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money, 124, 136
nurture, and nature, 16
moral rights, in IPR, 54, 57, 75, 149, 174,
nurture, bestowal of, 63, 141
198
moralities, 36, 131
object, and subject, 87, 153, 156
mortuary ceremony, 96, 97, 196
obligations, 48, 128, 129, 132
mortuary payments, 114, 123
of kinship, 112, 115, 117, 130
mortuary sculpture, 88
Omie, Papua New Guinea, 90, 142“147, 150,
mother, 69, 76, 83, 173
159, 160, 196
mother, and child, 4, 5, 6, 32, 84, 90, 175
one world, 5, 139, 177
mother, and fetus, 10, 169, 198
one blood, 83
mother™s brother, 124, 159, 172. See also
ontology, 140, 141 , 145, 154, 159, 195
maternal kin; sister™s child
and epistemology, 42, 46
Mt. Hagen, Papua New Guinea Highlands,
opposite sex relations. See cross-sex
111 , 120, 196
relations
multiple claims, among persons, 137, 157, 160.
organs, human, 117, 120, 191
See also authorship, multiple
originality, 17, 99, 108
multiple identities, 96, 121 , 126, 129, 157. See
originator, 56, 57, 60, 136, 145, 148, 198
also several persons
origins, 11 , 56, 69, 72, 81 , 90, 137, 142, 146, 148,
multiple origins, 81 , 149, 161
156, 157, 159, 175
multiplication, 143
ornaments, 89, 142, 145, 146, 151
multiplicity, types of, 137
ornaments, bestowal of
Murik, Sepik River, Papua New Guinea, 90,
ova donation. See egg donation
138“142, 150, 159, 160
ownership,21 , 29, 86, 88, 102, 103, 104, 117,136,
139, 144, 147, 150, 161 , 194
names, 150, 154, 196
ownership, communal, 160, 194, 198. See also
Napoleonic Code, 24
community
natural, 9, 18, 55, 116
Melanesian notions of, 90
facts, 87
of body, 77, 116“120, 194
parent, 55, 166
of images, 97, 125, 151
science, 38, 39
of person, 116“120, 159, 194
systems, 45
of things, 153
nature, 11 , 13, 94, 95, 101 , 102, 108
problems with, 74
and culture, 12, 48, 84, 87, 91 , 115, 168. See
owning children. See property, children as
also ˜science™s relation™
and society, 95, 139
Paci¬c cultural property, protection of. See
and technology, 103
Model Law
world of, 4
227
SUBJECT INDEX


pharmacogenetics, 35, 170
painting, of carvings, 98
political economy, 40
Papua New Guinea, 96, 100, 111 , 112, 118, 129,
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 87
132, 137, 142, 145, 147, 160, 190
possession, 104, 119, 148
Papua New Guinea Highlands, 120, 126
possessive individual, 156
Papua New Guinea National Cultural
pregnancy, 141 , 180
Commission, 160
pregnant woman, the person of, 155, 169
parent, and child,66, 71 , 105, 142, 163, 168,178,
privacy, 36, 73, 76, 89
182
private property, 21 , 100, 102, 103
parent™s right to raise children, 16
property, 41 , 46, 59, 85, 90, 104, 117, 125, 135,
parentage, 69, 81 , 167
150, 152, 154, 177
parental intention, at conception. See
in anatomical specimens, 119
intending parents
children as, 56, 57, 58, 138, 144, 177
parents and children, numbers of, 82
common, 165, 198
parents™ decisions, judgement on, 19
enhancing personhood, 152, 155
partibility, 129, 168
in body parts, 117, 191
partible persons, 121 , 125“129
in the body, 191
parts, and wholes, 89, 118“125, 155
in gametes, 118
parts, of body. See body parts
in oneself, 149, 156
past, and future, 97, 98
persons as, 29, 136, 154
Patent Of¬ce (United Kingdom) 107, 189
public v. private, 21
patent, 87, 88, 89, 99“109, 116, 136, 180, 188
property rights, 54, 55, 56, 58, 99, 101 , 102, 118,
patent, as paradigmatic of IPR, 99
136, 155, 156, 157
patent law, 21 , 100, 115, 117, 187, 196
property thinking, 89, 177
patenting, of human genes, 21 , 52
Property, Transactions and Creations: New
paternal kin, 140, 142
Economic Relations in the Paci¬c (PTC)
paternity, and metaphors of, 52, 57, 58, 59, 60
research project, ix
paternity testing, 48
Public Understanding of Science, 33
patronage, 58
payment, as refugees, 128
re-birth, 144
for song, 148. See also compensaion
recombinant DNA, 6, 25, 26, 30, 101
performance, rights in, 149
˜recombinant families™, 23, 24, 26, 27, 48
person, 41 , 47, 168, 190, 193
recombinant process, 25
˜dispersed™, 126
recombination, 22, 28, 31
and thing, 87, 111 “133, 136, 192
recomposition, 23, 24, 27
as individual, 152, 154
regenerative capacity, 147
as property, 29, 86, 88, 111 “133, 136
rei¬cation, 94, 121 , 129, 191 , 192
fetus as, 169
Reite. See Nekgini speskers
owning him or herself, 156
relatedness, 72, 76
personal information, 12, 36
relating, two modes of, 6, 7, 12, 62. See also
personal, and categorical relations, 7, 8
duplex
personal, and conceptual relations, 11 , 12, 14,
˜relation™ (for kinsfolk), 64“67
86
relation, 8, 40, 51 , 52, 62, 75, 88, 126, 132, 170,
personhood, Euro-American, 152
180
personi¬cation, 192
and connection, 62
persons, as parts of persons, 30
anthropology™s. See ˜anthropology™s
new kinds of, 15, 17, 18
relation™
rei¬ed, 121 . See also rei¬cation
form of, 9, 13, 42, 82
perspective, 121 , 123, 126, 139, 140, 153, 158, 184
science™s. See ˜science™s relation™
perspective, Euro-American, 140, 145
relational context, 27, 37
Amazonian. See Amazonian
relational idioms, 8, 31
perspectivism
228 SUBJECT INDEX


also connection and co-implication;
relational knowledge, 7, 8, 11
culture and nature; invention and
relational view of the world, 3, 10, 37, 38, 43,
discovery
76, 169
as ˜third duplex™, 8, 11
relationality, viii, 7, 13, 41 , 46, 48, 84, 121
science, and society, 10, 12, 17, 33, 35, 43, 49,
relations, as concrete and abstract, 64, 70, 71 ,
169, 170
72
policy, 33, 71
categorical and personal, alternative to
tacit or embedded, 33
conceptual and (inter)personal, x, 7, 8,
scienti¬c, approach as, 38, 40, 44
84, 89. See also conceptual and
authorship. See authorship, scienti¬c
(inter)personal relations
knowledge, 9, 11 , 35, 44, 48, 61 , 83, 171
conceptual, 63“64, 66, 67, 69, 75, 84
revolution, 8, 10, 34, 46, 62, 63, 65, 91
intellectual, 75
thinking, 38, 42
non-epistemic, 85“87, 89, 91
˜scienti¬c kinship system™, 12, 46, 67
personal, 64, 66, 67, 75, 84
scientists, as creative, 87. See also invention
procreative, 66
self-construction, 152
social, 64, 75
self-embodiment, 156
to explore, 7
sel¬shness, 17, 19, 25
two forms of, 7, 13, 32, 48, 83, 91
self-organisation, 41 , 63
relationship, 10, 27, 126, 127, 128, 132, 170
self-ownership, 136, 156
˜relative™ (for kinsfolk), 7, 51 , 64, 67
self-verifying, 39
relatives, 31 , 43, 49
several persons, 157, 158, 161
representations, 85, 145
sex-af¬liation, 143
reproduction,68, 70, 105, 137, 143, 147, 148,151 ,
shaman, 144, 197
153, 177
single parent family, 16, 23
reproductive, capacity of, 150
single woman, and IVF, 17
choice, 16
singular person, 126, 145
interest, 147
sister™s child, 122, 125, 130, 140, 154, 159. See also
medicine, 16
maternal kin
rights, 125
˜skin™, as body, 93, 98, 105, 197
technology, 24, 174. See also assisted
skull in a netbag, 123
conception
slavery, 116, 191
responsibility, 28, 30, 33, 36, 61 , 74, 152
social anthropology, 8, 10, 11 , 13, 14, 34, 35, 37,
as author, 61
38, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 47, 62, 83, 130, 131 , 163
in relationships, 53
social anthropology, British, 43
rhetoric, 136
social class. See class
right, of property, 118
social contract, 33. See also science, and
to designs, 189
society
to reproduce, 107, 108, 150, 154
social science, 38, 39, 40
rights, 125, 149, 160. See also human rights
social and biological relations. See biological
ritual, as technique, 121
and social
Romantic individual, 135, 194
sociality, 7, 9
royalties, 138
society, 11 , 13, 15, 18, 42, 43, 157
rules, observance of, 142
society, and nature. See nature, and society
society, and science. See science, and society
sacred objects, 149, 160
Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, 192
same-sex parents, 18
song, 125, 145, 147, 151 , 197
same-sex relations 143, 145, 146, 149
South Paci¬c Commission, 198
scale, 47, 63
sperm donation, 18, 31 , 168
science, 9, 17, 33, 34, 39, 41 , 43, 183
frozen, 191
˜science™s relation™, between the constructed
Spinoza, Benedictus de, 30, 171
and the given, 9, 11 , 13, 62, 63, 84, 184. See
229
SUBJECT INDEX


totems, 144, 146. See emblems
spirit, 127, 148. See also Tamberan
Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property
statistical methods, 38
Rights (TRIPS) agreement, 100
statistical, and mechanical models, 47
trademark, 95
stem cell research, 17
tradition, 89, 118, 129, 131 , 146
stillbirths, 141
tradition, and modernity, 115“116, 129,
structural functionalists, in social
132
anthropology, 40, 41 , 172
traditional knowledge, 149, 160, 199
structuralists, in social anthropology, 40
traditional owners, 160
subject position, 159
transactions, 148
subjectivity, 30, 153
subject and object. See object and subject
˜unclear family™, 22
substance, nurturant and procreative, 83, 126,
UNESCO, 146, 165, 170, 198. See also Universal
127, 142, 143
Declaration
surrogacy arrangements, 32, 52, 55, 57, 77,168,
unilineal descent groups. See descent groups
174
unique points of view, 140
systems, of classi¬cation, 39, 40, 42, 44, 171
unit of comparison, 38
systems, of knowledge, 13, 41
Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity
(UNESCO, 2001), 165
Tabar, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, 188
Universal Declaration on the Human
Tamberan spirit, 148, 196
Genome and Human Rights (UNESCO,
Tamberan songs, 149, 196“197
1997), 165“6, 170
tangible, and intangible, phenomena, 147, 150
universalism, 114, 131 , 182, 193
taxonomy, 172
validation, 44, 47, 62
technologies, new medical, vii, 10, 18, 25
validation, two kinds of, 34, 48. See also
technology, 84, 92“109, 174, 180, 185, 186
veri¬cation
and nature, 102
Vanuatu, 132, 193, 196
of enchantment, 94“107, 185. See also
veri¬cation, 34, 38, 40, 46, 47, 61 , 65, 83. See
enchantment of technology
also validation
temporality, in bodies, 141
Vezu, Madagascar, 195
text, 105, 106
visiting rights, 16, 24, 31
theft, of authorship, 58
vitality. See life
thing, 63, 89, 152, 154, 156, 161 , 177, 192
in English law, 118“120, 177
warfare, 128
thing-image, 126
Wari™, Amazonia, 83
things, and persons, 111 “133, 191
Warnock Report, on human fertilisation and
as relations, 63
embryology, 18
classes of, 122
wealth, 121 , 123, 127
of the world, 156, 177
Wesley, John 70
personi¬ed, 121
wholeness, of person, 116“125
time, and space, 97
wholes and parts. See parts, and wholes
tissue, fetal, 164
will, 153, 155, 156
tissue, human, 117, 118, 120, 191
World Conference of Science, 169
Tolai, New Britain, Papua New Guinea, 160,
World Council of Indigenous Peoples, 177
199
World Intellectual Property Organisation
tool, of analysis, 6, 7, 8, 9, 42, 83, 84, 90, 94,
(WIPO), 100, 146, 198
163, 180. See also duplex
World Summit on Sustainable Development,
Torrens system of land registration, Australia,
169
198

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