. 6
( 7)


three commands pertain only to text pages, while the last command pertains only to ¬‚oat
pages. Specifying a ! in the ¬‚oat placement options causes LTEX to ignore the ¬rst three

parameters, but \floatpagefraction is always used. The value of these fractions are set
by \renewcommand. For example,

The minimum fraction of a text page which must be occupied by
text. The default is 0.2, which prevents ¬‚oats from covering more
than 80% of a text page.
The maximum fraction of a text page which can be occupied by
¬‚oats at the top of the page. The default is 0.7, which prevents any
¬‚oat whose height is greater than 70% of \textheight from being
placed at the top of a page.
The maximum fraction of a text page which can be occupied by
¬‚oats at the bottom of the page. The default is 0.3, which prevents
any ¬‚oat whose height is greater than 40% of \textheight from
being placed at the bottom of a text page.
The minimum fraction of a ¬‚oat page that must be occupied by
¬‚oats. Thus the fraction of blank space on a ¬‚oat page cannot be
more than 1-\floatpagefraction. The default is 0.5.

Using graphics in LTEX

This section shows how graphics can be handled in LTEX documents. While LTEX can

import virtually any graphics format, Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is the easiest graphics
format to import into LTEX. The ˜eps™ ¬les are inserted into the ¬le using command


The \includegraphics command


The following options are available in \includegraphics command:
The width of the graphics (in any of the accepted TEX units).
The height of the graphics (in any of the accepted TEX units).
The totalheight of the graphics (in any of the accepted TEX units).
Scale factor for the graphic. Specifying scale = 2 makes the graphic twice
as large as its natural size.
Speci¬es the angle of rotation, in degrees, with a counter-clockwise (anti-
clockwise) rotation being positive.

Graphics search path
By default, LTEX looks for graphics ¬les in any directory on the TEX search path. In addi-

tion to these directories, LTEX also looks in any directories speci¬ed in the \graphicspath

command. For example,
figure ENVIRONMENT 129





tells LTEX to look for graphics ¬les also in dir1/ and dir2/. For Macintosh, this becomes


Graphics extensions
The \DeclareGraphicsExtensions command tells LTEX which extensions to try if a ¬le

with no extension is speci¬ed in the \includegraphics command. For convenience, a
default set of extensions is pre-de¬ned depending on which graphics driver is selected.
For example if dvips is used, the following graphics extensions (de¬ned in dvips.def) are
used by default

With the above graphics extensions speci¬ed, \includegraphics¬le ¬rst looks for file.eps,
then file.ps, then ¬le file.eps.gz, etc. until a ¬le is found. This allows the graphics to
be speci¬ed with

instead of


Rotating and scaling objects

In addition to the \includegraphics command, the graphicx package includes four other
commands which rotate and scale any LTEX object: text, EPS graphic, etc.


produces the same three graphics as

For example, the following are produced with



However, the \includegraphics is preferred because it is faster and produces more
ef¬cient PostScript.


With the box elements already explained in the previous chapter, it would be possible to
produce all sorts of framed and unframed tables. However, LTEXoffers the user far more

convenient ways to build such complicated structures.

Constructing tables

The environments tabular and tabular* are the basic tools with which tables can be
constructed. The syntax for these environments is:
\begin{tabular}[pos]{cols} rows \end{tabular}
\begin{tabular*}{width}[pos]{cols} rows \end{tabular*}

Both the above environments actually create a minipage. The meaning of the above
arguments is as follows:
Vertical positioning arguments (see also the explanation of this argument for
parboxes). It can take on the values:

The top line of the table is aligned with the baseline of the current
external line of text.
The bottom line of the table is aligned with the external baseline.

With no positioning argument given, the table is centered on the external base-
This argument applies only to the tabular* environment and determines its
overall width. In this case, the cols argument must contain the @-expression
(see below) @{\extracolsep{\fill}} somewhere after the ¬rst entry. For the
other two environments, the total width is ¬xed by the textual content.
The column formatting argument. There must be an entry for every column,
as well as possible extra entries for the left and right borders of the table or for
the inter-column spacings. The possible column formatting symbols are:

The column contents are left justi¬ed.
The column contents are centered.
The column contents are right justi¬ed.
The text in this column is set into lines of width wd
and the top line is aligned with the other columns.
In fact, the text is set in a parbox with the command
\parbox[t]{wd}{column text}.
The column format contained in cols is reproduced
num times, so that *{3}{|c|}| is the same as |c|c|c|.

The available formatting symbols for right and left borders and for the inter-column
spacing are:

Draws a vertical line.
Draws two vertical lines next to each other.
This entry is referred to as an @-expression, and inserts
text in every line of the table between the two columns
where it appears.

removes the inter-column spacing that is automatically put between
each pair of columns. If white space is needed between the inserted text and the next col-
umn, this must be explicitly included with \hspace{ } within the text of the @-expression.
If the inter-column spacing between two particular columns is to be something other than
the standard, this may be easily achieved by placing @{\hspace{wd}} between the ap-
propriate columns in the formatting argument. This replaces the standard inter-column
spacing with the width wd.
An \extracolsep{wd} within an @-expression will put extra spacing of amount wd
between all the following columns, until countermanded by another \extracolsep com-
mand. In contrast to the standard spacing, this additional spacing is not removed by later
@-expression. In the \tabular* environment, there must be a command @{\extracolsep\fill}
somewhere in the column format so that all the subsequent inter-column spacings can
stretch out to ¬ll the prede¬ned table width.
If the left or right borders of the table do not consist of a vertical line, a spacing equal
to half the normal inter-column spacing is added there. If this spacing is not required, it
may be suppressed by including an empty @-expression @{} at the beginning or end of the
column format.

Contain the actual entries in the table, each horizontal row being terminated
with \\. These rows consist of a sequence of column entries separated from
each other by the & symbol. Thus each row in the table contains the same
number of column entries as in the column de¬nition cols. Some entries may be
empty. The individual column entries are treated by LTEXas though they were

enclosed in braces { }, so that any change in type style or size are restricted to
that one column.
This command may only appear before the ¬rst row or immediately after a row
termination \\. It draws a horizontal line the full width of the table below the
row that was just ended, or at the top of the table if it comes at the beginning.
Two \hline commands together draw two horizontal lines with a little space
between them.
\cline{n ’ m}
This command draws a horizontal line from the left side of column n to the
right side of column m. Like \hline, it may only be given just after a row
termination \\, and there may be more than one after another. The command
\cline{1-3} \cline{5-7} draws two horizontal lines from column 1 to 3 and
from column 5 to 7, below the row that was just ended. In each case, the full
column widths are underlined.
This command draws a vertical line with the height of the row at the location
where it appears. In this way, vertical lines that do not extend the whole height
of the table may be inserted with a column.
This command combines the following num columns into a single column with
their total width including inter-column spacing. The argument col contains
exactly one of the positioning symbols l, r, c, with possible @-expressions and
vertical lines ". A value of 1 may be given for num when the positioning
argument is to be changed for that column in one particular row.
In this context, a ˜column™ starts with a positioning symbol l, r, or c and
includes everything upto but excluding the next one. The ¬rst column also
includes everything before the ¬rst positioning symbol. Thus c@{}rl" contains
three columns: the ¬rst is "c@{}, the second r, and the third r".

Table style parameters

There are a number of style parameters used in generating tables which LTEXsets to stan-

dard values. These may be altered by the user, either globally within the preamble or
locally inside an environment. They should not be changed within the tabular environ-

• \tabcolsep is half the width of the spacing that is inserted between columns in the
tabular and tabular* environments.

• \arrayrulewidth is the thickness of the vertical and horizontal lines within a table.

• \doublerulesep is the separation between the lines of a double rule.

• \arraystretch can be used to change the distance between the rows of a table.
This is a multiplying factor, with a standard value of 1. A value of 1.5 means that
the inter-row spacing is increased by 50%. A new value is set by rede¬ning the
parameter with the command:


Following are the commands for changing the table style parameters that relate to



Creating tables is much easier in practice than it would seem from the above list of
formatting possibilities. This is best illustrated with an example.
The simplest table consists of rows and columns in which the text entries are either
centered or justi¬ed to one side. The column widths, the spacing between the columns,
and thus the entire width of the table are automatically calculated.

Sample Tabular
col head col head col head
Left centered right
aligned items aligned
items items items
Left items centered right aligned

See the code that generated the table above.
\multicolumn{3{|c|}{Sample Tabular}
col head & col head & col head
Left & centered & right \\\cline{1-2}
aligned & items & aligned \\\cline{2-3}
items & items & items \\\cline{1-2}
Left items & centered & right aligned

The discussion on tables doesn™t conclude with this chapter, instead more bells and
whistles are to be discussed, such as long tables (tables that span multiple pages), how to
repeat the column headings and special footlines in all multipaged tables, color tables and
also a few other embellishments, which the scienti¬c community at large might require
in their document preparation.


Here is an exercise you can try.

Plan for TEX Users Group 2001“2003

Project No. Name

Year 2001 2002 2003
Rs. US$ Rs. US$ Rs. US$
Internet costs
Journal costs
TEXLive production costs

Signature Authorization



Cross reference is the technical term for quoting yourself. This is what you do when you
say something like, “As I said earlier,. . .”. More seriously, in a written article you may
often have occasion to refer the reader to something mentioned earlier (or sometimes to
something yet to be said) in the same document. Thus you may have explained a new
term in the second section of your article and when you use this term again in the fourth
section, it is a matter of courtesy to the reader to point to the explanation. Again, in
a mathematics article, you may have to cite an earlier result in the proof of the current
Such cross referencing can be done by hand, but if you revise your document and
insert some new sections (or theorems) then changing all cross references manually is no
easy task. It is always better to automate such tedious tasks. (After all what™s a computer
for, if not to do such mundane jobs?)


The basic method of using cross references (see Section XII.1 for what we mean by cross
reference) in LTEX is quite simple. Suppose that somewhere in the second section of your

article, you want to refer to the ¬rst section. You assign a key to the ¬rst section using
the command
\section{section name}\label{key}

and at the point in the second section where the reference is to be made, you type the

Thus the reference “see Section XII.1. . . ” in the ¬rst sentence of this section was
produced by including the command \label{intro} in the command for the ¬rst section
\section{Why cross references}\label{intro}

and the command \ref{intro} at the place of reference in the second section as
. . . (see Section \ref{intro} for. . .

Okay, the example is a bit silly, since the actual reference here is not really necessary, but
you get the general idea, don™t you? Incidentally, the \label{key} for a section need not
be given immediately after the \section{section name}. It can be given anywhere within
the section.


The ¬rst time you run LTEX on a ¬le named, say, myfile.tex containing cross refer-

ences, the reference information is written in an auxiliary ¬le named myfile.aux and at
the end of the run LTEX prints a warning

LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references.

LaTeX Warning: Label(s) may have changed.
Rerun to get cross-references right.

A second run gets the references right. The same thing happens when you™ve changed
the reference information in any way, say, by adding a new section.
Though the key in \label{key} can be any sequence of letters, digits or punctuation
characters, it is convenient to use some mnemonic (such as \label{limcon} for a section
entitled “Limits and Continuity” rather than \label{sec@#*?!}. Also, when you make a
reference, it™s better to type ˜\ref{limcon} (notice the tie?) than \ref{limcon} to prevent
the possibility of the reference number falling off the edge as in “ . . . see Section XII.1 for
further details.. . . ”.
In addition to sectioning commands such as \chapter or \section, reference can
also be made to an \item entry in an enumerate environment, by attaching a \label. For
example the input
In the classical \emph{syllogism}
\item All men are mortal.\label{pre1}
\item Socrates is a man.\label{pre2}
\item So Socrates is a mortal.\label{con}
Statements (\ref{pre1}) and (\ref{pre2}) are the \emph{premises} and
statement (\ref{con}) is the conclusion.

gives the following output

In the classical syllogism
(1) All men are mortal.
(2) Socrates is a man.
(3) So Socrates is a mortal.
Statements (1) and (2) are the premises and statement (3) is the conclusion

You must be a bit careful about references to tables or ¬gures (technically, “¬‚oats”).
For them, the \label command should be given after the \caption command or in its
argument, as in the example below:
Value of $x$ & 1 & 2 & 3\\
Value of $y$ & 1 & 8 & 27\\
\caption{Observed values of $x$ and $y$}\label{tabxy}
A 137

Two possible relations betweeen $x$ and $y$ satisfying
the data in Table\ref{tabxy} are $y=xˆ3$ and

This produces the following output:

Value of x 1 2 3
Value of y 1 8 27

Table XII.1: Observed values of x and y

Two possible relations between x and y satisfying the data in Table XII.1
are y = x3 and y = 6x2 ’ 11x + 6

You can think of a \caption command within a figure or table environment as a
sort of sectioning command within the environment. Thus you can have several \caption
and \label pairs within a single figure or table environment.
You can also make forward references in exactly the same way by \ref-ing to the
key of some succeeding \label such as “see Subsection XII.2.1 for a discussion of cross
references in mathematics.”

Cross references in math

Mathematical documents abound in cross references. There are references to theorems
and equations and ¬gures and whatnot. The method of reference is exactly as before.
Thus if you™ve de¬ned \newtheorem{theorem}[subsection], then after typing

Every differentiable function is continuous

you get

Theorem. Every differentiable function is continuous

and you can type elsewhere in the document
The converse of Theorem˜\ref{diffcon} is false.

to get

The converse of Theorem is false.

References can be made to equations as in the following examples:
Changing $y$ to $-y$ in Equation˜(\ref{sumsq}) gives the following

(x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2

Changing y to ’y in Equation (XII.1) gives the following

If you load the package amsmath, you can use the command \eqref instead of \ref
to make a reference to an equation. This automatically supplies the parantheses around
the equation number and provides an italic correction before the closing parenthesis, if
necessary. For example,
Equation \eqref{sumsq} gives the following ..........


Equation gives the following ..........

References can be made to individual equations in multiline displays of equations
produced by such environments as align or gather (de¬ned in the amsmath package).
The \label command can be used within such a structure for subnumbering as in the
example below:

(x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2
(x ’ y)2 = x2 ’ 2xy + y2


In making a reference to a table or an equation, it is more to convenient (for the reader,
that is) to give the page number of the reference also. The command

typesets the number of the page where the command \label{key} was given. Thus for
see Table˜\ref{tabxy} in page˜\pageref{tabxy}

in this document produces

see Table in page 137

To avoid the tedium of repeated by typing
\ref{key} on page \pageref{key}

you can de¬ne the macro

\newcommand{\fullref}[1]{\ref{#1} on page˜\pageref{#1}}

and use \fullref for such references. But the trouble is that at times the referred object
and the reference to it fall on the same page (with TEX you never know this till the end)
so that you get a reference to the page number of the very page you are reading, which
looks funny. This can be avoided by using the package varioref. If you load this package
by including \usepackage{varioref} in your preamble, then you can use the command

to refer to an object you™ve marked with \label{key} elsewhere in the document. The ac-
tion of \vref varies according to the page(s) where the referred object and the references
are typeset by TEX in the ¬nal output.

(1) If the object and the reference are on the same page, \vref produces only a \ref sup-
pressing \pageref so that only the number pointing to the object is typeset, without
any reference to the page number.
(2) If the object and the reference are on different pages whose numbers differ by more
than one, \vref produces both \ref and \pageref.
(3) If the object and the reference fall on pages whose numbers differ by one (that is,
on successive pages), \vref produces \ref followed by the phrase “on the preceding
page” or “on the following page” depending on whether the object or the reference
occurs ¬rst. Moreover, in the next occurrence of \vref in a situation of the same type,
the phrases are changed to “on the next page” and the “page before” respectively.
This is the default behavior of \vref in the article documentclass. If the article class is
used with the twoside option or if the documentclass book is used, then the behavior in
Case (3) above is a bit different.

(1) If the object and the reference fall on the two sides of the same leaf, the behavior of
\vref is as in (3) above.
(2) If the object and the reference fall on pages forming a double spread (that is, a page
of even number followed by the next page), then \vref produces \ref followed by the
phrase “on the facing page”. Moreover, in the next occurence of \vref in a situation
of the same type, the phrases are changed to “on the preceding page” and “on the
next page” respectively.
The phrases used in the various cases considered above can be customized by rede¬ning
the commands used in generating them. For the article class without the twoside option,
reference to the previous page uses the command \reftextbefore and reference to the
next page uses \reftextafter. In the case of the article class with the twoside option or
the book class, the commands \reftextfaceafter and \reftextfacebefore are used in the
case of reference to a page in a double spread. The default de¬nitions of these commands
are given below. In all these, the two arguments of the command \reftextvario are
phrases alternatively used in the repeated use of the reference as mentioned above.
{on the \reftextvario{preceding page}{page before}}
{on the \reftextvario{following}{next} page}
{on the \reftextvario{facing}{preceding} page}
{on the \reftextvario{facing}{next}{page}}

You can customize the phrases generated in various situations by rede¬ning these
with phrases of your choice in the arguments of \reftextvario.
If you want to refer only to a page number using \varioref, you can use the com-

to produce the page number of the object marked with \label{key}. The phrases
used in the various special cases are the same as described above, except that when
the referred object and the reference fall on the same page, either the phrase “on this
page” or “on the current page” is produced. The command used to generate these is
\reftextcurrent whose default de¬nition is
{on \reftextvario{this}{the current} page}
You can change the phrases “this” and “the current” globally by rede¬ning this com-
mand. You can also make some local changes by using the two optional arguments that
\vpageref allows. Thus you can use the command
\vpageref[same page phrase][other page phrase]{key}

to refer to the page number of the object marked with \label{key}. The same page
phrase will be used if the object and the reference fall on the same page and the phrase
other page phrase will be used, if they fall on different pages. Thus for example, the
see the \vpageref[above table][table]{tabxy}
given in this document will produce

see the above table

if the reference occurs on the same page as Table XII.1 and

see the table on page 137

if they fall on different pages.


Sometimes you may want to refer to something in a document other than the one you
are working on. (This happens, for instance if you keep an article as separate ¬les.) The
package xr allows such external references.
If you want to refer to objects in a ¬le named other.tex in your current document,
load the package xr and set the external document as other.tex using the commands
\usepackage{xr} \externaldocument{other}

in the preamble of the current document. Then you can use the \ref and \pageref to
refer to anything that has been marked with the \label command in either the current
document or other.tex. Any number of such external documents can be speci¬ed.
If the same key is used to mark different objects in two such documents, there™ll be a
con¬‚ict. To get over this, you can use the optional argument available in \externaldocument
command. If you say

then a reference to \label{key} in other.tex could be made by \ref{a-key}. The pre¬x
need not be a-; it can be any convenient string.
lablst.tex 141


One of the conveniences of using keys for cross references is that you need not keep track
of the actual numbers, but then you™ll have to remember the keys. You can produce the
list of keys used in a document by running LTEX on the ¬le lablst.tex. In our system,

we do this by ¬rst typing
latex lablst

LTEX responds as follows:

* Enter input file name
* without the .tex extension:


We type in the ¬le name as cref which is the source of this document and is presented
with another query.
* Enter document class used in file cref.tex
* with no options or extension:


So we type article. And is asked
* Enter packages used in file cref.tex
* with no options or extensions:


Here only those packages used in the article which de¬ne commands used in section
titles etc. need be given. So we type

This produces a ¬le lablst.dvi which can be viewed to see a list of keys used in the
Finally if your text editor is GNU Emacs, then you can use its RefTeX package to auto-
mate generation, insertion and location of keys at the editing stage.


LTEX has facilities to typeset “inserted” text, such as footnotes, marginal notes, ¬gures

and tables. This chapter looks more closely at different kinds of notes.


Footnotes are generated with the command
\footnote{footnote text}

which comes immediately after the word requiring an explanation in a footnote. The
text footnote text appears as a footnote in a smaller typeface at the bottom of the page.
The ¬rst line of the footnote is indented and is given the same footnote marker as that
inserted in the main text. The ¬rst footnote on a page is separated from the rest of the
page text by means of a short horizontal line.
The standard footnote marker is a small, raised number1 , which is sequentially num-
Footnotes produced with the \footnote command inside a minipage environment
use the mpfootnote counter and are typeset at the bottom of the parbox produced by the
minipage2 .
However, if you use the \footnotemark command in a minipage it will produce a
footnote mark in the same style and sequence as the main text footnotes”i.e., stepping
the mpfootnote counter and using the \thefootnote command for the representation.
This behavior allows you to produce a footnote inside your minipage that is typeset in se-
quence with the main text footnotes at the bottom of the page: you place a \footnotemark
inside the minipage and the corresponding \footnotetext after it. See below:
Footnotes in a minipage are numbered
Footnotes in a minipage are num- using lowercase letters.\footnote{%
bered using lowercase letters.a Inside minipage} \par This text
This text references a footnote at references a footnote at the bottom
the bottom of the page.3 of the page.\footnotemark
a Inside minipage
\footnotetext{At bottom of page}

The footnote numbering is incremented throughout the document for the article
class, where it is reset to 1 for each new chapter in the report and book classes.
1 See how the footnote is produced: “ ... raised number \footnote{See how the footnote is produced:
2 With nested minipages, the footnote comes after the next \endminipage command, which could be at the

wrong place.
3 At bottom of page.


Footnotes in tabular material

Footnotes appearing inside tabular material are not typeset by standard LTEX. Only

tabularx and longtable environments will treat footnotes correctly. But footnotes used
in these tables won™t appear just following the tables, but would appear at the bottom
of the page just like the footnotes used in the text. But in longtable you can place the
footnotes as table notes by placing the longtable in a minipage. See below:

Table XIII.1: PostScript type 1 fonts

Couriera cour, courb, courbi, couri
Nimbusb unmr, unmrs
URW Antiquab uaqrrc
URW Groteskb ugqp
Utopiac putb, putbi, putr, putri
a Donated by IBM.
b Donated by URW GmbH.
c Donated by Adobe.

\caption{PostScript type 1 fonts}\\
Courier\footnote{Donated by IBM.} & cour,courb,courbi,couri \\
Nimbus\footnote{Donated by URW GmbH.} & unmr, unmrs \\
URW Antiqua\footnotemark[\value{mpfootnote}] & uaqrrc\\
URW Grotesk\footnotemark[\value{mpfootnote}] & ugqp\\
Utopia\footnote{Donated by Adobe.} & putb, putbi, putr, putri

You can also put your tabular or array environment inside a minipage environ-
ment, since in that case footnotes are typeset just following that environment. Note the
rede¬nition of \thefootnote that allows us to make use of the \footnotemark command
inside the minipage environment. Without this rede¬nition \footnotemark would have
generated a footnote mark in the style of the footnotes for the main page.
\multicolumn{2}{c}{\bfseries PostScript type 1 fonts} \\
Courier\footnote{Donated by IBM.} & cour,courb,courbi,couri \\
Charter\footnote{Donated by Bitstream.} & bchb,bchbi,bchr,bchri\\
Nimbus\footnote{Donated by URW GmbH.} & unmr, unmrs \\
URW Antiqua\footnotemark[\value{mpfootnote}] & uaqrrc\\
URW Grotesk\footnotemark[\value{mpfootnote}] & ugqp\\
Utopia\footnote{Donated by Adobe.} & putb, putbi, putr, putri

PostScript type 1 fonts
Couriera cour, courb, courbi, couri
Charter bchb, bchbi, bchr, bchri
Nimbusc unmr, unmrs
URW Antiqua uaqrrc
URW Groteskc ugqp
Utopiad putb, putbi, putr, putri
a Donated by IBM.
b Donated by Bitstream.
c Donated by URW GmbH.
d Donated by Adobe.

Of course this approach does not automatically limit the width of the footnotes to
the width of the table, so a little iteration with the minipage width argument might be
Another way to typeset table notes is with the package threeparttable by Donald
Arseneau. This package has the advantage that it indicates unambiguously that you are
dealing with notes inside tables and, moreover, it gives you full control of the actual refer-
ence marks and offers the possibility of having a caption for our tabular material. In this
sense, the threeparttable environment is similar to the non¬‚oating table environment.
\caption{\textbf{PostScript type 1 fonts}}
Courier\tnote{a} & cour, courb, courbi, couri\\
Charter\tnote{b} & bchb, bchbi, bchr, bchri \\
Nimbus\tnote{c} & unmr, unmrs \\
URW Antiqua\tnote{c} & uaqrrc\\
URW Grotesk\tnote{c} & ugqp\\
Utopia\tnote{d} & putb, putbi, putr, putri
\item[a] Donated by IBM.
\item[b] Donated by Bitstream.
\item[c] Donated by URW GmbH.
\item[d] Donated by Adobe.

Table 14.2: PostScript type 1 fonts
Couriera cour, courb, courbi, couri
Charterb bchb, bchbi, bchr, bchri
Nimbusc unmr, unmrs
URW Antiquac uaqrrc
URW Groteskc ugqp
Utopiad putb, putbi, putr, putri
a Donated by IBM.
b Donated by Bitstream.
c Donated by URW GmbH.
d Donated by Adobe.

Customizing footnotes

If the user wishes the footnote numbering to be reset to 1 for each \section command
with the article class, this may be achieved by putting

before every section or using the following command at preamble4

The internal footnote counter has the name footnote. Each call to \footnote increments
this counter by one and prints the new value in Arabic numbering as the footnote marker.
A different style of marker can be implemented with the command
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{number style}{footnote}

where number style is one of the counter print commands; \arabic, \roman, \Roman,
\alph, or \Alph. However, for the counter footnote, there is an additional counter print
command available, \fnsymbol, which prints the counter values 1“9 as one of nine sym-
† ‡ § ¶ †† ‡‡
It is up to the user to see that the footnote counter is reset to zero sometime before
the tenth \footnote call is made. If the user wants to add values above nine, then he
has to edit the de¬nition of \fnsymbol. See an example, which allows up to 12 footnotes
without resetting the counter:
\def\@fnsymbol#1{\ensuremath{\ifcase#1\or *\or \dagger\or \ddagger\or
\mathsection\or \mathparagraph\or \|\or **\or \dagger\dagger
\or \ddagger\ddagger\or \mathsection\mathsection
\or \mathparagraph\mathparagraph \or \|\|\else\@ctrerr\fi}}

An optional argument may be added to the \footnote command:
\footnote[num]{footnote text}

where num is a positive integer that is used instead of the value of the footnote counter
for the marker. In this case, the footnote counter is not incremented. For example—— ,
For example\footnote[7]{The 7$ˆ{\rm th}$ symbol .... marker.},

where the last line is necessary to restore the footnote marker style to its standard form.
Otherwise, all future footnotes would be marked with symbols and not with numbers.

Footnote style parameters

The appearance of the standard footnote can be changed by customizing the parameters
listed below:

The font size used inside footnotes.
4 This command will only work within \makeatletter and \makeatother.
—— The 7th symbol appears as the footnote marker.

The height of a strut placed at the beginning of every footnote. If it is
greater than the \baselineskip used for \footnotesize, then additional
vertical space will be inserted above each footnote.
A low-level TEX command that de¬nes the space between the main text
and the start of the footnotes. You can change its value with the \setlength
or \addtolength commands by putting \skip\footins into the ¬rst argu-
ment, e.g.,

A macro to draw the rule separating footnotes from the main text. It is
executed right after the vertical space of \skip\footins. It should take
zero vertical space, i.e., it should use a negative skip to compensate for
any positive space it occupies, for example:

You can also construct a fancier “rule” e.g., one consisting of a series of dots:


The \marginpar command generates a marginal note. This command typesets the text
given as an argument in the margin, the ¬rst line at the same height as the line in the
main text where the \marginpar command occurs. The marginal note appearing here This
is a
was generated with margi-
... command occurs\marginpar{This is a marginal note}. The ... note

When only the mandatory argument right-text is speci¬ed, then the text goes to the right
margin for one-sided printing; to the outside margin for two-sided printing; and to the
nearest margin for two-column formatting. When you specify an optional argument, it
is used for the left margin, while the second (mandatory) argument is used for the right.
There are a few important things to understand when using marginal notes. First,
\marginpar command does not start a paragraph, that is, if it is used before the ¬rst
word of a paragraph, the vertical alignment may not match the beginning of the para-
graph. Secondly, if the margin is narrow, and the words are long (as in German), you
may have to precede the ¬rst word by a \hspace{0pt} command to allow hyphenation
of the ¬rst word. These two potential problems can be eased by de¬ning a command
\marginlabel{text}, which starts with an empty box \mbox{}, typesets a marginal note
ragged left, and adds a \hspace{0pt} in front of the argument.

By default, in one-sided printing the marginal notes go on the outside margin. These
defaults can be changed by the following declarations:
Marginal notes go into the opposite margin with respect to the de-
fault one.
Marginal notes go into the default margin.

Uses of marginal notes

can be used to draw attention to certain text passages by marking them
with a vertical bar in the margin. The example marking this paragraph was made by

in the ¬rst line. By de¬ning a macro \query as shown below

we can produce queries. For example LTEX. This query is produced with the following
For example \query{\LaTeX}{Hey!\\ Look}{}. This ...

Style parameters for marginal notes

The following style parameters may be changed to rede¬ne how marginal notes appear:
Determines the width of the margin box.
Sets the separation between the margin box and the edge of the main
Is the smallest vertical distance between two marginal notes.

These parameters are all lengths and are assigned new values as usual with the
\setlength command.


Scholarly works usually group notes at the end of each chapter or at the end of the
document. These are called endnotes. Endnotes are not supported in standard LTEX, but

they can be created in several ways.
The package endnotes (by John Lavagnino) typesets endnotes in a way similar to
footnotes. It uses an extra external ¬le, with extension .ent, to hold the text of the
endnotes. This ¬le can be deleted after the run since a new version is generated each
With this package you can output your footnotes as endnotes by simply giving the

The user interface for endnotes is very similar to the one for footnotes after sub-
stituting the word “foot” for “end”. The following example shows the principle of the
use of endnotes, where you save text in memory with the \endnote command, and then
typeset all accumulated text material at a point in the document controlled by the user.

This is simple text.1 This is simple This is simple text.\endnote{The first
text.2 This is simple text.3 endnote.} This is simple text.\endnote{%
The second endnote.} This is simple
text.\endnote{The third endnote.}
1 The ¬rst endnote.
2 The second endnote.
3 The third endnote. \theendnotes\bigskip
This is some more simple text
This is some more simple text

Version 1.2, November 2002

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