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most pessimistic estimate
The effort to complete a task under the worst conceivable circumstances.
motivational factor
A satisfier, meaning psychological desire that if addressed will positively impact performance.
Myers-Briggs type indicator
A psychological tool that identifies personality types based on the combination of four preferences:
extrovert versus introvert; sensing versus intuitive; thinking versus feeling; and judging versus
perceiving.
n Ach
A theory by David C. McClelland that found people have a need to achieve; the degree varies from
person to person.
narrative format procedure
Procedural documentation that communicates information in essay style.
network diagram
A chart displaying the logical relationships, or dependencies, between the tasks.
newsletter
A communications tool that keeps everyone abreast of important happenings and information. It serves
as a record of activities and accomplishments.
ninety (90) percent syndrome
90 percent of a project is completed, while the last 10 percent consumes most of the flow time.
nonburdened rate
The labor cost minus the cost of fringe benefits and overhead.
nonrecurring costs
A charge that appears only once (e.g., the purchase of equipment).
organizing
A function of project management that orchestrates the use of resources cost-effectively to execute
plans. It involves activities like assembling a team, clarifying relationships among parties, preparing
procedures, creating a project manual, and setting up project history files.
overrun
A positive value for total estimate-at-completion.
overtime labor rate
The charge that exceeds 40 hours per week, including time and a half and double time.
Pareto chart
A diagram that displays information to determine the potential causes of a problem.
participative management
A managerial approach for getting people involved by getting their input or feedback prior to making a
decision.
personality
The composite set of characteristics that make up a person™s behavior.
planning
A function of project management that determines the steps needed to execute a project, assigns who
will perform them, and identifies their start and completion dates.
playscript format procedure
Procedural documentation that is similar to the sequential format. It is best used for procedures
involving two or more people.
precedence diagramming method
See program evaluation and review technique.
predecessor task
A task that precedes the occurrence of another task.
procedures
Documentation that provides detailed information on performing tasks.
product breakdown structure (PBS)
A delineation of the segments that constitute the final product or service.
productivity adjustment percent (PAP)
An estimating approach that applies the global efficiency factor on a larger scale. It involes applying an
overall productivity factor to the estimate for all tasks.
program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
A precedence diagramming method often used in nonconstruction environments (e.g., information
systems, pharmaceutical, and engineering industries). It uses three estimates to complete a task: most
likely, most pessimistic, and most optimistic.
project
A discrete set of tasks performed in a logical sequence to attain a specific result. Each task and the
entire project have a start and stop date.
project announcement
A memo that is widely distributed to announce the beginning of a project.
project communications
Establishing an infrastructure for disseminating information. It involves setting up the project office,
establishing and conducting appropriate meetings, giving effective presentations, and applying
interpersonal skills.
project cycle
The set of phases for completing a project.
project history file
A drawer in a filing cabinet, a directory on a personal computer, or file server that stores important
documentation.
project leadership
Inspiring people to perform in a manner that meets or exceeds expectations. project library A central
means for storing information.
project management
The tools, knowledge, and techniques used to lead, define, plan, organize, control, and close a project.
project management, classical approach
The use of three standard items (cost, schedule, and quality) to determine the success of a project.
project manager
the person who interacts with myriad people (e.g., sponsors, senior management, client, and team
members) to achieve the goals of a project. project manual A compendium of reference material for a
project.
project office
A central location established to manage a project.
quality
A service or product that satisfies the requirements and expectations of the customer.
reading people
Understanding the true motives of people by their actions.
recurring cost
Charge that appears regularly (e.g., long-term payments for facilities).
regular labor rates
The wage rate amount earned for less than or equal to 40 hours per week.
replanning
Redoing the project plan by making wholesale changes to cost, schedule, and quality.
report
A feedback mechanism to communicate information.
resource allocation
The distribution of materials, labor, etc., among tasks.
resource profile
A graphic display of the planned or actual use of one or more resources over the duration of one or
more tasks.
risk, acceptable
Allowing a threat to negatively affect a task on the non-critical path.
risk, external
A threat that originates from outside the scope of a project.
risk, internal
A threat that originates from inside the scope of a project.
risk, long-term
A threat that has an impact in the distant future.
risk, manageable
A threat that can be managed.
risk, short-term
A threat that has an immediate impact.
risk, unacceptable
A threat that negatively affects a task on the critical path.
risk, unmanageable
A threat that can™t be managed.
risk acceptance
Accepting a risk rather than preventing or mitigating its impact.
risk adaptation
Taking measures that will mitigate a risk™s impact.
risk analysis
Identifying the components of a project, its risks, and the controls that should be or are in place.
risk avoidance
Taking action that will keep a risk from seriously impacting a project.
risk control
Deciding what action to take to prevent or mitigate the impact of a risk.
risk evaluation
Collecting information and determining the adequacy of controls.
risk identification
Recognizing the major elements of a project and their associated risks.
risk management
The process of identifying, analyzing, controlling, and reporting risk.
risk management, qualitative
An approach for managing risks that relies on judgments using criteria to determine outcomes.
risk management, quantitative
An approach for managing risks that relies mainly on statistical calculation to determine risks and their
probability of occurrence.
risk reporting
Informing team members and senior management of risks and their associated controls.
risk transfer
Letting someone else assume a risk.
rules of exchange
Communications etiquette.
satisfier
Psychological desire that, if addressed, will have a positive impact on performance.
scattergram
A graphic that shows the relationship between two variables. Sometimes called a scatter or correlation
chart.
schedule variance
The difference between planned and actual start and end dates.
scheduling
Logically sequencing tasks and then calculating start and stop dates for each one. The result of
scheduling is a diagram showing the logical sequence and the calculated dates.
scientific management
Identifying the most efficient tasks to perform a job, train people on them, develop standards to
measure performance, and separate work between management and workers.
scientific wildly assumed guess (SWAG)
estimate The most popular but most unreliable estimating technique. It requires making one-time
estimates to complete a task.
sequential format procedure
Procedural document that presents information.
social style matrix
A psychological or sociological tool that divides social styles and personal expectations based upon two
dimensions, assertiveness and responsiveness.
span of control
The number of people that a project manager can effectively manage.
standard deviation
The degree that each occurrence in a frequency distribution is located from the mean. It measures
dispersion.
start-to-start dependency
The relationship between tasks whereby two or more of them begin around the same time.
statement of understanding (SOU)
An informal statement of work.
statement of work (SOW)
An agreement between the customer and project™s leadership on the exact definition of the project.
status review
A type of session to collect information to determine progress against cost, schedule, and quality
criteria set for a project.
steering committee
A group of people providing general oversight of and guidance of the project.
stretching
Assigning people to tasks that challenge them.
successor task
An activity that starts after the completion of a previous one.
sustaining phase
A time in a project life cycle where the product is under the customer™s cognizance and an
infrastructure exists to maintain and enhance it.
synergy
The output of a group, usually greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
task breakdown structure (TBS)
A top-down listing of tasks to build a part or perform an aspect of a service.
task force structure
A group of people assembled who are dedicated to completing a specific goal.
technical level
The lower level of the work breakdown structure that contains the actual tasks to perform, which will
be used for rollups when reporting to management.
telecommuting
People participating on projects using personal computers at their homes.
Theory X
A style of management that takes a negative view of human nature.
Theory Y
A style of management that takes a positive view of human nature.
threat
The occurrence of an event that negatively affects a project.
tracking
Looking at past performance.
trend chart
A graphical chart to display past performance and forecast results based upon the history.
underrun
A negative value for total estimate-at-completion.
variable cost
The charge that varies depending upon consumption and workload.
variance
The difference between what is planned and what has actually occurred up to a specific point in time.
videoconferencing
People interacting across geographical regions using video as the medium.
visibility wall or room
A place where all project documentation and other related information are showcased.
vision
An idea of a desired result in the future.
vision statement
A document describing what the project will achieve.
vulnerability
The inherent degree of weakness of components.
work breakdown structure (WBS)
A detailed listing of the deliverables and tasks for building a product or delivering a service. It is
top-down, broad-to-specific, and hierarchical.
work package level
The tasks or subtasks that will be used for assigning responsibilities, constructing schedules, and
tracking progress. It is the lowest level in the work breakdown structure.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
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Maglitta, Joseph. “Learning Lessons from IRS™ Biggest Mistakes.” Computerworld, October 14, 1996.
Maguire, Steve. “Leading a New Team.” Software Development, May 1997.
Malloy, Amy. “Counting the Intangibles.” Computerworld, June 1996.
Martin, James. “The Enterprise Engineer.” Computerworld (Leadership Series), September 18, 1995.
McCarthy, Jim. “Better Teamwork.” Software Development, December 1995.
McCune, Jenny C. “Guarding Your Software and Your Company.” Beyond Computing, June 1997.
McGee, Marianne K. “Burnout.” Information Week, March 4, 1996.
””. “Getting Credit for Your Career.” Information Week, June 5, 1995.
””. “Outsourcing: Piecemeal Ticket.” Information Week, July 14, 1997.
McGuinness, Charles. “Web Enabled Applications: Beyond Document Sharing.” Software Development,
February 1997.
Melymuka, Kathleen. “The Vision Thing.” Computerworld, December 12, 1994.
””. “Virtual.” Computerworld, April 28, 1997.
””. “Hell According to Yourdon.” Computerworld, March 31, 1997.
Menagh, Melanie. “Virtues and Vices of the Virtual Corporation.” Computerworld, November 13, 1995.
Menda, Kathleen. “Projects, Not Structure, Define Future Workplace.” HR Magazine, March 1996.
Milas, Gene. “How to Develop a Meaningful Employee Recognition Program.” Quality Progress, May 1995.
Minkiewicz, Arlene. “Objective Measures.” Software Development, June 1997.
Mintzberg, Henry. “The Manager™s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March-April 1990.
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September 1995.
Myers, Marc. “Enterprise Project Management”It Can Be Automated.” Network World, May 20, 1996.
Nakakoji, Kumiyo. “Beyond Language Translation: Crossing the Cultural Divide.” IEEE Software, November
1996.
Narney, Chris. “Searching for True Knowledge.” Network World, June 16, 1997.
Nelson, Bob, Lael Good, and Tom Hill. “You Want Tomaytoes, I Want Tomahtoes.” Training, June 1997.
Nixon, Kenneth L. “Management versus Teams.” The Quality Observer, December 1995.
Nunn, Philip. “The Transition to Project Management in Manufacturing.” PM Network, January 1995.
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Pachter, Barbara. “Manners Matter.” Voyageur, 1996.
””. “Six Keys to Writing Better Business Letters.” WFL, May 1996.
Panepinto, Joe. “Maximize Teamwork.” Computerworld, March 21, 1994.
Parr, William C., and Cheryl Hild. “Maintaining Focus Within Your Organization.” Quality Progress,
September 1995.
Paul, Lauren G. “User Input: Key to Avoiding Failure in Client/Server Development Projects.” PC Week,
January 25, 1995.
Pinto, Jeffrey. “Power and Politics: Managerial Implications.” PM Network, August 1996.
Powell, David. “Group Communication.” Communications of the ACM, April 1996.
Prencipe, Loretta. “It Takes Calm to Diffuse Anger.” Network World, March 17, 1997.
Putnam, Lawrence H., Jr. “Using SEI Core Metrics.” Application Development Trends, February 1995.
Racko, Roland. “Debugging Meetings.” Software Development, September 1997.
Radosevich, Lynda, and Cheryl Dahle. “Taking Your Chances.” CIO, April 15, 1996.
Richards, Dick. “A Perspective for Visionaries.” Journal for Quality and Participation, September 1995.
Rieciardi, Philip. “Simplifying Your Approach to Measuring Performance.” Quality Digest, August 1995.
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Rose, Kenneth H. “A Performance Measurement Model.” Quality Progress, February 1995.
Rubach, Laura. “Downsizing: How Quality Is Affected As Companies Shrink.” Quality Progress, April 1995.
Rubin, Howard A. “Measurement Despite Its Promise, Successful Programs Are Rare.” Application
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Runcie, John F. “The Ten Commandments of Leadership.” Journal for Quality and Participation,
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Saia, Rick. “Harvesting Project Leaders.” Computerworld, July 21, 1997.
Sauder, Lew. “Team Players.” AS/400 Systems Management, February 1997.
Saunders, Gary. “Mapping Administrative Processes.” Quality Digest, August 1995.
Schatz, Willie. “The Burnout Syndrome.” Client/Server Journal, August 1995.
””. “The Making of a Proper Project Manager.” Client/Server Journal, October 1995.
Scheier, Robert L. “Businesses Outsourcing More, But Less Thrilled With Results.” Computerworld, July 21,
1997.
Schlosberg, Jeremy. “Learning to Lead.” Computerworld, September 9, 1996.
Schubert, Kathy. “So You™ve Been Asked to Be a Team Leader.” Journal for Quality and Participation,
September 1995.
Schultz, Beth. “A Real Virtual Network Corporation.” Network World, January/February 1996.
””. “Collaboration by Design.” Network World, January/February 1996.
Scully, John P. “People: The Imperfect Communicators.” Quality Progress, April 1995.
Seadle, Michael. “Checkmating the Big Project Syndrome.” Enterprise Systems Journal, April 1996.
Seesing, Paul R. “Distributing Project Control Database Information on the World Wide Web.” PM Network,
October 1996.
Seymour, Patricia. “Integration of Process Tools Key to Advanced A/D.” Application Development Trends,
February 1995.
Shacklett, Mary E. “Computerizing the Home-Based Work Force.” Enterprise Systems Journal, July 1997.
Sherman, Strat. “Stretch Goals: The Dark Side of Asking for Miracles.” Fortune, November 13, 1995.
Sims, Oliver. “Why Projects Don™t Get Off to a Good Start.” Object Magazine, October 1996.
Smith, Jim. “A Model for Ongoing Project Cost-Justification.” Network World, February 5, 1996.
””. “Don™t Look”The Project May Be Doomed.” Systems Management, July 1995.
Smith, Max B. “Project Management of Outsourcing and Other Service Projects.” PM Network, October
1996.
Smolens, Peter. “Mapping Out the Project Approval Process.” Network World, November 25, 1996.
Sorgenfrei, Matt. “Separating the Wheat from the Chaff.” AS/400 Systems Management, January 1997.
Sparrius, Ad. “You Can™t Manage What You Don™t Understand.” Project Management Journal (reprint),
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Stamps, David. “Lights! Camera! Project Management.” Training, January 1997.
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Stewart, Thomas A. “Planning a Career.” Fortune, March 20, 1995.
Stokes, Stewart L., Jr. “Rewards and Recognition for Teams.” Information Systems Management, Summer
1995.
Stone, John A. “How to Keep Control of Big Development Projects.” Information Week, September 16, 1996.
Stuant, Anne. “The Adaptable Workforce.” CEO, March 1, 1995.
Sullivan, John, and Dave Yesua. “The Internet: Faster, Better, Riskier.” PM Network, October 1996.
Sullivan, Kristina B. “Group Schedulers Run Gamut.” PC Week, November 29, 1993.
Surveyer, Jacques. “A Project Aide on CD-ROM.” Information Week, February 12, 1996.
””. “Project Management Tools.” Software Development, July 1997.
Tapscott, Don. “Leadership for the Internetworked Business.” Information Week, November 13, 1995.
Tate, Priscilla. “Endangered Species: Project Methodologies.” Client/Server Journal, October 1995.
Teal, Thomas. “The Human Side of Management.” Harvard Business Review, November-December 1996.
The, Lee. “How to Hire a Consultant.” Datamation, February 15, 1996.
””. “IS-Friendly Project Management.” Datamation, April 1, 1996.
Toney, Frank. “Good Results Yield . . . Resistance?” PM Network, October 1996.
””. “What the Fortune 500 Know About PM Best Practices.” PM Network, February 1997.
Venick, Martin. “Managing Distributed Projects with Panache.” Client/Server Journal, February 1996.
Venturato, Anthony P. “Consultants: Judging the Potential for Excellence.” PM Network, March 1997.
Wallace, Bob. “Using the Internet for Project Management.” Computerworld, October 14, 1996.
Walsh, Jeff. “Primavera, Microsoft to Face Off on Project Management.” InfoWorld, June 2, 1997.
Wang, Jim, and Ron Watson. “Five Keys to Making Your OO Project Succeed.” Object Magazine, November
1996.
Weissman, Steve. “The Push and Pull of Getting Project Approval.” Network World, October 23, 1995.
Weitz, Lori. “New Features, Ease of Use Expanding Project Management Base.” Client/Server Computing,
January 1994.
Weldon, David. “Living on Shaky Ground.” Computerworld, February 5, 1996.
””. “A Mutual Understanding.” Computerworld, May 1, 1995.
Wells, Jess. “Painless Dismissals.” Software Development, May 1997.
Whitaker, Ken. “Managing Software Maniacs.” Computerworld, January 9, 1995.
White, Randall P. “Seekers and Scalers: The Future Leaders.” Training and Development, January 1997.
Wiegers, Karl. “Metrics: 10 Trap to Avoid.” Software Development, October 1997.
Wigglesworth, David C. “Assess White-Collar Skills in the New Economy.” HR Magazine, May 1996.
Wilde, Candee. “The Limits of Power.” Computerworld, January 16, 1995.
Williamson, Mickey. “Getting a Grip on Groupware.” CIO, Mrach 1, 1996.
Wilson, Linda. “SWAT Teams: Life on the Edge.” Computerworld, October 23, 1995.
Wolleat, J. R. “Helluva Project.” Computerworld, November 18, 1996.
Wood, Lamont. “Perfect Harmony.” Information Week, May 8, 1995.
Wyatt, Robert. “How to Assess Risk.” Systems Management, October 1995.
Yeack, William, and Leonard Sayles. “Virtual and Real Organizations: Optimal Paring.” PM Network,
August 1996.
Yourdon, Ed. “Surviving a Death March.” Software Development, July 1997.
Zawrotny, Stan. “Demystifying the Black Art of Project Estimating.” Application Development Trends, July
1995.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Index
ad hoc meetings, 135
agenda, example of, 135
-----------
definition of, 132
arrow diagramming method (ADM), 79
automated project management, 185-199
distributed integrated system, 189-197
evaluation, process of, 188-189
needs and wants associated with, 185-186
three-level pyramid, structure of, 185-186
what software won™t do, 187
backward pass, 76-78
definition of, 76
example of, 77
bar (Gantt) chart, 79-81
definition of, 79
example of, 79
roll-ups used in, 79-80
Bolton, Robert, 137-138
budget and cost calculations, 100-105
how to calculate, 102-104
kinds of costs, 100-102
management reserve in, 100
standard formulas of, 101
when too high, 104
worksheet, example of, 103
burdened vs. nonburdened labor
rates, 102
burnout, 85
case study, ix, 9, 12-207
background of, 12
GWI organizational chart, 13
organizational structure in, 12-13, 16-17,96
project manager selection, 17-19
proposal, 13-14
work breakdown structure, 201-207
CA-Superproject, 191
checkpoint review meetings, 132-133
agenda example, 133
definition of, 132
checksheets, 155-156
definition of, 155
example, 156
classical vs. behavioral approaches, 6-7
close (phase of project management), 6
closure, 6, 175-182
lessons learned, 176-179
recognition and rewards, 179-180
releasing people, 179
component (risk), 108
concept phase, 8
conflict resolution, 139-140
constraint dates, 75
consultants, 43, 87-88
definition of, 43
steps, 87-88
contingency planning, 171-172
definitions of, 171-172
example, 172
contract employees, 43
control, 6
control charts, 155-156, 158
definition of, 155-156
example, 158
control (phase of project management), 6
controlling risk, 6, 109
core team, 62
critical path, 78
definition of, 78
example of, 78
data compilation, 162
Decide-X, 39
decision-making, 168
define (phase of project management), 6
difficult people, 140
direct vs. indirect costs, 101
documentation, 112-130
flowcharts, 117-118
forms, 118-122
history files, 125-126
memos, 123-124
newsletters, 124-125
procedures, 112-117
project library, 128
project manual, 126-128
reports, 122-123
earned value, 148-151
actual cost of work performed, 149
budgeted cost of work performed, 149
budgeted cost of work scheduled, 149
calculations, 149-151
definition of, 148
e-mail, 195
estimating, 63-70
benefits and challenges, 63
factors to consider, 69-70
obtaining, 68
reevaluating, 67
types of, 64-69
feedback loop, 11
finish-to-finish, 73-74
definition of, 73
example, 74
finish-to-start, 72-73
definition of, 72
example of, 73
fishbone chart, 161
fixed vs. variable costs, 101
float, 78-79
definition of, 78
example of, 78
types of, 78-79
flowcharts, 117-118
advantages of, 117
data flow example, 120
flow of control example, 119
pointers, 118
steps in creating, 119
forms, 119-122
guidelines for preparing, 121
qualities, 119
formulation phase, 8
forward pass, 75-76
definition of, 76
example of, 76
free float, 78-79
Gantt chart, 79-81
global efficiency factor (GEF), 64-65
groupware computing, 192
Hawthorne effect, 146
Herzberg, Frederick, 34
hierarchy of needs (Maslow), 35, 137
histograms, 83-87
definition of, 83
example of, 84, 85, 87, 90
leveled, 85
leveling, 86-87
unleveled, 84, 87
history files, 126
definition of, 126
requirements for maintaining, 126
steps for setting up, 126
implementation phase, 8
installation phase, 8
interpersonal skills, 136-140
active listening, 136-137
conflict handling, 139-140
people reading, 137-139
interviewing, 48
principles, 48
structured, 48
unstructured, 48
job enlargement, 36
job enrichment, 36
job rotation, 36
lag, 73
lead (phase of project management), 4
leadership, 22-27
conceptual understanding of, 22-24
factors that determine, 26
vs. management, 25
reasons for lack of, 24-26
theories of, 26
lessons-learned document, 176-179
advantages of, 176
definition of, 176
developing, 177, 179
outline of, 177
letter request, 14
management reserve, 100
managing project changes, 166-174
approved request form, 167
corrective-action challenges, 169-170
replanning, 170-171
requirements, 166-167
types of changes, 168-169
Maslow, Abraham, 35, 137
matrix structure, 16-17, 94-95
McClelland, David, 35
McGregor, Douglas, 35
mean,159,162
calculation of, 162
definition of, 159
median, 159, 162
calculation of, 162
definition of, 159
meetings, 132-134
agendas, 133-134
rules of conduct, 134
types of, 132
memos, 123-124
advantages of, 123
example of, 124
methodologies, 190
metrics, 152-165
actions for collecting data, 152-153
categories of, 152
steps in data collection and analysis, 153-162
Michigan studies, 35-36
Microsoft Project for Windows, 191
milestone bar chart, 80
definition of, 80
example of, 80
mobile computing, 44, 191
mode, 159, 162
calculation of, 162
definition of, 159
monitoring, 146
Monte Carlo for Primavera, 192
motivation, 34-38
by delegation, 36
by job enlargement, 36
by job enrichment, 36
by job rotation, 36
by participation, 36-37
by personal goal attainment, 37
by personality/task match, 37
by recognition, 37
by stretching, 38
theories of, 34-36
to enhance performance and participation, 34-38
Myers-Briggs type indicator, 137
n Ach theory (McClelland), 35
negotiating, 49
network diagram, 71-79
advantages of, 71
bad signs of, 72
definition of, 71
example of, 72
logic change example of, 89
other types of, 79-81
relationships/dependencies in, 72
newsletters, 124-125
advantages of, 124
distribution methods for, 125
issues in, 124-125
topics of, 125
organize (phase of project management), 6
outsourcing, 89
definition of, 89
steps in, 89
overtime, 85
Pareto charts, 155-156
definition of, 155
example of, 156
participation, 36
PDCA cycle, 154
performance assessment
assessment, 146-151
data validity and reliability, 145-146
methods of collection, 144
prerequisites, 144
personal behavior theorists, 26
personal goal attainment, 37
PERT. See program evaluation and review technique.
plan (phase of project management), 6
precedence diagramming method, 79
presentations, 134-136
types of, 135
steps in, 135-136
Primavera Project Planner, 191
probability (risk), 108
problem solving, 171
procedures, 112-117
definition of, 112
examples of, 114-117
key insights for preparing, 121
requirements in, 113
steps in, 113, 116-117
procedural formats, 113-117
item-by-item format, 113, 117
narrative format, 113-114
playscript format, 113, 116
sequential format, 113, 115
product breakdown structure, 59
productivity adjustment percent (PAP), 65
program evaluation and review technique (PERT), 66-69
benefits of, 67
calculation of, 66-67
key points of, 68-69
project, 4, 7-9, 90, 175-176, 178, 180-181
acceleration of, 90
definition of, 4
guidelines for the future, 180-181
information systems projects, 178
phases of, 7-9
reasons for success or failure of, 9-10,175-176
project announcement, 53-54
example of, 54
purposes of, 53-54
project library, 128
definition of, 128
steps of, 128
project management, 4-6, 10
classical vs. behavioral approaches, 6-7,10
definition of, 4
functions of, 4-7
introducing, 5
phases of, 8-9
project manager, 16, 18-20
characteristics of, 19
powers of, 20
skills of, 18-19
types of, 16
project manual, 126-128
advantages of, 127
steps in compiling, 127
table of contents example, 128
project office, 131-132
Project Scheduler 7 for Windows, 191
proposals, 13-14
components of, 13-14
types of, 14
quartiles, 160-161, 164
Questions for Getting Started
automated project management, 198-199
budget and costs, 104-105
case study, 21
change management, 173-174
closure, 181-182
documentation, 129-130
estimating, 70
interactions, 141-142
metrics, 163-165
resource allocation, 91
risk management, 111
scheduling, 81
statement of work and project announcement, 54-55
team organization, 99
tracking and monitoring, 151
vision and motivation, 45
work breakdown structure, 61-62
Rank-It, 192
recurring vs. nonrecurring costs, 101
regular vs. overtime rates, 102
reliability of data, 145-146
replanning, 170-171
prerequisites for, 170-171
reasons for, 170
reports, 122-123
characteristics of, 122
example of, 122
steps in, 123
request for information, 14
request for proposal, 14
resource allocation, 82-91
heuristics for, 83
histograms for, 83-85
level loading in, 84
steps in, 82-86
Results Management, 191
risk management, 106-111
categories of risk, 108
factors that increase risk exposure, 107
four-step process of, 106-107
key concepts in, 108-109
qualitative approach in, 109
quantitative approach in, 109
risk acceptance, 109
risk adaptation, 110
risk analysis, 106
risk avoidance, 110
risk control, 106
risk identification, 106
risk reporting, 106, 110
risk transfer, 110
ways to handle risk, 109-110
Risk+, 192
risk reporting, 106, 110
definition of, 106
example of, 110
roll-up bar chart, 79-80
definition of, 79
example of, 80
scattergrams, 155, 157
definition of, 155
example of, 157
scheduling, 71-81
definition of, 71
duration/flowtime in, 71, 73
group participation in, 77
logic of, 71
reasons for not doing, 74
resources for, 71
scope of, 71
tasks of, 71
time factor in, 71
scientific wildly assumed guess (SWAG), 64
scientific management (Taylor), 34
self-directed work teams, 98
situational contingency theorists, 26
social style matrix, 138
software (project management), 191
software (risk management), 192
staff meetings, 132, 134
agenda for, 132, 134
definition of, 132
standard deviation, 159-160, 163
calculation of, 163
definition of, 159-160
start-to-start, 73
definition of, 73
example of, 73
statement of work/statement of understanding, 46-53
answers to five W™s, 47
definition of, 47
example of, 50-52
flowchart of, 53
information contained in, 47
introduction for draft of, 48
outline of, 47-48
section descriptions and purposes of, 48-53
status data, 143-145
status review, 132-133
agenda example, 133
definition of, 132
sustaining phase, 8
SWAT teams, 97-98
task breakdown structure, 59
task force structure, 17, 93-94
Taylor, Frederick, 34
team building, 38-42
characteristics of, 40-42
style of, 39
team diversity, 42-43
team organization, 92-99
preliminary requirements of, 92-93
self-directed work teams, 98
SWAT team, 97-98
types of structure in, 93-95
virtual teams, 95, 97
telecommuting, 44, 189-190
Theory X and Y (McGregor), 35
threat (risk), 108
three-point estimating technique. See
program evaluation and review
technique.
total float, 78
total risk, 192
tracking, 146
trait theorists, 26
transactional analysis, 138
trend charts, 159-160
definition of, 159
example of, 160
two-factor theory of motivation (Herzberg), 34
validity of data, 145-146
variance, 147-151
actual to date, 147
cost variance, 147
definition of, 146
estimate at completion, 147
overrun, 147
schedule variance, 148
underrun, 147
videoconferencing, 196-197
advantages of, 196-197
capabilities of, 197
technology in, 197
virtual teams, 95, 97
visibility wall/room, 132
definition of, 132
pointers, 132
vision, 31-34
advantages of, 32
communicating, 32-33
definition of, 31
example of, 32
facilitating and expediting performance, 33-34
keeping focus, 33
vulnerability (risk), 108
WBS. See work breakdown structure.
web technology
key issues, 195-196
site contents, 194
site design, 194
work breakdown structure (WBS), 56-62
benefits of, 56-57
definition of, 56
developing, 56-61
80-hour rule, 58
examples of, 58-60
product breakdown structure, 59
reasons for failure of, 57
task breakdown structure, 59
work package level, 59


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