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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Preface

Part I”An Overview of Projects and Their Effective and Successful
Title
Management

Chapter 1”Project Management in Today™s World of Business
----------- Project Management Defined
Classical vs. Behavioral Approaches to Managing Projects
The Project Cycle and Tts Phases
Project Success or Failure

Chapter 2”A Wedding in Naples: Background Information on Our
Case Study
Organizational Structure
General Nature of the Business
An Opportunity Arises
The Initial Process
Selection of the Project Manager
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 3”The Qualities of Good Leadership
What Leaders Do
When Leadership Falters or Is Missing
Are Leaders Born or Made?


Part II”The Basic Functions of Project Management
Chapter 4”The Vision Statement and Motivating for Project Success
Providing the Project Vision
Communicating the Vision
Keeping People Pocused on the Vision
Facilitating and Expediting Performance
Motivation to Participate
Team Building
Team Diversity
The Project Manager as a Motivator
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 5”The Statement of Work and the Project Announcement
The Statement of Work
Introduction
Scope
Assumptions
Constraints
Performance Criteria
Product/Service Description
Major Responsibilities
References
Amendments
Signatures
The Project Announcement
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 6”The Work Breakdown Structure
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 7”Techniques for Estimating Work Times
The Benefits and Challenges of Estimating Work Times
Types of Estimating Techniques
Factors to Consider in Drawing Up Estimates

Chapter 8”Schedule Development and the Network Diagram
What Scheduling Is
Task Dependencies and Date Scheduling
Perry™s Scheduling Method
The Float
Other Types of Network Diagrams
The Schedule as a Road Map

Chapter 9”Resource Allocation”Aligning People and Other
Resources With Tasks
1. Identify the Tasks Involved
2. Assign Resources to Those Tasks
3. Build a Resource Profile
4. Adjust the Schedule or Pursue Alternatives
How Perry Levels the Load
Consultants and Outsources
Summing Up Resource Allocation

Chapter 10”Team Organization
Ten Prerequisites for Effective Organization
Types of Organizational Structure
Virtual Teams
SWAT Teams
Self-Directed Work Teams

Chapter 11”Budget Development and Cost Calculation
Different Kinds of Costs
Direct vs. Indirect Costs
Recurring vs. Nonrecurring Costs
Fixed vs. Variable Costs
Burdened vs. Nonburdened Labor Rates
Regular vs. Overtime Labor Rates
How to Calculate Costs
What Happens If Cost Estimates Are Too High?
The key: Identifying and Managing Costs
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 12”Risk Management
Managing Risk: A Four-Step Process
Exposure
Categories of risk
Key Concepts in Risk Management
Ways to Handle Risk
Risk Reporting
The Key: Risk Management, Not Elimination

Chapter 13”Project Documentation: Procedures, Forms, Memos, and
Such
Procedures
Flowcharts
Forms
Reports
Memos
Newsletters
History files
Project Manual
The Project Library
Determining the Paper Trail™s Length

Chapter 14”Team Dynamics and Successful Interactions
Set Up the Project Office
Conduct Meetings
Give Effective Presentations
Apply Interpersonal Skills
Being an Active Listener
Reading People
Deal With Conflict Effectively
Getting Teamwork to Work
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 15”Performance Assessment: Tracking and Monitoring
Collect Status Data
Methods of Collection
Data Validity and Reliability
Assess Status
Determining Variance
Earned Value
Making Performance Assessment Count
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 16”Quality Assessment: Metrics
Introduction to Metrics
The Collection and Analysis of Data
The Results of Data Analysis
Summing Up Quality Assessment

Chapter 17”Managing Changes to the Project
Managing Change
Replanning
Contingency Planning
Summing Up Change Management

Chapter 18”Project Closure
Learning From Past Experience
Releasing People and Equipment
Recognizing and Rewarding People
Some Guidelines for Future Projects
Questions for Getting Started


Part III”Project Management Enhancement

Chapter 19”Automated Project Management
Personal Computing Systems
Distributed Integrated System
Telecommuting
Mobile Computing
Groupware Computing
Web Technology
Videoconferencing
Project Automation: Recognizing the Limitations
Questions for Getting Started

Appendix A

Glossary

References

Index



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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Preface
Well into the swiftly approaching millennium, project management will continue to be a highly desired skill
in the midst of great change. Because rigid organizational boundaries and responsibilities have blurred and
----------- new technologies are changing the ways of doing business, results must be delivered more quickly and
accurately than ever before. These circumstances call for people who can deal with ambiguity and time
pressures while simultaneously accomplishing project goals”in other words, people who display excellence
in project management.
In this book, we present the route to achieving the knowledge and expertise that will help you display
excellence in project management, on any type of project in any industry. Using a wedding-business case
study, we present the basic principles, tools, and techniques so that readers can easily understand and apply
the material.
Starting with Chapter 2, you™ll learn the six basic functions of project management. You™ll learn how to:
1. Lead a project throughout its cycle; it™s so important that it is the first topic.
2. Define a project™s goals and objectives so everyone agrees on the results and knows success when
they see it.
3. Plan a project in a way that results in a road map that people will confidently follow, not just the
project manager.
4. Organize a project in a manner that increases the efficiency and effectiveness of the team, resulting
in greater productivity.
5. Control a project so that its momentum and direction are not overtaken by “scope creep.”
6. Close a project in a manner so that it lands smoothly rather than crashes.
The book comprises three major parts. Part I establishes the fundamentals of project management, with an
overview of the field today, provides information on the wedding case study, and provides a general look at
what constitutes leadership. Part II is the heart of the volume, with chapters covering the key issues that face
project managers today. Based on the six functions just listed, these chapters discuss setting up your project
structure, assessing its progress, and achieving its goals. We cover such topics as working with new teaming
structures and styles, motivating people, estimating costs, and dealing with change. At the end of each chapter
is a series of questions that will help you apply your new knowledge to an existing or upcoming project.
Part III contains additional tips, such as how to work with new technologies and how to manage or decrease
risk. The Appendix material refers to the case study, the Glossary is a quick reference to special terms, and the
References are suggestions for further reading.
The authors have applied the principles, tools, and techniques in this book successfully in a wide variety of
projects: audit, construction, documentation, engineering, information systems, insurance, manufacturing,
support services/help desk, and telecommunications projects, as well as in other environments. The book is
based on our combined experience of more than fifty years in business management, operations, and
information systems. As the founders and executives of the consulting firm Practical Creative Solutions, Inc.,
of Redmond, Washington, we offer products, services, and training programs designed to meet the special
needs of our varied clients.
Project management works”if you know what it is and how to do it. After reading this book, you will be able
to join the ranks of effective and successful project managers.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Part I
An Overview of Projects and Their Effective and
Successful Management
-----------

Chapter 1
Project Management in Today™s World of Business
The project manager has never had a tougher job. Companies are always in transition now, remodeling and
reorganizing to meet the latest global challenges. Competition is keen and only the flexible will survive.
These business conditions translate directly to the greater demands for efficient, effective management of an
entire spectrum of projects.
For example, a rise in use of distributed systems technology (e.g., client/server, Intranet, and Internet
computing) and telecommuting has accelerated the disappearance of organizational boundaries and
hierarchical management levels. Along with this blurring of organizational levels has come employee
empowerment. Many companies now grant employees greater responsibilities and decision-making authority
(e.g., self-directed work teams).
And the changes just don™t stop. Many companies view projects as investments, integral parts of their
strategic plans. This means the project managers must continually demonstrate their contribution to the
bottom line. With this alliance between strategic plan and project management comes an increasingly close
but often tense relationship between project and process management. Contrary to popular belief, project
management and process management are compatible; projects become integral players in using and
implementing processes. But failure to effectively manage a key project could cause a malfunction in the core
process! This relationship between process and project management also manifests itself in a need to integrate
multiple projects when they involve common core processes, thus requiring even greater integration to ensure
such processes are not adversely affected.
The nature of today™s workforce has changed in many companies. Employees are no longer offered or seek
long-term employment”many people and companies want flexibility or mobility. Such changes add a new
dimension to the work being done on a project”a dimension that directly affects relationships and ways of
doing business. And many projects now involve people from different occupations and backgrounds. The
globalization of the nation™s business, for instance, requires that a project manager™s skills go beyond being
able to put together a flowchart.
As the economy continues to expand, key resources will become limited and project managers will need
alternative ways to obtain expertise, such as by using consultants and outsourcing. Certainly, project
managers in the past have faced similar problems of providing alternative sources of expertise”but never on
as great a scale as they do today.
Market pressures complicate the management of projects, too. Customers not only want a quality product but
also want it sooner. Time-to-market pressures force project managers to be efficient and effective to an
unprecedented degree. The complexity involved in managing projects has never been greater and will likely
only grow in the future. So, too, will the risks for failure. It is more critical than ever that the pieces of the
project be in place to ensure delivery of the final service on time and within budget and to guarantee that it be
of the highest quality.
Tom Peters, the great management consultant, was correct when he said that project management is the skill
of the 1990s. But it is the skill of the future as well. The need for managing projects efficiently and effectively
has never been greater and so are the rewards for its success. But having good project management practices
in place will no longer suffice; what is required now is excellence in project management if project success is
to be the norm.

Project Management Defined
Despite a changing project environment, the fundamental tools of project management remain the same
regardless of project or industry. For example, managing a marketing project requires the same skills as
managing a software engineering project.
But what is a project? What is project management? A project is a discrete set of activities performed in a
logical sequence to attain a specific result. Each activity, and the entire project, has a start and stop date.
Project management is the tools, techniques, and processes for defining, planning, organizing, controlling,
and leading a project as it completes its tasks and delivers the results. But let™s take a closer look at the
functions of project management just mentioned.
• Lead To inspire the participants to accomplish the goals and objectives at a level that meets or
exceeds expectations. It is the only function of project management that occurs simultaneously with the
other functions. Whether defining, planning, organizing, or controling, the project manager uses
leadership to execute the project efficiently and effectively.
Introducing Project Management
The top management in some companies does not understand that project management is what is
needed. How do you convince people that project management will help them?
Introducing project management is a change management issue, even a paradigm shift. That™s
because project management disciplines will affect many policies, procedures, and processes. They
will also affect technical, operational, economic, and human resources issues. Such changes can be
dramatic, and many people”as in many change efforts”will resist or embrace change, depending on
how it is perceived.
Here are some steps for introducing project management within an organization.
1. Build an awareness of project management. You can distribute articles and books on the
subject and attend meetings sponsored by the Project Management Institute and the American
Management Association.
2. Establish a need for project management. Identify opportunities for applying project
management, particularly as a way to solve problems. Collect data on previous project
performance and show statistically and anecdotally how project management would have
improved results.
3. Benchmark. You can compare your organization™s experience with projects to that of
companies that have used project management.
4. Find a sponsor. No matter what case you can make for project management, you still need
someone with enough clout to support its introduction.
5. Select a good pilot. Avoid taking on too much when introducing the idea of project
management. Select a project that™s not too visible but also one that people care about. The
project serves as a proving ground for your new ideas.
6. Communicate the results. As the project progresses, let management know about its
successes and failures. Profile the project as a “lessons learned” experience.
7. Provide consultation on other projects. With the expertise acquired on your pilot project,
apply your knowledge to other projects. Your advice will enable others to see the value of
project management.
• Define To determine the overall vision, goals, objectives, scope, responsibilities, and deliverables of a
project. A common way to capture this information is with a statement of work. This is a document that
delineates the above information and is signed by all interested parties.
• Plan To determine the steps needed to execute a project, assign who will perform them, and identify
their start and completion dates. Planning entails activities such as constructing a work breakdown
structure and a schedule for start and completion of the project.
• Organize To orchestrate the resources cost-effectively so as to execute the plan. Organizing involves
activities such as forming a team, allocating resources, calculating costs, assessing risk, preparing
project documentation, and ensuring good communications.
• Control To assess how well a project meets its goals and objectives. Controlling involves collecting
and assessing status reports, managing changes to baselines, and responding to circumstances that can
negatively impact the project participants.
• Close To conclude a project efficiently and effectively. Closing a project involves compiling
statistics, releasing people, and preparing the lessons learned document.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Classical vs. Behavioral Approaches to Managing Projects
Title

The field of project management is currently in transition. What worked in the past may not necessarily work
in the future, precisely because the world of business has changed. In the past, managing a project meant
focusing on three key elements of a project: cost, schedule, and quality. Each element had a direct relationship
-----------
with the other two. Do something to one and the other two would be affected, positively or negatively. This
viewpoint is considered the classical approach for managing projects. The classical approach emphasized the
formal, structural aspects. Managing projects meant building neat organizational charts and highly logical
schedules, as well as using formal decision-making disciplines.
Recently, however, project management has taken a more behavioral approach. The emphasis is shifting
toward viewing a project as a total system, or subsystem operating within a system. This system perspective
emphasizes the human aspects of a project as much as the structural ones. This does not mean that the formal
tools, techniques, and principles are less important; it is just that they share the stage with behavioral
techniques. The three elements”cost, schedule, and quality”gain an added dimension: people. Cost,
schedule, quality, and people all play integral roles in the success or failure of a project.
Indeed, it is quite evident that the behavioral aspects of a project can have an impact on final results.
Individual and team motivations, informal power structures, and interpersonal communications can have as
much an effect as a poorly defined schedule or an ill-defined goal. In many cases, the impact of behavioral
problems can be even more dramatic.

The Project Cycle and Tts Phases
In the classical approach, project management was conceived in a linear way, or was at least formally
portrayed that way. Project managers were to define, plan, organize, control, and close”in that order. While
it made sense, the reality was usually something else.
Today, we view the project manager™s role differently; although project managers perform the same functions,
we perceive their performance not in a linear context but in a cyclical one, as shown in Exhibit 1-1. Each time
the cycle completes (reaches closure), it begins again, requiring the reinstitution or refinement of the functions
that were used in a previous cycle.
Exhibit 1-1. Functions of project management.

Notice the word lead in the middle of the cycle. As noted earlier, this function occurs throughout the project
life cycle and plays a prominent role in each iteration of the cycle. It is the center”focus”to ensure that each
function occurs efficiently and effectively.
The typical project cycle consists of phases that result in output. During the concept phase, the idea of a
project arises and preliminary cost and schedule estimates are developed at a high level to determine if the
project not only is technically feasible but also will have a payback. In the formulation phase, the complete
project plans are developed. These plans often include a statement of work, a work breakdown structure, and
schedules.
The implementation phase is when the plan is executed. Energy is expended to achieve the goals and
objectives of the project in the manner prescribed during the formulation phase. Then, in the installation
phase, the final product is delivered to the customer. At this point, considerable training and administrative
support are provided to “please the customer.”
The sustaining phase covers the time the product, such as a computing system or a building, is under the
customer™s control and an infrastructure exists to maintain and enhance the product. Sometimes these phases
occur linearly; other times, they overlap. Still other times they occur in a spiral, as shown in Exhibit 1-2.
In today™s fast-paced environment, partly owing to time-to-market pressures and partly to a rapidly changing
business environment, there™s pressure to accelerate the project cycle without sacrificing quality. Many
projects are on the fast track, meaning they proceed quickly. To accommodate that acceleration, companies
adopt simplistic, modular approaches




Exhibit 1-2. Phases of project management.
to building a new product or delivering a new service. Component-based manufacturing, reuse, and
just-in-time delivery, as well as more sophisticated tools (e.g., in-systems development) for building products,
enable such fast-tracking to become possible and prevalent.

Project Success or Failure
Projects, of course, are not operated in a vacuum. They are parts, or subsystems, of much bigger systems
called businesses. Each project has or uses elements such as processes, participants, policies, procedures, and
requirements, some of which are dependent upon and interact with related elements in the larger business
system. A conflict between project and system can result in disequilibrium. But by taking a systems
perspective, the project manager can see how all the elements interact, and assess the impact on the individual
project. For example, it becomes easier to understand the impact of a 10 percent budget cut on each element
of a project. More important, it is easier to identify potential project failure by recognizing the disequilibrium.
If left unmanaged, disequilibrium can result in project failure.
So what types of disequilibrium make a project a success or failure? In the past, the view was that failure
resulted from not adequately defining, planning, organizing, or controlling the project in a step-by-step
manner. In many cases, a project™s failure was attributed to not having an adequate statement of work, a work
breakdown structure, or a schedule. But, as mentioned earlier, failure of a project is increasingly seen as a
result of bad behavioral circumstances”for example, poor customer commitment, lack of vision, low morale,
no buymin from people doing the work, or unrealistic expectations. Such behavioral factors are frequently
recognized as having as much importance for project success, for example, as a well-defined work breakdown
structure. Exhibit 1-3 shows some common reasons for project success or failure.
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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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The key, of course, is being able to recognize if and when projects start to fail. To do that requires
Title
maintaining a feedback loop throughout the project cycle. And the effectiveness of the feedback loop depends
on a constant flow of quality information among the project manager, team members, the customer, and
senior management; see Exhibit 1-4. We™ll discuss this in greater depth in Chapters 13, 14, and 19.
Based on the case study presented in the next chapter, you will learn how to apply the basic functions of
-----------
project management throughout the cycle of a typical project. Chapters 4 through 17 will walk you through
the process, showing the major assessments and decisions to be made. At the end of each chapter is a set of
questions you can answer on your own to help you apply the principles and techniques that you have learned.
So begin now, by meeting the CEO of Great Weddings, Inc., and the project the company is about to launch.
Exhibit 1-3. Reasons for project failures and successes.
Reasons for Project Failures

Classical Behavioral

Ill-defined work breakdown structure Inappropriate leadership style

High-level schedule No common vision

No reporting infrastructure Unrealistic expectations

Too pessimistic or optimistic estimates Poor informal communications and interpersonal
relationships

No change management discipline No "buy-in" or commitment from customer or people
doing work

Inadequate formal communications Low morale

Inefficient allocation of resources Lack of training

No accountability and responsibility for results Poor teaming
Poor role definition Culture not conducive to project management

Inadequacy of tools Lack of trust among participants

Ill-defined scope False or unrealistic expectations

Unclear requirements No or weak executive sponsorship

Too high, too long, or too short time frame Mediocre knowledge transfer

Reasons for Project Successes

Classical Behavioral

Well-defined goals and objectives Agreement over goals and objectives

Detailed work breakdown structure Commitment to achieving goals and objectives

Clear reporting relationships High morale

Formal change management disciplines in place Good teaming

Channels of communication exist Cooperation among all participants

Adherence to scope Receptivity to positive and negative feedback

Reliable estimating Receptive culture to project management

Reliable monitoring and tracking techniques Realistic expectations

Clear requirements Good conflict resolution

Reasonable time frame Executive sponsorship

Broad distribution of work Good customer-supplier relationship




Exhibit 1-4. Feedback loop.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Chapter 2
A Wedding in Naples: Background Information on Our
Case Study
-----------

Here is the case study that forms the backbone of this handbook. It is a model situation around which we have
built our guidelines for effective and successful project management, using the functions of leading, defining,
planning, organizing, controlling, and closing.
Great Weddings, Inc. (GWI), located in New York City, provides a full line of wedding services: sending
announcements to friends, relatives, and newspapers; providing prewedding parties and rehearsals (e.g.,
bachelor parties and bridal showers); determining the ceremony and reception locations; arranging for travel
and hotel accommodations, food and beverages; preparing and mailing invitations; providing wedding attire,
flowers, sound, lighting, music, entertainment, decorations and props, photography and videotaping;
coordinating wedding transportation; and preparing the wedding feast and cake.
GWI provides wedding services in fourteen states. In 1997, its revenue was $5 million after it was in business
for seven years. Amelia Rainbow is president and CEO of GWI, which is privately owned, and she holds 100
percent of the stock.
Growth for the business has been slowing in recent years, from 10 percent annually three years ago to 2
percent this year. If this trend continues, the business could stagnate”or, worse, it might have to reduce
services.

Organizational Structure
Amelia Rainbow has several department heads at vice-presidential levels reporting to her. Each department
has a corporate staff reporting to her. All weddings are managed out of its corporate headquarters in New
York City. The organizational structure of GWI is shown in Exhibit 2-1.
General Nature of the Business
GWI frequently receives solicitations for proposals. These requests are for weddings of all sizes and religions.
A proposal request is a formal document sent to potential vendors. It states the requirements and expectations
of the client, as well as the terms and conditions of the contract. A reply to a proposal request provides
vendors with the opportunity to describe the who, what, when, where, and how for meeting the proposal™s
request.
A proposal has three major components: technical, management, and cost. The technical component includes:
• Vendor™s experience/expertise with similar projects
• List of equipment
• Photographs of end products
• Services




Exhibit 2-1. GWI organizational chart.
• Standards (e.g., levels of acceptance)
• Technical approach
The management component includes:
• Background
• Facilities
• Legal/contracts
• Operating plan
• Organizational structure
• Project management methodology/approach
• Program/project plan (to achieve goals and objectives)
• R©sum© of cadre (key) personnel
• Resource allocation
• Schedule
• Statement of work
• Subcontract work (e.g., names of subcontractors and experience/expertise)
The cost component includes:
• Cost for subcontract work (e.g., labor rates, equipment rental)
• Options
• Payment schedule
• Price breakout (for services and products)
• Taxes
• Type of contract (e.g., lump sum, fixed price)
• Warranties
There are three types of proposal requests: letter request, request for information, and request for proposal.
The major difference among them is the level of effort and resources needed for a response and commitment
upon notification of winning the contract. A letter request briefly conveys the needs of the client. A request
for information usually seeks clarification about specific areas of technology. It does not require the vendor to
provide any services or render any commitments. It often precedes an opportunity to respond to a request for
proposal. And a request for proposal is a detailed, complex contract opportunity. High costs and levels of
effort are necessary to prepare and respond to it.
An Opportunity Arises
One day, GWI receives a request to host a large wedding from the Smythes, a wealthy American family. The
Smythes recently returned from a two-week trip to Naples, Italy, where they fell in love with the city. Their
oldest daughter, Karen, also recently accepted a marriage proposal from her longtime boyfriend, John Hankle,
who accompanied the family on their Naples trip. Everyone has agreed to hold the wedding in Naples.
Amelia recognizes that the wedding could provide the opportunity to open up a niche that GWI had until now
not tapped”American wedding firms providing services in other countries. Such a wedding would be
unprecedented, both in location and in size. Amelia knows, however, that it will enable GWI to avoid
stagnation and grow in a highly competitive industry.
Amelia realizes that she has no choice but to use the existing infrastructure to handle such an unprecedented
project. The entire wedding will also be competing with other ongoing wedding activities. Such weddings,
too, are considered unprecedented opportunities, meaning that hiring more staff now might mean later laying
off people or absorbing costs that could hurt GWI in the future. Amelia also recognizes that this wedding
must be treated more carefully than most because of its high visibility and the amount of money being spent.
The wedding, she knows, is an excellent candidate for applying solid project management disciplines. The
wedding itself has all the criteria for being a project. It has a defined product, which is a wedding. It has
definite start and stop dates. It has a sequence of activities that are required to make the wedding a reality.
Finally, it is temporary. Once the wedding is over”unless, of course, the idea catches on”people and other
resources will be returned to “normal” business life.

The Initial Process
Prior to responding to the wedding request, Amelia forms a proposal team to develop the response. She
appoints a proposal manager, Dave Renberg. Dave forms a team of wedding experts and a technical writer.
Dave and his team verify that the wedding will support the strategic plan. Then they conduct an internal
assessment to determine whether GWI has the capabilities to support the project and it does. Next, they
perform an assessment to determine the risks that GWI might face if it takes on the project and what measures
to employ to prevent or mitigate those risks. GWI finds it has the capabilities to respond to the risks, although
they stretch the company to the limits.
The team is then ready for the next step: prepare the proposal. After the team completes the first draft, Dave
establishes an internal review team to critique the proposal. The internal review team consists of people with
finance, legal, and wedding backgrounds. After several iterations, the proposal is available for Amelia™s
signature. After carefully reviewing its contents, Amelia signs the proposal. Within a week, she receives
notification that GWI has won the contract with the Smythe family.
What Type of Project Manager Are You?
In Corporate Pathfinders (New York: Penguin Books, 1987), Harold J. Leavitt identifies three types of
managers in an organizational setting: problem solvers, implementers, and pathfinders.
1. The manager who is a problem solver emphasizes the use of reasoning, logic, and analysis. A key
characteristic is reliance on facts and data.
2. The manager who is an implementer emphasizes the use of action through people. A key
characteristic is reliance on human emotions and persuasion.
3. The manager who is a pathfinder emphasizes the use of visioning. A key characteristic is the
importance placed on values and beliefs.
If a project requires vision, then choose a pathfinder as leader. If a project requires trouble fixing or hard
logical analysis (e.g., defining requirements and specifications), then a problem solver would make the best
choice. If a project requires a person with good people skills, then an implementer would be the best choice.

The next issue for Amelia to address is to determine at what hierarchical level within the company the project
should be placed and what its most appropriate structure is. One criterion is to give the project as much
visibility as possible. She wants to communicate its priority. With other wedding projects occurring
simultaneously, it is easy to forget this priority.


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She decides to establish a steering committee to oversee the overall performance of the project. This steering
Title
committee will consist of all the vice-presidents, or their representatives, with Sam Herkle of Quality as chair.
The purposes of the steering committee are to provide general oversight of and guidance to the project. The
steering committee will have a dotted-line relationship to Amelia, as shown in Exhibit 2-2.
Amelia next decides to adopt a matrix structure for the project itself. Although the project manager would be
-----------
at the vice-presidential level, the resources must be borrowed from other organizations until the demand for
this type of wedding increases in number, value, and longevity. The matrix structure enables her to tape the
expertise of functional groups and use people on a temporary basis. While completing the Smythe Project,
they could also support other wedding projects.




Exhibit 2-2. Organizational placement of Smythe Project.
Amelia does, however, consider a task force structure for the project. This structure involves assigning people
as dedicated members to a project”meaning they support no other project. That would require removing
people from other important projects and hiring replacements, which in turn means layoffs later on. She
realizes, though, that a task force structure would grant the project more visibility and autonomy. The
shortage of skills, the need for supporting existing weddings, and the temporary and risky nature of the project
make the matrix structure the most appropriate selection. See Exhibit 2-3 for a comparison of these structure
types.

Selection of the Project Manager
The final initial step is to select the right person to serve as project manager. Amelia recognizes the
importance of selecting the right person”his or her qualities have a direct impact on the outcome of the
wedding. That™s why she looks first and foremost at the leadership qualities of the person. After all, many
qualified people can do the mechanics of project management, but not everyone is a project leader.
After making a few mistakes in the past, Amelia has learned that the technically competent person is not
necessarily a competent project leader. A person may have the best logical and analytical mind in the group
and yet lack the qualities that lead a project to a successful conclusion. Because the project manager must
interact with many people (such as sponsors, senior management, client, and team members), it is important
that that person have good “people skills.” These skills include:
Exhibit 2-3. Task vs. matrix structure.

Task Structure Matrix Structure

Advantages Advantages
• Autonomous • Access to expertise not ordinarily available
• Dedicated resources • Flexibility in adopting to changing
circumstances
• Greater control over people
• Less idle time for team members
• Greater decision-making authority
• Fewer morale problems as project concludes
• High visibility

Disadvantages Disadvantages
• Impacted by turnover • Conflict with other projects of higher priority
• Less flexibility to adapt to changing • High stress due to conflicting demands
circumstances • Less autonomy
• Threat to morale as project winds down • Less control over people
• Less decision-making authority

• Active listening
• Business orientation
• Coaching
• Communication
• Conflict resolution
• Cross-functional thinking
• Customer orientation
• Delegation
• Diversity orientation
• Facilitation
• Interviewing
• Mediation
• Meetings management
• Negotiation
• Networking
• Political savvy
• Power of persuasion
• Priority setting
• Sensitivity
• Successful delivery of product
• Team building
• Time management
Of course, she also recognizes the need for additional skills:
• Communications (writing and public speaking)
• Computer literacy
• Knowledge of human resource management, procurement, and quality
• Legal affairs
• Organizational
• Planning
• Product/technical knowledge
• Risk management
• Statistics and mathematics


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Finally, Amelia recognizes that the project manager must have certain personality characteristics:
Title
• Analytical
• Can deal with uncertainty and ambiguity
• Conceptual
----------- • Creative
• Delivers a product or service
• Exhibits courage
• Facilitates
• Flexible and adaptable
• Has high ethical standards
• Has self-confidence
• Has self-control
• Innovative
• Looks at the overall picture
• Maintains accountability
• Maintains credibility
• Makes decisions
• Mediates
• Remains open-minded
• Self-reliant and independent
• Solves problems
• Stays focused
• Takes risks
• Trustworthy
• Understands legal matters
• Willing to change and provide recognition
The Power of the Project Manager
Power is often defined as the ability to influence key players in the decision-making process to achieve a
goal. In other words, power means getting what one wants.
Project managers often feel powerless because they lack the powers of functional managers, such as hiring
and firing. While true, they are not as powerless as they think. According to management theorists John
French and Bertram Raven, five different sources of power exist. Each applies to varying extents to the
project manager.
• Coercive power uses fear as a primary tool. It involves inflicting punishment. Project managers
usually have little coercive power in an overt sense. On a more subtle level, however, they may not
assign certain people to coveted tasks, not invite them to meetings, or not communicate with them.
• Reward power uses positive financial and nonmonetary tools. Most project managers lack the
power to use monetary incentives. However, they can provide feedback to functional managers on
performance, which in turn provides a basis for determining salary increases. Project managers can
also pay for training and dispense other perks. From a nonmonetary perspective, they can reward
people by assigning them to high-visibility tasks, as well as involve them in the decision-making
process.
• Legitimate power is the authority granted by the institution. In other words, such power allows
managers to “order” people with the full backing of the institution. Project managers, especially in a
matrix environment, lack this power”they must use other power sources. Still, they have some
legitimate power, especially if they have the political support of a powerful senior manager.
• Expert power is based on a person™s knowledge credentials, expertise, or education. Project
managers are often chosen for these characteristics and they gain considerable power in this regard.
The only problem is that project managers often become narrowly focused, failing to see the big
picture and working on other key areas. In addition, they have power only as long as people respect
those characteristics.
• Referent power is based on trait theory”that is, a person™s characteristics. These project managers
have certain characteristics that make people want to follow them. An example of such a trait is
charisma.

In the end, she wants someone who can lead groups of people as well as individuals, provide a vision of what
the project is to achieve, be able to communicate effectively, ensure that people stay focused on the vision,
motivate people to participate, and facilitate and expedite performance. After conversations with executives
on the steering committee and after reviewing the performance records of prospective candidates, Amelia
selects Perry Fitzberg as the project manager.
At this point, you have seen the initial steps taken by senior management in assessing the worth of the project,
evaluating its prospects for success, and establishing the responsibility for project management. Review the
following questions, then move on to Chapter 3, where the qualities of project leadership are considered from
a broad perspective.

Questions for Getting Started

1. What type of organizational structure does your project have? Is it task force? Matrix?
2. What soft skills will you need to lead your project? Do you know what areas to improve upon?
3. What hard skills will you need to lead your project? Do you know what areas to improve upon?
4. What aspects of your personality will prove useful in leading your project? Do you know what
aspects to improve upon?
5. How will you provide a vision of what the project is to achieve?
6. Do you communicate effectively?
7. How will you ensure that people stay focused on the vision?
8. Do you have ideas for motivating people to participate?
9. Can you facilitate and expedite their performance?
10. What ideas do you have for leading groups of people?


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by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
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ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Chapter 3
The Qualities of Good Leadership
Our concept of leadership has evolved over the years. The term was once confused with management, but
-----------
today the two are distinct roles, each with its own characteristics. Rather than debate a definition of
leadership, it is advantageous to discuss what leaders do. That way, you can come around to a better, fuller
understanding of the concept.

What Leaders Do
It is increasingly clear that leaders do more than plan, organize, control, coordinate, and budget. While such
activities are important and must be done, project leadership goes beyond those functions. In other words,
leadership involves more than being logical, analytical, and sequential”that is, it™s more than simply
applying the mental thought processes originating in the left side of the brain.
Leadership takes on a holistic perspective by including the “people side” in project management, and it
embraces the future rather than preserves the status quo. Thus, leadership is dynamic rather than static. It
involves looking at the present and determining the steps to move on to some desired future state (e.g., a
vision buttressed with meaningful goals that serve as guideposts). Leadership, not surprisingly, requires being
results-oriented. By developing a vision and goals, the project leader gives the team a sense of purpose. The
leader also helps align people and other resources to focus on achieving results, thereby increasing project
efficiency and effectiveness. Consequently, the emphasis is on what and why rather than how. At all times,
judgments are based on the big picture, which is the vision.
Leadership embraces change. It requires constantly asking, “What are we doing? Is that the only way to do it?
Can we do it better?” Questioning the status quo is characteristic of leadership. It requires viewing a
constantly changing environment while pursuing the vision. This emphasis on change therefore requires a
willingness to adopt new processes, procedures, and roles if they will more efficiently and effectively help
attain the vision. Flexibility and adaptability are two characteristics of good leadership.
Leadership means the ability to motivate. Contemporary leadership theories and practices emphasize the
people side. Leadership entails active listening techniques in conflict management, “reading” people to
understand their messages and motives, negotiating through open communication, and “thinking outside the
box,” all in an effort to attain the vision.
From a motivational perspective, leadership is getting people to perform enthusiastically, confidently, and in a
highly committed way. It implies delegating, empowering, coaching, building trust, handling diversity (people
from different cultures and disciplines), laying the groundwork for creativity, and facilitating performance.
Leadership involves communicating. Communication is not just giving effective presentations; it is also
listening to the “want to hears” and the “need to hears.” It requires communicating laterally and vertically in a
manner that is open and engenders trust. It means being open and honest at all times”that is, creating an
atmosphere of trust, where hidden agendas and dishonesty have no place. All decisions and behaviors are of
the highest ethical standards, to ensure credibility and trustworthiness up, down, and across the chain of
command.
Leadership requires a constancy of purpose. It means keeping the vision in the forefront of everyone™s mind
by continually asking the question, “How will this help to achieve the vision?” That translates to being
results-oriented and aligning responses and processes in a focused, disciplined manner.
Here, too, leadership involves a willingness to take smart, calculated risks. Leaders look for better ways not
only to conduct business but also to take action. They embrace ambiguity and complexity in a manner that
fosters innovative ideas and solutions to achieve the vision. They build cohesive teams that have synergy.
Team members share information and other resources in a way that encourages cross-functional participation.
Leaders build an atmosphere of trust and mutual support, emphasizing relational rather than hierarchical
interactions and directing team energy toward achieving the vision. Thus, leadership means facilitating rather
than impeding performance. Leaders help people do their jobs in a positive, not negative, way. They remove
obstacles to performance, not create them. They secure the resources. However, they do more. They can
maneuver through the “halls of power,” network with key players, and interact with the customer to ensure
satisfaction of all requirements and specifications. In addition, they can be political if it furthers the interests
of the project.
Finally, leaders put the customer first. They strive to understand everything about the customer”for example,
needs, tastes, and relevant market conditions. The customer is king and drives the vision; without that focus
on the vision, the project becomes quixotic.

When Leadership Falters or Is Missing
Leadership encourages greater productivity. An experienced team member or project manager only has to
work once on a project to understand the difference between a project with leadership and one without it. But
being a project manager has never been harder. The days of managing the team with “thou shalts,” with the
support of a clearly designed organizational structure and rational, logical discipline, are over. Good project
managers know the value of exercising effective leadership throughout the project cycle. They know that the
leader must inspire the team to accomplish goals and objectives at a level that meets, even exceeds,
expectations.
That is not as simple as it sounds. The people to be inspired are not just the ones working directly on the
project. They are also the ones whom the leader reports to (e.g., customer and senior management) and those
who support the project for a short period of time (e.g., contract employees and consultants). With all these
players, in a constantly changing environment, effective leadership is critical.


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by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
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ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Although leadership is important for a project, it rarely is seen on some projects. The reasons for this are
Title
many, and are worth noting.
1. There is a tendency to select people solely for their technical expertise. While expertise is important,
it is a mistake to assume that expertise is equivalent to leadership. Leadership goes beyond technical
prowess, increasingly recognized as subordinate to other qualities. Often, a person selected for his or
-----------
her technical expertise relies on that quality at the expense of the project.
2. There is a failure to distinguish between project leadership and project management. Project
management deals with the mechanics of managing a project, such as building a schedule; project
leadership deals with much bigger issues”for example, ensuring that people focus on the vision. (See
box on page 25.)
3. There is a tendency to wear blinders. In a complex, constantly changing environment, many project
managers seek security by grabbing on to a small piece rather than looking at the big picture. They may
focus, for example, solely on technical issues or on the schedule at the expense of more important
areas.
4. There is a tendency to be heroic. That is, they try to do everything themselves and be all things to all
people. They eventually start to overcontrol and in the end, as many experienced project managers
know, control very little, even themselves. They fail, for example, to delegate.
5. There is a tendency to emphasize hard rather than soft skills. Hard skills are scheduling and
statistical analysis; soft skills are active listening and writing. It is not uncommon for project managers
of technical projects to disparagingly refer to soft skills as “touchy-feely.” Yet time and again, studies
have shown that soft skills can prove as critical, indeed more so, in a project™s success.
6. There is a tendency to select project managers based on the FBI (Friends, Brothers, and In-laws)
principle. Senior managers often select people they like or who are like themselves, who may or may
not have the attributes of a project leader.
7. There is a tendency by senior management to micromanage a project. They treat the project as a pet,
smothering it with attention, thereby killing any initiative by the project manager or the team. An
example is requiring any action, even the smallest, to have approval from senior management. Such an
oppressive atmosphere makes it impossible to exercise project leadership.
8. There is a failure to recognize that leadership is ongoing. It starts at the beginning and continues
throughout the project cycle. Yet especially with long-term projects, managers tend to forget about
inspiring people and their leadership assumes a posture of benign neglect.
9. There is a tendency to ignore or not recognize the indicators of poor leadership. These indicators
include a high turnover or absenteeism rate among team members, repetitive problems with the quality
of output, and constant slippage of major milestone dates. Of course, these indicators may reflect other
problems; however, there™s a high correlation between problems in leadership and those in
performance.
10. There is a tendency toward window dressing rather than dealing with substantive issues. Window
dressing concentrates on images; substantive issues probe the root causes. While looking good has its
immediate advantages, too much emphasis on image can have deleterious effects as the underlying
problems persist and become more acute.
Project Management vs. Project Leadership
Is there a difference between project management and project leadership?
Project management uses the tools, knowledge, and techniques needed for defining, planning, organizing,
controlling, leading, and closing a project. Project leadership appears, therefore, to be a subset of project
management. But it would be a mistake to assume that project leadership is secondary to project
management. Project leadership is the only function that occurs throughout the project cycle. It is, in many
ways, the glue that holds the other functions together. The output from defining, planning, organizing,
controlling, and closing a project depends largely on how well project leadership is exhibited. Without solid
leadership, performance of the other functions will be marginal at best.
Industries are replete with examples of projects that had well-defined plans and plenty of financial support,
yet achieved less than satisfactory results. Project managers must gain and retain the confidence of myriad
players, including the project sponsor, client, team, and senior management. Project leadership, then, means
going beyond the mechanics of managing a project, such as building a work breakdown structure,
constructing schedules, or managing change. It calls for inspiring all players to accomplish the goals and
objectives in a manner that meets or exceeds expectations.

Are Leaders Born or Made?
For a long time, people have debated whether leaders were born or made. The issue remains relatively
unsettled, although most management experts believe that leaders are made rather than born. Basically, there
are three theories of leadership: trait theories, situational contingency theories, and personal behavior theories.
1. Trait theorists say that people contain characteristics that make them leaders. These characteristics
could be based on personality, internal motivations, physical features, or a combination of two or more.
2. Situational contingency theorists deal with different leadership styles under varying circumstances.
Typical leadership styles are either task or people centered and, depending on the circumstances, one
style is preferable to another.
3. Personal behavior theorists deal with views on how leaders perceive people and their role in an
organization. Some managers stress the people side while others emphasize the mission.
Regardless of approach, the contemporary viewpoint is that managers in general and project managers in
particular stress people rather than task completion. So if you are currently a project manager”or strive to
become one”keep the leadership qualities discussed in this chapter foremost in your mind.
It is our hope, of course, that you will avoid these pitfalls and become an effective, successful project leader.
Part II begins with the initial steps of project management and concludes with a chapter on closure. The latter
discusses how to learn from past mistakes so that future projects will have successful outcomes.


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Title
Part II
The Basic Functions of Project Management
Chapter 4
-----------

The Vision Statement and Motivating for Project
Success
Perry Fitzberg, newly appointed manager for GWI™s Smythe Project, knows all too well that leadership
involves more than just building schedules and calculating budgets. As project manager it will be his job to:
1. Provide a vision of what the project is to achieve.
2. Communicate that vision to all involved.
3. Ensure that everyone stays focused on that vision.
4. Motivate people to participate in the project.
5. Facilitate and expedite performance.
6. Build an effective team.
But let™s examine each of these points, one at a time.

Providing the Project Vision
From a project management perspective, the vision describes what the project is to achieve. It is often a
high-level statement supported by a list of goals and objectives. The vision is essentially an idea of some
desired end state, expressed in a form that everyone understands, can relate to, and can feel a sense of
commitment to.
Perry knows that the vision should be clear, concise, and direct. He used several sources to draft the
statement, including the minutes of meetings and the formal contract with the customer. Perry also knows that
the vision statement will require commitment by people working directly and indirectly on the project. To
engender this commitment, he solicits feedback to make revisions where appropriate. This helps generate
commitment, encourages raising important questions, and possibly addresses communciation problems before
they can negatively impact the project. Exhibit 4-1 is his vision statement for the Smythe Project.
Having a vision statement at the outset offers several advantages:
1. It clearly formulates in people™s minds what the project is to achieve. In other words, it
communicates the scope of the project, helping to avoid “scope creep,” that is, unintentional expansion
of the project™s boundaries.
2. It provides a basis for managing the project. All subsequent activities are planned, organized, and
controlled from the perspective of that vision. “Mapping” becomes easier because everyone knows
what perspective to take.
3. It bridges the communications gap. Since a vision statement describes what the project is to achieve,
there™s less chance for ambiguity as people understand the importance of their activities.
4. The vision statement provides a basis for evaluating performance. Throughout the project cycle,
questions will arise about performance. The vision statement is the yardstick against which
performance can be judged.
5. It determines the importance of questions that arise during the project. What is important and what is
not must always be clear. A vision statement is the tool to help answer those questions.
6. The vision statement empowers, it gives people a means for independent judgment. Essentially it is
the criterion for decision making.

Communicating the Vision
A vision statement is worthless, of course, unless other people know about it. Therefore, Perry widely
distributes the statement. He ensures that the right people receive the statement at the right time.
Making the vision statement public has obvious benefits, which are important to state here. For example, it
gives people a sense of the scope of the project. It establishes the groundwork for effective communication via
a common language and mental framework. Finally, it helps build a sense of community.
Exhibit 4-1. Vision statement.
Smythe Project Vision Statement
Provide a wedding with the grandest of flair, which all attendees will talk about for years to come and which
will bring joy and happiness to the families of the newlyweds.

But the challenges of communication are many. Mental paradigms, values, beliefs, and attitudes, for example,
may restrict how the vision statement is received. People tend to filter or slant the message. Also, “pockets of
resistance” exist, reflecting nonacceptance of the vision. That resistance might be covert (subtle, negative
comments) or overt (vocalizing opposition). Another challenge is to cut through the layers of bureaucracy.
Organizational layers may filter or alter the message, either intentionally or inadvertently.
So Perry will publish the vision statement in a house newsletter. He will post it on the project™s Web site. He
will conduct information-sharing sessions or give presentations. He™ll provide a copy for each project manual
and reiterate it at training sessions and other meetings. (Chapters 13, 14, and 19 have additional information
on communciation.) The key is to ensure the vision statement is brought to everyone™s attention.

Keeping People Pocused on the Vision
Perry realizes that it is easy to get sidetracked”that is, to lose sight of the vision while “fighting fires.” He is
concerned about not letting those fires distract him or the team. If they become distracted the likelihood
increases for the schedule to slide, the project to overrun the budget, and the output to be inferior.
As project manager, Perry takes the lead in asking whether each process, activity, or action will achieve the
vision. He continually raises the issue of direction, although he wants everyone to do the same. And there are
several ways he can ensure that people stay focused, such as collecting and evaluating data regarding schedule
and budget; tracking past performance and projecting the future; identifying likely risks and ways to respond;
instituting change management disciplines; and collecting and evaluating measurements and metrics on
quality. Chapters 15 and 16 will describe methods for data collection. Of course, Perry does not do this alone.
He obtains help from team players to validate his assessments.
Facilitating and Expediting Performance
Most project teams do not operate in a vacuum. They face obstacles and frustrations, such as not having the
right equipment or having to deal with bureaucratic politics. In addition, project managers can frustrate or
facilitate the performance of team members.
Perry, of course, wants to facilitate rather than impede performance. He faces constraints on his power, yet he
refuses to take a “dying cockroach” position. He strives to eliminate physical distractions (e.g., noisy
equipment), to ensure the availability of the right tools (e.g., telecommunication equipment and software), to
shield the team from administrative red tape (e.g., computing paperwork), and to handle the political aspects
of the project (e.g., interference in daily activities by senior management).
Perry does not address every problem or obstacle that confronts the team. But he determines what is
important, in light of whether it affects the achievement of the vision.

Motivation to Participate
Perry understands that, without people, the project does not exist. He also knows that without motivated
people, performance will suffer. To motivate his team, Perry must have insight into human behavior and
direct it toward achieving the vision.
Motivation deals with the internal conditions that encourage people to act or not to act. It is a complex process
that remains intriguing to psychologists and layman alike. From Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to
contemporary practitioners, the mystery of human behavior remains, despite growth in our knowledge. From
a managerial perspective, there are many theories that work most of the time, but not always, and have proved
useful for project managers like Perry.
Credit for the birth of motivational theory largely falls to Frederick Taylor, a major contributor to the
development of the concept of scientific management. He relied on identifying the most efficient tasks to
perform a job, training people to do them, developing standards to measure performance, and separating tasks
between management and workers. The best workers”the ones meeting or exceeding the standard”received
the best pay.
Over the years, it has become quite clear that scientific management, albeit revolutionary, had negative
motivational consequences. Work often became meaningless and highly routine, and management relied
solely on financial motivations. But since Taylor, other motivational therories have been developed.


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One is Frederick Herzberg™s two-factor theory of motivation. According to this, people are motivated via
Title
maintenance (hygiene) or motivational factors (motivators). Maintenance factors are dissatisfiers, meaning
that if not present to a sufficient degree, they will negatively impact motivation. Maintenance factors include
pay, policies, and work conditions. Motivational factors are satisfiers, meaning that if addressed, they will
positively impact performance. Motivational factors include opportunities for achievement, recognition, and
----------- advancement.
Abraham Maslow™s hierarchy of needs is another popular motivational theory. According to this, people are
motivated by five fundamental needs, in the following order: physiological, safety, love/belongingness,
self-esteem, and self-actualization. Each need must be satisfied sequentially.
Physiological needs are ones like food, sex, and water. Safety needs include psychological and physical
security. Love/belongingness needs include social acceptability. Self-esteem needs include feeling good and
confident about oneself. Self-actualization needs include realizing one™s fun potential.
Other motivational theories are more narrowly focused. According to David C. McClelland™s n Ach theory,
people have a need to achieve; the degree just varies from person to person. He found that this need was
influenced by the expectation of success and the likelihood of reward. If a manager combines the two, there™s
a greater the probability of achieving successful results. Victor Vroom developed another theory of
motivation based on an individual™s goal and the influence different behaviors have in achieving that goal. If
people feel a goal is important, they will select the appropriate behavior that promises the highest probability
of success. Hence, motivation depends on whether people place much value on a goal.
Motivational theories have laid the foundation for managerial theories. One of those is Douglas McGregor™s
Theory X and Theory Y. The Theory X style of management involves taking a negative view of human nature.
Managers believe people dislike work, will avoid it, accept little or no responsibility, and consequently need
close oversight, maybe even coercion. But Theory Y takes a positive view of human nature. Managers believe
people like work and, if the rewards and conditions are right, will commit themselves to their jobs and take on
responsibility”consequently, close oversight is unnecessary.
Research known as the Michigan studies has revealed two types of supervisory styles that can affect
motivation: production and employee-centered. Production-centered supervisors are task-oriented. They treat
people as instruments of production and intervene on how to perform the work; they tend to be autocratic in
their style. Employee-centered supervisors are people-oriented. They grant autonomy to people when
performing tasks, take a positive view of the capabilities and talents of subordinates, and tend to be
democratic in their style. The studies found that employee-centered supervisors generally achieve the best
performance.
Perry recognizes that the trend in managing people is increasingly to emphasize the people side. A dramatic
shift has occurred away from being task or mission oriented and toward taking a behaviorist approach. Project
managers, especially, must be sensitive to this shift because they often lack command and control. They must
rely on positive motivation to have people perform tasks and must understand how their own behavior affects
that of others.
Keeping the above theories in mind, Perry uses some powerful motivational tools:

Delegation
Because some project managers feel powerless (e.g., they lack command and control over people), they
equate that with a loss of control and to compensate, do many tasks themselves. The results are frequently
poor because they assume too much work. The work piles up and the schedule slides. The answer, as Perry
knows, is to delegate.
Delegating is having one person act on behalf of another. This means relinquishing authority to perform the
work but not necessarily the responsibility or accountability for the results. A reluctance to delegate often
indicates lack of confidence in oneself or the delegate. It manifests itself through comments like “I can do a
better job myself.”
Perry is a practical person who knows that delegation can have negative consequences, too. To ensure that he
delegates work correctly, he looks at the nature and importance of the tasks, the capabilities and personality of
the individuals, and the availability of time and other resources.

Job rotation, Enlargement, and Enrichment
Job rotation entails moving people from one job to another to increase their overall awareness or exposure. It
is useful for inculcating a generalist background and providing a “bit picture” viewpoint. Job enlargement
involves increasing the number of tasks and responsibilities to perform. It increases the level of effort and
challenge. Job enrichment entails structuring or assessing tasks and responsibilities to give people the
opportunity to actualize.
Applying all three tools requires careful consideration. Perry must ponder the personality, talents, expertise,
and knowledge of each individual. He must also consider nonbehavioral factors such as the availability of
time, importance of the task, learning curve, cost, and impact to quality.

Participation
Commitment is important to a project™s success. If lacking, then people will not care about the results. Perry
knows a powerful way to build commitment is through participation.
Participation means obtaining input or feedback prior to making a decision. Perry accomplishes that by
getting feedback on the statement of work, estimates, and schedules, and getting participation at meetings.
Participation breeds emotional commitment to the outcome.

Personal Goal Attainment
People have different goals”money, power, or physical surroundings”but Perry must identify the reason
each person is working on the Smythe Project. This knowledge will help him satisfy a person™s expectations
while simultaneously achieving the overall goals of the project.
What Perry hopes to achieve is to maximize output by matching effort, performance, and project goals. To do
that, Perry must know the people on the project, by holding one-on-one sessions, reviewing of personnel
documentation (r©sum©s), and personal familiarization. Only then can he motivate by satisfying the WIIFM
(What™s In It For Me) syndrome.

Personality/Task Match
Personality is the composite of characteristics that constitute a person™s behavior. How people interact with
their environment reflects their personality. One type of interaction is through the performance of tasks. Perry
knows that some people are a mismatch for certain tasks. Some may not be gregarious enough to perform
tasks involving social interaction; others lack the personality to deal with routine, repetitive tasks that involve
methodical detail.
A mismatch between personality and task can negatively impact project performance. Tasks can go
uncompleted, morale and esprit de corps can plummet, quality can suffer, and schedule can slide. To avoid
such results, Perry considers several variables when matching a person to a task. From a personality
perspective, he looks at the track record, including what they did and did not do well in the past; their
characteristics (introversion, extroversion); intelligence; self-confidence; stress handling abilities; and needs.
From a structural perspective, he also considers the complexity of the task, as well as its variety, autonomy,
and scope.

Recognition
Many people want to stand out. Receiving recognition is one way to satisfy that need.
Recognition must be done carefully; otherwise, it can be counterproductive. The idea is to find a balance
between individual and team recognition and to discover the types of recognition people value. Perry also
knows that recognition must follow some basic principles. It must be genuine, timely, fair, objective,
meaningful, and not overdone.

Stretching
Sometimes Perry will assign people to tasks that present a challenge. People view the task as more difficult
than the “typical” task, but not impossible to complete. The new challenge may exceed physical and
emotional dimensions, or present a mental challenge relating to intelligence, training, or aptitude. The idea is
to match the person to the task so that the person “stretches” and does not “break.”
One key motivational issue in recent years is the role stress plays on the project manager and the team. Perry
knows that he and his team will be under considerable stress and that he has responsibility for managing it.
There are two types of stress: negative stress (or distress) and positive stress (or eustress).


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Negative stress manifests itself in many ways. It causes ailments, from hives to heart attacks. It affects people
Title
psychologically by making them depressed and argumentative or just “wanting to give up.” It affects the
performance of the team as conflict intensifies; people start “throwing their work over the fence” and they
lower their productivity.
Perry is well aware that there are many causes for high stress. Downsizing, increased time-to-market
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pressures, rapidly varying market conditions, consultants and contractors hired as replacements, and
outsourcing services all add to a stressful situation. Poor project management practices also cause stress. Such
practices include not defining roles and responsibilities clearly; unrealistically assigning resources;
compressing the schedules; providing inadequate tools; and not isolating the team from politics.
Perry realizes that he does not have to let stress have a harmful effect on him or his team. He can alleviate the
impact in several ways. For example, he can develop and revise his project plan to reflect realism, rotate
people between critical and noncritical tasks or equitably distribute the workload; provide opportunities for
the team members to go on respites or breaks from time to time; assign people to tasks that are more suitable
to their expertise level, intelligence type, or personality type; and encourage people to be flexible. As for
Perry himself, he considers all the same for himself.

Team Building
A team is more than just a group of people doing work. It is an assembly of individuals with diverse
backgrounds who interact for a specific purpose. The idea is to capture and direct the synergy generated by
the group to efficiently and effectively achieve a goal. Throughout the years, Perry has witnessed many signs
of ineffective teams.
What Is Your Team-Building Style?
Decide-X, a Bellevue, Washington, company, provides a scientific tool”also called Decide-X”to measure
how much information a person needs before reaching a decision.
According to Decide-X, people deal with team-building situations in ways that reflect their needs and
desires, as well as their preferences in dealing with direction, change, details, and other characteristics of a
work situation. There are four primary styles:
• Reactive Stimulators thrive on action and the immediate. They prefer situations or projects that are
fast-moving and have lots of pressure.
• Logical Processors thrive on logical detail while maintaining focus. They prefer situations and
projects with organizational structure.
• Hypothetical Analyzers like to solve problems using decomposition to unravel complexity. They
prefer situations and projects that provide a relatively slow pace to perform analysis.
• Relational Innovators deal in ideas from a big-picture perspective and find relationships or patterns.
They prefer situations and projects that involve blue-skying and move at a pace that allows them to do
that.
From a project management perspective, the Decide-X tool is very useful. Different combinations of styles
on a project team can influence the level of detail that goes into making a decision and how quickly it is
done. For example, if you put a Reactive Stimulator and a Relational Innovator on a task, the questions will
arise: (1) will decisions be made quickly with little attention to detail (as may be needed), or will they be
made much more slowly, to allow for exploration of detail? And (2) will the Reactive Stimulator and
Relational Innovator cooperate, or will they conflict?
Decide-X differs from other approaches, which focus only on the individual, because it looks at the
interactions of people. Decide-X is described in more detail in Gary Salton, Organizational Engineering
(Ann Arbor, Mich.: Professional Communications, 1996).

Characteristics of Poor Teams
• No processes for gaining consensus or resolving conflicts. Team squabbles and overt and covert
discussions are ongoing occurrences, making cooperation difficult, even impossible.
• Team members who lack commitment to the goal. No one has an emotional attachment to the goal.
• No camaraderie or esprit de corps. The players do not feel that they are part of a team. Instead,
everyone acts in his or her own interests.
• Lack of openness and trust. Everyone is guarded, protective of his or her own interests. Openness and
truthfulness are perceived as yielding to someone, giving a competitive advantage, or exposing

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