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This marriage of outlines and styles provides considerable flexibility in approaching the
outlining process. You can create an outline from scratch by turning on Outline view and
then assigning levels to your headings and body text as you type. Alternatively, you can
write your document in Normal or Page Layout view and then switch to Outline view to
make it easier to arrange sections and to assign or reassign heading levels. Some people use
Outline view only now and then, as a way to help them rearrange things in large documents
” because you can control the amount of text that is visible on the screen in Outline view,
you can move large chunks of text with minimal effort. Others write virtually everything in
Outline view.
You can use outlines as a brainstorming aid: just type your thoughts without worrying where
they fit into the overall picture. Then, after you have a basic outline in place, you can change
the heading levels and rearrange entire sections of data. Creating an outline has other
benefits as well. For example, you can use an outline to create a table of contents, to number
headings, and even to build a master document.

Understanding Outline View
Whether you want to create an outline from scratch or work with an existing document in
outline format, you must first turn on Outline view. Choose View_Outline, or click the
Outline View button on the left side of the horizontal scroll bar. (Alternatively, you can press
Alt+Ctrl+O to change to Outline view. To return to Normal view, press Alt+Ctrl+N; to
return to Print Layout view, press Alt+Ctrl+P.) Figure 18-1 shows a document in Normal
view. Figure 18-2 shows the same document in Outline view.




Figure 18-1: A document in Normal view. All headings are formatted using Word™s built-
in heading styles.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 433




Figure 18-2: The same document shown in Figure 18-1 but in Outline view.

When you activate Outline view, the Outlining toolbar replaces the horizontal ruler ”
Outline view is not a page-layout view, so you don™t need the ruler. In other words, you
can™t define exactly where on the page the text appears in this view. Rather, Outline view
uses the page to show you different hierarchical levels, but indenting sub-levels to the right.
The outline display has nothing to do with the document™s formatting, so don™t try to do any
document formatting you can do in Normal or Print Layout view. In fact, the paragraph
formatting features of Word aren™t even accessible in Outline view.

In some ways, Outline view is similar to the Document Map. There are two major differ-
ences, however. Document Map doesn™t require that you use the Heading styles. It
Note
does its best to build an outline based on what it thinks are probably headings. And, of
course, Document Map is a simple feature ” it doesn™t have all the tools associated
with Outline view.

Each heading or text paragraph is indented to its respective level and preceded by a plus
sign, a minus sign, or a box. The plus sign indicates that body text, headings, or both are
below the heading. The minus sign indicates that body text or headings are not below the
heading. The small box indicates a body text paragraph.

Creating outlines
To create an outline from scratch or to outline an existing document, switch to Outline view
and then assign outline levels to your headings and paragraphs.
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To create a new outline, follow these steps:
1. Switch to Outline view. Figure 18-3 shows the Outlining toolbar and identifies its
buttons; Table 18-1 describes the buttons on the Outlining toolbar. Note, however,
that the Outlining toolbar also displays Word™s Master Document buttons, which
are explained later in this chapter.
Word assigns the Heading 1 style to the first paragraph where you have positioned
the cursor. If you don™t want the entry to be at the first level, promote or demote the
heading using the techniques described in step 4 before proceeding to step 2.




Figure 18-3: The Outlining toolbar.

2. Type your first heading.
3. Press Enter when you finish with the first heading.
Each time that you press Enter, Word begins a new paragraph at the same level as
the previous heading.
4. To promote or demote a heading, do one of the following:
• To demote a heading (move it to a lower level), click the Demote button on the
Outlining toolbar or press Alt+Shift+right arrow until the heading is at the level
that you want.
• To promote a heading (move it to a higher level), click the Promote button on the
Outlining toolbar or press Alt+Shift+left arrow as many times as necessary.
5. To change to body text, rather than merely a lower-level heading, click the Demote
to Body Text button on the Outlining toolbar or press Ctrl+Shift+N. To change
from body text back to a heading, press Ctrl+Shift+left arrow.

The term Body Text is a little confusing here. The button should really be called Normal
Note
Text. Selecting Demote to Body Text converts the text to the Normal style, not the Body
Text style present in the default Word template.

6. Continue entering text, promoting and demoting it through the levels as desired.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 435


Table 18-1
Buttons on the Outlining Toolbar
Button Name Action
Promote to Promotes a heading or body text to the Heading 1
Heading 1 level.

Promote Promotes a heading to the next higher level or
body text to the level of the preceding heading.

Outline Level Displays the outline level of the selected
drop-down text. Select a level from the drop-down
list box to change the text to that level.

Demote Demotes a heading to the next lower level or body
text to a heading at a level below that of the
preceding heading.
Demote to Demotes a heading to Normal text.
Body Text

Move Up Moves the selected heading or body text up the
page to above the previous heading or body text
paragraph. Only visible paragraphs are taken into
account, and moved headings and body text
retain their current levels.

Move Down Moves the selected heading or body text down the
page to below the next outline item. Only visible
items are taken into account, and moved head-
ings and body text retain their current levels.

Expand Expands the heading in which the insertion point
is placed to show the level below it, showing the
hidden text.

Collapse Collapses all of the headings and body text
subordinate to the selected heading, hiding them.

Show Level Selects a level to view; all levels, starting from
Level 1 down to the selected level will be shown.
Lower levels will be hidden.

Show First Toggles between displaying the full text of each
Line Only body text paragraph and displaying only the first
line of each paragraph. (Multi-line headings are
not affected; all lines of a heading are shown even
if you turn on Show First Line Only.)


Continued
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Table 18-1 (continued)
Button Name Action
Show Formatting Toggles between displaying and hiding character
formatting.

Update TOC Updates the Table of Contents, if you have one in
the document.

Go to TOC Moves the display to the Table of Contents and
selects it.

Master Document This button, and all those to the right, are related
View to master documents, which we look at a little
later in this chapter.


To create an outline from existing text, switch to Outline view and promote or demote
levels as desired using the toolbar. If you haven™t used any of Word™s nine built-in
Heading styles, everything in the document will be shown as body text. As you promote
text to a heading level, Word applies the appropriate style.

Don™t select text while promoting or demoting, simply place the insertion point in the
Note
paragraph. In some cases, if text is selected and you promote Word will apply the Head-
ing style to the selected text, not change the outline level or change the paragraph style.

As you promote and demote headings, you can see the current level by looking at the
Style box on the Formatting toolbar. In addition, if you want to view all of your styles at
once, you can display the style area. Choose Tools_Options, click the View tab, and then
enter a measurement in the Style Area Width box. When the style area is displayed, you
can adjust its width by dragging the vertical line that divides the style area from your
document text. You can also close the style area display by dragging the vertical line to
the left until the style area disappears.

Rearranging your outline
As you create an outline, don™t worry about getting the arrangement and levels exactly
the way that you want them. The beauty of working with outlines is that you can enter
your thoughts as they occur and later rearrange the text in a flash by moving sections up
and down.

Selecting in Outline view
Before you rearrange an outline, you need to understand how selection works in Outline
view. The following list describes selection techniques that apply specifically to outlines:
¦ When you click a plus icon, the heading and all of its subordinate levels are
selected.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 437

¦ When you click a box symbol, or a minus sign, only that paragraph of body text is
selected.
¦ When you click in the selection bar to the left of a paragraph, only that paragraph is
selected. Therefore, if you click in the selection bar next to a heading with a plus
sign, only that heading (and not any of its subordinate levels) is selected.
¦ You can select multiple headings or paragraphs by dragging up or down the
selection bar.
¦ You can use any standard Word technique for selecting text in an outline paragraph,
but once a selection crosses to a new paragraph, both paragraphs are selected in
their entirety. In other words, you cannot select only a portion of more than one
paragraph in Outline view.

Tip
If your text moves when you try to select it, you may have accidentally dragged a plus or
minus symbol instead of clicking it. In this situation, choose Edit_Undo and try again.

Promoting and demoting outline levels
To promote or demote a heading, place your insertion point anywhere in the heading and
then use one of the following methods:
¦ The Outlining toolbar. Choose the Promote or Demote button to change the
heading level. Choose the Demote to Body Text button to change any heading to
body text.
¦ Keystroke shortcuts. Press Alt+Shift+left arrow to promote a heading to the next
level, or press Alt+Shift+right arrow to demote a heading to the next level. For the
first three heading levels, you can also press Alt+Ctrl+#, with # standing for the
outline level to which you want the text assigned. For example, to change a heading
to level two, press Alt+Ctrl+2.
¦ The mouse. Drag the plus symbol to the left or the right. When you place the
mouse pointer over an outline icon, the pointer changes to a four-headed arrow, and
as you drag, a vertical line appears at each heading level. Release the mouse button
when you reach the desired level.
You can promote or demote multiple headings or body text paragraphs at the same time.

Here™s a great trick for globally promoting or demoting outline headings. Suppose that
Tip
you want to change all level two headings to level three headings. Simply use Word™s
Find and Replace feature. Choose Edit_Replace. Then, with your insertion point in the
Find What text box, choose More_Format_Style and select the Heading 2 style from
the Find What Style list box. In the Replace With text box, select the Heading 3 style
from the Replace With Style list box. Finally, click Replace All. You can also use the
Styles and Formatting task pane, using the Select All button.
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When you use the Outlining toolbar buttons to promote or demote a heading, only the
actual paragraph where your insertion point is located is moved. Unless you select an
entire section by clicking the plus icon or by using any other selection method,
subordinate levels aren™t affected ” with the following exceptions:
¦ Body text is always promoted or demoted along with its heading.
¦ Any outline elements that are collapsed under the heading are always moved along
with that heading.
If a heading is collapsed, any structural changes that you make to that heading affect any
subordinate headings or body text paragraphs. This makes it easy to move sections of a
document. Simply collapse your outline to its highest level, and then promote, demote,
and move the headings.

Moving outline headings
Before you move headings, decide whether you want to move only one particular heading or
all of the subheadings and body text associated with that heading. If a heading is collapsed
when you move it, any subordinate text moves with that heading. If the heading is expanded
to show its subordinate levels, however, some movement techniques move only the specified
heading. You can take advantage of this to move whole sections without going through the
process of selecting text. With the outline collapsed, dragging any plus icon will move all of
its associated text.
To move a heading without moving any of its associated subheadings or body text, use the
Move Up or Move Down button on the Outlining toolbar or press the Alt+Shift keys in
combination with an up- or a down-arrow key. Whenever you drag a plus icon, all of the text
associated with that heading is moved.
When you place your mouse pointer on a plus icon, the pointer changes to a four-headed
arrow. Then, as you drag up or down, a horizontal line with a right arrow is displayed.
Release the mouse button when the line is positioned where you want the text to be located.
To move multiple headings, select the headings that you want to move. Then hold down the
Shift key as you drag the last heading icon in your selection. Make sure that you don™t drag
any heading except the last one. Once you click any heading in a selection other than the last
one, your selection is cleared and only the heading where your mouse pointer is at is selected.

Outline view is a handy way to rearrange table rows. When working in a table, you can
Tip
move a row or selected rows to a new location by switching to Outline view and then
dragging them.

Using keyboard shortcuts
When your fingers are already on the keyboard, pressing a keystroke combination is often
easier than lifting your fingers off the keyboard to use the mouse. For example, if you™re
all set to type a body text entry, press Ctrl+ Shift+N rather than choosing the Demote to
Body Text button. Table 18-2 lists some of the most useful keystroke shortcuts for
working with outlines.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 439

Tab and Shift+Tab are two handy keystroke shortcuts in Outline view. With your insertion
point in a heading, pressing the Tab key demotes that heading to the next level, and
Note
pressing Shift+Tab promotes that heading to the next level (or promotes body text to a
heading). These keystrokes have this effect only in Outline view, however. To promote
or demote a heading in Normal view, use the Alt+Shift+arrow key combinations. To in-
sert an actual tab character in Outline view, press Ctrl+Tab.

Table 18-2
Keystroke Shortcuts in Outlines
To Do This Use These Keys
Switch to Outline view Alt+Ctrl+O

Switch to Normal view Alt+Ctrl+N

Promote a heading or body text
to the next level Alt+Shift+left arrow (or press Tab)

Demote a heading to the next level Alt+Shift+right arrow (or press Shift+Tab)

Promote or demote a heading Alt+Ctrl+1 through Alt+Ctrl+3. Note that
to a specific level keystrokes are assigned only for the first
three levels.

Demote a heading to body text Ctrl+Shift+N

Move a paragraph up Alt+Shift+up arrow

Move a paragraph down Alt+Shift+down arrow

Show all headings and body text,
or show all headings without body text Alt+Shift+A

Show only the first line of body text,
or show all body text Alt+Shift+L

Show or hide character formatting / on the numeric keypad

Expand selected headings Alt+Shift++ on the numeric keypad

Collapse selected headings Alt+Shift+- on the numeric keypad


Viewing both Outline and Normal view at once
One way to work effectively with outlines is to split the document screen into two panes.
In one pane, you can display your document in Outline view, and in the other pane, you
can display your document in Normal view. This way, you can take advantage of Outline
view to rearrange your text while simultaneously viewing the result of your actions in the
full document.
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To split your document into two equal panes, double-click the split bar (at the top of the
vertical scroll bar) or choose Window_Split. You can also simply drag the split bar to tailor
the size of the panes. To restore the split window to its original condition, double-click the
split bar or choose Window_Remove Split. Figure 18-4 shows an outline in split view.




Figure 18-4: An outline split into two panes.


Printing an outline
When you print from Outline view, only the visible portion of your document is printed. For
example, if your outline is collapsed to level one, only the Level 1 headings are printed. The
Outline symbols don™t appear on a document printout, though.
Before you print from Outline view, expand or collapse your outline to display what you
want to print. To print your document as it should appear in its final form, switch to Normal
or Print Layout view before you print.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 441


Copying an outline
In Outline view, if you select and copy headings that include collapsed subordinate text, the
collapsed text is also copied. Unfortunately, you cannot copy just the visible headings with
Word. You can, however, quickly list those headings in a table of contents and then omit the
page numbers. For more information about creating a table of contents using the Index and
Tables command (Insert menu), see Chapter 12 of Wiley™s Word 2003 Bible.
After you create a table of contents, click in it and press Ctrl+Shift+F9 to convert the table
of contents to regular text. You can then copy the headings from the table of contents.


Understanding Master Documents
Suppose that you want to add all your data into one colossal document or take several
existing documents and turn them into one larger document. If you do this, you may find
yourself running into a couple problems:
¦ Word begins to function less efficiently when a document is too large. (What™s too
large? There™s no hard-and-fast rule, it all depends on the speed of the computer
you have, the amount of memory, the number of images in the document, the
number of links to external content, and so on.) Certain tasks such as scrolling and
searching can take longer to accomplish, and the possibility of a system error
increases.
¦ Only one person can work on any given file at a time. Therefore, if everything is
crammed into the same file, you lose the capability to have different people
working on a project.
With the master-document feature in Word, however, you can consolidate several
documents into a large framework. This provides the consistency and other advantages of
working with one large document and also keeps the convenience of working with
individual subdocuments. In addition to these advantages, the master document feature
enables you to
¦ Cross-reference items among several documents.
¦ Use the Outline view tools to rearrange items spread among several documents.
¦ Create indexes, tables of contents, and lists that span several documents.
¦ Easily assign consistent page numbering, headers, and other formatting across
multiple documents.
¦ Print multiple documents with one command.
A book is ideally suited to the master document feature. Each chapter can be a
subdocument, and the elements common to the entire book can be contained in the master
document itself.
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In earlier versions of Word, the master-document feature has a reputation for being a little
Note
unstable. With today™s faster computers, master documents may not be as necessary as
before.


The Master Document view
Imagine an outline view that combines multiple documents. That™s Master Document
view. In effect it™s an extension of Outline view, and uses the Outlining toolbar ” the
buttons on the right side of the bar that we haven™t looked at yet.
What™s the point? Imagine you have a very large document, perhaps hundreds of pages
long, with lots of pictures. Such a document can get unwieldy ” moving around can take
a long time, Word can slow down, and so on. On the other hand, having everything in one
document is rather nice ” you can use Outline view to move things around, search the
entire document to find things, create tables of contents and indexes spanning all the
documents, and so on. The answer, the compromise, is the master document. Bring all the
text into one document when you need it there, but work on small portions, in individual
files, when you don™t.
You can create a master document from scratch or combine existing documents into a
master document. Turn on Master Document view by choosing View_Outline. The last
eight buttons on the bar are master-document buttons, but the last seven are not always
displayed. Click the Master Document View button to expand or contract the toolbar; the
button also changes the document display, though until you™ve actually created a master
document you won™t notice any difference.

You might think of the master document as a sort of interactive index inside a normal
document. A master document contains two things: normal document stuff ” text and
Note
graphics, tables and text boxes, and so on ” and links to other documents. Those links
can be used to pull in the information from the documents to which the master docu-
mented is linked.

Figure 18-5 shows the Master Document buttons on the Outlining toolbar, and Table 18-3
identifies and describes those buttons.




Figure 18-5: The Master Document buttons.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 443


Table 18-3
Master Document Buttons on the Outlining Toolbar
Button Name Action
Master Document Switches between Master Document and
View Outline views, and expands and contracts
the toolbar.

Expand/Collapse Expands the master document, by
Subdocument pulling in data from the subdocuments,
or collapses the document, by removing
the information and displaying the links to
the subdocuments.

Create Turns selected headings and text into
Subdocument subdocuments, automatically saving a
new document and creating a link from the
master document to the subdocument.

Remove Pulls the data from the subdocument
Subdocument into the master document and breaks
the link to the subdocument ” but it
doesn™t actually delete the subdocument
file.

Insert Enables you to create a link to use an
Subdocument existing file as a subdocument.

Merge Combines multiple subdocuments into
Subdocument one subdocument.

Split Divides one subdocument into two
Subdocument subdocuments.

Lock Document Toggles the entire document or selected
subdocuments to a locked or an unlocked
state. Note that this provides only cursory
protection, however. Any user can unlock
the subdocument simply by choosing the
Lock Document button again.
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Building a master document
There are three main methods of building a master document:
¦ Begin a new document in Master Document view. Create an outline for your master
document, and then use those headings to break the outline into separate
subdocuments.
¦ Break an existing document into subdocuments.
¦ Combine existing documents into a master document by inserting them as
subdocuments. Any existing Word document can be treated as a subdocument.
Master documents, like outlines, use Word™s built-in heading styles (Heading 1 through
Heading 9).

Starting from scratch
To build a master document from scratch in Master Document view, follow these steps:
1. Open a new document.
2. Switch to Master Document view by choosing View_Outline; then click the
Master Document View button on the Outlining toolbar.
3. Create an outline for your master document using any of the techniques covered
previously in this chapter, typing headings to begin each subdocument. Before you
create the outline, however, decide which heading level you want to use to begin
each subdocument.
4. When you™re ready to break portions of the document into subdocuments, select all
of the headings and text that you want to convert. You can expedite this process by
collapsing the outline to the heading level at which you want to begin your
subdocuments before you make your selection.

Note You cannot convert body text without a heading into a subdocument. The selected text
must have at least one heading.

Word uses the level of the first heading in your selection to determine where each
subdocument begins. For example, if your selection begins with a level two
heading, Word begins a new subdocument at each level two heading in your
selected text area.
5. Click the Create Subdocument button.
Each subdocument is enclosed in a box, and a subdocument icon is displayed in the
upper-left corner of each box, as shown in Figure 18-6.
6. Save the master document.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 445




Figure 18-6: A master document divided into subdocuments.

When you save a master document, Word creates a new file, in the same directory as the
master document, using a file name based on the first line of text in the file. Note also that
Word adds a body text paragraph between each subdocument. This makes it easy to add
additional text or subdocuments outside the existing subdocument boundaries.

Because Word automatically assigns subdocument file names, you can end up with
strange results if your headings have similar names or if the file names assigned by
Caution
Word would conflict with files already in the destination directory. As a simple demon-
stration, suppose that your directory contains a document called Chapter 1.doc. Now
suppose that you create a subdocument in which the first heading is titled Chapter 1.
When you save the master document, Word assigns the name Chapter 2.doc to your
subdocument because Chapter 1.doc is already taken. When a naming conflict occurs,
Word uses numbers to differentiate the file names. Therefore, your neatly numbered
headings may not correspond with their subdocument file names. For this reason, you
should check and, if necessary, rename subdocument file names before you close the
master document. For instructions, see the “Renaming or moving a subdocument” sec-
tion later in this chapter.
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Converting an existing document
To convert an existing document to a master document, open the file and switch to Outline
view. Set up all the headings and levels the way you want them.
Next, select the section that you want to split into subdocuments. Make sure, however,
that the first selected heading is the level at which you want each subdocument to start.
Click the Create Subdocument button, and save the master document. At that point Word
creates the subdocuments, saving them in the same directory.

Inserting existing documents into a master document
You can create master document from a number of existing files. Open the document you
want to become the master document ” it could be a new blank document, or an existing
document to which you want to add subdocuments.
Place the insertion point where you want to add a subdocument, and click the Insert
Subdocument button. Find the file you want to insert in the Insert Subdocument dialog
box, and click Open. That™s it; the document link is dropped into the master document.

When you open a subdocument from within its master document, the template and for-
Note matting assigned to the master document take precedence over any formatting origi-
nally assigned to the subdocument. If you open the subdocument separately, however,
the subdocument reverts to its original formatting.


Working with master documents
After you build a master document, you have several options for working with it. In Outline
view, you can treat the entire document as one large outline, and you can expand, collapse,
promote, and demote sections at will. In Normal view, you can work with the document just
as you would with any other document. You can cut and paste text or graphics between
sections, add formatting, and perform any other document task. You can also open an
individual subdocument and work on it separately by double-clicking the subdocument icon
in the left margin.

When you switch from Outline/Master view to any other view, even Reading view, you™ll
see the document in the condition it was in before you switched. That is, if you had
Note
collapsed the document, you™ll see the links to the subdocuments. If you had expanded
the document, you™ll see all the text from the subdocuments, with a section break before
and after each subdocument.

Be aware that Word inserts section breaks for each subdocument, because this may affect
your formatting decisions. You can apply different formatting (including headers, footers,
margins, paper size, page orientation, and page numbering) for different sections. You can
see the section breaks in Normal view by clicking the Show/Hide button on the Standard
toolbar.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 447


Working with a master document in Normal or Print Layout view is just like working with
Note any other document. You can apply formatting to the entire document or any part of it. In
addition, because each subdocument is a section, you can apply or modify any section-
level formatting, such as page numbering or margins. You can also insert new sections
within the subdocuments for formatting purposes.

If you follow the next two rules, you won™t have any problems formatting master
documents:
¦ If you want the formatting (for example, page numbering) to apply to the entire
document, apply that formatting in the master document rather than in a
subdocument.
¦ If you want the formatting to apply only to one subdocument, place your insertion
point inside the subdocument in which you want to apply the formatting (or open
the subdocument) before you proceed.
Also, remember that if you insert an existing document as a subdocument, that subdocument
retains its original section formatting ” except where that formatting would be overridden
by the master document™s template or styles. If you want one header or footer to continue
throughout the entire master document, make sure that your individual subdocuments don™t
contain their own headers or footers. To create different headers or footers for each
subdocument, however, set them up in the individual subdocuments.
Working with the entire master document in Normal or Print Layout view makes it easy to
move text and graphics among the subdocuments using Word™s standard cut-and-paste
techniques, including drag-and-drop. You can also navigate through a large document and
use Word™s Find and Replace feature to make global changes across several documents.

Working with subdocuments
In Master Document view, you can open any subdocument to work on it separately. This
is especially useful if several people are working on a project, because different people
can then open and edit several subdocuments simultaneously. You can also change the
order of the subdocuments, combine subdocuments, nest subdocuments within other
subdocuments, and even break a portion of a subdocument into a new subdocument.

Opening a subdocument
You can open an individual subdocument from within a master document by double-clicking
its subdocument icon in Master Document view. If you make changes to the subdocument,
however, save both the edited subdocument and the master document before closing the
master document. In case someone else may need to work on another part of the master
document while you™re editing the subdocument, close the master document once you open
the subdocument in which you want to work. As long as your subdocument has been
previously saved with the master document, that subdocument retains its link to the master
document even after you close the master document file.
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You can also open a subdocument using the File_Open command, but with this method,
certain changes may not be properly updated in the master document. To ensure that a
subdocument™s links are accurately updated in the master document, open subdocuments
from the master document.
If you opened the subdocument from the master document, closing that subdocument returns
you to the master document. If you opened the subdocument as a normal document or you
opened it from the master document but then closed the master document with the
subdocument still open, closing the subdocument is the same as closing any regular document.

Renaming or moving a subdocument
In order to rename a subdocument or move it to a different directory or drive, open the
subdocument from the master document and use the File_Save As command. Then
resave the master document.

If you move or rename a subdocument through Windows Explorer or use any method
Caution
other than the one just described, the master document loses its link with the
subdocument.

Removing subdocuments
To merge a subdocument into a master document, click the subdocument icon to select the
subdocument and then choose the Remove Subdocument button. When you do this, the
text remains in the master document but is no longer attached to the subdocument.
To remove the subdocument text entirely from the master document, click the
subdocument icon and press Delete. The subdocument text ” and the link to it ” is then
deleted from the master document.
Neither of these actions deletes the subdocument file from the disk. They only break the
subdocument™s attachment to the master document. To delete the subdocument file from
the disk, you must do so from outside, using Windows Explorer or another standard file-
deletion method.

Don™t delete a subdocument from the disk without first deleting it from the master docu-
ment. If you delete the subdocument file first, you get an error message the next time
Caution
you open the master document. Be very careful when working with master documents
that are entirely on, or have components on, removable disks. Don™t remove the disk
until you™ve closed Word completely. Simply closing the master document may not be
enough in some cases, and removing the disk can damage the files.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 449


Rearranging the order of subdocuments
Master Document view makes reorganizing your subdocuments a snap. You can also reorga-
nize subdocuments by selecting and moving text in Normal view, but reorganizing
subdocuments in Master Document view is a simple matter of dragging the subdocument icon.
You can also move a subdocument by positioning your insertion point anywhere in the
subdocument. Then hold down the Alt+Shift keys as you press an up- or a down-arrow key.
If you move a subdocument inside the boundaries of another subdocument, the subdocument
that you move becomes part of the destination subdocument. If you want a subdocument to
retain its integrity as a separate subdocument, move it to a location outside any other
subdocument™s boundaries.

Splitting subdocuments
A subdocument may become too large to work with effectively. Alternatively, you may
want more than one person to work on different portions of the subdocument
simultaneously.
To split a subdocument into two separate subdocuments, follow these steps:
1. Open the master document, and switch to Master Document view.
2. Select the entire heading or body text paragraph that will begin the new
subdocument.
3. Click the Split Subdocument button on the Outlining toolbar. The subdocument
then splits just above the selected paragraph.

Merging subdocuments
You can also combine several small files into one subdocument. You may want to do some
editing afterward, however.
To merge multiple subdocuments into one subdocument, make sure that the subdocuments
you™re going to merge are adjacent; then select them and click the Merge Subdocument
button on the Outlining toolbar. When you save the master document, Word assigns the
file name of the first document in your selection to the merged subdocument.

Sharing subdocuments
Word uses the Author information in Summary Info to determine the owner of each
subdocument. If you™re the owner, you have full rights to open and edit the document. If
you didn™t create the document, however, the document is locked, and a small padlock
icon appears just under the subdocument icon. Figure 18-7 shows a master document in
Master Document view with one subdocument locked.
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450




Figure 18-7: The first subdocument on this screen has been locked using the Lock
Document button. Note the padlock under the subdocument icon.

To lock or unlock a subdocument, select the subdocument and click the Lock Document
button on the Outlining toolbar. Remember, though, that Document option doesn™t provide
real protection. Anyone can unlock the document simply by clicking the Lock Document
button. If you need a higher level of protection, add a password.


Summary
With the outline feature in Word, you can organize your thoughts into headers and then
rearrange them as needed. With the Master Document feature, you can create large
documents by combining subdocuments, which provides you the best of both worlds: the
capability to work with all the files at once without forcing you to deal with one huge file.
In this chapter, you learned how to
¦ Create and work with outlines using the Outlining toolbar, which appears when you
choose View_Outline or click the Outline View button on the horizontal scroll bar.
The outline feature is essential for helping you to organize your thoughts in a
document using headings.
¦ Create and work with master documents by clicking the Master Document View
button on the Outlining toolbar. With the Master Document feature, you can work
efficiently with large documents by organizing them into subdocuments.
¦ ¦ ¦
19 CHAPTER



Processing
Outlook
Messages . . . .


Automatically In This Chapter

Using rules to filter
your e-mail

Backing up rules and
moving them between

Y
computers
ou are probably inundated with e-mail messages each day.
The flood of e-mail only continues to get worse, even
Using auto-responders
though many states are finally starting to take action to try to
stem the flood from spammers. Even solicited mail can become a
Filtering out junk mail
burden unless you know how to process it automatically, moving
and adult content
it to specific folders or handling it in other ways when it arrives.

Using the Out of Office
The term spam refers to unsolicited and unwanted e-mail. A
Note
Assistant with
spammer is a person or entity that sends out spam. Exchange Server
Outlook provides an excellent set of features that enable you to
process messages automatically, both when they arrive in your . . . .
Inbox and when you send messages out. You can use these rules
to move messages to specific folders, generate automatic
responses, filter out unwanted messages, and much more. In this
chapter you will learn how to put Outlook™s rules to work for you,
how to back them up and restore them if needed, and how to use
the Out of Office Assistant to manage your messages in your
Exchange Server mailbox when you are out.


Securing Against HTML Content
Junk mail ” or spam, as it is generally called ” can be a major
headache for anyone who has an e-mail account. Although most
spam includes instructions on how to unsubscribe to the list that
generated it, unsubscribing often yields questionable results. Some
Part III ¦ Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office
452

spammers simply ignore your requests, while others use the request to validate your e-mail
address so they can continue sending to you. However, others have gone to a more indirect but
more effective method, explained next.

Blocking external HTML content
Many spammers are now using more advanced methods to validate addresses, such as
sending HTML-based messages that contain embedded external links. When you open the
message, your e-mail application attempts to retrieve the external content, and server-side
software then identifies your e-mail address as valid. These embedded URLs are often called
Web beacons.
Outlook 2003 helps reduce spam by blocking external content in HTML messages. This is
the default configuration, but if needed, you can configure Outlook to allow external
content:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools _ Options and then click the Security tab.
2. Click Settings in the Junk E-mail Prevention group to open the External Content
Settings dialog box (Figure 19-1).




Figure 19-1: The External Content Settings dialog box.

3. Choose options based on the following list:
Block external content in HTML e-mail. Select this option to block Web beacons;
clear the option to allow Outlook to retrieve external content.
Except if the external content comes from a Web site in these security zones:
Trusted Zone, Intranet Zone. Allow Outlook to retrieve external cntent only if the
target site is listed in the Trusted Zone or Intranet Zone. You define the sites that belong
in this zone through Internet Explorer™s security settings.
Warn me before downloading blocked content when editing, forwarding, or
replying to e-mail. Have Outlook prompt you that a message contains external content
when you edit, forward, or reply to the message.
Chapter 19 ¦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically 453


Configuring security zones
Outlook uses the security zones you define in Internet Explorer to decide not only how to
handle messages with external content, but also how to handle messages that contain scripts.
By default, Outlook uses the Restricted Sites zone for handling messages. The default
settings for this zone prevents HTML messages from accomplishing potentially dangerous
or harmful tasks such as running scripts, downloading unsigned ActiveX controls, and
scripting Java applets. Regardless of the zone you select, however, Outlook always
deactivates ActiveX controls and does not run scripts. Even so, there might be other settings
that you want to configure for the security zone. Keep in mind that changing the settings
affects Internet Explorer as well as Outlook.

Outlook does not take into account any domains you might add to a particular zone. It uses the
Tip settings for the zone, but ignores the domains. For example, if you add sites to the Trusted
Sites zone but configure Outlook to use the Restricted Sites zone, it will use the settings
defined for the Restricted Sites zone even if you receive a message from a domain in the
Trusted Sites zone.

To change zone settings, in Outlook choose Tools _ Options and then click the Security tab.
Choose from the Zone drop-down list the zone you want Outlook to use for processing
HTML-based messages. Click the Zones Settings button if you want to change zone settings,
click OK at the warning message, and configure settings in the resulting Security dialog box
(Figure 19-2).




Figure 19-2: The Security dialog box.
Part III ¦ Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office
454

Select one of the four zones and click Custom Level to open the Security Settings dialog
box. Configure settings as needed and then click OK. Change other zones as needed, click
OK on the Security dialog box to close it, and return to Outlook.

The default settings for Outlook generally provide good protection against unwanted content
and malicious code. For that reason, you should modify the security settings only if you have
Note
a very specific reason to do so. For that reason, and because these settings are more appli-
cable to Internet Explorer than to Outlook, this chapter doesn™t cover zone settings in detail.


Using Rules
Rules are sets of instructions that you create to tell Outlook how to handle certain types of
messages. Rules are sometimes called filters, and they are often used to screen out unwanted
messages. You can set up your own rules to give special handling to important messages and
to send junk mail directly to the Deleted Items folder without it ever appearing in your
Inbox.
You can set up rules for handling both incoming and outgoing e-mail messages. Most of the
time, you™ll only concern yourself with incoming messages. Still, it™s nice to know that you
can automate both if necessary, and there are some important uses for outgoing rules. For
example, you might want to keep a copy of outgoing messages to certain people in a folder
other than Sent Items to make these messages easier to locate. For example, you could create
a folder for several of your most important clients, and store sent messages for those people
in their respective folders.
Although it™s really quite easy to set up rules, Outlook has a few rules that have been set up
and are ready to use immediately. In the following sections, you learn first about setting up
rules of your own and then about how you can use the junk e-mail lists that are built into
Outlook.

Using the Rules Wizard
Outlook provides a Rules Wizard to help you set up your own rules for handling e-mail
messages. This Rules Wizard steps you through the entire process so that creating or
modifying rules is really simple and straightforward.

Creating a rule
To use the Rules Wizard to set up an e-mail message-handling rule, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools _ Rules and Alerts. This will display the Rules and Alerts dialog box
(Figure 19-3).
Chapter 19 ¦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically 455




Figure 19-3: The Rules and Alerts dialog box.

2. Click the New Rule button to start the Rules Wizard, and begin creating a new rule.
You can start from a blank rule or use one of several rule templates to create the
rule, as explained in the next step.
3. Select a rule template from the Step 1 box, as shown in Figure 19-4. As you select
different types of rules, the Step 2 box provides a brief description of the rule. If
you choose the option Start from a Blank Rule, you can instead choose Check
Messages When They Arrive or Check Messages After Sending to create a rule that
processes messages either when they arrive or when you send them, respectively.




Figure 19-4: Use the Rules Wizard to create and modify Outlook message rules.
Part III ¦ Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office
456

Choosing a rule template simply predefines certain rule properties. You can then modify
Tip these properties to customize the rule as needed. If you choose to start from a blank rule,
you must manually select all rule properties. The general process is the same regardless of
which method you choose.

4. Click Next to continue.
5. Scroll through the Which condition(s) do you want to check? list box, and choose
the items that you want to apply to this rule. You can specify multiple conditions.
Keep in mind that all the conditions that you choose must be met before the rule
will be applied. If you were to choose both the where my name is in the To box and
the where my name is in the Cc box conditions, for example, the rule would apply
only if your name were in both the To and the Cc boxes. The more conditions you
specify, the less likely it is that any message will meet the full set of conditions. It™s
generally better to set as few conditions as possible ” you can always go back later
and add additional conditions if you discover that the rule is too broad.
6. After you have applied all the necessary conditions to the rule, click each of the
underlined items in the Rule description list box in turn. This will enable you to
edit the item, as shown in Figure 19-5.




Figure 19-5: Click the underlined values to replace each with specific condition
criteria.
Chapter 19 ¦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically 457

7. The choices you must make will vary depending on the type of value you are
editing. When you have selected all the items for the selected value, click OK to
continue.
8. If there are additional underlined items, click each in turn and choose the values.
When you have completed your selections, the Rules Wizard dialog box should
look something like Figure 19-6, with no remaining underlined items that need to
be specified.




Figure 19-6: Make certain that you have specified the values for all underlined
items before continuing.

9. Click the Next button to continue.
10. Choose any additional actions for this rule from the What do you want to do with
the message? list box, as shown in Figure 19-7.
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Figure 19-7: Add any additional actions for the rule.

11. Notice that specifying additional actions generally adds additional underlined items
to the Rule description list box. Click the new underlined items to edit them as you
did for the rule conditions. Click OK when you are done specifying the actions.
12. Click the Next button in the wizard to continue.
13. If necessary, select any exceptions to the rule using the options in the Are There
Any Exceptions list box. If you add exceptions, you may need to edit additional
underlined items that appear in the rule description list box.
14. Click the Next button to continue.
15. Enter a descriptive name in the Specify a name for this rule text box (Figure 19-8).
The name you enter should clearly identify the rule ” especially if you plan to
specify a number of rules in the future.
Chapter 19 ¦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically 459




Figure 19-8: Set final options for the rule.

16. If you want to apply the new rule to existing messages, select the Run this rule now
on messages already in “Inbox” check box. Selecting this option is a good way to
check the operation of your new rule.
17. Make certain the Turn on this rule check box is selected. You can deselect this
checkbox if you don™t want the rule to apply immediately, but you™ll have to
remember to apply the rule later.
18. Select the option Create this rule on all accounts option if you want to apply the
rule to all of your e-mail accounts. This option is available only if you have
multiple accounts.
19. Click the Finish button to complete the creation of your new rule.
20. Click OK to close the Rules Wizard dialog box.

Controlling rule processing order
If you set up a number of rules for handling your messages, you may discover that some of
those rules conflict with each other. As an example, consider what would happen if you set
up a rule that displayed a special message telling you that an important message had arrived
whenever someone marked their message as important. In addition, suppose you decided
that you wanted to forward all incoming messages from a particular person to an assistant
without reading them yourself. If the sender marked all messages as important, which rule
Part III ¦ Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office
460

would apply? The answer is simple ” Outlook applies rules starting at the top of the list of
rules as they appear in the Rules Wizard dialog box. To change the order in which the rules
are applied, you can use the Move Up and Move Down buttons in the Rules and Alerts
dialog box.
Keep in mind that more than one rule can apply to the same message. If the rule notifying
you of important messages appears before the rule forwarding the message, both rules would
likely be triggered by messages sent by that person. If you move the forwarding rule up
above the important message notification rule, then the message would be forwarded before
the important message notification rule could be applied.

Running rules manually
In most cases, your rules will fire automatically when messages arrive or depart. In a few
cases, however, you might need to run rules manually, such as when you create a new rule
and want to apply it to messages already in the Inbox. The Rules and Alerts dialog box
enables you to do just that.
1. Create the rule as explained in the previous section.
2. In the Rules and Alerts dialog box (Figure 19-9), click Run Rules Now to display
the Run Rules Now dialog box.




Figure 19-9: The Rules and Alerts dialog box.
Chapter 19 ¦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically 461

3. Place a check by each rule you want to run; then click Browse to select the folder in
which to run the rules.
4. Choose the Include Subfolders option if you want to run the rules on subfolders of
the specified folder.
5. Select from the Apply Rules To drop-down list the types of messages to which you
want to apply the rules.
6. Click Run Now to run the rules on the specified folders and messages.
7. Click Close when finished.

Modifying and copying rules
It™s likely that you will at some point need to change a rule to fine-tune its behavior or adjust
to changes in the way you receive or send messages. You can easily modify any custom rule
through the Rules and Alerts dialog box. Simply select the rule and then click Change Rule
to display a menu of actions you can assign to the rule. Choose Edit All Rule Settings if you
want to make step-by-step changes to a rule.
The Rules and Alerts dialog box also enables you to copy rules between locations. For
example, you might have two mail servers, each of which enables you to define rules. When
you create a rule, it is assigned to a particular location. To copy it to another, open the Rules
and Alerts dialog box, select the rule, and click Copy in the toolbar to open a simple dialog
box in which you select the target server from a drop-down list. Select the server and then
click OK.

Responding automatically to messages
One reason to use rules is to process messages when they arrive, deleting or moving them as
needed; however, one very useful purpose for rules is to create automatic replies, or auto-
responders, for incoming messages that fit certain conditions. For example, perhaps you
have a product for which you want to provide information to your clients. You can create a
message that contains information about the product and then send that message any time
someone sends a message requesting the information.
You can use a couple of methods to generate the reply. You can set up a special e-mail
address in your mail server that points to your mailbox, and when you receive a message for
that address, have Outlook send the appropriate reply. For example, the person might send a
message to productinfo@yourdomain.tld. A rule you define in Outlook checks the
messages as they come in; when it finds one addressed to that address, it replies with the
information.
Another method is to have people send their message with certain identifying text in the
subject. For example, any messages with “Product Info” in the subject field of the incoming
message could trigger the rule.
Setting up an automatic response is fairly easy:
1. Open Outlook and start a new message.
Part III ¦ Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office
462

2. Enter the Subject field, but leave the address fields blank.
3. Add the desired information in the body of the message and then choose File _
Save As.
4. Choose Outlook Template from the Save As Type dialog box.
5. In the Save As dialog box, enter a name for the message, such as Product Info.
Choose the path for the file and then click Save. Close the message form.

Tip
You can place the message anywhere you want, but using the default location will help you
quickly locate the message in the future if you need to edit it.

6. Choose Tools _ Rules and Alerts.
7. Click New Rule to start the Rules Wizard, choose Start from a Blank Rule, and
click Next.
8. Set the condition you want to match (such as With Specific Words in the Subject or
Body), specify the words or other criteria in the bottom pane of the dialog box, and
click Next.
9. Select the action Reply Using a Specific Template, click the underlined A Specific
Template link, and select the Outlook template created in step 5. Click Open.
10. Click Next, set exceptions as needed, and click Finish.
11. Click OK to close the Rules and Alerts dialog box.
Which condition or method you use to identify incoming messages depends in part on your
mail server. If you set up an account specifically for the auto-responder, you can use a
condition that identifies the message by its account or address. If you can™t create a separate
account, the best option is to use the Subject field as the condition trigger.

Unless you are using Exchange Server, which supports server-side rules that can continue to
function even when Outlook is not running, you must leave Outlook running to process incom-
Note
ing messages. You must also configure Outlook to process messages automatically and set
the scheduled time for send/receive.


Importing, exporting, and backing up rules
Outlook 2003, similar to Outlook 2002, stores rules in the PST if you use a PST as your
message store, or stores them in your Exchange Server mailbox. If you have created several
rules, it™s a good idea to back them up so you don™t have to recreate them from scratch if
something happens to your mail store. What™s more, you can move rules from one computer
to another, such as when you get a new computer or you want to share your rules with
someone else.
Chapter 19 ¦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically 463


Back up rules to a file
You simply export your rules to a file whenever you want to back them up or copy them to
another computer:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools _ Rules and Alerts.
2. Click Options in the Rules and Alerts dialog box to open the Options dialog box
shown in Figure 19-10.




Figure 19-10: The Options dialog box

3. Click Export Rules to open the Save Exported Rules As dialog box.
4. Enter a file name, choose a path for the file, and click Save. Outlook saves the file
with a RWZ file extension.

Import rules from a file
When you need to import rules from another computer or another profile, you can do so
easily. After you export the rules to a file as explained in the previous section, follow these
steps to import the rules:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools _ Rules and Alerts.
2. Click the Options button to open the Options dialog box.
3. Click Import Rules, locate and select the rule file, and click Open.
4. Click OK to close the Options dialog box, and verify that the rules now appear in
the Rules and Alerts dialog box; then click OK to close the Rules and Alerts
dialog box.
Part III ¦ Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office
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Filtering junk and adult content mail
Because junk e-mail is such a common problem, Outlook already has rules in place to
handle junk mail. These rules are already in place, but you might need to adjust them to suit
your needs.
Outlook actually defines two classes of junk e-mail messages ” junk messages and adult
content messages. In both cases, those classes of messages are defined by keywords that
Outlook looks for in the messages.
Because no simple keyword search can be 100% effective, Outlook can also maintain lists of
people who send junk or adult content e-mail messages. By adding someone to one of these
lists, you are telling Outlook to apply the junk or adult content e-mail message rules to all
messages that you receive from that person ” whether those messages include the keywords
or not.
To modify the junk mail settings, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools _ Options, and click the Preferences tab.
2. Click Junk E-mail to open the Junk E-mail Options dialog box.
3. Select one of the four options to set the level of protection. Each option is explained
on the dialog box.
4. Click the Safe Senders tab and select the option Also trust e-mail from my Contacts
if you want Outlook to accept e-mail from senders in your Contacts folder regard-
less of the message content, subject, or other message properties.
5. Click Add and enter the e-mail address of a sender whose messages you don™t want
Outlook to treat as junk mail. You do not need to add the address if the contact is
already in your Contacts folder and you enabled the option in step 4 to allow
messages from your contacts.
6. Click OK.

To add someone to the junk or adult content e-mail message lists, select a message from that
person and then choose Actions _ Junk E-mail _ Add Sender To Blocked Senders List. You
Tip
can also add addresses to this list from the Blocked Senders tab of the Junk E-mail Options
dialog box.

After you have specifically added someone to the junk e-mail message lists, all messages
they send to you will be handled according to the rules you have specified. To remove
someone from the list, follow these steps:
1. Choose Tools _ Options and click Junk E-Mail on the Preferences tab.
2. Click the Blocked Senders tab.
3. Click the address and click Remove.
4. Click OK.
Chapter 19 ¦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically 465

All messages from someone that you add to the junk or adult content e-mail message lists
will be treated the same regardless of their content. If someone only occasionally sends you
offensive or unwanted messages, you may find that it is more effective to use the Rules
Wizard to create a special filter that applies to messages from that person.


Using the Out of Office Assistant
Exchange Server users have one additional means for automatically processing messages:
the Out of Office Assistant. This handy tool helps you automatically responds to messages
when you are out of the office. For example, you might want to have each sender receive a
reply similar to the following when they send you a message:
Thanks for your message. I am out of the office until Monday of next week. I will respond
to your message when I return.
The main reason to use the Out of Office Assistant rather than create a rule in the Rules
Wizard is that the Assistant keeps track of the senders to which it has already sent an out-of-
office reply. That means that senders only receive one copy of the automatic reply, rather
than a reply for each message they send you. You can™t accomplish this through the Rules
Wizard.
Setting up the Out of Office Assistant isn™t difficult. Follow these steps:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools _ Out of Office Assistant to open the Out of Office
Assistant dialog box (Figure 19-11).




Figure 19-11: The Out of Office Assistant dialog box

2. Click in the field AutoReply only once to each sender with the following text: then
type the text you want sent automatically when you are out of the office.
Part III ¦ Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office
466

3. When you are satisfied with the reply text and ready to turn on the assistant, choose
I am currently Out of the Office, and click OK.
The Out of Office Assistant is a server-side mechanism that continues to fire even when
Outlook is not running; therefore, you can close Outlook, shut down your computer, and the
Exchange Server will still generate automatic replies to incoming messages. When you get
back in the office and are ready to turn off the Out of Office Assistant, open Outlook, choose
Tools _ Out of Office Assistant, select I am currently In the Office, and click OK.

Tip
Turning off the Out of Office Assistant clears the sent list that Exchange Server maintains to
keep track of the people to whom it has sent out-of-office replies.

When you define the general reply and turn on the assistant without taking any other action,
Exchange Server sends the out-of-office reply to all senders alike, but only the first time
they send a message. You can create custom rules to provide additional processing, if
needed. For example, you might want all messages from a particular sender or group of
people to be forwarded to your assistant for handling, or to an external e-mail account to
enable you to process it yourself.
Follow these steps to create custom Out-of-Office Assistant rules:
1. Choose Tools _ Out of Office Assistant.
2. In the Out of Office Assistant dialog box, click Add Rule to open the Edit Rule
dialog box shown in Figure 19-12.




Figure 19-12: The Edit Rule dialog box
Chapter 19 ¦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically 467

3. Use the condition controls to specify the condition that identifies the message, just
as you do for rules created with the Rules Wizard.
4. Use the controls under the Perform these actions group to specify what you want
Exchange Server to do with the items.
5. Click OK to save the rule. Outlook automatically names the rule and it appears in
the Out of Office Assistant dialog box, as shown in Figure 19-13.
6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 to create other rules as needed and then click OK to close
the Out of Office Assistant dialog box.




Figure 19-13: A custom rule added to the Out of Office Assistant



Summary
Rules are a very important feature of Outlook that enable you to gain quite a bit of control
over your messages. For example, you can use rules to automatically move messages from
certain people to special folders to help you identify them quickly. Rules also are an
important means for helping you recognize and respond to important messages when they
arrive.
Outlook 2003 incorporates some major changes to the junk e-mail filter found in previous
editions. Outlook™s Junk E-mail Options dialog box helps you identify messages from
certain senders as junk mail so those messages are routed automatically to the Junk E-mail
folder. With just a little bit of configuration, it™s a good bet that the junk filter in Outlook
will be able to do a very good job of separating the good messages from the junk.
Finally, this chapter explained how to use the Out-of-Office Assistant, a component of
Exchange Server that enables your mailbox to automatically respond to messages when you
are out of the office.
¦ ¦ ¦
20 CHAPTER



Analyzing Data
with Pivot
Tables in Excel . . . .

In This Chapter

An introduction
to pivot tables

T he pivot table feature is perhaps the most technologically
How to create a
sophisticated component in Excel. If you haven™t yet
pivot table from
discovered the power of pivot tables, this chapter demonstrates
a database
how easy it is to create powerful data summaries using pivot
tables.
How to group items
in a pivot table
About Pivot Tables
How to create a
A pivot table is essentially a dynamic summary report generated calculated field
from a database. The database can reside in a worksheet or in an or a calculated item
external data file. A pivot table can help transform endless rows in a pivot table
and columns of numbers into a meaningful presentation of the data.
. . . .
For example, a pivot table can create frequency distributions and
cross-tabulations of several different data dimensions. In addition,
you can display subtotals and any level of detail that you want.
Perhaps the most innovative aspect of a pivot table lies in its
interactivity. After you create a pivot table, you can rearrange the
information in almost any way imaginable and even insert special
formulas that perform new calculations. You even can create post
hoc groupings of summary items (for example, combine Northern
Region totals with Western Region totals).
One minor drawback to using a pivot table is that, unlike a
formula-based summary report, a pivot table does not update
automatically when you change the source data. This does not
pose a serious problem, however, because a single click of the
Refresh toolbar button forces a pivot table to use the latest data.
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A pivot table example
The best way to understand the concept of a pivot table is to see one. Start with Figure 20-1,
which shows a portion of the data used in creating the pivot table in this chapter.




Figure 20-1: This database is used to create a pivot table.

This database consists of daily new-account information for a three-branch bank. The
database contains 350 records and tracks the following:
¦ The date that each account was opened
¦ The opening amount
¦ The account type (CD, checking, savings, or IRA)
¦ Who opened the account (a teller or a new-account representative)
¦ The branch at which it was opened (Central, Westside, or North County)
¦ Whether a new customer or an existing customer opened the account
The bank accounts database contains a lot of information. But in its current form, the data
does not reveal much. To make the data more useful, you need to summarize it.
Summarizing a database is essentially the process of answering questions about the data.
Following are a few questions that may be of interest to the bank™s management:
¦ What is the total deposit amount for each branch, broken down by account type?
¦ How many accounts were opened at each branch, broken down by account type?
Chapter 20 ¦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel 471

¦ What™s the dollar distribution of the different account types?
¦ What types of accounts do tellers open most often?
¦ How does the Central branch compare to the other two branches?
¦ Which branch opens the most accounts for new customers?
You could, of course, write formulas to answer these questions. Often, however, a pivot
table is a better choice. Creating a pivot table takes only a few seconds and doesn™t require a
single formula.
Figure 20-2 shows a pivot table created from the database displayed in Figure 20-1. This
pivot table shows the amount of new deposits, broken down by branch and account type.
This particular summary represents one of dozens of summaries that you can produce from
this data.




Figure 20-2: A simple pivot table.

Figure 20-3 shows another pivot table generated from the bank data. This pivot table uses a
page field for the Customer item (refer to Figure 20-1). In this case, the pivot table displays
the data only for existing customers (the user could also select New or All from page field
list). Notice the changes in the orientation of the table; branches appear in rows, and account
types appear in columns. This is another example of the flexibility of a pivot table.




Figure 20-3: A pivot table that uses a page field.
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Data appropriate for a pivot table
Not all data can be used to create a pivot table. The data that you summarize must be in the
form of a database. You can store the database in either a worksheet (sometimes known as a
list) or an external database file. Although Excel can generate a pivot table from any
database, not all databases benefit.
Generally speaking, fields in a database table can consist of two types:
¦ Data: Contains a value or data to be summarized. In Figure 20-1, the Amount field
is a data field.
¦ Category: Describes the data. In Figure 20-1, the Date, AcctType, OpenedBy,
Branch, and Customer fields are category fields because they describe the data in
the Amount field.
A single database table can have any number of data fields and category fields. When you
create a pivot table, you usually want to summarize one or more of the data fields.
Conversely, the values in the category fields appear in the pivot table as rows, columns, or
pages.
Exceptions exist, however, and you may find Excel™s pivot table feature useful even for
databases that don™t contain actual numerical data fields. The database columns A:C in
Figure 20-4, for example, don™t contain any numerical data, but you can create a useful pivot
table that counts the items in fields rather than sums them. The pivot table cross-tabulates
the Month Born field by the Sex field; the intersecting cells show the count for each
combination of month and gender.




Figure 20-4: This database doesn™t have any numerical fields, but you can use it to
generate a pivot table.
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Pivot Table Terminology

Understanding the terminology associated with pivot tables is the first step in mastering this
feature. Refer to the accompanying figure to get your bearings.




¦ Column field: A field that has a column orientation in the pivot table. Each item in the field
occupies a column. In the figure, Customer represents a column field that contains two items
(Existing and New). You can have nested column fields.
¦ Data area: The cells in a pivot table that contain the summary data. Excel offers several
ways to summarize the data (sum, average, count, and so on). In the figure, the Data area
includes C5:E20.
¦ Grand totals: A row or column that displays totals for all cells in a row or column in a pivot
table. You can specify that grand totals be calculated for rows, columns, or both (or neither).
The pivot table in the figure shows grand totals for both rows and columns.
¦ Group: A collection of items treated as a single item. You can group items manually or
automatically (group dates into months, for example). The pivot table in the figure does not
have any defined groups.
¦ Item: An element in a field that appears as a row or column header in a pivot table. In the
figure, Existing and New are items for the Customer field. The Branch field has three items:
Central, North County, and Westside. AcctType has four items: CD, Checking, IRA (Invest-
ment Retirement Account), and Savings.
¦ Page field: A field that has a page orientation in the pivot table ” similar to a slice of a
three-dimensional cube. You can display only one item (or all items) in a page field at one
time. In the figure, OpenedBy represents a page field that displays the New Accts item.
¦ Refresh: To recalculate the pivot table after making changes to the source data.

Continued
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Continued
¦ Row field: A field that has a row orientation in the pivot table. Each item in the field occu-
pies a row. You can have nested row fields. In the figure, Branch and AcctType both repre-
sent row fields.
¦ Source data: The data used to create a pivot table. It can reside in a worksheet or an
external database.
¦ Subtotals: A row or column that displays subtotals for detail cells in a row or column in a
pivot table. The pivot table in the figure displays subtotals for each branch.


Creating a Pivot Table
You create a pivot table by using a series of steps presented in the PivotTable and PivotChart
Wizard. You access this wizard by choosing Data _ PivotTable and PivotChart Report.
Then, carry out the steps outlined here.

This discussion assumes that you use Excel 2000 or later. The procedure differs slightly in
Note
earlier versions of Excel.


Step1: Specifying the data location
After you choose Data _ PivotTable and PivotChart Report, you see the dialog box shown
in Figure 20-5.




Figure 20-5: The first of three PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard dialog boxes.
Chapter 20 ¦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel 475

In this step, you identify the data source. Excel is quite flexible in the data that you can use
for a pivot table. (See the nearby sidebar, “Pivot Table Data Sources.”) This example uses a
worksheet database.

You see different dialog boxes while you work through the wizard, depending on the location of
Note
the data that you want to analyze. The following sections present the wizard™s dialog boxes for
data located in an Excel list or database.

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