
William
brighter. The
Brightness/
Contrast
Randomize image.
dialog box
Proof image in main screen.
shows
Always proof image
controls in main screen
typical of all
adjustments.


Value box Slider



Making color adjustments
You have several ways to adjust settings in the dialog boxes:

In adjusting value boxes, you may type a value, click the associated up
and down arrows, click in the value box, and press the up- and down-
arrow keys on the keyboard or click and hold the larger down arrow to
the right of the box and drag the slider that appears.
Some adjustments appear as sliders: Drag sliders to the left or right or
up or down. Dragging varies an associated value (number) that appears
in a text box to the right of each slider. Dragging left or down reduces
that value, and dragging right or up increases it. Alternatively, click a
slider and then press the up- and down-arrow keys on the keyboard to
increase or decrease its value by one.
To give precise values, double-click in the box where the value appears
and type a new value.




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To take a chance and see what happens, click the Randomize Parameters
button. Your new settings are chosen at random.
To reset adjustments to their original (default) levels, click the Reset to
Default button (refer to Figure 7-1).

After you make an adjustment, click OK to apply it to your image. Before you
apply it, however, use the proofing or previewing tools that we describe in
the following section.

Changes are rarely final in Paint Shop Pro because you can undo them by
pressing Ctrl+Z or clicking the History palette (see Chapter 18).



Proofing or previewing your adjustments
All the color adjustment dialog boxes let you see the effect of your adjust-
ments in the main image window, a feature called proofing. The change isn™t
permanent until you click the OK button. If you cancel out of the dialog box,
the change doesn™t occur. You have two ways to proof:

Click the Proof button, the one with the eye icon, after every adjustment.
If you find yourself clicking the Proof button too often, try using Auto
Proof. Click the Auto Proof button, the creepy eyeball with a padlock,
as shown in Figure 7-1. Paint Shop Pro now shows the effect of your
changes in the main image window every time you make a change.
For large images, however, you may find this proofing method slow.

The dialog boxes for commands on the Adjust menu also have preview win-
dows that let you see the effect of your adjustments without the long wait
that proofing sometimes entails. Here™s how to preview your changes:

To zoom in or out within the preview windows, click the Zoom In button
(marked with a +) or Zoom Out button (with a “), as shown in Figure 7-1.
To move the image in the preview window so that you can see a new
area, drag the image in either window.
To quickly move to a new area of the image, click the Navigate button, as
shown in Figure 7-1, and keep the mouse button depressed. A small ver-
sion of the entire image is displayed, with a rectangle representing the
preview area. Drag the rectangle to the area you want to preview and
then release the mouse button.

Like most Paint Shop Pro effects, every color adjustment we cover in this
chapter can be applied to a specific area within an image, which allows you




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Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color

to lighten a darkened entryway or make Uncle Vania™s shirt color more vibrant.
Here are a few points to keep in mind about that phenomenon:

If you have made a selection, only the selected area is affected by your
adjustments. For a complete rundown on the selection process, check
out Chapter 3.
If you™re using multiple layers in your image, commands on the Adjust
menu affect only the selected layer.
If you™re using multiple layers in your image, consider using an adjust-
ment layer so that you can affect color across multiple layers.
If a feature doesn™t appear to be working, check to see whether you have
selected an area or have made a particular layer active. If you have, the
tool is working only within that selection, or layer, and not necessarily in
the area you™re trying to change. Read all about selections and layers in
Part III.




Correcting Trouble Spots
Quite often, the problem with a picture is that only part of it is wrong, particu-
larly in outside snapshots, when bright sunlight comes into play. A picture
taken entirely in sunshine isn™t a problem ” although when you have some
people sitting in the shade and others standing in the sunshine, digital cam-
eras have to choose between one of the two lighting styles.

Your camera may decide to optimize for the people standing in the sun ” in
which case the sun people look normal and the folks in the shade are lost in
shadow. Or, your camera may highlight the people in the shade, in which
case the folks standing in the sun look overly white and washed out.

If this happens, Paint Shop Pro has two tools to correct these common
errors: the Backlighting Filter and the Fill Flash Filter.

Despite the fact that the Fill Flash Filter and the Backlighting Filter do largely
opposite things, nothing is stopping you from using both of them on the same
image. That trick works better than you may think.



Shedding light on shadows
Technically speaking, when a picture has an area that™s too murky to see
because it didn™t get enough light, that phenomenon is called underexposure.
To correct the underexposed segments of your photo, choose Adjust➪Photo
Fix➪Fill Flash. The Fill Flash Filter dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 7-2.


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120 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs




Figure 7-2:
The interior
of William™s
garage is
too dark in
this picture,

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