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those stops. Remember, however, that tabs belong to paragraphs. If you set tab stops as you
type text and press Enter, the tab settings carry forward to the next paragraph.

One of the most common word-processing mistakes is using spaces to align text. In
most cases, the text is in proportional font. Because proportional-font characters take
Note
up different amounts of space, however, the text in that font cannot align correctly with
this method. Using tabs ensures that your text is aligned perfectly and makes it much
easier to modify settings.

You can set tabs using the horizontal ruler or the Tabs dialog box. To display the Tabs dialog box,
choose Format_Tab or click the Tabs button in the Paragraph dialog box (Format_Paragraph).
Table 2-4 describes the tab options available in Word, and Figure 2-7 shows how left-aligned,
center-aligned, right-aligned, and decimal tab settings affect a paragraph.

Table 2-4
Tab Options
Type of Tab Ruler Tab Indicator Action
Left-aligned Begins text at the tab stop. (This is the
default tab setting.)

Center-aligned Centers text on the tab stop.


Right-aligned Ends the text at tab stop.

Decimal Centers text over decimal point for a list of
numbers.
Bar Runs a vertical line through a selected
paragraph at the tab stop.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
18




Figure 2-7: Tabs aligned using the Left, Center, Right, and Decimal tab settings.

Figure 2-8 shows columns divided using the bar tab.




Figure 2-8: Bar tabs dividing text.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 19

Use line breaks rather than paragraph breaks between lines of short text within columns.
This way, you can realign the information, by adjusting the tab settings, very quickly
without needing to select the paragraphs (just click anywhere within the paragraph and
make your changes). Press Shift+Enter to insert the new line. If you add tabs later using
new lines, the tab applies to all of the lines before the next paragraph mark. If you want to
align large columns of text, use Word™s powerful table feature.

Bar tabs are not real tabs! Placing a bar tab inserts a vertical line in your document,
down through the paragraph, at the bar-tab position. But a bar tab has no effect on text
Note
position. Pressing the Tab key does not move text to the bar-tab position. Bar tabs are
usually combined with other types of tabs that set the text alignment.


Setting tabs using the ruler
A convenient way to set tabs is to use the ruler. If your ruler is not displayed, choose
View_Ruler to display it. At the left of the ruler is the Tab Alignment button, with which
you can quickly change tab styles. Using the mouse and the ruler, you can set, move, and
remove the left-aligned, center-aligned, right-aligned, decimal, or bar tabs with a precision
of as much as 1/16-inch. The ruler displays Word™s default tab stops (set every 1/2-inch,
unless you change the interval, which we look at later in this chapter) as tiny vertical lines
along the bottom of the ruler. (You may have to look closely to see these thin black lines on
the gray bar under the ruler.) When you set your own tab stops, all of the default tab stops
to the left are removed.
To set tabs using the ruler, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Click the Tab Alignment button at the far left of the ruler until the symbol for the tab
style you want is selected (see Table 2-4).
3. Position the pointer just below the mark on the ruler where you want the tab stop to
appear. Click the left mouse button to place the tab stop on the ruler. The tab stop
marker then appears for the tab style that you selected (see Figure 2-9).
4. Do one of the following:
• Repeat step 3 to add more tab stops of the same style.
• Repeat steps 2 and 3 to add other types of tab stops to the ruler.



Figure 2-9: The ruler with tab stops displayed.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
20


Changing or clearing a tab stop using the ruler
To change a tab marker on the ruler, place the insertion point in the paragraph you want to
work on. Then point to the tab marker with the mouse pointer, hold down the left mouse
button to select that marker, and drag the marker to its new position. When you release, the
marker is dropped into its new position.
To clear a tab stop quickly using the mouse and ruler, drag that marker all the way off the
ruler and onto the document ” when you release, the marker is removed.

Setting tabs using the Tabs dialog box
Using the Tabs dialog box (see Figure 2-10) to set tabs offers some advantages over using
the ruler and mouse. With the Tabs dialog box, you can precisely set each tab™s position by
typing decimal numbers (in inches).




Figure 2-10: The Tabs dialog box.

You can also add dotted, dashed, or underlined tab leaders. A tab leader links related but
separate items across a page, such as entr©es and prices in a menu or chapters and page
numbers in a table of contents (see Figure 2-11).
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 21




Figure 2-11: Leader tabs link related but separate items.


To set tabs using the Tabs dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Choose Format_Tabs. The Tabs dialog box appears.
3. Using decimal numbers, type the position of the tab stop that you want to set in the
Tab Stop Position box.
4. In the Alignment group, select the tab style that you want: Left, Center, Right,
Decimal, or Bar.
5. If you want a leader, select the tab leader style that you want in the Leader group: 1
None for no leader (the default setting), 2 for a dotted leader, 3 for a dashed leader,
and 4 for a solid underlined leader.
6. Choose Set to set the tab stop. The Tab Stops list box displays your tab stops after
you set them.
7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 to set additional tab stops.
8. Click OK to close the Tabs dialog box.

Changing and clearing tabs using the Tabs dialog box
To change existing tab stops using the Tabs dialog box (Format_Tabs), select the tab stop
that you want to change in the Tab Stops list box. Select the new formatting options for the
selected tab stop in the Alignment and Leader groups, and then click Set.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
22

You can clear tab stops either individually or as a group. You can also clear tabs using the
Tabs dialog box whether you originally set the tabs using this dialog box or the ruler.
To clear tabs, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Choose Format_Tabs to display the Tabs dialog box.
3. Do one of the following:
• Click Clear All to clear all of the tab stop settings.
• Select the tab that you want to delete from the Tab Stops list, and then click Clear.
Repeat this process to clear additional tab stops. As you select tab stops to clear
and then click Clear, the tab stops that you remove are listed in the Tab Stops to
be Cleared area at the bottom of the dialog box.
4. Click OK.

Changing the default tab stops
By default, Word has preset tabs every 1/2-inch. When you set a custom tab, however, all
of the preset tabs to the left of that custom tab are cleared. Use the Tabs dialog box to
change the default tab stop interval if you routinely use the preset tabs but don™t like the
default setting. Note that custom tab stops that you may have set for existing paragraphs
aren™t affected.
To change the default tab stops, display the Tabs dialog box. In the Default Tab Stops box,
type a new default tab interval or click the up or down arrow to change the number in the
box. Then click OK. Note that this changes the default for the current document only, not
for all documents.


Setting Indents
With indenting, you can set off a paragraph from other text. Figure 2-12 shows paragraphs
formatted with different indents. Don™t confuse page margins with paragraph indents,
however. Margins specify the overall width of the text and the area between the text and
the edge of the page, whereas indents move the paragraph™s text in or out from the left and
the right margins. You can indent paragraphs in the following ways:
. Indent paragraphs from the left, right, or both margins to set those paragraphs off
from other text.
. Use negative indents to run text into the left or right margin.
. Indent only the first line of a paragraph, which is commonly used as a substitute for
pressing Tab at the beginning of each new paragraph.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 23

. Create a hanging indent, which hangs the first line of a paragraph to the left of the
rest of the paragraph. (In other words, every line except the first line is indented.)
Hanging indents are often used in bulleted and numbered lists, footnotes, and
bibliographic entries.
. Create nested indents, which are indentations within indentations.




Figure 2-12: Examples of indented paragraphs.

Word provides several ways to create indents. You can indent paragraphs using the
Formatting toolbar, the ruler, shortcut keys, or the Paragraph dialog box. Indenting with the
Formatting toolbar or shortcut keys, however, depends on tab-stop settings. If you haven™t
changed Word™s default 1/2-inch tab stops, you can create indents at 1/2-inch intervals
using the Formatting toolbar or shortcut keys.

You can use hanging indents to create a bulleted or a numbered list, but with Word™s
bullets and numbering features, you can create such lists automatically ” including the
Note
bullets and the numbers. Working with bulleted and numbered lists is explained later in
this chapter.


Setting indents using the Formatting toolbar
The Formatting toolbar includes two buttons for indenting paragraphs to the next tab stop:
Decrease Indent and Increase Indent (see Figure 2-13). Use these buttons to create left
indents only; you cannot create first-line or hanging indents with these buttons. To indent
or to remove indents from paragraphs using the Formatting toolbar, position the insertion
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
24

point in the paragraph or select the paragraphs that you want to adjust. Click the Increase
Indent button to indent text to the next tab stop, or click the Decrease Indent button to un-
indent text to the previous tab stop. You can click either button as many times as you want
to continue moving the indentation to the next tab stop.



Figure 2-13: The Decrease Indent and Increase Indent buttons of the Formatting toolbar


Setting indents using the ruler
You can create any kind of indent using the ruler, which contains triangular indent markers
at the left and right margins. Table 2-5 shows and describes each of these indent markers.
You can drag them in either direction along the ruler to set indents. At the left margin, the
top triangle represents the first-line indent and the bottom triangle represents the left indent.
Both the top and bottom triangles move independently, but you can use the square below
the bottom triangle to move the first-line and left-paragraph indents at the same time. At
the right margin, the triangle represents the paragraph™s right indent.

Table 2-5
Indent Markers on the Ruler
Drag To Set

First-line indent


Left indent


First-line and left indents


Right indent


To set indentations using the ruler, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
indent.
2. Do one of the following:
• To set a first-line indent, drag the First Line Indent marker to the position where
you want the indentation.
• To set a left indent, drag the square below the Left Indent marker to the position
where you want the indentation. (Note that the top triangle moves as well.)
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 25

• To set a right indent, drag the Right Indent marker to the position where you want
the indentation.
• To set a hanging indent with the first line at the left margin, drag the Left Indent
marker to a new position on the ruler.
You can press and hold the Alt key while dragging to get more control; you™ll be able to
move the controls smoothly and drop them at any position rather than the default
gradations. You can also see exact measurements on the ruler as you drag.

When you drag the Left Indent or First Line Indent marker to the left of the left margin,
Tip the ruler automatically scrolls to the left. If you want to scroll into the left margin on the
ruler without moving the indent markers, first make sure that you™re in Normal view
(View_Normal). Then hold down the Shift key as you click the left scroll arrow on the
horizontal scroll bar.


Setting indents using keyboard shortcuts
You can create indents using keyboard shortcuts as well. Keyboard shortcuts rely on
existing tab settings to determine the position of the indents. To create indents using
keyboard shortcuts, position the insertion point in a paragraph or select the paragraphs that
you want to indent. Then press one of the keyboard shortcuts listed in Table 2-6.

Table 2-6
Keyboard Shortcuts for Indenting Paragraphs
Keyboard Shortcut Type of Indention
Ctrl+M Moves the left indent to the next tab stop.

Ctrl+Shift+M Moves the left indent to the preceding tab stop.

Ctrl+T Creates a hanging indent.

Ctrl+Shift+T Moves the left indent to the previous tab stop, but the first
line remains in its current position.


Here™s another way to set indents, although one that™s a little irritating to some users.
Tip Choose Tools_AutoCorrect Options and click the AutoFormat as You Type tab. Make
sure that the Set Left- and First-Indent With Tabs and Backspaces check box is se-
lected. Now, when you press Tab and then type a paragraph, you™ll be setting the indent
for that paragraph.


Setting indents using the Paragraph dialog box
You can use the Paragraph dialog box to set any type of indent. One advantage of using this
dialog box is that you can enter precise measurements instead of just eyeballing the text
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
26

alignments with ruler measurements. You can also create indents using measurements other
than decimal inches. To create a six-point left indent, for example, type 6 pt in the Left
Indentation box. To create a left indent of two centimeters, type 2 cm. To create a left
indent of one pica, type 1 pi. (There are six picas in 1 inch and 12 points in one pica.)
To set indentations using the Paragraph dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
indent.
2. Choose Format_Paragraph, or choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu (Shift+F10),
to open the Paragraph dialog box. Then click the Indents and Spacing tab.
3. Do one of the following:
• To create a paragraph indent, type or select a value in the Left or Right Indenta-
tion text box. The Indentation group in the Paragraph dialog box lists three
options: Left, Right, and Special. (Table 2-7 describes these indentation options.)
The Preview box shows the effect of your choice.
• To create a first-line or a hanging indent, select First Line or Hanging from the
Special list box. Then type or select a value in the By text box to specify the first-
line or hanging-indent measurement.
4. Click OK.

Table 2-7
Indentation Options
Option Action
Left Indents selected text from the left margin. If the amount to indent is a positive
number, the paragraph is indented inside the left margin; if the amount is a
negative number, the paragraph is indented outside the left margin (some
times called outdenting).

Right Indents selected text from the right margin. If the amount to indent is a
positive number, the paragraph is indented inside the right margin; if the
amount to indent is a negative number, the paragraph is indented outside the
right margin.

Special Indents the first line (or lines) of selected text from left indent used by
subsequent lines (or from the left margin if no indent is made). Click the down
arrow to select First Line or Hanging. First Line shifts the first line to the right
of subsequent lines, while Hanging moves the first line to the left of subse-
quent lines. The default indent is 1/2-inch. Change the indent by typing a new
number or by using the up- or down-arrow key.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 27


Bordering and Shading Paragraphs and Pages
A border can be a box surrounding a paragraph on all sides or lines on one or more sides of
the block of text. Shading fills a paragraph (with or without borders) with a background
pattern. If you™re planning to print on a black and white printer, you™ll probably want to
stick to black, white, and gray for your lines and backgrounds, but Word does allow you to
use different colors. Figure 2-14 shows samples of different borders applied to paragraphs.




Figure 2-14: Examples of borders.

Like all forms of paragraph formatting, borders belong to the paragraphs in which they are
applied. In other words, they carry forward when you press Enter at the end of a paragraph.
If a group of paragraphs is formatted with a box around them and you press Enter at the
end of the last paragraph, your new paragraph falls within the same box as the previous
paragraph. To create a new paragraph outside of the border, move the insertion point
outside the border before you press Enter, or just press Enter and then press Ctrl+Q to
return the new paragraph to the default paragraph setting.
The width of a paragraph box, or of the line if you just created a horizontal line rather than
a box, is determined by the paragraph indent and margins. The line or box begins at the left
text position ” the left margin or, if set, the left indent ” and ends at the right text
position ” the right margin or indent.
To place several paragraphs in a single box or to give them the same background shading,
make sure that all of the paragraphs have the same indents. If you select and then box or
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
28

shade several paragraphs with different indents, each paragraph appears in its own separate
box or shading. To make paragraphs with different indents appear within a single box or
background shade, you must create a table, put each paragraph in a row by itself, and then
format a box around the table.

Sometimes the screen inaccurately shows text as extending beyond borders or shading.
This situation results from screen fonts and screen resolutions, which differ from printer
Note
fonts and resolution. Your printed text does format within the border or shading even if it
doesn™t display correctly on the screen.

The same border and shading options for paragraphs can be applied to an entire page as well.
Tools for creating paragraph borders and page borders are located in the same dialog box.

Adding borders using the Borders toolbar
Word includes a Tables and Borders toolbar, as shown in Figure 2-15, for applying borders,
lines, and shading.




Figure 2-15: The Tables and Borders toolbar.

To add boxes or lines to paragraphs using the Tables and Borders toolbar, follow these
steps:
1. Click the Tables and Borders button on the Formatting toolbar, or choose
View_Toolbars and select the Tables and Borders toolbar. You can also right-click
on any toolbar and select Tables and Borders.
2. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
enclose. Remember that if you create a box for more than one paragraph, that box
encloses those paragraphs as a group (unless they have different indents) with no
borders between them.
3. Click the Line style box down arrow, and choose a line style. If the Line style box is
not visible, drag the Tables and Borders toolbar so that you can see all of the options.
4. Choose the border that you want to add by clicking the Outside Border button then
selecting one of the border buttons that appears in the drop-down box (see Figure 2-16).




Figure 2-16: Border options in the Tables and Borders toolbar.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 29


Adding borders using the Borders and
Shading dialog box
You can also add borders using the Borders and Shading dialog box (see Figure 2-17). Table 2-8
explains the options in the Border tab. The Borders and Shading dialog box includes the
Options button, which displays a dialog box in which you can change the distance from a box
line to the surrounded text precisely. You can also specify a shadow or a three-dimensional (3-
D) border option. Special options for placing a border on an entire page are found here as well.




Figure 2-17: The Borders tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box.


Table 2-8
The Borders and Page Borders Tab Options
Option Effect
None Removes an existing box.

Box Creates a box with identical lines on all four sides.

Shadow Creates a box with a drop shadow on the bottom and right sides.

3-D Creates a border with a 3-D effect.

Custom This button really isn™t very useful; in theory it combines any of the
previous effects with non-boxed border options, but in practice you should
probably ignore it.

Apply to Defines where the border will be applied, and the options vary between
the Borders and Page Borders tabs ” in the Borders tab you will see
Paragraph and, if you highlighted text within a paragraph first, Text.
Continued
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
30


Table 2-8 (continued)
Option Effect
Style Provides a variety of lines styles for you to choose from. Select a Style
first and then a line Width, and the Style list box changes to show that
style in the selected thickness.

This should probably be called Thickness, a less ambiguous term. Allows
Width
selection of various line thicknesses, ranging from 1/4 to 6 points.

Color Creates a line or a box in the selected color. Sixteen colors and gray
shades are available. If you select the Auto option, the default color for
text is used, generally black.

Art Allows selection of various page borders, including over 150 different
icons and ornamental designs. The Art list box appears only on the Page
Border tab.


To add a border using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
enclose. Remember that if you create a box for more than one paragraph, that box
encloses those paragraphs as a group (unless they have different indents) with no
borders between them.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading. The Borders and Shading dialog box
appears. Click the Borders tab. If you plan to apply a border to a page or a group of
pages (rather than to paragraphs), click the Page Border tab in the Borders and
Shading dialog box and select from the Apply To drop-down list box.
3. Select one of the line styles from the Styles list, or click one of the Settings boxes to
select a style and apply the lines around the box at the same time.
4. If you wish you may also select a line color from the Color drop-down, and a line
thickness from the Width drop-down.
5. Do one of the following:
• Click one of the buttons to the left and underneath the Preview image to place a
line in the associated position.
• Click inside the Preview image itself to place a line on one of the edges.
• If you selected multiple paragraphs, you™ll notice that the Preview image shows
two paragraphs, separated by a blank line; you can create a line between para-
graphs by clicking this blank line in the Preview image.
6. Click OK.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 31


You can use different lines on different edges. Select your first line style, color, and
Tip
thickness. Then click on an edge of the square in the Preview box inside the Borders
and Shading dialog box; select another line and click on another edge; and so on.


Spacing between text and border
When you place a border around text, Word drops the border into place very close to the
text all around. This is sometimes very inconvenient, especially if you want to shade an
area below a heading or place a border around an entire page ” the text sits so close to the
border it looks bad in some cases.
You can adjust spacing between the text and the border, though. While working in the
Borders and Shading text box, click the Options button to see the Border and Shading
Options dialog box (see Figure 2-18). You can set the spacing here precisely.




Figure 2-18: Set spacing between borders and text here.

You can also use the mouse to change a border directly within your document. Move the
mouse pointer to the border line you want to adjust, and carefully place it directly over the
line ” the mouse pointer will change from an arrow to two lines with up and down arrows
(or left and right arrows if you are adjusting a vertical border). Drag the border to change
the space between the text and that border.

Placing borders around individual lines
Word allows you to place borders around individual lines of text. Select the text you want
to place the border around, and then create your borders using the Borders and Shading
dialog box. Notice that the Apply To drop-down list box shows the word Text, meaning that
Word will create a text border rather than a paragraph border.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
32

When you click OK, Word creates the border, placing a left border in front of the first
character you selected, and a right border after the last one. If you selected multiple lines of
text, each line has its own border around it.

Fitting a border within margins
When you create a box around a paragraph, the left and right edges of the box are placed
slightly outside the page margins (assuming the text hasn™t been indented, of course, in
which case the margins are slightly to the left and right of the indent positions).
You may want the borders to fall within, or exactly at, the page margins. To make a border
fit within the margins, indent the paragraph on both the left and the right side by the width
of the border. You can use the ruler, but you can be more precise using the Borders and
Shading dialog box.
To make borders fall on the margins using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow
these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading.
3. On the Borders tab, note the width (the thickness) of the border line in the Width
control.
4. Click Options. The Borders and Shading Options dialog box then appears. Note the
spacing in the From Text boxes labeled Left and Right.
5. Click OK or Cancel twice to close both dialog boxes.
6. Choose Format_Paragraph. Then click the Indents and Spacing tab.
7. In the Left and Right boxes of the Indentation group, type the number of points
equal to the combined width of the border and the spacing specified in the Left and
Right values in the Border and Shading Options dialog box. For example, if the
border is three points thick and the entry in the From Text box is one point, enter
four points in the Left and Right boxes.
8. Click OK.

Removing or changing borders
You can remove borders either all at once or line by line. You can remove or change a
border using the Borders toolbar or the Borders and Shading dialog box.
To remove or change borders using the Borders toolbar, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in the paragraph containing the borders, or select the
paragraphs that you want to adjust.
2. Display the Tables and Borders toolbar by clicking the Borders button on the
Formatting toolbar.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 33

3. Do one of the following:
• Click the Outside Borders button, and choose no borders.
• Choose a new line style.
• Click the buttons for the boxes or borders that you want to add.
To remove or change borders using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in the paragraph containing the borders, or select the
paragraphs that you want to adjust.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading, and click the Borders tab. If you™re removing
borders applied to an entire page or to a group of pages, click the Page Border tab.
3. Do one of the following:
• To remove a box border, select the None button in the Setting group.
• To remove individual border lines, click the button representing the line you want
to remove in the Preview image.
• To change a line, select the line that you want from the Style scroll box.
4. Click OK.

Adding shading
Shading in Word comes in various percentages of black (grays) and different colors, as
well as in various patterns. For each shade or pattern, you can select a foreground or a
background color. Colors are converted to shades of gray or patterns on a black-and-white
printer. You can use shading with borders so that a paragraph is surrounded by a line
and filled with shading, or you can use shading alone so that a paragraph is shaded but has
no border.
Working with shading requires playing with different configurations to find the one that is
most readable. As a general rule, however, the smaller the font size, the lighter you need to
make the paragraph shading. Applying bold to text may also help. To change the color of
text with a background shading, use the Font dialog box (Format_Font).

Fill versus pattern
Word lets you apply two forms of shading: fill and pattern. You can think of these as the
fill being the foundation, and the pattern being laid on top. Or the fill is the background
color, while the pattern is the foreground pattern or color. The fill is always a solid shade or
color. The pattern can be solid, but also may be an actual pattern of dots or lines.
Thus, you can have one color as a fill, and another color for the pattern ” a fill of light
yellow with a pattern of black lines on top, for instance. Of course, if you use a solid
pattern you won™t see the fill underneath.
Note also the difference between a fill for which you have selected No Fill and one for
which you have selected the color white. These are not the same thing. No Fill means the
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
34

paragraph has no background color; you can see through the text to the watermark below,
for example. If you use a white fill, the watermark would not be visible under that
paragraph.
The same goes for the pattern. If you have any kind of pattern, even a white pattern, the
document background cannot be seen below the paragraph. Thus a Clear pattern is not the
same as a white pattern. Select Clear if you want to use a fill, but with no pattern or color
sitting on top.

Applying shading
You can apply shading using the Shading tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box (see
Figure 2-19) or using the Tables and Borders toolbar.
To shade paragraphs using the Tables and Borders toolbar, position the insertion point in a
paragraph or select the paragraphs that you want to shade. Click the Tables and Borders
button on the Formatting toolbar to display the Tables and Borders toolbar, and then click the
down arrow next to the Shading button to display a palette of fill colors. Choose the color of
shading and the pattern that you want.




Figure 2-19: The Shading tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box.

To shade paragraphs using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
shade.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading.
3. Click the Shading tab.
4. Select a Fill color (click the More Colors button if you don™t see the one you want
to use).
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 35

5. Select a Pattern Style. Style options include Clear (no pattern), Solid (completely
blocks both the Fill color and the document background), percentages (the density of
the Color shading), and striped as well as checkered patterns such as Dk Horizontal
(for dark horizontal stripes) and Lt Grid (for a grid made of light cross-hatching).
You can also apply light and dark trellises.
6. Select from the Color list to specify a color for the pattern you selected. The result of
your selection appears in the Preview box. Automatic is selected by default ” this
means that the pattern will be created using black or gray.
7. Click OK.

Adding horizontal lines
You can also place horizontal lines, also known as horizontal rules, on your pages. You
may want to use these lines in documents intended for printing, although the horizontal-line
feature really grew out of the Web. Because Web pages are not divided like typical printed
pages, horizontal lines are frequently used to divide Web pages. Word includes several clip-
art images that can be used as lines.
To insert a horizontal line, choose Format_Borders and Shading. The Borders and Shading
dialog box appears. Click the Horizontal Line button, and the Horizontal Line dialog box
appears (see Figure 2-20). The box will fill with images of horizontal lines, but it may take
a little while. These are being drawn from an online library (so if you are not connected
you may not see any, or many). If the box remains blank, try clicking on the scroll bar to
move down the list and the box may suddenly fill.




Figure 2-20: The Horizontal Line dialog box.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
36

There™s a search box, too. In theory, you can type a word ” star or arrow, for example ”
and then click Search to find a matching horizontal line. In practice, it may not be worth
the trouble. You can also click the Import button to load a file on your hard disk into the
list of lines.
When you see a horizontal line you like ” scroll down through the box to see more ”
click on it and click OK, or simply double-click it. The line will be placed into your
document at the insertion-point position.
Double-clicking the line image in your document displays the Format Horizontal Line
dialog box, which you can use to change the width, height, and alignment of the line.


Creating Bulleted or Numbered Lists
Bulleted lists help to distinguish a series of important items or points from the rest of
the text in a document, and numbered lists are often used for step-by-step instructions.
Word provides flexible, easy-to-use methods for creating bulleted and numbered lists
with a variety of formats. You can type the text for the bulleted or numbered list and
then apply the list formatting to the text, or you can place the insertion point in a blank
line, apply the bulleted or numbered list format to that line, and then type the list. Either
way, Word sets a 1/2-inch hanging indent after you select a list format, and Word adds
the bullet or number in front of each paragraph, in the selected text, or in each new
paragraph that you type.

You can create a numbered or bulleted list automatically as you type. At the beginning of
Tip a new paragraph, type a number or an asterisk followed by a space or a tab. Then, when
you press Enter to add the next item in the list, Word automatically inserts the next
number or bullet. To finish the list, press Enter followed by Backspace. This feature only
works, however, if Automatic Bulleted Lists and Automatic Numbered Lists are selected
in the AutoFormat As You Type tab of the AutoCorrect dialog box ” select
Tools_AutoCorrect.


Creating bulleted lists
Word offers seven standard bullet shapes: solid circle, empty circle, solid square, 3-D box,
diamond, arrow, and checkmark. If you want to use a heart, pointing hand, or other symbol,
you can select these bullets from any of your installed symbol fonts, such as Symbol,
Wingdings, Webdings, and Monotype Sorts. You can even select a bullet image from a
library of hundreds.
You can create a bulleted list using the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-21)
or the Formatting toolbar.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 37




Figure 2-21: The Bulleted tab of the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.

To start a new bulleted list, simply place the insertion point where you plan to begin and
then click the Bullets button on the Formatting toolbar ” Word automatically inserts a
bulleted-list entry using the solid black circle as a bullet. (To be more precise, it uses the
type of bullet you used the last time you created a bulleted list during the current session,
or, if it™s the first bulleted list in this session, it uses the solid circle.) Now simply start
typing, and each time you press Enter, Word moves the text to the next line and puts a
bullet at the beginning of that line, too.
If you want to specify a different bullet symbol, place the insertion point where you plan
to begin. Then choose Format_Bullets and Numbering, click the one you want to use,
and click OK. (We look at how to use a different bullet image, one that doesn™t appear in
this dialog box, in the next section).
You can also convert text that you have already typed to bulleted text. Simply place the
cursor in the paragraph you want to convert, or select several paragraphs, and click the
Bullets button or use the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.
When you want to end a bulleted list, type the last entry, press Enter, and then press the
Delete key.

Note that when Word creates a bulleted list, it automatically sets up a hanging indent ”
now you can see the purpose of the hanging indent. You want the bullet to appear to the
Note
left of the text, so the first line has to hang out to the left. Take notice that if you right-
click on a bulleted list entry, the shortcut menu that appears has two extra commands,
Decrease Indent and Increase Indent; use these to adjust the position of the bulleted list
on the page.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
38


Customizing a bulleted list
You can customize a bulleted list in several ways:
. Picking another bullet image
. Modifying the position of the bullets
. Modifying the position of the text in the list

Picking another bullet image
To use another bullet image, open the Bullets and Numbering dialog box and click one of the
bullet-styles boxes. This is the style that you will be replacing with your new bullet. Click the
Customize button and the Customize Bulleted List dialog box opens (see Figure 2-22).




Figure 2-22: The Customize Bulleted List dialog box.



Notice the Reset button in the Bullets and Numbering box. This button is enabled if the
Tip
bullet-style box you click on has been modified. Clicking Reset changes the box to the
default.

You now have three ways to select another bullet image. You can select a Bullet Character
and modify the character™s font, you can select a special character, or you can select a
bullet image.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 39


Modifying a bullet™s font
Click on one of the Bullet Characters at the top of the Customize Bulleted List dialog box
(this may be a character that was already there when you opened the dialog box, or a
character you placed there using the Character button, which we™ll look at shortly). The
Font dialog box opens.
You can now modify the character ” change the size, make it bold or italic, use a different
font, even use one of the animation styles under the Text Effects tab. When you are
finished, click OK to close the Font box; then click OK again to close the Customize
Bulleted List box and place your selected character into your bulleted list.

Selecting a special character
If you click the Character button in the Customize Bulleted List dialog box the Symbol
dialog box opens. You can select a symbol from any of the typefaces on your system; in
particular, look at the Symbol, Webdings, and Wingdings typefaces.

Selecting a bullet picture
Click the Picture button, and the Picture Bullet dialog box opens (see Figure 2-23). This
functions in the same way as the Horizontal Line dialog box we looked at earlier in this
chapter. It slowly loads (it™s loading off the Internet) literally hundreds of bullet images. As
with the horizontal lines, these are really a Web feature, but there™s no reason you can™t use
the images in your print documents.




Figure 2-23: The Picture Bullet dialog box.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
40


Changing list positions
You can modify the position of the bullet and the text in the list. In the Customize Bulleted
List dialog box, modify the settings in the Bullet Position and Text Position boxes.
The Bullet Position setting defines how far to the right of the left margin the bullet should
be placed. The Tab Space After value defines at which point the text begins on the first line
” that is, how far Word tabs to the right after the bullet before starting the text. And the
Indent At value defines where subsequent lines of text appear. For example, if you set the
Bullet Position Indent At to 1" and the Text Position Indent At to 1", the bullet and the
subsequent lines of text are on the same vertical line.

Creating numbered lists
Numbered lists are created in a manner similar to bulleted lists, except that instead of
bullets Word places sequential numbers. This is a very useful feature, because if you add a
paragraph in the middle of a numbered list or rearrange the order of the paragraphs in a list,
Word automatically renumbers the paragraphs so that they retain their sequence. The
Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-24) offers seven
standard numbering formats and the ability to customize them. You can create a numbered
list in two ways: using the Bullets and Numbering dialog box or using the Numbering
button on the Formatting toolbar.




Figure 2-24: The Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.

To create numbered lists, follow these steps:
1. Type your list, and then select it.
2. Do one of the following:
• Choose Format_Bullets and Numbering, or choose Bullets and Numbering from
the shortcut menu. Click the Numbered tab. Then select the numbering style that
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 41

you want from the predefined choices. Your choices include Arabic numbers,
Roman numerals, and letters, with periods, parentheses, or double parentheses to
separate the numbers from the list text. Click OK.
• Click the Numbered List button on the toolbar.
3. To add additional numbered items to your list, move the insertion point to the end of
a line formatted with a number and press Enter.
4. Move the insertion point to the end of the last numbered item in your list. Press
Enter and then Del, or press Enter and click the Numbering button on the Formatting
toolbar, to turn off the number formatting.

You can quickly convert a numbered list to a bulleted list by selecting the numbered list
Tip
and then clicking the Bullets button on the Formatting toolbar, and vice versa.


Customizing numbered lists
You can customize an existing numbered list or apply your own specifications to the
number format using the Customize button in the Numbered tab of the Bullets and
Numbering dialog box. Click on one of the number-style boxes and then click the
Customize button to display the Customize Numbered List dialog box (see Figure 2-25).
Table 2-9 explains the Numbered List options in this dialog box.




Figure 2-25: The Customize Numbered List dialog box.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
42


Table 2-9
Numbered List Options
Option Action
Number format Types the characters, if any, that you want to come before each
number. If you want each number enclosed in parentheses, for
example, type an opening parenthesis before the number in this box.
Do not type over this number in this box! If you do so, even replacing
it with another number, you will break the automatic numbering; each
number in the list will be the same.
Number style Specifies the numbering style that you want. Choices include Arabic
numerals, uppercase and lowercase Roman numerals, uppercase and
lowercase alphabet letters, and word series (1st, One, and First). You
can also choose no numbers at all, killing the sequential numbering.
(Why? So that you can retain the indentation without the numbers.)
Font Specifies the special font or font attributes (such as bold, italic, and
underline) and the point size for the numbers. A standard Font dialog
box appears when this button is chosen.
Start at Indicates the starting number for your list. If you™re using a series of
lists, the starting number may be something other than 1.
Number position Chooses the alignment of the number at the Aligned At position. For
instance, if you select Left, the number begins at the Aligned At
position; if right, the number ends there.
Aligned at Sets the distance from the left margin that Word places the number.
Tab Space After The distance between the Aligned At number position and the text on
the first line.
Indent at The left-most position of the text on subsequent lines.

Restarting and continuing numbering
You can tell Word whether to restart or continue numbering. Notice, in the Bullets and
Numbering dialog box on the Numbered tab, the Restart Numbering and Continue Previous
List option buttons. When you use the dialog box to create a list, or when you open the box
while the list is selected, these option buttons are enabled and one is selected:
. Restart Numbering: Starts the numbering sequence over from 1. You might use
this to place two numbered lists one after the other. Word will want to continue the
second list with the next number in sequence from the previous list; this option tells
it not to. Also, there are times when Word gets a little confused and starts a brand
new list, many paragraphs away from the last list, with the next number in sequence.
This option slaps its hand and tells it not to.
. Continue Previous List: Tells Word you want to begin your list where the last one
left off. For instance, you may want to create a very long procedural description,
with paragraphs of unnumbered text within the list. This allows you to create lots of
individual numbered lists, but link them all together.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 43


Tip Another way to use these commands is to right-click on the first entry in the list and
select from the pop-up menu Restart Numbering or Continue Numbering.


Adding unbulleted or unnumbered paragraphs to a list
Sometimes the topic of a bulleted list or a numbered item cannot be discussed conveniently
in a single paragraph. If you require more than one paragraph to describe a single topic in a
bulleted list, only the first paragraph for that topic should have a bullet. The remaining
subordinate paragraphs for that topic don™t need bullets, but they do need the same hanging
indent as the bulleted paragraphs in the list. There are a couple of ways in which you can
create these indented subordinate paragraphs:
. Press Shift+Enter to make a line break (press twice if you want a blank line between
the blocks of text) and continue typing. The new block of text will not be preceded
by a bullet or number because Word regards it as part of the same paragraph (and
only places a bullet or number at the beginning of each paragraph).
. Click on a line from which you want to remove a bullet or number; then click the
Bullets or Numbering button on the toolbar to do so. Then use the Left Indent
marker on the ruler to line up the text of the subordinate paragraph with the text of
the previous paragraph.

Ending bulleted or numbered lists
As mentioned previously, the formatting for a paragraph is stored in the paragraph mark.
Therefore, as with other paragraph formatting, the bulleted or numbered list format carries
forward each time you press Enter to begin a new paragraph. If you create a bulleted list
by pressing Enter, you need to end the bullet or numbered list formatting when you finish
with the list. To end a bulleted or numbered list, press Enter at the end of a list and take
one of the following actions:
. Press Delete to remove the number and bullet, leaving the insertion point on the
line immediately below the last list entry and moved back to the style™s left
margin.
. Press Enter again. The same as pressing Delete, except that you™ll get a blank
line between the list and the line on which the insertion point is placed.
. Press Backspace to remove the bullet and place the insertion point on the line
below the last entry, at the bullet position.
. Press Ctrl+Shift+N return to the Normal style.
. Press Ctrl+Q to return to whatever style was applied to the text immediately
before you began the bulleted or numbered list.
. Click the Bullets button to remove the bullet or the Numbering button to
remove the number from the paragraph, returning the insertion point to the
style™s left margin.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
44


Creating outline numbered lists
Outline numbered lists are similar to numbered or bulleted lists, but in these multilevel lists,
the number or bullet of each paragraph changes according to its level of indention. With
outline numbered lists, you can mix numbered and bulleted paragraphs based on the
indentation level. You can create multilevel lists with as many as nine levels. Use the outline
numbered list format if you want your list to have numbered items with indented, bulleted
subparagraphs; for example, many types of technical and legal documents require each
paragraph and indentation level to be numbered sequentially. Multilevel lists are created using
the Outline Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-26).

Outline Numbered is a misnomer. In fact these outline lists may be either numbered
Note
or bulleted.




Figure 2-26: The Outline Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.

As with bullets and numbering, you can set the outline numbering first and then begin
typing, or type and then select the text and apply the formatting. To create subordinate
paragraphs, simply increase the indentation using the Increase Indent button on the
Formatting toolbar, or by pressing Shift+Alt+right arrow ” Word automatically switches
to the subordinate numbering system. To switch back to a higher level, use the Decrease
Indent button or Shift+Alt+Left Arrow.

Customizing outline numbered lists
You can customize an outline numbered list format by clicking Customize in the Outline
Numbered tab, which displays the Customize Outline Numbered List dialog box (see
Figure 2-27). You can see additional options by clicking More. Table 2-10 describes the
available options in the Customize Outline Numbered List dialog box.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 45




Figure 2-27: The Customize Outline Numbered List dialog box.


Table 2-10
Options in the Customize Outline Numbered List Dialog Box
Option Description
Level Determines which level to modify.
Number format Determines which characters (if any) come before each
number or bullet at this indentation level.
Number style Determines the numbering or bullet style used. Choices
include a combination of the numbering choices available
for numbered lists and the bullet choices available for
bulleted lists or even no number or bullet at all.
Start at Determines the starting number for paragraphs at the
selected level of indentation.
Previous Level Number If you selected Level 2 or lower, and have chosen a
numbering format (rather than a bullet), this drop-down list
box is enabled. It displays a list of the levels for which you
have customized a format. If you select a previous level
number, Word will include that level number along with the
level number for the selected format. (More explanation of
this point follows the table.)
Font button Determines any special font or font attributes (such as bold,
italic, and underline) or the point size for the numbers or
bullets used at this indentation level.
Number Position - Aligned At The indentation at which the number is placed.
Text Position - Tab Space After How far Word tabs before beginning the text on the first line
after the number.
Indent at The left position of the subsequent lines.

Continued
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
46


Table 2-9 (continued)
Option Description
Link level to style Applies the selected style to the text used at this numbering
level..
Follow Number With Tells Word to place a Tab after the number, to use spaces,
or to place nothing between the text and the number (in
which case the Tab Space After setting is disabled).
Legal style numbering Converts Roman numerals (IV, V) to Arabic numerals
(4, 5) ” the Number Style box is disabled.
Apply Changes To If you are modifying an existing numbered list, you can
choose to modify the Whole List, from This Point Forward,
or the Current Paragraph.


The Previous Level Number tells Word to include the number of the previous level
along with the number of the level you are modifying. For instance, the first level would
be 1, the next level down would be 1.1, the next 1.1.1, the next at the same level 1.1.2,
and so on. This is a common outlining style for many government and military docu-
ments, for instance.

Creating list styles
Word also lets you customize lists by creating special list styles. Click the List Styles tab
in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-28). This dialog box lists all the
outline list styles that have been created ” select one and click OK to apply that style to
your Outline list.




Figure 2-28: The List Styles tab of the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 47

You can use the Add button to add another style, or Modify to change one you™ve selected.
When you click one of these buttons, you see the New Style or Modify Style dialog box (see
Figure 2-29). You can learn more about these dialog boxes in the Microsoft Word 2003
Bible™s discussion of styles (Chapter 13 in that book). For now, just know that you can create
a style that encompasses all levels of an outline list, defining exactly what font should be
used, how much indentation, whether to use a bullet or number, what number to start with,
and so on. Simply provide the style a name, select a starting number, select the level you want
to define, and then make all your selections. Then go back and do the next level.




Figure 2-29: The New Style dialog box.



Paragraphs and Pagination
Word automatically creates page breaks as you write, but you can control how paragraphs
are positioned relative to these page breaks. For example, you may want to prevent page
breaks within boxed or shaded paragraphs. To control paragraph positions relative to page
breaks, use the Line and Page Breaks tab in the Paragraph dialog box (see Figure 2-30).
Table 2-11 describes the options in the Line and Page Breaks tab.

The page breaks created by Word are very different from the page breaks you can cre-
ate yourself using Ctrl+Enter or the Insert_Break command. Word™s page breaks are
Note
placed according to how much text is on the page, the page margins, and so on. On the
other hand, the breaks you enter are fixed. If you place a break immediately before a
paragraph, it doesn™t matter how much text you add before the paragraph, the break
remains there.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
48




Figure 2-30: The Line and Page Breaks tab in the Paragraph dialog box.


Table 2-11
Line and Page Breaks Tab Options
in the Paragraph Dialog Box
Option Action
Widow/Orphan control Instructs Word not to let a single line from a paragraph appear
by itself at the top or bottom of a page. This option is on by
default. A widow is the final line of a paragraph that jumps to the
top of the next page because it doesn™t fit on the current one. An
orphan is the first line of a paragraph that falls at the end of a
page with the remainder of the paragraph appearing on the next
page.
Keep lines together Instructs Word not to split the paragraph into separate pages.
This is useful when working with lists.
Keep with next Instructs Word to keep the paragraph with the next paragraph.
This is useful when working with captions and lists.
Page break before Instructs Word to place the paragraph on top of the next page.
This is useful when working with figures, tables, and graphics.
Suppress line numbers Instructs Word to remove line numbers from the selected text if
your document displays line numbers.
Don™t hyphenate Instructs Word to exclude the selected paragraph from auto-
matic hyphenation.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 49


Hyphenation
Speaking of hyphenation, it™s time to cover that subject. Hyphenation reduces ragged right
edges on blocks of text (it also allows you to get more words on a page, though only
slightly). Hyphenation is the process of breaking words between lines, so part of a word
appears on the right side of one line, with a hyphen placed after it, while the rest of the
word appears on the left side of the next line. Why not use paragraph justification to create
nice straight right edges? Because justified text is hard to read. But hyphenation can even
be used with justified text, to reduce the amount of white space inserted between words.
The following sections look at four types of hyphenation:
. Automatic hyphenation
. Manual hyphenation
. Optional hyphenation
. Nonbreaking hyphenation

Using automatic hyphenation
Automatic hyphenation inserts optional hyphens. An optional hyphen is a hyphen that
Word uses only when a word or a phrase appears at the end of a line. If the word or phrase
moves to a different position because of editing, the optional hyphen is removed.

Normally, optional hyphens are not visible in your document. You can view optional hy-
Note
phens by choosing Tools_Options and then clicking the View tab. Under Formatting
Marks, select the Optional Hyphens check box.

To select automatic hyphenation, follow these steps:
1. Choose Tools_Language_Hyphenation to open the Hyphenation dialog box (see
Figure 2-31).
2. Select the Automatically Hyphenate Document check box.
3. If you do not want to hyphenate words in uppercase letters, leave the Hyphenate
Words in CAPS check box blank.
4. Set a value in the Hyphenation Zone. This value is the distance in inches between
the end of the last complete word in a line of text and the margin ” in other words,
the degree of raggedness Word should allow. Word uses this measurement to
determine if a word should be hyphenated. Large values decrease the number of
hyphens; low values increase the number of hyphens but reduce the raggedness of
the right margin.
5. If you don™t want consecutive lines to have hyphens ” it can make a document look
a little strange ” set a limit in the Limit Consecutive Hyphens To box.
6. Click OK.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
50




Figure 2-31: The Hyphenation dialog box.


If you don™t want certain paragraphs to be hyphenated automatically, select those para-
Tip
graphs and then choose Format_Paragraph. In the Paragraph dialog box, select the
Line and Page Breaks tab and then the Don™t Hyphenate check box.


Using manual hyphenation
Using manual hyphenation, you have more control over what is hyphenated and how it is
hyphenated. You can select which parts of the document are hyphenated and where a
hyphen appears in specific words. This is a huge hassle for a large document, but it does
allow you to do a better job than Word might do automatically ” Word sometimes
hyphenates words in positions that don™t look good.
To select manual hyphenation, follow these steps:
1. Select the text you want to hyphenate manually. If you want to hyphenate manually
the entire document, don™t select anything.
2. Choose Tools_Language_Hyphenation to open the Hyphenation dialog box.
3. Click the Manual button, and Word immediately begins scanning the selection or the
document for words to be hyphenated. When such a word is located, Word displays
the Manual Hyphenation dialog box (see Figure 2-32).
4. To hyphenate the word at a point other than that suggested in the Hyphenate At box,
click where you want the hyphen to appear.
5. To accept the suggestion, click Yes.
6. To skip the word and move on, click No.
7. To stop the manual hyphenation, click Cancel.




Figure 2-32: The Manual Hyphenation dialog box.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 51


Using nonbreaking and optional hyphens
Use nonbreaking hyphens to hyphenate phrases or terms that you don™t want to wrap to
another line (for example, 02-12-03). With nonbreaking hyphens, the entire phrase or term
wraps to the next line instead of breaking.
To insert a nonbreaking hyphen, do the following:
1. Position the insertion point where you want to place the nonbreaking hyphen.
2. Press Ctrl+Shift+- (hyphen).
Use an optional hyphen when you want to break specific lines of text. For example, if a
lengthy word wraps to the next line and leaves a large amount of white space, you can
insert an optional hyphen in that specific word so that the first part appears on the first
line. If the word later moves to a different position because of editing, the optional hyphen
does not print. If further editing moves the word back into a hyphenation zone, the hyphen
reappears.
To insert an optional hyphen, do the following:
1. Position the insertion point where you want the optional hyphen to appear.
2. Press Ctrl+- (hyphen).


Summary
Mastering paragraph fundamentals is essential for creating just about any document in
Word. Even when you work with graphics, basic paragraph formatting is used to place the
images. Because of the importance of paragraphs, Word provides several ways to apply
paragraph formats. In this chapter, you learned the key elements of formatting paragraphs,
including how to
. Apply paragraph formatting using the Formatting toolbar or Format Paragraph
dialog box (Format_Paragraph).
. Remove paragraph formatting by pressing Ctrl+Q to return the text to the current
style™s default settings or Ctrl+Shift+N to apply the Normal style to the paragraph.
. Align paragraphs using the following shortcut keys: Ctrl+L for left-align, Ctrl+R for
right-align, Ctrl+E for center-align, and Ctrl+J for justified text. You can also use the
alignment buttons on the Formatting toolbar.
. Set tabs using the horizontal ruler by clicking the Tab Alignment button at the far-
left end to choose the tab style that you want and then clicking the ruler at the point
where you want to insert the tab. You can also use the Tabs dialog box
(Format_Tabs) to set tabs.
. Add borders and shading to paragraphs by clicking the Border button on the
Formatting toolbar to display the Border toolbar or by choosing Format_Borders
and Shading to display the Borders and Shading dialog box.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
52

. Insert horizontal lines using the Horizontal Line button in the Borders and Shading
dialog box (Format_Borders and Shading).
. Create bulleted and numbered lists using the Bullets and Numbering buttons on the
Formatting toolbar, or the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (Format_Bullets and
Numbering).
. Use the Hyphenation dialog box to automatically or manually create hyphens
(Tools_Language_Hyphenation).
. . .
3
CHAPTER



Configuring
Outlook 2003
. . . .

In This Chapter

S imilar to most applications, Outlook configures itself
Configuring e-mail
automatically using a host of settings based on specific
accounts
assumptions that Microsoft has made about how you will use
Outlook. Although those assumptions are based on usability
Adding data files
research, there is no guarantee those default settings will suit your
needs or preferences. What™s more, you™ll need to set up your
Creating and managing
own e-mail accounts because, all privacy jokes aside, Microsoft
Outlook profiles
can™t possibly know what accounts you use.
It isn™t difficult to set up an account, a profile, and a new file in
Configuring message
which to store your Outlook data. In this chapter you learn how to
delivery options
perform each of these tasks as well as configure Outlook to
function the way you want. Some of these tasks include adding
. . . .
other data storage files to your profile, creating additional
profiles, and defining the way Outlook delivers messages.


Configuring E-mail Accounts
Although you could use Outlook solely for tasks other than e-
mail, it™s likely that you™ll want to use Outlook for at least one e-
mail account. Before you can send or receive e-mail with
Outlook, you must set up the account.
Outlook 2000 offered two modes”Internet Mail Only (IMO) and
Corporate Workgroup (CW)”that were designed for two
different uses. IMO was targeted at non-Exchange Server users,
and CW was targeted primarily to Exchange Server users. These
two modes made it difficult to manage multiple account types.
In Outlook 2002, Microsoft did away with these two modes, and
introduced a single unified mode that enabled Outlook users to
work with multiple account types in a single profile. This
capability carries over to Outlook 2003, making it easy, for
example, to work with an Exchange Server account, a POP3
account, and a Hotmail account, all in one profile.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
54

The following sections explain how to add accounts to an existing profile. For information
on adding profiles, see “Creating and Managing Outlook Profiles” later in this chapter.

Using the E-mail Accounts Wizard
Outlook provides a wizard to help you add e-mail accounts to a profile. This section
explains how to use the wizard; the following sections explain how to configure specific
types of e-mail accounts.
Follow these steps to launch the E-mail Accounts Wizard:
1. Close Outlook, right-click the Outlook icon on the desktop (or in the Start menu),
and then choose Properties, or open the Mail applet from the Control Panel. Either
action opens the Mail Setup ” Outlook dialog box.
2. In the Mail Setup ” Outlook dialog box, click E-mail Accounts to start the wizard.
3. To add a new account, choose the Add a New E-mail Account option. You can
choose the type of account to add to the existing profile (Figure 3-1). To modify an
existing account, choose View or Change Existing E-mail Accounts; then click Next.

Tip You can add or modify accounts with Outlook running. Choose Tools_E-mail Accounts to open
the wizard.

At this point in the wizard, you can choose the type of account to add or select an existing
account to modify (Figure 3-2). The following sections explain how to configure specific
types of accounts.




Figure 3-1: Choose the type of account to add to the existing profile.
Chapter 3 ¦ Configuring Outlook 2003 55




Figure 3-2: You can modify existing accounts with the wizard.


Configuring Exchange Server accounts
It™s relatively easy to set up an Exchange Server account in Outlook because you need to
specify only a handful of settings, such as the server name and the account name. You don™t
have to worry about the e-mail address or other settings as you do with a POP or IMAP
account because these settings are configured at the server by the Exchange Server
administrator.
1. Run the E-mail Accounts Wizard as explained in the previous section.
2. From the Server Type page of the wizard, choose Microsoft Exchange Server and
then click Next.
3. In the Exchange Server Settings page (Figure 3-3), enter the server name or IP
address in the Microsoft Exchange Server field.
4. In the User Name field, type the mailbox name or the account alias (this is often the
logon account name).
5. Choose the Use Local Copy of Mailbox option if you want to work with Ex-
change Server in cached local mode (explained later in the section, “Setting
advanced options”).

You can enter the NetBIOS name for the server in the Microsoft Exchange Server field, or
Tip
specify the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) for the server.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
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Figure 3-3: Set the server and account name on the Exchange Server Settings page.

At this point you can click Next and then click Finish to add the account with default
settings. In many cases, however, you will need to configure some additional settings. You
can do this when adding the account, or change the settings afterward. On the Exchange
Server Settings Wizard page, click More Settings to open the Microsoft Exchange Server
property sheet shown in Figure 3-4. The following sections explain the options available in
this property sheet.




Figure 3-4: Use the General page to configure connection settings.
Chapter 3 ¦ Configuring Outlook 2003 57


Setting general properties
The General page controls basic settings and the connection state for the account. The
following list summarizes the options:
Exchange Account. Specify the name by which you want the account to appear in
the profile™s account list. By default, the name is Microsoft Exchange Server.
Automatically Detect Connection State. Let Outlook choose the connection state
automatically. Choose this option if you never disconnect your computer from the
network, or if you simply want Outlook to detect the connection state by itself.
Manually Control Connection State. This option enables you to control whether
Outlook uses the Exchange Server mailbox or the locally cached copy, rather than
allow Outlook to control the connection state. If you do not choose the option
Choose the Connection Type When Starting, Outlook automatically uses the
connection method specified by the Default Connection State options.
Choose the Connection Type When Starting. Select this option to have Outlook
prompt you at startup to select the type of connection method to use.
Connect with the Network. Use this option to have Outlook connect to the server
through the local area network, whether through a hardwired connection or existing
dial-up.
Work Offline and Use Dial-Up Networking. Have Outlook dial a specified dial-up
connection to connect to the Exchange Server.
Seconds Until Server Connection Timeout. Set the amount of time Outlook will
wait for responses from the Exchange Server before timing out. Increase the value if
you are working over a slow link, such as a dial-up connection, that frequently
causes Outlook to timeout and disconnect.

Setting advanced options
The Advanced page (Figure 3-5) enables you to open one or more other mailboxes along
with your own. For example, an assistant for a small group of users might open the
mailboxes of those other users to manage their schedules or handle mail processing. Or,
perhaps you want to keep your mail in separate mailboxes for different purposes. Whatever
the case, you can click Add to specify a mailbox name, and add it to the list of mailboxes
that Outlook will open at startup.
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Figure 3-5: Use the Advanced page to configure mailbox settings.


You can also open a single folder from another user™s mailbox by choosing File_Open_Other
Tip
User™s Folder. With either method, you must either own the mailbox or have been given del-
egate access to it.

The settings under the Mailbox Settings group let you specify how Outlook downloads
messages from the mailbox, and whether it uses a local copy of the mailbox or works only
from the server:
Use Local Copy of Mailbox. Select this option to use Cached Exchange Mode (CEM),
which directs Outlook to create a local copy of the mailbox on your computer.
Download Only Headers. Used with CEM, this option directs Outlook to download
only headers to the local cache, and leave the item bodies and attachments on the
server.
Download Headers Followed by the Full Item. Outlook first downloads all headers
and then begins downloading the item bodies and attachments.
Download Full Items. Outlook downloads each item in its entirety.
The option you choose depends on how much of the item you need and your current
connection state. Download only the headers if you™re working over a slow link or have a
large amount of data in the mailbox and want to speed up offline synchronization. If you
choose the option Download Headers Followed by the Full Item, Outlook will be able to
synchronize the headers fairly quickly so you can see what items the mailbox contains. If the
synchronization is interrupted, you will at least be able to see what™s in the mailbox, even if
you can™t see the contents of some of the items. Choose the Download Full Items option if
you don™t have connection problems or are working from a fast connection, and you want all
of the items downloaded.
Chapter 3 ¦ Configuring Outlook 2003 59


Setting the offline store location
Outlook uses an offline store (OST) file to store the offline mailbox cache. You can use an
OST whether or not you work in cached mode. When you use an OST without CEM,
Outlook functions just as it did in previous versions with an OST file. Synchronization
doesn™t take place until you perform a send/receive for the Exchange Server account, either
manually or at a scheduled send/receive. Outlook uses the OST only if it can™t connect to the
Exchange Server.
With CEM, Outlook defaults to using the OST and handles synchronization automatically
based on the settings you provided in the Mailbox Settings group on the Advanced property
page. The main distinction between the two, therefore, is that with CEM, Outlook always
uses the OST and handles synchronization for you.
When you enable CEM, Outlook automatically creates an OST to contain the offline cache.
You can™t directly change the location of the OST, which you might want to do if you™re
running low on disk space where the OST resides. You can, however, disable offline storage
and then re-enable it to change the location. Follow these steps to accomplish the change:
1. Close Outlook, and start the E-mail Accounts Wizard from the Mail applet in the
Control Panel.
2. Click E-mail Accounts; then choose View or Change Existing E-mail Accounts,
and click Next.
3. Select the Exchange Server account, and click Change.
4. Clear the Use Local Copy of Mailbox option, and click Next; then click Finish.
5. Repeat steps 2 and 3.
6. Click More Settings and then click the Advanced tab.
7. Click Offline Folder File Settings, click Disable Offline Use, and click Yes when
prompted.
8. Click OK; then Next and then Finish.
9. Repeat steps 2, 3, and 6.
10. Click Offline Folder File Settings, click Browse, and specify a new path and
location for the OST; then click Open.
11. Click OK and then click Yes when prompted to create the new OST (assuming you
specified a new one and not an existing one).
12. Enable the option Use Local Copy of Mailbox on the Advanced page; then click
OK.
13. Click Next and then Finish; then Close.
When you start Outlook, it will use the new OST and will synchronize it accordingly.
If you want to use Outlook with an OST file but without CEM, you can follow the
previous steps 1 through 11 to create a new OST file. Close the account properties without
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
60

enabling the Use Local Copy of Mailbox option. Keep in mind that you must manually
perform a synchronization, or use a scheduled send/receive to synchronize the OST before
Outlook can use it.

Configuring security settings
You can configure a small number of security settings for an Exchange Server account on
the Security page of the account™s properties (Figure 3-6).

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