<<

. 5
( 11)



>>

but Fill Flash
helps to
illuminate
things.



The Fill Flash filter attempts to re-create your image as though it had been
taken with a stronger flash bulb. Appropriately, it has one setting: Strength.
A larger strength setting means that the shadowy portions of your picture are
more visible, although it has a hidden cost: The rest of your image is bright-
ened, sometimes resulting in artificially bright colors outside the underex-
posed area.

You can select a specific area of your image ” in Figure 7-2, the garage inte-
rior would be a good bet ” and have the Fill Flash filter apply its artificial
flashbulb to only that portion of your picture. For details on how to select the
right parts, refer to Chapter 3.

Preview your image with the Proof button. If everything looks all right,
click OK.



Reducing glare and overexposure
Sometimes, a flash reflects off a white wall and pours too much light into
the room. When that happens, not only is everyone way paler than they need
to be, but you also have pools of glare (also known as ugly white smears)
everywhere.

To help you compensate for this lighting overload, Paint Shop Pro offers the
Backlighting Filter, as shown in Figure 7-3. The Backlighting Filter attempts to
even out the amount of light in the photo and usually darkens it.

Like the Fill Flash Filter, the Backlighting Filter has one setting: Strength. Higher
strength values reduce the glare and also make your image darker and more
shadowed. Experiment to find the value that works for you, and then click OK.



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Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color


Figure 7-3:
The room is
amazingly
white,
thanks to
the flash
bouncing off
William™s
thumb,
although the
Backlighting
Filter should
help the
image.



If someone™s skin has glare spots so white that they don™t even show up as
skin colored, the best the Backlighting Filter can do is make that skin an
unhealthy charcoal gray. In that case, you may want to use the Smudge Tool
or the Clone Brush to copy a healthy skin color into the glare spot. Chapter 8
shows you how.




Correcting Lighting Color
Despite automatic flashes, lighting is still one of the prime photographic prob-
lems. Your flash fails to go off, the room is lit by incandescent or fluorescent
light, the sunset casts an orange light, the forest reflects green, or the swim-
ming pool reflects blue. Many of these problems go away almost magically
with the Paint Shop Pro Automatic Color Balance effect.

Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Automatic Color Balance. The Automatic
Color Balance dialog box makes the scene (refer to Figure 7-1).

Adjust the slider left or right in the grandiosely named Illuminant Temperature
area, or edit the value in the Temperature text box. Dragging the slider left (to
a lower Temperature value) makes the color of your photo visually warmer,
or more orange. (Yes, lower temperature makes color warmer.) Dragging right
makes the color visually cooler, or bluer. Notice that the Temperature scale is
labeled with various light sources, such as Sunlight; position the slider at a
given label to simulate that light source.

Adjust the Strength value higher for greater effect ” generally, a brighter pic-
ture. Adjust it down for the opposite effect.


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122 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

You want to check the Remove Color Cast option whenever a picture is pre-
dominantly one color ” for example, when both your wife and the back
porch are tinged ever-so-slightly with green. Paint Shop Pro then analyzes
the image to try to find what the dominant color is and then attempts to
mute that color to bring out the other hues.

This feature works well for subtle color changes ” but, if your spouse is as
blue as a Smurf, you™re better off using the Manual Color Correction tool, as
described in Chapter 6, in the section about color-correcting photos.

The temperature thing is about the illumination term color temperature,
which refers to the temperature of an incandescent light source. A lower-
temperature light source generally gives a warmer (more orange) light. You
can see the effect in a fireplace or barbecue; as the fire dies down, it gives off
a more orange glow.




Bringing Your Picture™s Colors to Life
One problem in showing you how to improve your colors is that unless
you™re a professional photographer, most of the photos you enhance don™t
look that bad to start with. Most people don™t look at the images on their digi-
tal camera and mutter, “Wow, this picture could use more saturation and
increased coloration in the midtones.” But, after you have laundered your
image™s colors, you may be surprised at how much better your pictures look.

To help you understand the problem, the color section of this book has
before-and-after pictures taken of William™s wife, Gini. Go ahead and look.
Notice how the preenhanced picture of Gini isn™t notably awful ” you would
probably just shrug if someone showed it to you ” but the enhanced image
is much more vibrant and alive.

That™s how you want your photos to look.

Sadly, that™s not as simple as saying “Fix the colors.” Color is a catchall term
that describes the three elements of luminance and shade that combine to
create a color™s “look:”

Hue: Hue is the base shade of color, the element that differentiates one
color from another. Hue is the core setting that makes something blue or
red or turquoise.
Paradoxically, hue isn™t that important in the scheme of things. Hue con-
trols only the base color of an object in your image; it doesn™t account for
the two other color-related elements that stack on top of it. Put another




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Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color

way, although the essential hue can be “red,” adding more brightness can
turn that hue into light pink and subtracting saturation can turn it into a
murky red.
You almost never fiddle with hues because you usually don™t want to
change the core colors. You want to make your hues brighter or more
vivid or have them stand out more. Change the hue and you risk turning
your sister™s lovely brown skin into an ugly fuschia with the exact
shades and tones as the old color.
Brightness: Brightness is a measure of how light your colors are,
independent of their actual hue. A basic blue hue with lots of brightness
may be a sky blue, whereas that same blue with low levels of brightness
may become a dark navy. Taken to its logical limits, a 100 percent bright
image is pure white, whereas an image with no light is jet black.
Adding more brightness makes a picture lighter; subtracting brightness
makes it darker. You want to change the brightness in your images a lot.
Saturation: Technically, saturation measures the amount of gray in a
color. (Yes, most colors have some gray in them.) Realistically speaking,
saturation measures how pure a color is; high levels of saturation mean
that very little gray is mixed in. (An image with no saturation, inciden-
tally, is a black-and-white photo ” all grays, no colors.)
Hues with too much saturation look artificial and garish, like an Andy
Warhol painting. On the other hand, hues with too little saturation are
muddied and indistinct.
Most digital photographs suffer from too little saturation, incidentally.
Reducing the saturation levels can make your image pop!

In addition, color has a secret fourth element. This element doesn™t define
a specific color; instead, it looks at all the colors in your image as a whole.
Contrast measures the range of lights and darks that exist in the colors in your
photo. A high-contrast image has lots of high- and low-brightness colors, with
little in between, which makes it look kind of like the image shown in Figure 7-4.

A low-contrast image, on the other hand, has colors that are almost entirely
composed of the same brightness. This sounds good, but you need contrast
to be able to distinguish things ” witness what happens in Figure 7-5.

Quite often, changing the contrast of your image makes things more visible
and sharper.

Where do you start? Well, here™s a guilty confession: Even though we™re big-
shot authors of Dummies books, quite often we can™t pinpoint the exact prob-
lem with our family snapshots. Usually, the problem gets solved via a quick
adjustment of contrast and saturation ” but, sometimes we have to go delv-
ing through pretty much all the items listed in this chapter before our photos
are changed to our satisfaction. Don™t be afraid to roll up your sleeves and
muck around until everything™s picture perfect!
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124 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs




Figure 7-4:
In this
image with
ridiculously
high
contrast
values,
notice how
it™s almost
all black or
all white.




Figure 7-5:
A low-
contrast
image; if this
looks like a
big gray box
on the page,
that™s
because
it pretty
much is.




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Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color


Tweaking contrast and brightness
We have been trying for years to be brighter, and now Paint Shop Pro has
shown us the light. Just what is brightness, though? If you increase the bright-
ness of an image, it looks whiter. This whitening affects all shades uniformly,
sort of like using bleach in mixed laundry: Lights get whiter, and so do darks.

Because brightness alone rarely does the job, Jasc puts the Paint Shop Pro
adjustments for brightness and contrast together. Contrast is a bit like a laun-
dry brightener that makes the lights lighter and the darks darker. (It isn™t too
picky about keeping your colors exactly right, though.)

Although Paint Shop Pro offers several ways to adjust contrast, for photos, the
Automatic Contrast Enhancement effect is a great place to start. It simultane-
ously fiddles with brightness and contrast ” two interlinked attributes ” to
optimize your photo™s appearance. Whether your photo has too little contrast
or too much, this tool can help.

Choose Adjust➪Automatic Contrast Enhancement and the Automatic Contrast
Enhancement control, as shown in Figure 7-6, rushes to your aid. This effect
has three control areas: Bias (or lightness), Strength (amount of effect), and
Appearance (amount of contrast).



Figure 7-6:
The
“cardinal”
rule for
contrast
problems is
to try the
Automatic
Contrast
Enhance-
ment dialog
box first.



In the figure, a photo we took of a cardinal (through a window) suffers from
poor contrast ” a dark fate for such a bright bird. The Automatic Contrast
Enhancement effect restores his outstanding appearance. Use the controls of
this effect in the following ways:

If your photo needs contrast adjustment, use the Appearance controls. If
your photo needs more contrast, click Bold; for less contrast, click Flat;
and, if it™s just right, click Natural.

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If your photo needs lightening or darkening, use the Bias controls. If it™s
overall too dark, click Lighter; if it™s too light, click Darker; if it™s just
right, click Neutral.
For a greater effect on contrast and brightness, click Normal in the
Strength area. Otherwise, choose Mild.



Intensifying (or dulling)
colors through saturation
The more common problem with photos is dull colors that need more inten-
sity. However, if you™re shooting Ronald McDonald, for example, at a sunny
tulip festival, we can imagine that you may need duller colors, too. Either
way, the Automatic Saturation Enhancement effect fills the bill.

Choose Adjust➪Automatic Saturation Enhancement to enter the land of more
intense (or dimmer) colors. The Automatic Saturation Enhancement dialog
box glimmers onto your screen.

Figure 7-7 shows the dialog box in action. Showing you intensified colors in
a black-and-white illustration is a bit too much of a challenge, however, so
please turn to the color section of this book for some examples of the kinds
of results you can achieve.

Controls in the Bias area determine whether you intensify or dull your colors.
Choose Less Colorful to dull your colors or More Colorful to intensify colors.
Normal may intensify or dull your colors, depending on how intense they
are now.




Figure 7-7:
Brightening
up a dull
day at the
farm with
Automatic
Saturation
Enhance-
ment.




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Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color

Controls in the Strength area determine to what degree you dull or intensify
colors (according to your choice in the Bias area). Choose Weak to barely
affect colors, Normal to moderately affect them, or Strong to have the most
effect.

If you have people in your image, the Automatic Saturation Enhancement may
brighten their faces by mistake, by amplifying a healthy pink into a drunkard™s
blush. Or, it may dampen a vibrant brown into a sallow gray. If you have people
in your picture, check the Skintones present check box to warn Paint Shop Pro
to leave those pinks and browns alone!



Altering an overall tint
Are your overalls the wrong tint? Paint Shop Pro can™t fix that laundry
problem ” unless, of course, you have a picture of your overalls.

Images, whether the subject is overalls or not, sometimes have ” or need ”
an overall tint. Portraits taken in a forest setting, for example, tend to make
people look a bit green because of the light reflected off the leaves. Or, you
may want to add a slight orange tint to a sunset picture.

Paint Shop Pro, as it does with most color controls, gives you several ways to
alter tint:

Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Red/Green/Blue: The Red/Green/Blue
dialog box that appears is the simplest control for altering overall tint.
Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Color Balance: Color Balance and
Curves tint shadows, midtones, and highlights separately.

Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Red/Green/Blue and the Red/Green/Blue
dialog box appears. Like all dialog boxes for commands on the Adjust menu,
it has preview windows and proofing controls, plus one sliding control for
each primary color: Red %, Green %, and Blue %.

To make your image more red, green, or blue, the solution is straightforward:
Increase the value for that color. (Decrease it for less of that color.) Values
range from “100 to +100.

Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Color Balance and the Color Balance dialog
box appears. It works much like the Red/Green/Blue dialog box, but you get
to choose whether the controls apply to shadows, midtones, or highlights.
Choose by first clicking the corresponding radio button (such as Shadows)
for the tonal range you want to change; then move the sliders toward what-
ever tone you want more of (Red, for example).



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128 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs


Fun with Colors
Not all color adjustments have to improve your photos. You can also alter
photos by turning them black-and-white, tinting them with shades, or turning
them into silk-screen paintings!



Going gray with a tint: Colorizing
We all go gray. Some of us try to add an attractive tint when that happens.
The same scheme can be even more attractive when applied to images.

Paint Shop Pro calls this process colorizing. But, unlike the colorizing you
may have seen used to make old black-and-white movies look as though they
were shot in color, colorizing in Paint Shop Pro imparts only a single hue to
the image. In effect, the result is a grayscale (monochrome) image done in
your chosen hue rather than in gray ” kind of like all of those Che Guevera
pictures, where he™s standing against a red background.

The best Paint Shop Pro tool for this process is the Colorize tool, and it works
like this: Choose Adjust➪Hue and Saturation➪Colorize to display the Colorize
dialog box. The Colorize dialog box grabs its crayons and reports for duty.

The Colorize dialog box sports two adjustments:

Saturation: Increase this value to determine how much color is applied.
If you set it to 0, the image is strictly grayscale (black and white). At 255,
the image has no gray, but is purely the hue you choose by adjusting the
Hue control.
Hue: Click and hold the tiny down arrow at the right end of the Hue
value box. A rainbow-colored slider appears. Drag to the hue you want
and then release the mouse button.



Going totally gray or negative in one step
You™re just one step away from going as gray as William™s grandfather or
becoming as negative as a political ad. The Paint Shop Pro commands for
Greyscale and Negative Image, on the Adjust menu, are simple enough to do
their work in a single step: You get no dialog box and have no adjustments
to make.




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Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color

Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Negative Image and Paint Shop Pro gives you
the negative of your image. Lights become darks, darks become lights, and
colors switch to their opposing colors on the color wheel. Reds become cyans,
yellows become blues, and so on. Changing an image from positive (normal) to
negative isn™t often useful, but sometimes you need to go the other way. That
event occurs when you (or whoever is supplying your images) is using a film
scanner and scans a film negative. The Negative Image command gives you the
normal (positive) image you want.

To turn your color image into shades of gray (like a black-and-white photo),
choose Image➪Greyscale. Going grayscale affects the entire image, even if you
have selected an area. If you want to turn just a certain area grayscale, select
that area and use the Hue/Saturation/Lightness dialog box, as described ear-
lier in this chapter, to set the Saturation control to the minimum.



Posterize
The Posterize control isn™t on the Adjust menu, like the other advanced con-
trols we discuss in this section, but it does interesting things with colors.
Choose Effects➪Artistic Effects➪Posterize to launch the Posterize dialog box.

In posterizing, an image takes on the appearance of a silk-screened poster,
made up of areas of a few uniform colors. Posterizing reduces the number
of colors that appear and results in blocks of color, like a paint-by-numbers
painting.

The dialog box for posterizing has only one adjustment, named Levels. Reduce
the value to reduce the number of colors or increase it to increase colors. The
value in Levels determines the number of levels of brightness in the image.



Threshold
The threshold control (choose Adjust➪Brightness and Contrast➪Threshold)
gives you images in pure black and pure white, as shown in Figure 7-8. With a
threshold control, you™re telling Paint Shop Pro, “Turn any pixel with a bright-
ness below a given threshold black, and turn any pixel above that threshold
white.”

The dialog box for this layer has a single adjustment. Reduce the Threshold
value for a lower threshold (more white) and increase it for a higher thresh-
old (more black). You can use a threshold value between 1 and 255.




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Figure 7-8:
Threshold
allows you
to turn an
everyday
William into
a poster for
Night of the
Living Dead.




TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 8
Heavy-Duty Photo Alterations:
Adding People and Removing Zits
In This Chapter
Removing facial blemishes
Adding people, places, and things to your photos
Removing people, places, and things from your photos
Focusing on creating a soft focus
Blurring your picture
Dealing with hue-related madness




T he problem with photos is that they are, in the end, depressingly accu-
rate. In William™s mind, he is a slim 180 pounds, has a full head of hair,
and possesses white teeth bright enough to make the Osmond Brothers jeal-
ous. But when his photos show up on-screen, they always reveal William to
be a man with a generous pot belly, a growing bald spot, and yellowing teeth.
(This is, incidentally, why Wiley does not allow author signings for Paint Shop
Pro For Dummies.)

William can improve the quality of his pictures all he wants ” but in the end,
that just makes his bald spot clearer and more vibrant. What William wants
to do is to change the nature of his photo.

Fortunately, Paint Shop Pro is extremely good at altering details. With Paint
Shop Pro, you can remove zits, cover up ugly carpets, and even put people in
photos who weren™t there when you took the picture. Wouldn™t it be nice to
have a pimple-free photo of you standing next to Britney Spears?

If that sounds interesting, let™s rock on!




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132 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs


Retouching Skin Blemishes and
Other Small Ugly Spots
Making small changes to an image to improve it is called retouching. Not sur-
prisingly, if you want to spruce up your images, your best friend is the
friendly finger of the retouch tool group, as shown in Figure 8-1. The retouch
tool group, which lurks on the toolbar, is kind of a virtual fingertip with which
you can rub away many defects, like Mom rubbing a bit of soot off your nose.




Figure 8-1:
When I think
about you, I
retouch
myself: the
retouch tool
group.



The retouch tool group offers many tools to choose from. Some of them
require a fair amount of technical insight into computer graphics in order to
use them properly. In this chapter, we cover the effects you™re likely to use
most.



Removing wrinkles with the Soften tool
One of the most useful Paint Shop Pro effects is great for retouching por-
traits: the Soften tool. The Soften tool, well, softens sharp edges ” wrinkles,
for example. Just brush the tool across those edges or click them.

Figure 8-2 shows a frighteningly close shot of the left eye of wrinkled, old
Uncle Dave, a friendly author. On the left is an unretouched copy; on the right
is the Soften tool softening his wrinkles.



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Chapter 8: Heavy-Duty Photo Alterations: Adding People and Removing Zits




Figure 8-2:
The Soften
tool
removes a
few years
from Dave™s
left eye.



You could get the same result by selecting the wrinkled area and applying the
Blur or Blur More effect, but that™s more work. (We give you details later in
this chapter, in the section “Adding Blurs and the Illusion of Motion.”) If you
want a nice, soft, angelic glow to your entire image, the Soft Focus Adjustment
(see the later section “Bringing Someone into Soft Focus”) makes everything
radiant.

To work more gradually and do less softening in each stroke, set the opacity
to a lower value on the Tool Options palette.



Zapping warts and pimples
with the Smudge tool
The Smudge tool picks up paint from the place where you set it down and
smears that paint as you drag to other areas, to make it the closest thing Paint
Shop Pro has to finger painting. As the tool smears, it loses paint just as your
finger would. You can use smudging to soften edges, rub out pimples, cover
up glare spots, or even blend in a dot of rouge (in the form of low-opacity red
paint) that you have added to the cheek of your CEO™s portrait.

To minimize moles, pimples, and similar imperfections, start not on the dis-
colored area, but rather off to one side. Smudge across the discolored area
and release the mouse button after you™ve smeared skin tone through the
imperfection. Repeat in the opposite direction, again starting on clear skin.

Figure 8-3 shows the smudge effect as the Retouch tool is dragged from left
to right, starting with white and passing through the center of three differ-
ently colored squares in a single stroke. Notice how the paint fades as the
tool moves from left to right. The tops of the three squares have also been
smudged, but with repeated, circular strokes.




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134 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs


Figure 8-3:
The Retouch
tool in
Smudge
mode. A
single stroke
through the
middle
creates a
“bullet
through an
apple” look,
and a
circular
motion
smudges
the tops.



As shown in the center of Figure 8-3, a single stroke may reveal the inherent
dottiness of computer stroking, which you can minimize by reducing the Step
value on the Tool Options palette (press F4 if you don™t see it). Repeated
strokes, as indicated along the tops of the squares in Figure 8-3, tend to
smear out those dots.

If your wart, pimple, or mole is too big to smudge ” and some are ” con-
sider using the Clone Brush tool to cover up the offending blemish with pris-
tine skin taken from elsewhere in your image. See the section “Removing
People, Places, and Things from Your Image,” later in this chapter.



Miscellaneous retouch tools
Not all retouching tools are useful; some are obscure, and others are more
creative than restorative. Still, they may be worth a try. This list provides
brief synopses of what they do:

Sharpen: Amplifies edges, wrinkles, and other sudden transitions (the
opposite of Soften).
Emboss: Creates a grayscale image that appears to be embossed, like
George Washington™s face on a U.S. quarter.




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Chapter 8: Heavy-Duty Photo Alterations: Adding People and Removing Zits

Push: Picks up the image area where you begin dragging and pushes it
along, leaving a trail of finely overlapping copies of that area. (Overlap is
controlled by the Step value on the Tool Options palette.)
Dodge: A term taken from photographic darkroom work that means to
lighten areas that are already somewhat light. It lightens the image and
enhances contrast at the same time.
Burn: The opposite of Dodge; darkens pixels that are already somewhat
dark. It darkens the image while enhancing contrast.

Burning and dodging are frequently used by professional photographers to
draw attention to parts of an image. For example, if you want your cousin to
stand out in her graduation picture, you might burn the people surrounding
her (as horrid as that sounds) and darken the rest of the assembly. The
viewer™s eye is then drawn to the light spot (namely, your cousin) in the
middle of a dark crowd.




Adding People, Places, and
Things to Your Image
Using the Paint Shop Pro selection commands makes it very easy to cut people
out of one image and paste them into another. For example, in Figure 8-4, we
have cut the faithful Alex from Dave™s snow-covered doorstep in Maine and
placed him next to Amy, William™s daughter, as she kneels next to her fantastic
creation: the Cleveland Snowduck.




Figure 8-4:
Paint Shop
Pro:
Bringing
people (and
animals)
together.




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136 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs



Layers: Really, incredibly useful
If you™re going to be adding new people, places, allowed us to resize Alex, making him smaller,
or things to your image, you probably want to without changing Amy™s size. We also erased a
add them as new layers. When something is on little around Alex™s edges without erasing any of
a layer, you can edit it separately from the rest the snow on Amy™s layer. Whatever we did to
of the image. Alex™s picture didn™t affect Amy™s image, and
whatever we did to Amy didn™t affect Alex.
For example, when we created the Alex-and-
Amy fake in Figure 8-4, we put the picture of Amy Layering is so amazingly powerful that we have
and her Cleveland Snowduck on one layer and an entire chapter devoted to it; Chapter 11
then pasted Alex the dog into another layer. That opens up a whole new world to you.



This part of the program is a great deal of fun, and Paint Shop Pro aficionados
frequently get hours of enjoyment by inserting themselves into movie posters
so that they™re costarring with Salma Hayek. In fact, an entire underground
Internet movement is devoted to taking pictures from the news and doing
as many strange and bizarre things with them as possible. The Web site
www.fark.com, for example, holds PG-13“rated contests to see who can
“Photoshop” pictures of Alan Greenspan and Ludacris into the funniest
places. Some results are quite impressive.

We cover the mechanics of selecting a portion of an image in Chapter 3, and
we tell you in Chapter 4 how to cut and paste those portions into other
photos. That™s a good place to start ” but a simple cut-and-paste doesn™t
create realistic fakes. Not that you need your photos to hold up to the eye of
conspiracy theorists ” but plopping a picture of you, jaggies and edge halos
and all, into some random image just looks amateurish. Your completed pas-
tiche should look plausible at first glance, if not the second or third.

With that in mind, we here on the Paint Shop Pro 9 For Dummies staff offer the
following advice to make your images blend seamlessly:

1. Use the Magic Wand to select.
Yes, it™s easier to just draw a line around your target ” but unless you
have a steady hand and a ridiculously exacting eye, the Magic Wand does
it better after some fine-tuning. Get used to it.
2. Get rid of the holes and specks in your selection.
This task used to be difficult, but Paint Shop Pro makes it so easy now
with its Remove Specks and Holes command that it™s a crime not to
do it.




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Chapter 8: Heavy-Duty Photo Alterations: Adding People and Removing Zits

3. Feather a little.
Usually, you want to leave off those crisp edges. Feather one or two
pixels on the inside to help the selection blend into the background.
4. Eliminate the background color entirely.
We show you how to remove a color from a selection in Chapter 3, in the
section about removing the background or other colors from your selec-
tion ” and we show you an ugly image that shows what happens if you
don™t. Learn the lesson!
5. Resize appropriately.
When we first put Alex in the picture in Figure 8-4, he only came up to
Amy™s shoulder, making Amy look freakishly huge. A little downsizing
made a large difference.
6. Match the blur.
Most photos aren™t perfectly clear, and dropping a crisply focused image
into the middle of a slightly blurry pic looks wrong in a way that most
people can™t quite put a name to. Sharpening or Gaussian-blurring your
selection just a tad helps it to blend in.
7. Adjust the color.
Having a sunlit image brought into a fluorescent background makes the
image stick out like a throbbing thumb. Adjust the contrast, hue, and
brightness to match it as closely as you can. To find out how to adjust
contrast, hue, and brightness, look no further than Chapter 7.
8. Don™t forget the shadows!
A touch of low-opacity black paint can serve as a quick-and-dirty fake
shadow ” as we did in the example shown in Figure 8-4. If you want to
go all out, you can even paste in another identical selection as a layer,
deform it so that it™s twisted sideways and elongated like a real shadow,
position it so that it™s spreading out from the bottom of the image, erase
the layer so that it™s transparent ” and then fill it in with low-opacity
paint. But that™s a great deal of work for a quick fake!




Removing People, Places, and Things
from Your Image
The Clone Brush tool is a wonderful thing that allows you to erase someone
from an image without leaving a blank hole the way the Eraser tool does. The
Clone Brush requires you to select an area of your image ” also known as
“the source” ” before you start painting. When you paint with the Clone
Brush, you paste copies of the pixels from the source area into the area
you™re painting.
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This tool is frequently used in photograph retouching to “erase” areas in a
picture. If you don™t like your Uncle Fred, paint over him with a section of the
wall that™s off to his left.

This process is easier shown than described ” so suppose that you have
decided that the green blanket that Alex is sitting on in Figure 8-5 just has to
go. You had better cover it up with some snow!




Figure 8-5:
The original
image,
complete
with green
blanket.



1. Click the Clone Brush tool (shown in Figure 8-6) on the Tools toolbar.
If you don™t see the Clone Brush tool, you may have selected the Scratch
Remover tool earlier. If that™s the case, click the arrow next to the
Scratch Remover tool and select the Clone Brush tool from the drop-
down list.




Figure 8-6:
Attack of
the Clone
Brushes ”
the location
of the Clone
Brush on
the side
menu.



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Chapter 8: Heavy-Duty Photo Alterations: Adding People and Removing Zits

2. If necessary, adjust the size and hardness of the Clone Brush tool on
the Tool Options palette (see Figure 8-7).



Figure 8-7:
The Tool
Options
palette,
Clone
Brush“style.



Sometimes, you want to have a very large clone selection to replace
huge areas of a picture ” or, you want a small selection to make sure
that you can get right in between Alex™s paws. You can adjust the size on
the Size control on the Tool Options palette; large numbers mean that
you copy a large sample of the picture, and smaller numbers mean tiny
samples. You want a teeny selection, so choose 20.
The hardness is a percentage that determines how crisp the edge of a
cloned copy is; 100 percent is a razor-sharp edge, whereas 0 percent is a
fuzzy selection that looks almost blurred and blends easily into the
background (see Figure 8-8). We keep ours at 50 percent.



Figure 8-8: 100 percent
hardness
Values of
100 percent,
50 percent
50 percent,
hardness
and 0
percent 0 percent
hardness
hardness.



If you don™t see the Tool Options palette, press F4 on the keyboard.
3. Right-click the source area (the area you want to copy).
Clicking an edge or corner of the object you want helps you with the
next step. In this case, because you want to cover up the green blanket
with a fluffy coating of snow, right-click the snow in the lower-right
corner, as shown in Figure 8-9.




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Cloning between images or layers
The Clone Brush tool copies just as well from one you want to copy, and then left-click or drag
image window to another window as it does where you want to paint on the destination
within one image. It also copies between layers, image.
if you want. (If you don™t know what layers are ”
To clone between layers, select your source
and you should ” flip to Chapter 11.)
layer on the Layer palette. Then, right-click the
To clone between images, open both images. image you want copied. Select the destination
They appear in separate windows in Paint Shop layer on the Layer palette, and then left-click or
Pro. Just right-click the source image where drag on the image.




Figure 8-9:
A small
section of
the blanket
has been
replaced
with a copy
of the snow
from the
lower-right
corner.



4. Brush (left-click or drag) on the destination area (the area you want to
paint).
As you brush, keep an eye on the source area too. An X marks the spot
on the source image where the Clone Brush tool is picking up (copying)
pixels. As you move your brush, the X on the source image tracks your
movement. Move so that the X sweeps across the object you want to
copy, as shown in Figure 8-10.
If you ever want to choose another area to clone, all you have to do is
right-click a new section.

If, in Step 3, you right-clicked the upper-left corner of the area you™re copying,
begin painting where you want the upper-left corner of the clone to appear
in Step 4. Stroke down and to the right so that the X traverses the original
object.




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Chapter 8: Heavy-Duty Photo Alterations: Adding People and Removing Zits


Figure 8-10:
Thanks to
the magic of
the Clone
Brush, the
blanket has
vanished,
replaced
completely
with cloned
snow!




Other Clone Brush options
As you have already seen, the size of the area and the hardness can be set on
the Tool Options palette. In fact, by using the Tool Options palette, you can
set all the usual variations available to Paint Shop Pro brushes: shape, opac-
ity (transparency), step, and density (speckliness). You can find more infor-
mation on these settings in Chapter 9.



Cloning versus selection
When you copy individual people or objects, you can either use the Clone
Brush tool or copy and paste. Which to choose? The Clone Brush tool isn™t
really the best tool for copying objects because constraining the tool to just
the object you™re copying is difficult ” although sometimes it™s the fastest
tool to use.




Cloning neatly within the lines
You can paint neatly within a precisely defined invert the selection to select everything except
area by selecting that area in the destination the palm tree. Then, your brush stroke can slop
image. (We describe selection in Chapter 3.) right over the tree without leaving paint on it.
Paint Shop Pro paints only within the selection
Creating a selection around the source area
marquee.
doesn™t help you copy from a precise area, how-
To paint Alex behind a palm tree, for example, ever. A selection works on only the destination
you can select the palm tree™s trunk and then area.




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Here are three tips to tell you when the Clone Brush is the way to go:

When you have a large enough background to clone: If you left-click
very near where you originally right-clicked, you may soon start cloning
your clones. (Your X may traverse areas you just painted.) You don™t
lose quality, but a pattern becomes apparent more quickly. If you look
carefully at Figure 8-11, where we have begun to clone over Alex, you
can discern a pattern in the slats we have cloned.
When you want to put an object behind something: For example, you
may want Alex to appear behind a palm tree at Club Med. With the Clone
Brush tool, you can paint his image on either side of the palm tree. Paint
Shop Pro has ways of doing this job that give cleaner results, but the
Clone Brush tool is often simpler.
Only when backgrounds are similar: Copying an object without picking
up a few border pixels is difficult using the Clone Brush tool, so it works
best when the backgrounds match.




Figure 8-11:
Bad
patterning,
Indy.




Bringing Someone into Soft Focus
Directors learned long ago that smearing the lens with Vaseline produces a
soft, gentle look that gives everything a faint glow and makes the leading lady
look angelic. (Not coincidentally, it also hides wrinkles on aging marquee
stars, like Doris Day.) If you want to put the romance back in your photos,
you too can simulate this effect!

Choose Adjust➪Softness➪Soft Focus to bring up the Soft Focus controls, as
shown in Figure 8-12, which allow you to smear all the virtual Vaseline you
want.

This list describes the controls shown in the figure:

Softness: This option controls how blurry you want your image, much
like defocusing a camera. Slide the control to the right to give the image
that total I-forgot-my-glasses look.
Edge Importance: Blurring the image may cause faces to turn into
peachlike, fuzzy mushes; sliding this control to the right attempts to
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Chapter 8: Heavy-Duty Photo Alterations: Adding People and Removing Zits

keep the edges (and eyes) distinct. It also helps to produce halos that
surround objects, as opposed to a more general haze.
Halo Amount: You can produce halos that lend an angelic look to the
items in your image. Slide this control to the right for halo effects that
surround just about everything, or yank it all the way to the left to turn
off halo-ing altogether.
Halo Size: Sliding this control to the right creates large, wide bands of
halos, and moving it to the left produces tighter, “borderlike” halos.
Halo Visibility: To create halos of pure white light, move this control to
100 percent; for softer, more background-colored halos, pull it leftward.




Figure 8-12:
William™s
wife Gini,
seen
through the
eyes of love.




Adding Blurs and the Illusion of Motion
“Why would I want to add blurs to an image?” you may ask. “Didn™t I spend
the big bucks to buy a digital camera that takes nonblurry photos?”

We have to admit that you have a point. But, sometimes, you™re trying to
paste an image into a slightly blurry photo and you need to match the larger
picture™s fuzzy background. At other times, you need to add a motion blur to
something to make it look like it™s moving very fast.

Blurring effects, although many and varied, are simple to use. Choose
Adjust➪Blur to access these menu items:

Average: Pops up an adjustment dialog box with a single control,
Amount of Correction. Drag right for more blur.
Blur: Applies a moderate amount of blurring. No adjustment dialog box
appears.
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144 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

Blur More: Like Blur, only more so.
Gaussian Blur: Pops up a single-control adjustment dialog box. Drag the
Radius control to the right for more blurring, or left for less. To the
trained eye of the blur aficionado, this blur is a bit more refined than
Average blur. To the rest of us, it™s just a blur.
Motion Blur: Produces an artistic effect that most people can under-
stand if they have tried to take a photo of a fast-moving child, a car, or
an animal and ended up with a motion blur. This effect, using an adjust-
ment dialog box, produces a motion blur! Drag the clock-hand-like
Direction control in that box to point in the direction you want motion.
Then set the Strength slider and move it to the right if you need more
blur (see the following Tip paragraph).

Blur is often most effective when applied selectively to a particular area
of your image. Select an area with any of the selection tools we discuss in
Chapter 3 and then apply the Blur effect. Applied selectively, Blur can help
focus attention on the subject of your photo and away from a confusing
background.

The Motion Blur effect is sometimes best applied to the background area
around the object you want to appear speedy, so the object of interest isn™t
blurred. It™s a great way, for example, to make Speedy, your lethargic retriever,
appear to live up to his name. Take a photo of Speedy in his fastest pose ”
moseying toward his dinner bowl, for example. In Paint Shop Pro, select the
area around Speedy before choosing the Motion Blur effect. Apply the motion
blur in the head-to-tail direction. Your photo looks like your camera tracked
Speedy as he sped heroically to save his Gravy Train from a watery demise.
Figure 8-13 shows this effect applied to Alex, with a slight feathering to make
him blend better into the blurred background.




Figure 8-13:
Speedy
Alex.




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Spot-Changing Colors within an Image
Although Paint Shop Pro offers a dizzying variety of ways to change colors
and intensities, the hue tool group, as shown in Figure 8-14, is the easiest. You
can lighten or darken areas of your image, swap colors in a target area, inten-
sify the colors, or leach them to a dull gray.




Figure 8-14:
Hue™s your
daddy? The
hue tool
group.



The hue tool group doesn™t do anything you can™t do by selecting an area and
then applying any one of the color adjustments we describe in Chapter 7.
However, it™s often much quicker to swipe a couple of strokes with a paint-
brush-like object across your area than it is to carefully . . . select . . . the
right . . . part and then adjust it.



Removing unsightly gleams and glares
You can lighten or darken in lots of different ways in Paint Shop Pro ” but
the most basic is the Lighten/Darken tool in the hue tool group. You™re given
two options here: RGB and Lightness. In most cases, RGB works just fine.
Hold down the left mouse button and drag to lighten an image; hold the right
button and drag to sink it into the shadows.

Lightness adjusts the lightness portion ” the L in HSL ” and RGB adjusts the
red, green, and blue portions. If you really want to know what the difference
is, check out Chapter 7.



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146 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

Figure 8-15 shows an image of Dave™s trusty golden retriever, Alex, that was
taken a bit too close to the camera™s flash. On the copy on the right side, we
have right-clicked with the Lighten/Darken tool in RGB mode to tone down
the gleam on his nose and reduce the flash™s reflection in his eyes.



Figure 8-15:
Lightening
strikes
as the
Lighten/
Darken tool
takes the
shine off
Alex™s nose
and the
glare off
his right
eyeball.



To darken more gradually and gain more control over the results, set the
opacity to a lower value on the Tool Options palette.



The rest of the hue tool group
Other tools are in the hue tool group, but they™re not used much:

Saturation Up/Down: Holding down the left mouse button and dragging
while you have the Saturation tool selected amplifies the inherent colors
in your image; holding down the right button leaches the colors out and
renders the image a lifeless gray. (For more information on what satura-
tion is, see the section in Chapter 7 about bringing your picture™s colors
to life.)
Change to Target: You can use the Change to Target tool to transform all
the colors under your brush into shades of the color in the Foreground
Materials box. If you™re really feeling comfortable with the whole HSL
thing (as shown in Chapter 7), you can replace the hue, saturation, or
lightness instead.
Hue Up/Down: This option pushes colors counterclockwise (red, yellow,
green, cyan, blue, violet, and magenta) or clockwise on the Paint Shop
Pro color wheel. We don™t know when you would use it, but, hey ” it
came with the program, right?


TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Part III
Painting Pictures




TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
In this part . . .
F inally, someone has gotten serious about digital art-
work, without charging an arm or an ear. The Paint
Shop Pro painting materials and its new Art Media tools
give you some incredibly jazzy effects without ever having
to open a can of turpentine. Oil paint? Pastels? Canvas?
You want it, you got it ” or at least a darned good digital
simulation of it.




TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 9
Basic Painting, Spraying,
and Filling
In This Chapter
Starting a fresh canvas
Finding your tool
Choosing a color
Brushing
Spraying
Erasing
Painting
Using different brush sizes and shapes
Controlling how paint goes on
Replacing colors
Filling




O f course, Paint Shop Pro does all the basics you have seen in garden
variety “paint” programs (like the Paint program that comes with
Windows). For example, it lets you brush or spray lines, blobs, and colors
and fill in areas.

This is Paint Shop Pro, however, and pro means that you get a heck of a lot
more control than those simple programs offer. It also means more sophisti-
cated editing abilities, like replacing one color with another or erasing back-
ground areas. This tool is the one that Dave™s house painter, Phil, would use if
Dave™s house were digital ” and Phil™s a pro.

As with most jobs you do in Paint Shop Pro, painting affects only the active
layer and only the selected area. If it appears that a painting or retouching
tool isn™t working, make sure that you™re on the right layer and working
within a selected area (or clear the selection by pressing Ctrl+D). If you don™t
use more than one layer or don™t have any current selection, don™t worry
about those restrictions. Also, remember that by pressing Ctrl+Z, you can
undo any painting or erasing.
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150 Part III: Painting Pictures


Starting a Fresh Canvas
You can paint on an existing image in Paint Shop Pro, but if you™re starting a
work of art from scratch, you need a fresh canvas, or background layer. Here™s
how to start a fresh canvas:

1. Choose File➪New or press Ctrl+N.
The New Image dialog box appears.
2. Specify the size of your image by using the Width and Height value
boxes, and choose inches, centimeters, or pixels in the adjacent Units
selection box.
If you use inches or centimeters for your units, specify in the Resolution
box how many pixels you want per one inch or centimeter. Set the adja-
cent Units selection box to Pixels/cm or Pixels/inch.
3. Under Image Characteristics, choose Raster, Vector, or Art Media.
For purposes of this chapter, choose Raster. Vector is for text or shape
objects, and Art Media is for special artsy stuff, which we talk about in
Chapter 10.
4. For color depth, choose 16 million colors unless you know that you
have a special need for fewer colors.
5. For a solid background, deselect the check box marked Transparent.
If the color sample box displayed above the check box isn™t the back-
ground you want, click that sample box. In the Color dialog box that
appears, click a hue in the circle; adjust its lightness or darkness by
clicking in the rectangle in the center of the circle. Or, click any standard
color in the colored grid. When the Current box is the color you want,
click OK.




Finding Your Tool
Before you can do much of anything, you need to be able to find your tools!
Figure 9-1 shows the Paint Shop Pro Tools toolbar, where painterly tools, like
brushes, live. This toolbar has a slightly confusing design. It doesn™t give
every tool its own spot on the bar. The bar would be way too long.

Instead, the toolbar groups similar tools into what we call tool groups. A tool
group (or toolset) exists wherever you see a tiny downward-pointing triangle
(or down arrow) to the right of an icon.




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Chapter 9: Basic Painting, Spraying, and Filling




Figure 9-1:
The Tools
toolbar.
Tiny down
arrows
indicate
hidden tool
groups.
Click to
display and
choose
individual
tools.



The Tools toolbar is normally sort of magnetized (docked) to the left side of
your Paint Shop Pro window, although you can drag it elsewhere ” to the
top, the right side, or the bottom or even floating free in the middle of the
screen! Drag the toolbar by the faint dotted line at its top to place it to wher-
ever you want. To place it back along the left side, drag first to the center of
the side until it grabs, and then slide it up into its original position.

Click the small down arrow next to the tool group and then select its icon
from the tool group menu that flies out. Your cursor then becomes that tool
(it displays that tool™s icon) whenever the cursor is over your image.




Disappearing toolbars and palettes
The Tools toolbar and other toolbars and title bar. To restore normal behavior, restore the
palettes in Paint Shop Pro have the ability to get toolbar by positioning the cursor over the title
out of your way automatically. They can shrink bar, and then sneak up along the toolbar to the
to nothing more than a title bar when you™re not pushpin and click it.
using them. We find that this behavior drives us
A completely different way that a toolbar or
nuts, but you may like it.
palette may disappear is if you close it by click-
Click the tiny pushpin icon at the top or left end, ing the X next to the pushpin or by pressing a
which turns the icon sideways. (For the Tools function key. You can restore (or turn off) any
toolbar, first drag the toolbar to a floating posi- toolbar by choosing View➪Toolbars, and then
tion.) Now, whenever your cursor leaves the your desired toolbar from the menu that appears.
toolbar, the toolbar shrinks to a title bar (labeled, For palettes, choose View➪Palettes. Each line
for example, Tools for the Tools toolbar). To on the palette menus also lists the function key
restore the toolbar, position your cursor over the that turns the palette on or off.


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152 Part III: Painting Pictures


Brushing, Airbrushing (Spraying),
and Erasing
Using the Paint Brush, Airbrush, and Eraser tools is much like using real
paint, paper, and erasers. Okay ” you would never use an eraser on paint in
real life, but you get the idea.

Like most Paint Shop Pro tools and commands, the Paint Brush, Airbrush,
and Eraser tools do their things on the active layer of your image. If they
don™t seem to be working correctly or are grayed out, you may be on the
wrong layer. See Chapter 11 for more information about layers.



Brushing or spraying
The Paint Brush tool, like a real paint brush, paints a spot of paint when you
click it on your image or a line when you drag it. The Airbrush works simi-
larly, but like a can of spray paint, it puts down a speckly spot or line that
gets denser as you hold the button down.

The Airbrush tool paints speckly and the Paint Brush tool paints solid for a
reason: Jasc initially gives the two tools different density settings on the Tool
Options palette. You could easily change their density settings and make the
Paint Brush tool paint speckly or the Airbrush tool paint solid. The real differ-
ence between the tools is that if you pause the Airbrush tool or move it
slowly while keeping the mouse button pressed, paint continues to fill in the
speckles. As a result, you increase the paint density just as you can with real
spray paint. Not so with the Paint Brush tool: You would have to click repeat-
edly to get that effect.

The two tools work similarly. Here™s how to paint with the Paint Brush or
Airbrush (spray) tools:

1. Click a color from the Materials palette, as shown in Figure 9-2.
Press F6 to turn on the Materials palette if you don™t see it. Click the
middle tab of the three tabs that appear there to see the easy-to-
understand “rainbow” display of colors, and then click your color. To
use more complex paint materials, see Chapter 10.
Your chosen color appears in the foreground color box.
2. Select the Paint Brush or Airbrush tool from the brush tool group.
Refer to the first section in this chapter and Figure 9-1 for help in locat-
ing your tool.



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Chapter 9: Basic Painting, Spraying, and Filling

Click Make sure that texture button
to see is out (off) to apply solid color.
"rainbow"
display Your color appears here,
of colors. in the Foreground color box.
Figure 9-2:
Choose
a color
from the
Materials
palette.
Press F6 to
make the
palette
appear.
Click and choose the solid black
Color dot to apply solid color.


3. Set the brush size and other options on the Tool Options palette.
Press F4 to turn on Tool Options if it™s not visible, and adjust the Size
value box. If the industry standard Paint Shop Pro brush doesn™t tickle
your fancy, here™s where you get to change the kind of brush you paint
with; you can make it a tiny, crisp square or a ghostly, rocket ship-
shaped brush or a watercolorish schmearer. We go over this technique
in the next section, but feel free to experiment. It™s fun!
4. Drag on your image (or click to make just a single spot).
As you drag or click with the left mouse button, you apply whatever

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