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color (material) you have selected as the foreground in the Materials
palette.
If you™re using the Airbrush tool, you can keep the cursor in one place
and hold down the mouse button. The paint density gradually builds up.




Painting or erasing a straight line
Can™t draw a straight line? Paint Shop Pro line to end. This trick works with all the tools from
comes to your rescue. The starting point of the the brush tool group (Paint Brush, Airbrush, Warp
line is the last place you clicked, or wherever Brush) and with the Eraser tool.
your last brush stroke ended.
To create a straight line from that point, hold
down the Shift key and click where you want the



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If the spot or stroke doesn™t look right, press Ctrl+Z (or click the Undo button
on the toolbar) to undo it; you may need to use the Tool Options palette to
change the brush features. See the later section “Controlling Strokes, Sizes,
Shapes, and Spatters: Tool Options,” for details on changing appearances.



Picking up colors from an image
You can pick a color to paint with from the Materials palette, as shown in
Figure 9-2, but picking color from the image is sometimes much more conve-
nient. Cohabiting with the Color Replacer in the color selection tool group is
an eyedropper icon. Shown in the margin here, it™s called the Dropper tool,
and is the sixth button from the top of the Tools toolbar.

Click the Dropper, and then click any color in the image to make that your
current working (that is, foreground) color. To pick up a background color
(used by some tools and paint brushes), right-click. Here are a few tips for
picking up color:

If you™re using any brush, painting, or eraser tool, you don™t need the
Dropper to pick up paint. Just Ctrl+click with your current tool to pick
up color.
The Dropper initially is set to pick up color from only a single pixel.
Sometimes, however, apparently continuous color is mottled, and no
single pixel is the right color. In that case, average the color of an area
by choosing a larger sample size on the Tool Options palette. (Press F4 if
it™s not visible.)
The Dropper normally gets its color from all layers combined. To pick up
color from just the current layer, enable the Active Layer Only check box
on the Tool Options palette.



Erasing with the Eraser tool
The eraser tool requires a little caution to get the results you want. Here™s
how to erase:

1. Click the Eraser tool, as shown in the margin.
Alternatively, press the X key rather than click the Eraser. Make sure
that you have chosen the Eraser shown at the left, not the Background
Eraser.
2. Set the Size of the eraser on the Tool Options palette.
Press F4 to turn the Tool Options palette on if it™s not visible. Then,
adjust the Size value box. A higher number is bigger.

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3. Hold down the Ctrl button and right-click your image somewhere that
the background color (typically, white) appears.
You can skip this step if you™re erasing on a layer that is transparent. This
little precautionary trick ensures that when you erase on a background
layer (which is typically nontransparent), the Eraser leaves the correct
color behind. It sets the official background color on the Materials palette,
which is what the Eraser leaves behind on nontransparent layers.
4. Drag on your image to erase, or click to erase a single spot.
The Eraser leaves behind background color on an opaque background.
On transparent backgrounds or other layers, it leaves transparency.

If the size, shape, and density (speckliness) of your eraser aren™t what you
want, press Ctrl+Z (or click the Undo button on the toolbar) to undo. Then,
see the section “Controlling Strokes, Sizes, Shapes, and Spatters: Tool
Options,” a little later in this chapter.



Erasing backdrops with the
Background Eraser tool
A common problem in any Paint Shop Pro project is erasing specific areas;
for example, you want to erase an ugly wallpaper print ” but not Cousin
Charlie, who™s standing in front of it. You could carefully erase that ghastly
wallpaper, pixel by pixel. Not only is that method incredibly time-consuming,
though, but also one slip of the wrist and you accidentally remove his left
elbow.

The incredibly handy Paint Shop Pro Background Eraser tool makes this
process easy by doing some complex calculations to determine what is Charlie
and what is the background behind Charlie and then automatically erasing that
background. (You can also select around Charlie to make normal erasing easier;
refer to Chapter 3 to read about selection.)

For example, as you can see in Figure 9-3, erasing the background behind
both Dave and Alex is a snap. The Background Eraser recognizes the differ-
ence between Dave and a coniferous tree ” not always an easy task.

Just to confuse you, Paint Shop Pro calls this tool the Background Eraser, even
though it has nothing to do with the Background Material box, discussed in
Chapter 10. Whereas background in every other aspect of Paint Shop Pro means
“the secondary color that™s used to fill the middle of a shape,” here it means
what most people think it does: the stuff behind the interesting things in a pic-
ture. Why they didn™t call it something like the Erase to Edge tool in order to
keep the terminology consistent is beyond us.



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Figure 9-3:
Man, dog,
and tree.
The Back-
ground
Eraser
appreci-
ates the
distinction.



Here™s how to erase the background behind Uncle Charlie:

1. Click the Background Eraser tool, as shown in the margin.
2. Set the size of your eraser by adjusting the Size value on the Tool
Options palette. (Press F4 if you don™t see the palette.)
To control other brush-like aspects of the Background Eraser, see the fol-
lowing section.
If the background is the result of multiple layers, enable the Sample
Merged check box. To improve the Background Eraser™s behavior, see
the nearby sidebar “Tweaking the Background Eraser.”
3. Click a section of the area you want erased and hold the mouse button
down briefly before dragging.
In our example, you would want to click that ugly wallpaper. Holding the
button down briefly gives Paint Shop Pro time to do the calculations to
figure out what wallpaper looks like so that it can erase it.
If you™re erasing on a background layer, Paint Shop Pro may pop up an
Auto Actions dialog box which suggests that you let it promote the back-
ground to a full layer. Click OK. Your image background layer is now
transparent, and the former background layer is now a layer.
4. Drag the point of the tool across the background, to allow the outer
radius of the tool to overlap the edge of the area you want isolated
(Charlie).




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Don™t drag the point of the tool across Charlie, or else he is taken as
background. Dragging quickly may go too fast for Paint Shop Pro to keep
up, and as a result it may start erasing bits you want to keep. Drag at a
slow, sure pace along the edge.

Using the Background Eraser is great for removing the bits around edges,
but it™s very slow (and not efficient) at removing large areas. If you™re trying
to erase everything except Cousin Charlie, we suggest that you use the
Background Eraser to clear a “moat” of transparent space around Charlie
and then switch to the regular Eraser tool to mop up the rest of the image.




Tweaking the Background Eraser
Mostly, the settings that Paint Shop Pro picks Limits:
for special options (like Sampling) work pretty
Contiguous: Paint Shop Pro erases only
darned well. (You may have to click the tiny right
background pixels that are contiguous. This
arrow at the right end of the Tool Options palette
option is often good for removing up to the
to see all options. ) If they don™t work well for
edge of Cousin Charlie.
you, you may need to tweak them. Here™s what
you need to know to tweak: Discontiguous: The tool erases pixels that
match the background even if they™re iso-
Sampling: The Background Eraser works by
lated from each other. If a little bit of the
looking at (sampling) the pixels directly under its
wallpaper™s color is on Charlie™s shirt, it may
black tip and calling that the background. It then
well erase that too when the eraser over-
erases matching pixels that it finds under the
laps the shirt.
full radius of the tool.
Find Edge: The tool erases pixels starting at
Continuous: As you drag, the Background
the tool tip outward until the tool finds an
Eraser continually checks the image to dis-
edge within its radius. This setting is also
cern a difference between the foreground
good for isolating Charlie.
and the background. This setting generally
provides the best results. Sharpness:
Once: The eraser looks only at the place Low values produce a fuzzy line between
where you first clicked to determine back- the background and Cousin Charlie; high
ground. Generally, this setting does very values create a crisp, sharp line. (Low
little erasing. values in the 40s look more natural.)
Foreswatch and Backswatch: The Back- Auto Tolerance:
ground Eraser attempts to erase colors that
You can clear this check box to set your tol-
are similar to what is in the Foreground or
erance manually in the Tolerance setting.
Background boxes, respectively, of the
Lower tolerance values mean that a pixel
Materials palette. Use this setting if what
must be a pretty close match to the sampled
you want to erase is one color and the
pixels to be erased.
Continuous setting isn™t getting it right.




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Controlling Strokes, Sizes, Shapes,
and Spatters: Tool Options
The Painting and Eraser tools can do much more than just create a plain,
boring spot or line. The Tool Options palette, as shown in Figure 9-4, is your
key to variety, artistic success, fame and fortune, and probably good dental
health. It™s the key to making your paint tool work the way you want. The
palette works the same ” or nearly the same ” for all painting and erasing
tools, except for the Warp Brush.


Click for more brush shapes.
Preview brush
with your
settings. Drag line sideways to expose or hide controls.

Figure 9-4:
The Tool
Options
palette.

Drag edge to make wider and display all controls.


One key role of the Tool Options palette is to show you what your brush
looks like. As Figure 9-4 indicates, a preview area in the upper-left corner
shows you the size, fuzziness (hardness), and speckliness (density) of the
spot you make if you clicked your image. The Tool Options palette is so
incredibly useful that it should almost always be open so that you can check
your brush before you paint.

The Tool Options palette (or its title bar, labeled Tool Options) is probably
already floating around somewhere on your PC screen. If you can™t find the
Tool Options palette, follow these steps:

1. Press the F4 key on your keyboard a few times.
The palette appears and disappears. Leave it visible.
2. If Tool Options appears as a floating window and you don™t want it
hovering over your painting, double-click its title bar to dock it.
3. If the Tool Options palette isn™t where you want it (we prefer along the
top), click the dark shaded bar at the far left and drag the palette to
wherever you want.
4. If you don™t see all the options on the Tool Options palette, you may
need to slide the palette open to see everything.



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The Tool Options palette has three sections: the brush shape section,
the opacity/blend section, and the shape/size/hardness section. Drag
the small vertical row of faint dots shown in Figure 9-4 left and right (or
up and down) until you can see all options clearly. Alternatively, you can
drag the bottom edge of the palette down, as Figure 9-4 suggests, to
widen the palette to display all sections.
(Of course, if you can see everything you intend to change, you don™t
have to open everything. Think of the three sections of the Tool Options
palette as a chest of drawers: You can open them all at one time or close
the ones you™re not working on and keep open the ones you need.)

You don™t need to put away the Tool Options palette before working on your
image. Leave it up so that you can make adjustments as you go. Drag it out of
the way, if necessary, like we just showed you.

Not all tools offer all the adjustments we discuss in the next few subsections.



Using convenient controls on
the Tool Options palette
You can make adjustments on the Tool Options palette by using the dialog
box gadgets you™re familiar with from other programs. You can click the Size
and other boxes and edit or type a new value or click either of the spin dial
buttons (the pair of up and down arrows) to increase or decrease a value.

In addition to the usual ways of adjusting values, Paint Shop Pro has a nifty
adjustment feature, as shown in Figure 9-5. Click the tiny down arrow at the
far right edge of the box for any numerical value, such as the Size box. Hold
the mouse button down, and a tiny ruler-like bar appears, with a pointer.
Keep the mouse button down and drag the pointer left or right to adjust the
value down or up, respectively.

Figure 9-5 shows a slider for the Paint Brush tool, although all or most of
these same controls exist for the other painting tools. Clicking the far right
down arrow for a given widget opens the adjustment slider, which gives
you a rough preview of what your tool will look like.



Figure 9-5:
The preview
adjustment
slider.




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If you repeatedly use the same tool with the same tool options, you can save
that tool™s settings as a preset. Presets allow you to load a bunch of tool
options in one click as opposed to entering them over and over again. Click
the Presets icon, and in the Presets fly-out box that appears, click the disk
(Save) icon. Type a memorable name for your settings in the Save Preset
dialog box that appears and press Enter. Click the Presets icon to put away
the fly-out. Thereafter, to choose your preset, click the Preset icon and
choose your preset by clicking its name in the fly-out box.



Making lines wider or narrower: Size
You most frequently adjust size. One size of tool definitely does not fit all.
Even Phil, Dave™s house painter, uses different sizes of brushes. (What an
artiste!) On the Tool Options palette, adjust the Size value to any value from
1 through 500 (from 1 to 500 pixels).

You can see just how big your tool is at any time by moving the cursor over
the image. Big brushes may need smaller step values (the number in the box
labeled Step) to avoid painting dotted lines.



Shaping clicks, lines, and line ends: Shape
Shape changes the way the painted (or erased) line looks when it ends or
bends. Shape also lets you stamp a shape by clicking the image, as though
you had a rubber stamp or were spraying paint through a template.

On the Tool Options palette, you have two options: You can go with a generic
round or square brush or with brushes that simulate chalk or watercolor, or
you can even select a variety of strange and unearthly brushes (like cherries,
comets, or fuzzy circles) to paint with, as shown in Figure 9-6.

Selecting a round or square brush couldn™t be simpler: Click the round or
square box on the Tool Options palette. If you want something a little more
esoteric, however, you can select a brush tip from the brush tip drop-down
menu, next to the Presets menu. As shown in Figure 9-6, you™re presented
with a gallery of brushes, called the Resource Manager, that you can scroll
through; double-click a brush tip to load it.

Using the various brush tips, you can make your lines look as though you
have drawn them with a calligraphic pen. Figure 9-7 shows you, from top to
bottom, the square, round, hard rake, and twirly spike brush shapes. The
twirly spike uses the background color as well as the foreground color from
the Materials palette. See Chapter 10 for more about the background color.



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Figure 9-6:
The round
and square
brushes and
a Resource
Manager
full of
brushes that
don™t exist in
nature!



As you make strokes, you see repeated stampings of this shape. The Step con-
trol (which we discuss in the section “Making lines more or less dotty: Step,”
later in this chapter) helps you change the separation between stampings.



Figure 9-7:
Different
brush
shapes
make
different
strokes.




Painting with a softer or
harder edge: Hardness
Hardness determines how sharp the edges of your tool are. Maximum hard-
ness (100) gives your tool a sharp edge; lower hardness applies a gradual
fade to the edge. Zero hardness gradually fades the edge all the way to the
center of the brush shape. At low hardness, you may need to decrease the
step to avoid creating a dotted line. Figure 9-8 shows you a single spot that
shows a hardness of 100, 80, 60, 40, and 20 (from left to right).

Reduce hardness to minimize jaggies (a staircase effect also called aliasing)
where your line bends.


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Figure 9-8:
The effect of
changing
hardness.




Making paint thinner or thicker: Opacity
Opacity is how thick (opaque or solid) your paint is. A value of 100 means
that your paint is completely opaque. Reduce opacity to make a more trans-
parent paint. A value of 50, for example, means that an individual spot of
paint (caused by clicking once with your mouse) is 50 percent transparent.
Overlapping spots cause each stroke, or click of the mouse, to add paint and
make the area more opaque. Figure 9-9 shows spots with an opacity of 100,
80, 60, 40, and 20 (from left to right).



Figure 9-9:
Out,
damned
spot! Single
spots with
decreasing
opacity.



A brush stroke (dragging with your mouse) is more opaque than a single spot
(clicking with your mouse) because strokes are simply repeated, overlapping
spots. If you increase the values of the step variable (which controls the
spacing of those spots), you make the stroke more transparent.

For the Eraser tool, opacity refers to how completely you erase. If you use
maximum opacity (100), you erase the line entirely. Use repeated strokes
or clicks with values less than 100 to shave the paint thickness and reduce
opacity.



Getting speckles of spray: Density
The word density doesn™t accurately describe this adjustment. The words
speckly-ness or speckle-osity are more accurate, but still confusing. Density
works like this: When density is at its maximum (100), you get nice, solid



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paint coverage (or eraserage, if you™re using the eraser). At lower settings of
density, you get random speckles, as though you were spattering or spraying.
Figure 9-10 shows you a single spot, at densities of 100, 80, 60, 40, and 20
(from left to right).



Figure 9-10:
The effect of
different
density
settings.



For the Airbrush tool to do its job (which is spraying paint), you must set the
density to less than 100. Yet, you can set density less than 100 for the Paint
Brush or Eraser tools too, and they also give a speckly result, similar to the
results you would get with the Airbrush tool.



Making lines more or less dotty: Step
It™s time you knew the truth: The Paint Shop Pro paint tools don™t apply paint
continuously as you drag. (Gasp!) No, they apply repeated stampings of the
brush™s shape. (Imagine a jackhammer tipped with a rubber stamp.) The Step
control determines the distance between those stampings.

If you set the step value at its maximum (100, or 100 percent), the shapes
don™t overlap; the step is 100 percent of the tool size, so you get a dotted line.
At 50, the shapes overlap halfway, and at 25 they overlap three-quarters (25
is often a good choice). Figure 9-11 shows you step values of 20, 40, 60, and
100 (from top to bottom). The larger the step values, the more dotted the
line.




Figure 9-11:
Increasing
step values.




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Very low step values use up lots of processor power because the computer
has to draw a new stamp every time the mouse moves. If you™re drawing and
the computer hesitates a moment before it renders the line on the screen,
you may consider raising the step value 10 or 20 percent.




Coloring within the Lines
By Using Selection
When you™re using painting tools in Paint Shop Pro and have selected an
area, those painting tools work only within that selection. This feature is
great for keeping you “within the lines” as you paint.

First, select the area you want to paint. (Refer to Chapter 3 to find out how
to make selections.) If you have chosen to use multiple layers in your image,
make sure that you™re on the layer that contains the object you want to paint.
(See Chapter 11 or the Cheat Sheet for help with layers.) Then, choose a
painting tool and paint! Feel free to scribble or spray paint over the edges;
the paint falls only within the selection.

Feathered selections work too, for blending the edges of your painting efforts
into the rest of the image. Paint Shop Pro applies less paint in the feathered
zone. Feathering expands the marquee to include feathered pixels outside the
selection, however. If the selection has Swiss-cheese-like holes in it (as the
Magic Wand tool selections often do), you may not notice the holes because
the feathered expansion covers them. As you paint, because the holes are
feathered areas, they reappear as fuzzy spots that resist being painted. If you
don™t want that effect, eliminate the holes in your selection before you apply
feathering. Refer to Chapter 3 for help.




Replacing Colors
Here™s your chance to fix that purple cow ” the one that people always
prefer to see, rather than be. The Color Replacer tool is your companion in
reconstructive cow coloring.

The Color Replacer isn™t a great tool for photographs. It tends to skip pixels,
and it also replaces, with a single color, the natural range of color values that
result from sun and shadow. Use this tool for cartoon cows with blocks of
color or the text COWs and you will be fine. For photographic cows, you™re
better off selecting a colored area and using the Colorize tool, as described in
Chapter 7. You™ll get a far more realistic result.



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Color replacement, like most Paint Shop Pro actions, works on only the active
layer and within any selection you may have made. If you have chosen to use
layers in your image, make sure that you™re working on the correct layer
during the following steps, or else replacement may not work.

Don™t be cowed. Here™s how to put new hue in your purple moo:

1. Click the Color Replacer from the color selection tool group, six but-
tons from the top of the Tools toolbar, as shown in Figure 9-12.
The cursor takes on a brush shape. As with the Paint Brush and other
painting tools, the brush size, shape, and other properties are controlled
by the Tool Options palette. Refer to “Controlling Strokes, Sizes, Shapes,
and Spatters: Tool Options,” earlier in this chapter.



Figure 9-12:
The Color
Replacer
hides in the
color
selection
tool group.



2. Hold down the Ctrl key and right-click in your image the color you
want to replace.
The Background Material box takes on this color.
3. Again, hold down the Ctrl key and left-click your new, replacement
color, either in the image or in the Available Colors area of the Color
palette.
The Foreground Material box takes on this color. Alternatively, you can
use any technique we describe in Chapter 10 to set a new foreground
material, complete with textures and gradients and whatnot.
4. To replace the color in specific areas, drag across those areas. Double-
click anywhere to replace the color everywhere.
Like most tools, the Color Replacer tool™s action is constrained by layers
and selections. If you have used layers in your image, color is replaced
only throughout the active layer. If you have a current selection, replace-
ment happens only within that selection.

The Color Replacer tool replaces a range of colors that are close to the one
you picked to be replaced. Adjust the Tolerance setting on the Tool Options
palette to control closeness. (Press F4 if you don™t see the Tool Options


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palette.) The larger the Tolerance setting, the broader the range of colors the
Color Replacer tool replaces. If you™re replacing a single, uniform color, set
the tolerance to zero. If you™re purpling a cow in a photograph, you need to
replace a range of browns (or blacks or whites, depending on the cow). Set
the tolerance higher in that event; try 25 or so, to start. In short, select one of
these methods:

If the Color Replacer tool replaces more than you want, decrease the tol-
erance. Press Ctrl+Z to undo the overenthusiastic replacement, and then
drag or double-click again.
If the Color Replacer tool doesn™t replace enough, increase tolerance
and then drag or double-click again.




Filling Areas
For flooding an area with nice, even color, nothing beats the Flood Fill tool,
except possibly spilling a glass of red wine on a white sweater. (Fortunately,
unlike with the wine spill, you can undo the Flood Fill tool™s actions by press-
ing Ctrl+Z.)

Using the Flood Fill tool, shown in the margin, you can fill an area with solid
color. You can not only fill with a simple color, but also fill areas with complex
gradients, patterns, or textures. You only have to choose a foreground mater-
ial in the Material Properties dialog box, as Chapter 10 relates.



Filling a selected area with solid color
The most basic kind of fill you can perform is filling a selected area with a
uniform color (the sort of work that Phil, Dave™s house painter, does). For
example, the sky in your photograph may be gray ” perhaps with clouds and
power lines running through it ” and you want to make it solid, cloudless
blue with no power lines. Here™s how to fill like Phil:

1. Use any of the selection tools to select the area you want to fill.
For example, click the sky in your picture with the Magic Wand tool.
Refer to Chapter 3 for help with getting exactly the selection you want.
The selection marquee indicates your selected area.
If you have chosen to use layers in your image, you must also select the
layer that contains the portion of the image you want to fill. See Chapter
11 for more help with layers. If you don™t use layers in your image, just
make your selection and move on to Step 2.



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2. Click the Flood Fill tool on the Tools toolbar.
Your cursor icon changes to the paint can, the Flood Fill tool icon.
3. Choose a foreground material to fill with.
For simple unpatterned, untextured fills, make sure that the Foreground
and Stroke Properties box is set to a solid color. Refer to Figure 9-2, near
the beginning of this chapter, to see how to choose just a plain color.
4. Open the Tool Options palette.
If the Tool Options palette isn™t visible on your screen, press the F4 key
on your keyboard to display the palette.
5. Make the following choices from the drop-down lists there:
• Blend mode: Normal
• Match mode: None
• Opacity: 100 percent for a fill that nothing shows through, or lower
for a more transparent fill
6. Click your selection in the image.
The color completely fills the selected area (in your chosen layer, if you
use layers). If you choose an opacity lower than 100, the color just tints
the selected area and increases in thickness if you click again.

Figure 9-13 shows the effect of a solid fill in a selection of the sky, using deep
blue to fill the sky uniformly. (The edge of the selection is feathered a bit,
causing the white band to appear along the skyline.)




Figure 9-13:
A solid fill of
the sky. In
this image, a
solid fill
doesn™t look
natural.




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If you™re modifying a drawing, a solid color may be exactly what you want. In
our photo, however, a solid color doesn™t look natural as sky. Sky is never a
uniform color in real life; it changes in color gradually as it approaches the
horizon. For a more natural look, you need a gradient, or shaded, fill.



Filling with a gradient, pattern, or texture
In real life, you rarely see a uniform color (even if you think you do). Changes in
lighting or the angles at which light strikes an object cause a gradual change
across the object from one color to another, lighter color. The surface of your
desk, for example, is probably a lighter color nearer your source of light.

If you need a realistic shading like that, or if for any other reason you want
colors in an area to make a smooth transition from one color to another, try
a shaded, or gradient, fill. Figure 9-14 shows the effect of a gradient fill on the
sky area of the photograph.

For some fills, like filling a rectangle to look like a brick wall or a tree trunk,
use a pattern rather than a solid color. To use gradients or patterns, you must
first set your foreground material to be a gradient or pattern; see Chapter 10
for instructions on choosing the gradient or pattern you need.




Figure 9-14:
Gradient fills
make filled
areas (the
sky, in this
photo) more
realistic.



Or, you may want to apply color with a textured appearance. Just like the
other painting tools, if the Material box has a texture, such as canvas or
asphalt, the Flood Fill tool applies it. Again, see Chapter 10 for more details




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What about tolerance?
Technical types may be wondering what the itself to determine which pixels are to be filled,
Tolerance control, on the Flood Fill tool™s Tool according to their color or other qualities.
Options palette, is good for. In this chapter, we Choose a Match mode other than None, and
bypass the need to use that control by instruct- then set tolerance. The Flood Fill tool deter-
ing you to select the area you want to fill and mines what pixels to fill based on those settings,
then use a Match mode of None. We think that exactly as the Magic Wand tool does to deter-
that™s the easiest way to fill a specific area. mine what pixels to select.
An alternative to selecting an area beforehand
with a selection tool is to use the Flood Fill tool




Blend modes
Sometimes, you don™t want to overpaint the underlying image; you want to
just tint or infuse the image with a color or increase or decrease color satura-
tion or apply some other quality. The Flood Fill tool has some fancy features,
called blend modes, that combine attributes of your chosen fill, such as hue
and saturation, with the underlying image in complex and subtle ways. In
general, these blend modes are too obscure to be useful for any except the
most dedicated graphics professional. For the rest of us, two of the modes,
Color and Hue, can be occasionally useful because they can infuse an area
with color, although the Colorize command, which we describe in Chapter 7,
does that job quite nicely.

To experiment with blend modes, click the Blend Mode drop-down list on the
Flood Fill tool™s Tool Options palette and choose a mode. Then try filling a
selected area of your image.




Painting an Example: A Halo for Alex
As an example of all this brushing and filling hoo-hah, we have decided that
Dave™s dog Alex is the best-behaved dog in the world. We™re attempting to
convince the Weekly World News tabloid that Alex is such a good dog that he
has a halo. (The Weekly World News may be naïve, but it pays well.)




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Two problems show up in the current picture of Alex, though, as shown in
Figure 9-15:

One, he has no halo ” but we draw that.
Two, the Weekly World News uses only black-and-white photos, and that
light slatted background behind Alex isn™t dark enough to make the halo
stand out. We rectify that in eight easy steps!



Figure 9-15:
Alex,
unedited
dog about
town.



If you™re reading ahead in this chapter, you may notice that the doorbell
directly above Alex™s head, as shown in all the other pictures of Alex in this
book, isn™t present here. We got rid of that using the Clone Brush; refer to
Chapter 8 to find out how to remove unsightly doorbells from your pictures.

1. Select the slatted background behind Alex.
As we discuss earlier in this chapter, in “Coloring within the Lines By
Using Selection,” you want to select the background to make sure that
you don™t accidentally draw over Alex™s head while you™re changing the
slats. Refer to Chapter 3 for help with getting exactly the selection you
want.
(For the record, we used the Magic Wand Tool set to a Match mode of
Color, a tolerance of 17, a feather of 1, and a large amount of judicious
Shift+clicking to clean up the small patches of unselected areas.)
2. Select the Paint Brush tool from the brush tool group.
3. Change the material (as we discuss in Chapter 3), and then do a test
paint along the edges to make sure that the edges look good.
We selected a dark red material for our paint, but we set the opacity for
our Paint Brush to 50 (half-transparent) so that the slatting still appears
through the paint. As you can see in Figure 9-16, our brush strokes have
stopped at the marquee edge of the selection, right above Alex™s
Buddha-like gaze.
If you don™t see the Tool Options palette, press F4.




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Chapter 9: Basic Painting, Spraying, and Filling




Figure 9-16:
Testing a
small patch
of the new,
transparent
paint color
for the wall.



4. Paint the entire selected area.
You could also use the Flood Fill tool with a Match set to none. The
Flood Fill tool is at its best, though, on fairly even areas that are mostly
the same color, like the sky in the Fill example earlier in this chapter ”
not areas with dark vertical streaks through it, like this one. Besides,
you™re already using the Paint Brush tool, so why switch? The final
results are just as good, as shown in Figure 9-17.



Figure 9-17:
The now
repainted
wall forms a
darker
background.



5. Deselect the area.
Alex™s halo needs to be big and impressive. So big and impressive, in
fact, that it sticks out of the current selection ” and as long as we have
the background selected, we can™t paint outside the lines. If you don™t
feel like skipping to Chapter 12, where we tell you how to deselect, you
can either press Ctrl+D or choose Selections➪Select None.
6. Select the Airbrush tool from the brush tool group.
A halo is supposed to be fuzzy, so we airbrushed it in. The airbrush also
makes it easy to build up the halo from repeated loops so that we don™t
have to be so careful about shape.




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7. Set the Airbrush options on the Tool Options palette and choose your
color (texture, pattern) from the Materials palette.
A halo is supposed to be fuzzy and bright white, so we picked a pure
white color from the Materials palette. We wanted a reasonably small
line for our halo, so a size of 11 seemed about right ” and a halo is sup-
posed to be bright, so we cranked up the Opacity to 100 so that the
background doesn™t bleed through.
This process still doesn™t address the “fuzziness” issue ” but the
Hardness and Step settings do. We reduced the Hardness to 0 to provide
maximum fuzziness, and we set the Step to 35 to produce a slightly spot-
tier line.
8. Draw a halo.
Keep a steady hand, here! Alex™s reputation is at stake! (see Figure 9-18).




Figure 9-18:
Beatific
Alex.



What™s that, you say? It looks fake? Have you ever seen the Weekly World
News?

You may be asking “Isn™t Alex™s halo a little shaky there? Doesn™t Paint Shop
Pro have a tool for drawing perfect shapes, like circles, squares, and elliptic
halos?” Of course, it does ” and we show you how to draw better halos in
Chapter 12.




TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 10
Advanced Painting for the Artiste
In This Chapter
Understanding foreground and background
Convenient ways to choose materials
Precise ways to choose colors
Painting with gradients, patterns, and textures
Storing swatches of materials for reuse
Painting with picture tubes
Mimicking real art materials with Art Media




I f you do lots of painting, this chapter is the one to check out before you go
flinging your paint brush around with wild abandon. Among other things,
an artiste like you needs the fastest and best ways to choose a color.

Moreover, because you™re so talented, you don™t just paint with color. How
boring and pedestrian! No, you paint with materials in Paint Shop Pro!

Material, in this case, is the Paint Shop Pro term for anything from plain old
solid colors to textured colors, gradients (shaded areas with transitions from
one color to another), or even multihued geometric patterns. You can even
save your carefully designed materials as swatches for future use.

All this excitement springs from the Materials palette, which in Paint Shop
Pro 9 hides more secrets than a black dog hides ticks. Figure 10-1 shows the
palette and some of its more important features.

If the Materials palette isn™t on your screen, press F6 or choose View➪
Palettes➪Materials. Palettes are lumps of useful tools and settings in Paint
Shop Pro; the Materials palette is one of them. You can drag the palettes
around to different places in your Paint Shop Pro window; they stick (dock)
to various edges.

Here™s a quick review of picking color: As we note in Chapter 9, the simplest
way to choose a color is with the Rainbow tab in the Materials dialog box.
(Press F6 to display the Materials palette if it™s not showing already.) Click

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the center, or Rainbow, tab on that palette to display that tab, as shown in
Figure 10-1. On the multihued Rainbow tab, just click the color you want.
(Right-click for background color ” we tell you more about background
color later in this chapter.)


Rainbow tab

Frame tab Swatches tab
Figure 10-1:
Foreground (and stroke) Properties
The
Materials Foreground (and stroke) Color
palette and
Background (and fill) Color
its various
Swap colors
parts.
Background and fill Properties
Shown here
is the
Rainbow tab
for choosing
color.
Swap materials Style buttons


The cursor is a Dropper icon while it™s over the color selection area, to indi-
cate that you pick up a color if you click. As you move the cursor, you see an
enlarged sample of the color your cursor is over. (The numbers are primary
color values that give you the exact numerical color you™re using. We tell you
more about this subject later in this chapter.)




Choosing paint for each tool separately
or all tools together
In real life, if you paint with your brush dipped in tools you™re using; if you use the Spray Paint tool
red paint and then switch to spray-painting with with red paint and a rough texture and then
a can of green paint, your brush remains red. It switch to the Paint Brush tool, the paint brush is
doesn™t switch to green. Of course, in real life red with a rough texture. You can, however,
you can™t insert your dog into a picture of Elvis choose to change this rather odd behavior by
and then spray-paint him purple, so you have to unchecking the All Tools box on the Materials
assume that Paint Shop Pro is a little stranger palette. Checking All Tools applies your current
than the world outside your door. paint choice to all tools; deselecting All Tools
means that you choose paint individually for
Unless you tell Paint Shop Pro otherwise, it
each tool.
applies the same style and texture to all the




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Chapter 10: Advanced Painting for the Artiste


Choosing a Background Color
Paint Shop Pro has two painting colors, called foreground and background.
Foreground just means the color you normally paint with. Background is a sec-
ondary color used for certain operations, or just for convenience when you
switch often between two colors.

To choose a foreground color, you left-click a color on the Materials palette;
to choose background, you right-click. How do you know whether you need
or want a secondary color? It depends on the tool you™re using and how you
intend to use it:

If you want to be able to switch quickly between painting with one color
and another, you can paint the foreground color by pressing the left
mouse button and the background color by pressing the right mouse
button.
The Shapes tools require a background color if you want solid shapes.
If you plan to draw filled-in squares (as opposed to just the outline of a
square), you need to choose a background color to fill the shape in with.
If you™re using the Eraser tool, you can choose what the eraser leaves
behind: a transparent streak (useful if you™re using layers) or the back-
ground color.
If you™re using a tool that involves two colors ” for example, the Color
Replacer tool to replace one color with another, you need a second
color ” and the background color is that second color. Background
color also provides the fill of filled shapes and text.

To swap the background and foreground materials, click the Material
Switcher (the larger, double-headed arrow), as shown in Figure 10-1. The
background material becomes the foreground, and vice versa. If you want to
swap colors and keep textures or gradients the same, click the smaller arrow.



Choosing Color More Conveniently
Paint Shop Pro offers conveniences for the artist on the go who is in a rush to
choose the correct color. You can choose a recently used material or pick up
a color from the image.



Choosing a basic color or
a recently used material
You may want to use your everyday, smiley-face yellow ” but locating
exactly that same color in the Available Colors area is often next to
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impossible: Your eyes and fingers can™t be that precise. Likewise, you may
have developed a cool gradient that slid from cool blue to a sea green, but do
you think that you can do that again?

Fortunately, Paint Shop Pro gives you another way to choose a recently used
material: the Recent Materials dialog box. The Recent Materials dialog box
also gives you basic black, totally white, and a variety of other basic colors
you can return to again and again.

Here™s how to see this helpful box of recently used materials and basic colors:

1. Right-click the Foreground (or Background) Material Properties box,
whichever one you want to set.
The Recent Materials dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 10-2. The
ten most recent materials you have used appear along the top two rows;
ten standard colors appear along the bottom rows (including black,
white, and two shades of gray). If the colors have circles with slashes,
you™re using an image that has its own palette of colors, and those
colors aren™t part of its palette.
Colors in the bottom two basic-color rows are pure colors ” except for
the grays ” that is, they™re the reddest red, bluest blue, magenta-est
magenta, and so on.
Technically speaking, the top row contains the pure red, green, and blue
primary colors of radiant light. The second row contains the pure cyan,
magenta, and yellow primary colors of printed ink.
2. Click any color or material to choose it (or press the Esc key if you see
nothing you like).
The Recent Materials dialog box disappears immediately. The color you
clicked is now chosen and appears in the color sample on the Materials
palette.
You may think that right-clicking in the Recent Materials dialog box
would choose the background color, as it does on the Materials palette.
You would be wrong. Right-clicking does nothing here.



The last ten
materials
you've used
Figure 10-2:
Ten pure colors
The Recent
Materials
box.




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Chapter 10: Advanced Painting for the Artiste

To get shades of color other than the ones you see in the Recent Materials
dialog box, click the Other button. This button takes you to the Material
Properties dialog box. See the upcoming section “Choosing a Color for the
Very Picky,” for details.



Choosing a recently used color
If it™s simply color you™re interested in, not material with all its textures and
gradients and stuff, follow this approach ” it remembers more colors than
the Recent Materials dialog box does:

1. Right-click the small Foreground or Background Color box ”
whichever one you want to set.
The Recent Colors dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 10-3. The ten
most recent colors you have used are in the top two rows of the dialog
box, and the ten pure colors ” exactly the same colors from the Recent
Materials box ” are in the bottom two rows. If the colors have circles
with slashes, you™re using a palette image, and those colors aren™t
available.
2. Click any color to choose it (or press the Esc key if you see nothing
you like).
The Recent Colors dialog box disappears immediately. The color you
clicked is now chosen and appears in the color sample in both the Color
and Materials boxes.




The last ten colors
you've used

Ten pure colors, redux
Figure 10-3:
The Recent
Colors box.




Choosing a color from your picture
Sometimes, the easiest way to choose a color is to pick up that color from
your picture. You have two ways to pick up color. Choose the one that makes
your life easier:

When using any tool that applies paint (for example, the Paint Brush tool),
hold down the Ctrl button and the cursor turns into a Dropper icon. Left-
click to pick up foreground color, and right-click for background color.
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178 Part III: Painting Pictures

On the Tools toolbar, click the Dropper tool icon, as shown in the margin.
(If you see no Dropper icon, you may have been using the Color Replacer
tool ” click the Color Replacer tool and select the Dropper icon from the
drop-down menu.) The cursor turns into a Dropper icon. Left-click to pick
up foreground color, and right-click for background color.

If you have deselected the All Tools check box, colors you select for one tool
don™t apply to other tools.




Choosing Color for the Slightly Picky
If you need a slightly more precise way to choose color, try the Frame tab in
the Material Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 10-4. The Frame tab
lets you choose the basic color (hue) by clicking a frame, and then lightness
by clicking in the center.



Figure 10-4:
The Frame
tab. Choose
the basic
hue and
then adjust
the light-
ness or
darkness.



To choose a hue (yellow, for example), first click the hue in the frame. The
center of the frame becomes shades of that hue.

Then, click in the center of the frame to choose how light or dark you want
that hue to be. The foreground color box reflects your choice. To access a
bigger version of the same color-picking technique, see the next section.




Choosing a Color for the Very Picky
Choosing a color from one of the Materials palette™s tabs area is all well and
good, but the palette is so small that you can™t be precise. What if you™re very
picky?



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Chapter 10: Advanced Painting for the Artiste

To choose a color more precisely, left-click the Foreground or Background
properties box (whichever color you want to set). Those are the big squares
on the Materials palette.

The amazingly colorful Material Properties dialog box appears, as shown in
Figure 10-5. (If the foreground or background material has a gradient or pat-
tern, their respective dialog boxes are displayed. Don™t worry: A row of tabs
is at the top. Click the Color tab.)



Precise color using the color wheel
The color wheel works just like the Frame tab, as described in the preceding
section ” it™s just bigger, and round rather than rectangular. The callouts
shown in Figure 10-5 give the details. You need to follow only three steps:

1. Drag the little circle on the color wheel to the basic hue you want.
2. Drag the little circle on the square to the precise shade you want.


Saturation/Lightness box
Forty-eight
basic colors Color wheel




Figure 10-5:
It™s time
to play
Wheel . . .
of . . .
Colors,
starring the
color wheel
and the Click here to see
Saturation/ a list of recent
materials you've used.
Lightness
box. Vanna
White, eat
your heart
out.


RGB, HSL, and HTML values


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The Current swatch, in the lower-right corner of the dialog box, shows
exactly which color you™re choosing, overlaid with any textures you
have selected. (The Previous swatch shows the color you started with.)
3. Click OK.
Your color has been changed.



Additional shades of basic colors
The Color tab in the Material Properties dialog box (as shown in Figure 10-5)
is also home to 48 basic colors. These colors are shades of 6 primary colors
(red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and magenta) plus 6 shades of gray (including
white and black).

Open the Color dialog box as usual by clicking either the Foreground or
Background Material Properties box and selecting the Color tab.

Choose a basic color by clicking it in the Basic Colors area, in the middle-left
corner of the dialog box. Click OK and your foreground or background color
is changed to your chosen color.



Precise color adjustments ”
by the numbers
Just as saying “1 foot, 3 inches” is much more precise than saying “a little
bigger than my shoe,” choosing a color by using numbers is much more pre-
cise than clicking it on a palette or color wheel. But, how can you do color by
the numbers?




Creating shadows and highlights
For brushing highlights or shadows onto an Material Properties dialog box, and then click
object, you often want a color that™s the same the Color tab, if it isn™t already selected. In the
hue as an existing one ” just a little lighter or Saturation/Lightness box, drag the tiny circle up
darker. Pick up the existing color from your pic- to make a shadow color, or down to make a
ture and make it the foreground color by click- highlight color.
ing it with the Dropper tool.
Click the Foreground and Stroke Properties
square on the Materials palette to bring up the



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Chapter 10: Advanced Painting for the Artiste

As it turns out, you can specify any color by using just three values.
Adjusting these values independently gives you more control. For example,
you can change just the lightness of a color and be certain that you haven™t
changed the hue.

The situation is like measuring distance, where you can use either the English
(feet, inches) or metric (meters) systems. In Paint Shop Pro you can use one
of three alternative systems to specify colors: Hue/Saturation/Lightness (HSL,
to its friends) or Red/Green/Blue (known as RGB) or HTML.

The Color tab in the Material Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 10-5,
shows the three values that describe your chosen color in all three systems
(RGB, HSL, and HTML). The area displays values for Red, Green, and Blue (on
the left) and Hue, Saturation, and Lightness (on the right). When you choose
a new color using any control in this dialog box, those numbers change. In
value, the numbers range from 0 to 255. An optional visual control appears
when you click and hold the down arrow at the far right end of a value box
(see Figure 10-6). The easiest way to adjust this value is with the slider con-
trol at the bottom.



Figure 10-6:
Achieving a
numerically
precise
color.



To adjust a color precisely, you can change the numbers in either the RGB or
HSL value boxes (your choice). For example, do you want more red? Use the
RGB controls and increase the value in the Red box. More yellow? To use
the RGB controls, you would have to know that red and green make yellow
in the RGB system and then increase the values in Red and Green (perhaps
decreasing the value in Blue).

The HTML value is a numerical representation of the three RGB values, ren-
dered into one hexadecimal code that Web browsers like Internet Explorer
can understand. You should never try to adjust a color by using the HTML
value. If you™re designing for the Web, though, the only way to tell a browser
that a sidebar should be precisely this shade of red is to use hexadecimals. If
you™re a Web designer, you know that you can use the HTML value within the
color attributes of HTML; if you™re not, you can safely ignore this section and
go in peace.




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Using the HSL values is sometimes a more intuitive alternative to using the
RGB values. HSL values are connected to the controls on the color wheel and
the Saturation/Lightness box. Here™s how they work:

Hue: The Hue value connects to your chosen position on the Color
wheel, beginning at zero at the top (red) and increasing as you go
around the circle counterclockwise. As you increase the number, the hue
passes through red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, violet, and magenta.
Saturation: The Saturation value connects to horizontal motion in the
Saturation/Lightness box: left (for a lower value) or right (for a higher
value). Use a higher value for a more intense (saturated) color.
Lightness: The Lightness value connects to vertical motion in the
Saturation/Lightness box: up (for a lower value) or down (for a higher
value). Use a higher value for a lighter color.

As with any value box in a Windows program, you can change the values by
either typing new numbers or clicking the tiny up and down arrows to gradu-
ally increase or decrease the value.

A more visual way to fiddle with the RGB or HSL values is to click the down
arrow at the far right end of any of the RGB or HSL value boxes. As Figure 10-6
demonstrates, a multicolored bar appears, showing the range of colors you
can achieve by dragging left or right. While holding the mouse button down,
drag left or right to choose a color. Release the button when you™re done.




Working with 256 Colors or Fewer
Images that have 256 colors or fewer are palette images: They use only a spe-
cific set of colors ” the image™s palette of available colors. You can change
any of those colors individually, but you can™t have any more colors than the
palette size (color depth) allows.

You don™t have to continue to live with this limitation. Press Ctrl+Shift+0 to
increase the image to 16 million colors (full color) and then you can skip all
the following stuff.

To choose colors in a palette image, click one of the Material Property boxes
and select the Color tab from the Material Properties dialog box. You see a
somewhat larger view of the palette. To reorder the colors, click the Sort
Order drop-down list box and choose either Palette Order (an arbitrary, num-
bered order), By Luminance (ordered from light to dark), or By Hue (ordered
by color). To choose a color, click it; then click OK.

To change any color on the image™s palette (or change a black square to some
other color), choose Image➪Palette➪Edit Palette. The Edit Palette dialog box
that appears is identical to the Select Color from Palette dialog box, with one
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Chapter 10: Advanced Painting for the Artiste

exception: If you double-click any color on the palette, the Color tab in the
Material Properties dialog box is displayed. See the section “Choosing a Color
for the Very Picky,” earlier in this chapter, for instructions on choosing a
color in this dialog box.




Going Beyond Plain Paint
Going beyond plain paint to something fancier means getting something
straight in your head, first. Here™s what to remember:

Paint Shop Pro can paint with any of three styles of paint:

Color: Plain, solid color
Gradient: Smooth transitions between two colors
Pattern: Any pattern of multiple colors, or even an image

To any of these three types of paint, you can add texture. Texture is an effect
similar to what you would create by doing a “rubbing” over some textured
surface. (Place paper over a coin and then rub the paper with a pencil tip ”
you™re doing a rubbing. Oh, come on ” you must have done this.)

A quick way to choose style is with one tiny button, under the Foreground
Properties (and Background Properties) box. Click one to choose plain paint,
gradient paint, or pattern. Figure 10-7 shows you how the button works.

A tiny menu flies out and displays icons for the three styles (color, gradient,
and pattern, in order). Any icons that are grayed out aren™t available in your
chosen tool.

You don™t have to use these buttons. The alternative is just to click the
Foreground or Background Properties box and then click the tab for Color,

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