<< . 6( 7) >>

three commands pertain only to text pages, while the last command pertains only to ¬‚oat
pages. Specifying a ! in the ¬‚oat placement options causes LTEX to ignore the ¬rst three
A

parameters, but \floatpagefraction is always used. The value of these fractions are set
by \renewcommand. For example,
\renewcommand{\textfraction}{0.3}

The minimum fraction of a text page which must be occupied by
\textfraction
text. The default is 0.2, which prevents ¬‚oats from covering more
than 80% of a text page.
The maximum fraction of a text page which can be occupied by
\topfraction
¬‚oats at the top of the page. The default is 0.7, which prevents any
¬‚oat whose height is greater than 70% of \textheight from being
placed at the top of a page.
The maximum fraction of a text page which can be occupied by
\bottomfraction
¬‚oats at the bottom of the page. The default is 0.3, which prevents
any ¬‚oat whose height is greater than 40% of \textheight from
being placed at the bottom of a text page.
The minimum fraction of a ¬‚oat page that must be occupied by
\floatpagefraction
¬‚oats. Thus the fraction of blank space on a ¬‚oat page cannot be
more than 1-\floatpagefraction. The default is 0.5.

Using graphics in LTEX
A
XI.1.4.

This section shows how graphics can be handled in LTEX documents. While LTEX can
A A

import virtually any graphics format, Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is the easiest graphics
format to import into LTEX. The ˜eps™ ¬les are inserted into the ¬le using command
A

\includegraphics¬le.eps

The \includegraphics command

\includegraphics[options]{¬lename}

The following options are available in \includegraphics command:
The width of the graphics (in any of the accepted TEX units).
width
The height of the graphics (in any of the accepted TEX units).
height
The totalheight of the graphics (in any of the accepted TEX units).
totalheight
Scale factor for the graphic. Specifying scale = 2 makes the graphic twice
scale
as large as its natural size.
Speci¬es the angle of rotation, in degrees, with a counter-clockwise (anti-
angle
clockwise) rotation being positive.

Graphics search path
By default, LTEX looks for graphics ¬les in any directory on the TEX search path. In addi-
A

tion to these directories, LTEX also looks in any directories speci¬ed in the \graphicspath
A

command. For example,
\graphicspath{{dir1/}{dir2/}}
figure ENVIRONMENT 129
THE
XI.1.

\includegraphics[width=1in]{tex.png}

\includegraphics[height=1.5in]{tex.png}

\includegraphics[scale=.25,angle=45]{tex.png}

\includegraphics[scale=.25,angle=90]{tex.png}

tells LTEX to look for graphics ¬les also in dir1/ and dir2/. For Macintosh, this becomes
A

\graphicspath{{dir1:}{dir2:}}

Graphics extensions
The \DeclareGraphicsExtensions command tells LTEX which extensions to try if a ¬le
A

with no extension is speci¬ed in the \includegraphics command. For convenience, a
default set of extensions is pre-de¬ned depending on which graphics driver is selected.
For example if dvips is used, the following graphics extensions (de¬ned in dvips.def) are
used by default
\DeclareGraphicsExtensions{.eps,.ps,.eps.gz,.ps.gz,.eps.Z}

With the above graphics extensions speci¬ed, \includegraphics¬le ¬rst looks for file.eps,
then file.ps, then ¬le file.eps.gz, etc. until a ¬le is found. This allows the graphics to
be speci¬ed with
\includegraphics{¬le}

instead of
130 FLOATS
XI.

\includegraphics{¬le.eps}

Rotating and scaling objects
XI.1.5.

In addition to the \includegraphics command, the graphicx package includes four other
commands which rotate and scale any LTEX object: text, EPS graphic, etc.
A

\scalebox{2}{\includegraphics{file.eps}}
\resizebox{4in}{!}{\includegraphics{file.eps}}
\rotatebox{45}{\includegraphics{file.eps}}

produces the same three graphics as
\includegraphics[scale=2]{file.eps}
\includegraphics[width=4in]{file.eps}
\includegraphics[angle=45]{file.eps}

For example, the following are produced with
EX
T
LA

\rotatebox{45}{\fbox{\LARGE{\LaTeX}}}

EX
T
LA
\rotatebox{180}{\fbox{\LARGE{\LaTeX}}}

However, the \includegraphics is preferred because it is faster and produces more
ef¬cient PostScript.

table ENVIRONMENT
THE
XI.2.

With the box elements already explained in the previous chapter, it would be possible to
produce all sorts of framed and unframed tables. However, LTEXoffers the user far more
A

convenient ways to build such complicated structures.

Constructing tables
XI.2.1.

The environments tabular and tabular* are the basic tools with which tables can be
constructed. The syntax for these environments is:
\begin{tabular}[pos]{cols} rows \end{tabular}
\begin{tabular*}{width}[pos]{cols} rows \end{tabular*}

Both the above environments actually create a minipage. The meaning of the above
arguments is as follows:
Vertical positioning arguments (see also the explanation of this argument for
pos
parboxes). It can take on the values:
table ENVIRONMENT 131
THE
XI.2.

The top line of the table is aligned with the baseline of the current
t
external line of text.
The bottom line of the table is aligned with the external baseline.
b

With no positioning argument given, the table is centered on the external base-
line.
This argument applies only to the tabular* environment and determines its
width
overall width. In this case, the cols argument must contain the @-expression
(see below) @{\extracolsep{\fill}} somewhere after the ¬rst entry. For the
other two environments, the total width is ¬xed by the textual content.
The column formatting argument. There must be an entry for every column,
cols
as well as possible extra entries for the left and right borders of the table or for
the inter-column spacings. The possible column formatting symbols are:

The column contents are left justi¬ed.
l
The column contents are centered.
c
The column contents are right justi¬ed.
r
The text in this column is set into lines of width wd
{wd}
and the top line is aligned with the other columns.
In fact, the text is set in a parbox with the command
\parbox[t]{wd}{column text}.
The column format contained in cols is reproduced
*{num}{cols}
num times, so that *{3}{|c|}| is the same as |c|c|c|.

The available formatting symbols for right and left borders and for the inter-column
spacing are:

Draws a vertical line.
|
Draws two vertical lines next to each other.
This entry is referred to as an @-expression, and inserts
@{text}
text in every line of the table between the two columns
where it appears.

removes the inter-column spacing that is automatically put between
@-expression
each pair of columns. If white space is needed between the inserted text and the next col-
umn, this must be explicitly included with \hspace{ } within the text of the @-expression.
If the inter-column spacing between two particular columns is to be something other than
the standard, this may be easily achieved by placing @{\hspace{wd}} between the ap-
propriate columns in the formatting argument. This replaces the standard inter-column
spacing with the width wd.
An \extracolsep{wd} within an @-expression will put extra spacing of amount wd
between all the following columns, until countermanded by another \extracolsep com-
mand. In contrast to the standard spacing, this additional spacing is not removed by later
@-expression. In the \tabular* environment, there must be a command @{\extracolsep\fill}
somewhere in the column format so that all the subsequent inter-column spacings can
stretch out to ¬ll the prede¬ned table width.
If the left or right borders of the table do not consist of a vertical line, a spacing equal
to half the normal inter-column spacing is added there. If this spacing is not required, it
may be suppressed by including an empty @-expression @{} at the beginning or end of the
column format.
132 FLOATS
XI.

Contain the actual entries in the table, each horizontal row being terminated
rows
with \\. These rows consist of a sequence of column entries separated from
each other by the & symbol. Thus each row in the table contains the same
number of column entries as in the column de¬nition cols. Some entries may be
empty. The individual column entries are treated by LTEXas though they were
A

enclosed in braces { }, so that any change in type style or size are restricted to
that one column.
This command may only appear before the ¬rst row or immediately after a row
\hline
termination \\. It draws a horizontal line the full width of the table below the
row that was just ended, or at the top of the table if it comes at the beginning.
Two \hline commands together draw two horizontal lines with a little space
between them.
\cline{n ’ m}
This command draws a horizontal line from the left side of column n to the
right side of column m. Like \hline, it may only be given just after a row
termination \\, and there may be more than one after another. The command
\cline{1-3} \cline{5-7} draws two horizontal lines from column 1 to 3 and
from column 5 to 7, below the row that was just ended. In each case, the full
column widths are underlined.
This command draws a vertical line with the height of the row at the location
\vline
where it appears. In this way, vertical lines that do not extend the whole height
of the table may be inserted with a column.
\multicolumn{num}{col}{text}
This command combines the following num columns into a single column with
their total width including inter-column spacing. The argument col contains
exactly one of the positioning symbols l, r, c, with possible @-expressions and
vertical lines ". A value of 1 may be given for num when the positioning
argument is to be changed for that column in one particular row.
In this context, a ˜column™ starts with a positioning symbol l, r, or c and
includes everything upto but excluding the next one. The ¬rst column also
includes everything before the ¬rst positioning symbol. Thus c@{}rl" contains
three columns: the ¬rst is "c@{}, the second r, and the third r".

Table style parameters
XI.2.2.

There are a number of style parameters used in generating tables which LTEXsets to stan-
A

dard values. These may be altered by the user, either globally within the preamble or
locally inside an environment. They should not be changed within the tabular environ-
ment.

• \tabcolsep is half the width of the spacing that is inserted between columns in the
tabular and tabular* environments.

• \arrayrulewidth is the thickness of the vertical and horizontal lines within a table.

• \doublerulesep is the separation between the lines of a double rule.

• \arraystretch can be used to change the distance between the rows of a table.
This is a multiplying factor, with a standard value of 1. A value of 1.5 means that
the inter-row spacing is increased by 50%. A new value is set by rede¬ning the
parameter with the command:
table ENVIRONMENT 133
THE
XI.2.

\renewcommand{\arraystrech}{factor}

Following are the commands for changing the table style parameters that relate to
dimensions:

\setlength\tabcolsep{dimen}
\setlength\arrayrulewidth{dimen}
\setlength\doublerulesep{dimen}

Example
XI.2.3.

Creating tables is much easier in practice than it would seem from the above list of
formatting possibilities. This is best illustrated with an example.
The simplest table consists of rows and columns in which the text entries are either
centered or justi¬ed to one side. The column widths, the spacing between the columns,
and thus the entire width of the table are automatically calculated.

Sample Tabular
col head col head col head
Left centered right
aligned items aligned
items items items
Left items centered right aligned

See the code that generated the table above.
\begin{tabular{l|c|r|}
\hline
\multicolumn{3{|c|}{Sample Tabular}
\hline
col head & col head & col head
\hline
Left & centered & right \\\cline{1-2}
aligned & items & aligned \\\cline{2-3}
items & items & items \\\cline{1-2}
Left items & centered & right aligned
\hline
\end{tabular}

The discussion on tables doesn™t conclude with this chapter, instead more bells and
whistles are to be discussed, such as long tables (tables that span multiple pages), how to
repeat the column headings and special footlines in all multipaged tables, color tables and
also a few other embellishments, which the scienti¬c community at large might require
in their document preparation.

Exercise
XI.2.4.

Here is an exercise you can try.
134 FLOATS
XI.

Plan for TEX Users Group 2001“2003

Project No. Name

Year 2001 2002 2003
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\arabic{footnote}}

where the last line is necessary to restore the footnote marker style to its standard form.
Otherwise, all future footnotes would be marked with symbols and not with numbers.

Footnote style parameters
XIII.1.3.

The appearance of the standard footnote can be changed by customizing the parameters
listed below:

The font size used inside footnotes.
\footnotesize
4 This command will only work within \makeatletter and \makeatother.
—— The 7th symbol appears as the footnote marker.
147
MARGINAL
XIII.2. NOTES

The height of a strut placed at the beginning of every footnote. If it is
\footnotesep
greater than the \baselineskip used for \footnotesize, then additional
vertical space will be inserted above each footnote.
A low-level TEX command that de¬nes the space between the main text
\skip\footins
and the start of the footnotes. You can change its value with the \setlength
or \addtolength commands by putting \skip\footins into the ¬rst argu-
ment, e.g.,
\addtolength{\skip\footins}{3mm}

A macro to draw the rule separating footnotes from the main text. It is
\footnoterule
executed right after the vertical space of \skip\footins. It should take
zero vertical space, i.e., it should use a negative skip to compensate for
any positive space it occupies, for example:
\renewcommand{\footnoterule{\vspace*{-3pt}%
\rule{.4\columnwidth}{0.4pt}\vspace*{2.6pt}

You can also construct a fancier “rule” e.g., one consisting of a series of dots:
\renewcommand{\footnoterule}{\vspace*{-3pt}%
\qquad\dotfill\qquad\vspace*{2.6pt}}

MARGINAL
XIII.2. NOTES

\marginpar{left-text}{right-text}
The \marginpar command generates a marginal note. This command typesets the text
given as an argument in the margin, the ¬rst line at the same height as the line in the
main text where the \marginpar command occurs. The marginal note appearing here This
is a
was generated with margi-
nal
... command occurs\marginpar{This is a marginal note}. The ... note

When only the mandatory argument right-text is speci¬ed, then the text goes to the right
margin for one-sided printing; to the outside margin for two-sided printing; and to the
nearest margin for two-column formatting. When you specify an optional argument, it
is used for the left margin, while the second (mandatory) argument is used for the right.
There are a few important things to understand when using marginal notes. First,
\marginpar command does not start a paragraph, that is, if it is used before the ¬rst
word of a paragraph, the vertical alignment may not match the beginning of the para-
graph. Secondly, if the margin is narrow, and the words are long (as in German), you
may have to precede the ¬rst word by a \hspace{0pt} command to allow hyphenation
of the ¬rst word. These two potential problems can be eased by de¬ning a command
\marginlabel{text}, which starts with an empty box \mbox{}, typesets a marginal note
ragged left, and adds a \hspace{0pt} in front of the argument.
\newcommand{\marginlabel}[1]
{\mbox{}\marginpar{\raggedleft\hspace{0pt}#1}}

By default, in one-sided printing the marginal notes go on the outside margin. These
defaults can be changed by the following declarations:
Marginal notes go into the opposite margin with respect to the de-
\reversemarginpar
fault one.
Marginal notes go into the default margin.
\normalmarginpar
148 FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, ENDNOTES
XIII. AND

Uses of marginal notes
XIII.2.1.

can be used to draw attention to certain text passages by marking them
\marginpar{}
with a vertical bar in the margin. The example marking this paragraph was made by
including
\marginpar{\rule[-10.5mm]{1mm}{10mm}}

in the ¬rst line. By de¬ning a macro \query as shown below
\def\query#1#2{\underline{#1}\marginpar{#2}}

we can produce queries. For example LTEX. This query is produced with the following
A
Hey!
Look
command.
For example \query{\LaTeX}{Hey!\\ Look}{}. This ...

Style parameters for marginal notes
XIII.2.2.

The following style parameters may be changed to rede¬ne how marginal notes appear:
Determines the width of the margin box.
\marginparwidth
Sets the separation between the margin box and the edge of the main
\marginparsep
text.
Is the smallest vertical distance between two marginal notes.
\marginparpush

These parameters are all lengths and are assigned new values as usual with the
\setlength command.

ENDNOTES
XIII.3.

Scholarly works usually group notes at the end of each chapter or at the end of the
document. These are called endnotes. Endnotes are not supported in standard LTEX, but
A

they can be created in several ways.
The package endnotes (by John Lavagnino) typesets endnotes in a way similar to
footnotes. It uses an extra external ¬le, with extension .ent, to hold the text of the
endnotes. This ¬le can be deleted after the run since a new version is generated each
time.
With this package you can output your footnotes as endnotes by simply giving the
command:
\renewcommand{\footnote}{\endnote}

The user interface for endnotes is very similar to the one for footnotes after sub-
stituting the word “foot” for “end”. The following example shows the principle of the
use of endnotes, where you save text in memory with the \endnote command, and then
typeset all accumulated text material at a point in the document controlled by the user.

This is simple text.1 This is simple This is simple text.\endnote{The first
text.2 This is simple text.3 endnote.} This is simple text.\endnote{%
The second endnote.} This is simple
Notes
text.\endnote{The third endnote.}
1 The ¬rst endnote.
2 The second endnote.
3 The third endnote. \theendnotes\bigskip
This is some more simple text
This is some more simple text
GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE

Version 1.2, November 2002

Copyright c 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple
Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.

0 PREAMBLE

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149
150 FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, ENDNOTES
XIII. AND

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Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without
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A

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A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either
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151
ENDNOTES
XIII.3.

remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this de¬nition.

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152 FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, ENDNOTES
XIII. AND

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(K) For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Ti-
tle of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of
the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
(L) Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and
in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the
section titles.
(M) Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included
in the Modi¬ed Version.
(N) Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to con¬‚ict in
title with any Invariant Section.
153
ENDNOTES
XIII.3.

(O) Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modi¬ed Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify
as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may
at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add
their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modi¬ed Version™s license notice.
These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but en-
dorsements of your Modi¬ed Version by various parties”for example, statements of
peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
de¬nition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to ¬ve words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up
to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modi¬ed
Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement
made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but
you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that
added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission
to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modi¬ed
Version.

(5) COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License,
under the terms de¬ned in section 4 above for modi¬ed versions, provided that you
include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original docu-
ments, unmodi¬ed, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in
its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical
Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant
Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such sec-
tion unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author
or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same ad-
justment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of
the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various
original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any
sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You
must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”

(6) COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various
154 FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, ENDNOTES
XIII. AND

documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you
follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individu-
ally under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted
document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
that document.

(7) AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called
an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit
the legal rights of the compilation™s users beyond what the individual works permit.
When the Document is included an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other
works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Doc-
ument, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Docu-
ment™s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the
aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

(8) TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modi¬cation, so you may distribute translations of
the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with trans-
lations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of
these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the
license notices in the Document, and any Warrany Disclaimers, provided that you
also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of
those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and
the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or
“History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically
require changing the actual title.
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