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145, 146, 150, 151, 157, 159, 187 market pricing, 21, 24“25, 29
inner obligations to, 160 Marx, K., 113
macro- and microsocial dimensions Matthew effect, 141, 142, 193
of, 162 of gift giving, 138“139
negative consequences of, 160 Mauss, M., 2, 3, 4, 9, 15, 28, 34, 41, 59, 60,
state-based, 165 76, 109, 112, 116“117, 118, 119, 199,
Isherwood, B., 32, 141 200, 203
threefold obligation, 116
Jong-Gierveld, J. de, 157, 158, 164 Mayhew, L., 9, 112, 115“116
McCracken, G., 20, 28
keeping-while-giving, 61, 79, 96 Mead, G. H., 173
kin, 144 Merton, R., 138
interdependence among, 144 morals and markets, 117
kinship motives, motivations (of, for solidarity),
distance, 25 192, 195, 199“201, 206
dues, 144 affective and normative, 116
support, 144 equality, 199
systems, 115 to give, 95, 119
Klein, M., 64“66, 68 instrumental, 112, 124
Kula, 56“59, 61, 199 personal gain, 197
gifts, 88 power, 200
ritual, 108“109 self-interest, self-interested, 124, 197,
Kulis, S., 158“159 201
K¨ nemund, H., 164
u utilitarian, 112

Lane, R., 184 narcissism, narcissistic offense(s), 175,
Lasch, C., 175 186
L´ vi-Strauss, C., 2, 8, 9, 34, 76, 78, 79,
e growing, 175
102, 109“110, 112, 119, 121, 200, 202, network society, 177“178, 210
203
Lindenberg, S., 112 obligation(s), 162
Local Exchange Trade System(s), LETS, feelings of (moral), 161
181, 188 inner, 165
looking-glass-self, 44 institutionalized, 106



230
Index


internalized moral, normative, 35, 46, rational choice(s), 24
102, 107, 150, 153, 203 basic assumption of, 203
morality of mutual, 208 inspired theory, theorists, 22, 104, 112,
mutual, 110 114, 203
reciprocal, 117 perspective, 112“114
to return a gift, to give in return, 43, rational egoists, 203
60, 109, 117 rationality, 105, 114
offerings, 47 collective, 114
religious, 47 economic, 103
Olson, M., 114 and individual and collective
organ(s), 84“85 interests, 114
donation, 3, 36 Raub, W., 112, 114
Osteen, M., 4 reciprocity, reciprocity relations, 7, 9, 29,
36, 48, 162, 192, 195, 201“205, 207,
Pahl, R. E., 42 209
Parsons, T., 2, 9, 102, 106“107, 112, 113 abstract, impersonal, 36, 205
Pessers, D., 5 asymmetrical, 119
philanthropic particularism, 139“142, (a)symmetrical, 69, 86“91
193 balanced, 110
poisoned cup, 51 chain of, 67
poisoners, 96 concrete and personal, 205
Portes, A., 135 delayed, postponed, 36, 84, 182
potlatch, 28, 47, 71, 109 of desires and needs, 210
power, power relationship, 9, 23, 24, 27, equivalent, 86“89, 108, 193, 205
28, 47, 77, 78, 109, 120, 191, 193, 201, expectation(s) of, 28, 110, 146
207 friendliness and, 68
abuse, 95 generalized, 110
and authority relations, 119 of the humanity of self and other, 197
asymmetrical, and gender, 92“94 idea of, 146
considerations of, 206 of the identity of giver and recipient,
differences, 38 191
equivalent, 89 immediate, 178, 179
exercise, 196, 200 informal social contract created by,
hierarchy, 23 203
inequality (between women and of the interdependency of self and
men), 80, 86, 95, 206 other, 197
need for, lust for, 51, 200 issue of recognition, 196
position, 23 lack of, 160, 197
unequal, 70 models of, 80
prestige, 23, 28, 47, 108, 119 as moral basis of solidarity, 191
need for, 51 mutual, 196
principle of give-and-take, 199 need for (self-), 186
problem of order, 2, 102, 189 negative (side of), 110, 138
Putnam, R., 184, 188 norm of, 111
of the other as a human being, 195
quid pro quo, 24, 119 of otherness, other™s human worth,
reasoning, 24 195, 206



231
Index


reciprocity, reciprocity relations (cont.) selectivity (of solidarity), 192, 198, 207
pattern(s) of, 190 self, self-, 173
of personal value, 210 assertion (of the), 175, 186
positive (side of), 67, 138 assertive, 173, 186, 195, 197
principle (of), 7, 29, 36, 39, 41, 54, 66, control, 184
68, 69, 73, 85, 109, 116, 191, 195 interest-driven, 196
as a principle of exclusion, 141, 193 as mirror of other people™s beliefs,
reciprocal, 191, 196 173
recognition, 195“197 regulation, 184
role of power in, 111 restraint, 185
rule of, 138 social nature of the, 173
of service and counterservice, 67, 72 strengthening and reinforcement of
sociological pattern of, 68 the, 209
Regt, A. de, 161 self-interest, 9, 46, 48“49, 51, 103, 105,
Rein, M., 164 109, 112, 182, 190, 199, 201, 206, 207,
reputation, 47 209
respect. See (dis)respect rational, 115
risk society, 177 and rational choice (theory), 112, 199,
ritual(s), ritualism, 18, 38, 120“122, 193, 203
205“206 Seneca, 71
concerning the cycle of life and death, Sennett, R., 172“173, 210
88 Sensenbrenner, J., 135
functions for solidarity, 116 Shils, E., 184
meanings and functions of, 120 Simmel, G., 2, 8, 16“17, 33, 67“68, 74, 77,
religious, 21, 120 110“111, 112, 113, 119, 136, 141, 170,
slaughtering, 204 197“198
rivalry, 47 Smith, A., 56“61, 103, 173
Roberts, R., 151 social capital, 135, 192
Rojek, C., 5, 198 social currents, 181
Rossi, A. and P., 152“155 social distance, 195, 197“199, 206
social order, 101“102, 112“114, 119, 120,
sacri¬ce, 4, 11“12, 16“18, 19, 190, 201, 193
207 basis of, 189
abstract, anonymous, 204, 207 social relationships, communal and
of anonymous others™ lives, human associative, 105“106
lives, 204, 205 solidarity, 11, 46
concept, notion of, 33, 190, 203“205 abstract, anonymous, 170, 180, 187,
concrete, personal, 204 209
idea, ideals of, 204, 205 affectional, affectual, 151“152, 153
of individual autonomy and freedom, associational, 151“152, 153
individuality, 204, 205 changes in contemporary, 194
personal, 207 civil, 11, 180, 184“187, 188, 195, 197, 207,
religious, 205 209
Sahlins, M., 2, 25, 60“61, 110, 112, 118 collective expressions of, 181
Salomon, L. M., 140 collective state-based, 136
Schudson, M., 188 concrete, 198
Schwartz, B., 35, 43, 56, 70“71 consensual, 151“152, 153



232
Index


dimensions of, 195 systems of, 115
empirical manifestations of, 136“142 thick, 198“199
and exclusion, 135 thin, 198“199
external risks, 133“135 traditional, 180“181, 195
functional, 151“152, 153 transformation from organic to
global (and abstract), 188, 198 segmented, 212
inclusive power of, 134 two-edged sword, 125, 136“142
informal, 209 Spark, G., 160
inherent failures of, 142“143, 193 Spencer, H., 103
as an inherently positive concept, status, 23, 24, 28, 108, 109, 119, 193
133 Strathern, M., 8, 77, 92“93
internal risks, 133, 135 Straus, V., 185
international, 126, 194 substitution thesis, 163“165
intragroup, 200 Swaan, A. de, 112, 114“115
local (and global), 180, 181, 199
main types of, 107 tie signs, 16, 43
mechanical, 104“105, 116, 146, 150, 180, Titmuss, R. M., 20, 36, 84
187, 189, 194, 208, 212 T¨ nnies, F., 103“104, 105, 106, 133,
o
model, 151 150
modern, 107 tournaments of value, 31
negative (aspects, effects, Trivers, R., 203
manifestations, outcomes of), 124, trust. See (dis)trust
132“136, 192, 193, 195, 205 Tsvetajeva, M., 69“70
new forms of, 195 Turner, B., 5, 198
normative, 151“152
norms, values, and emotions as basis utilitarianism, 103
of, 112 British, 103
organic, 12, 104“105, 116, 121, 150, 180, utility, 9, 112
189, 208, 210, 211, 212 considerations, 24
political, 181
positive (effects, manifestations, violence, 185
outcomes of), 124, 195, 205 criminal, 185
principle of exclusion or selection, increase in, 185
125, 139, 143, 193 by youthful perpetrators, 185
rational choice approach of, 113 volunteer
reciprocity aspect of, 183 pro¬le of the, 129
revolutionary, 197 voluntary, volunteer work, 9, 142, 187,
risks involved in, 133 193
segmented, 12, 208“212
selective character, excluding nature Waal, F. de, 57, 68, 73, 198, 202, 203
of, 124, 132, 138, 140 Wacquant, L., 134
small-scale interpersonal, 207 Waldinger, R., 135, 142
social, 101 Walker, A., 155
and social class, 158 Weber, M., 2, 9, 102, 105“106, 112
and social distance, 123 Weiner, A., 3, 8, 61, 78“79, 80, 88“89, 90,
structural, 151“152 96
survival value of, 210 welfare regimes, 145



233
Index


welfare state(s), 145“146, 162, 163, 169, women, 76“97
210 autonomous share in gift exchange,
caring arrangements, 145 79
collective arrangements of, 199 availability as caregivers, 146
dissatisfaction with, 171“172 exchange of, 77, 109
modern Western, 176 generosity, 80, 85, 192
organized, formal solidarity of the, gift exchange (role in), 76, 77, 79
209 kinkeeping role, 151
provisions, 147 labor participation, 128
social policy for aged people, as objects of gift exchange, 77, 79
162 participation in volunteer work, 128
Wilson, G., 160, 162 as the supreme gift, 76
Wilson, J., 134 Wuthnow, R., 125
Wit, T. de, 5
Wolfe, A., 125, 179“180, 184 Zoll, R., 5




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