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Index




Adams, John Penn, William on, 89, 90, 92, 93, 105,
Articles of Confederation (1776), 110, 217
optimistic about, 253 in Pennsylvania, 100“35, 275
Declaration of Independence, on delay Pennsylvania Frame of Government
of, 246 (1681), clause in, 93
and Dickinson, opinion of, 226, 238, Quaker theory of, 43“7, 86“98, 298,
242, 248, 253 324
and Dickinson, opposes, 239, 241, in U.S. Constitution, 310“11
242 in West Jersey Concessions and
military service of, 242 Agreements, 102
Pennsylvania and, 152, 239, 271 in written documents, 43“7, 84,
Quakers and, 175, 227, 228, 239, 310“11
268 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
religious liberty and, 228 Equal Rights, 329
revelation, denies in¬‚uence of in First, 2, 252
government, 286 Fourteenth, 252
Adams, Samuel, 261, 263 Nineteenth, 328
Addams, Jane, 328 Seventeenth, 305n150
af¬rmation, 157, 193, 252, 256, 258, American Friends Service Committee,
266, 273. See also oaths 330, 333
amendment (of laws or constitution), Ames, William, 68
104. See also constitution; Anabaptism, 5, 50. See also quietism
innovation(s), legal Anabaptist(s), 2, 6
Articles of Confederation (1776), lacks anarchy, 7, 12, 297, 333
provision for, 258 federalism prevents, 308
Barclay, Robert on, 45 in the Quaker polity, 32, 39, 120, 136,
in the British system, 84“6 138, 155, 323
Clarkson, Thomas on, 326 Quakers accuse one another of, 321
Dickinson on, 200, 217, 220, Anglican(s), 57, 114, 126, 130,
245, 258“9, 274“5, 310“11, 145, 147, 160, 170, 223, 262,
314 300
Penington, Isaac on, 89, 92, 217“18 animals, treatment of, 158

365
366 Index

Annapolis Convention, 14, 249, 277“8, Baltzell, E. Digby, 15
296 Banks, John, 41
Anthony, Susan B., 320, 328 Baptists, 130, 227, 329
antiauthoritarianism, 18, 103, 111, 136, Barclay, David, 197, 274
166, 170, 309 Barclay, Robert, 124, 213, 322, 332
antigovernmentalism, 18 his Anarchy of the Ranters and other
antinomianism, 48, 63, 70, 77, 333 Libertines (1676), 30, 33, 46, 99,
Anti-Slavery International, 325 102, 138, 185, 281, 299, 310,
Aquinas, St. Thomas, 68 323
aristocracy, 299, 304, 309 his Apology for the True Christian
natural, 301, 308 Divinity (1675), 29, 35, 58, 69, 236,
spiritual, 41, 138, 142, 257, 302, 288
309 on apostolic precedent, 44
arms on constitutional amendment, 45
Britain™s use of, 210 on dissent, 40, 290, 333
Dickinson against use of, 214, 276 on government, authority of, 42, 154,
Dickinson™s use of, 15, 242“4, 248, 185, 281
264 on government, order and method of,
force of, legal de¬nition, 63 34, 260, 295“6, 299
frontiersmen™s use of, 187 on government, origins and purpose of,
government must not be resisted by, 30“3, 43, 297
104, 110, 133, 326 on moderation, 99
Quakers accused of using force of, 87 on oaths, 57
Quakers™ houses searched for, 268 on peace testimony, 52
Quakers™ refusal to bear, 63, 162 on perfection, 29, 45, 74
Quakers™ use of, 187“8, 229, 231, on persecution, 99
232 on popular sovereignty, 41, 301
radicals™ use of, 178, 261. See also on proselytization, 53
Free Quakers on Quaker process, 332
Armstrong™s Quaker Rugs, 317 on revelation versus reason, 69
Articles of Confederation (1776, on speaking as obligation, 287
Dickinson Plan), 14, 245, 249“53, on unity, 37, 38, 289
255, 276“7 Bartlett, Josiah, 270
Articles of Confederation (1777), 270, Bartram, John, 143, 156
275, 277, 295, 296 Beer, Samuel H., 297, 305, 310
Associators, 234, 259, 260, 267 benevolence, 30, 74, 148“54, 291
Attainder, Act of (1778), 271 Benezet, Anthony, 39, 158, 182, 193
Besse, Joseph, 52
Bacon, Francis, 67, 89 Bible, The, 39, 284. See also Scripture
Bailyn, Bernard, 228 Biddle, Clement, 229
balance Biddle, Edward, 233
in the polity, 12“13, 85, 98“100, Biddle, Owen, 229
108, 112, 125, 165, 173, 176, Bingley, William, 51
233, 238, 249, 275, 299, 304, Black, William, 145
306“7, 309, 323 Blackwell, John, 116“20, 126
in Quaker theory/practice, 6, 11, 34, Board of War, 270
36, 71, 100, 125, 128, 136, 176, Boorstin, Daniel, 170
201, 217, 290, 309, 319, 329“30, boycott, 158, 208, 210, 220, 224,
332 331
Index 367

Braithwaite, William C., 2 Dickinson defends, 198“200, 256“7
Bringhouse, Jonathan, 164 the Pennsylvania constitution (1776)
Bringhurst, James, 55, 122, 185, 192“4 compared with, 254“5
Brissot de Warville, Jean-Paul, 35, 143, provisions of, 132
153 as a Quaker constitution, 103,
British Army, 255, 267, 268 133“5, 137, 165“6, 198“200, 252,
Brown, Moses, 274 297
Bryan, George, 254 Quakers loyal to, 223, 266, 269
Bugg, Francis, 50, 60, 62, 142, 170, Chew, Samuel, 164
171 Childress, James F., 9
bureaucracy, 12, 18, 25“6, 33, 41, Church of England, 49, 58, 174, 198,
47, 60, 100, 104, 118, 137, 167, 298
169, 303, 330. See also Quaker Churchman, George, 53, 158, 185, 194,
process 320
Burgess, Glenn, 88 City Tavern (Philadelphia), 227
Burke, Edmund, 114, 286, 310 civil disobedience, 267
Burnyeat, John, 34 Clarkson, Thomas on, 325“6
Burrough, Edward, 95, 139, 322, de¬ned/described, 6“7, 9, 57, 100,
325 324“7, 329, 332“3
Bushell™s Case, 90, 294 Dickinson advocates, 209, 211, 219,
Byllynge, Edward, 81, 91, 101“2, 107 220
Dymond, Jonathan on, 326“7
Calhoon, Robert M., 261 as fundamental right, 96, 217
Calvert, Charles (Lord Baltimore), 121 Gregg, Richard on, 329“30
Calvinism (reformed). See Puritanism as judicial review, 97
Calvinists. See Puritan(s) King, Martin Luther, Jr. and, 57, 268,
campaign for royal government, 178, 332“3
195“202, 208, 230, 248, 252, 257, of Paul, Alice, 328
287 peaceful protest, most extreme form of,
Cannon, James, 254 6, 11, 214
Canons and Institutions (1668“69). See of Pemberton, James, 268
Discipline, The political obligation and, 7, 10, 96
Carolina (North and South), 130, 156, political requisites of, 7
300 practices that are not, 7, 61, 100, 208,
Caswell, Richard, 229 324
Catholicism. See Roman Church; popery Quakers originate, 8, 11“12, 47“63,
Cato (John Trenchard and Thomas 94, 97, 312, 324
Gordon), 70, 85, 97 Rustin, Bayard on, 330“2
Chalkley, Thomas, 159 scholarship on, 9
Charles I, 88, 218 Thoreau, Henry David and, 327,
Charles II, 58, 62, 107, 256, 288, 333 329
Charter of Pennsylvania (granted by civil Quakerism, 137, 186, 201, 319
Charles II, c. 1681), 107, 256 Civil Rights Movement, 6, 8, 329
Charter of Privileges (1701), 147, Civil War, American, 224, 296, 315“16,
179“80, 244, 274 324
abolished, 155, 239, 249, 262, 271 Civil War, English, 218. See also Puritan
in the campaign to replace with royal Revolution
government, 195“202 Clark, Abraham, 253
creation of, 130“4, 179 Clarkson, Thomas, 37, 325“7
368 Index

clerk of the meeting conscientious objection, 5, 9, 223, 266“7,
Kinsey, John as, 161, 168 271
Pemberton, Israel as, 177, 180 constituent sovereignty, 92, 297, 326
Pemberton, James as, 177, 193 constitution. See also amendment (of
role of, 41“2, 109, 303 laws or constitution); government
Cockson, Edward, 142 (civil and ecclesiastical); law; unity/
Coercive Acts (1774), 225“6 union
come-outerism, 321“2, 324 American understanding of, 98,
Committee on Public Safety 313“14
(Pennsylvania), 233 ancient, described, 72
common law, 67, 90“1, 93, 149, 218, Antebellum reformers and, 323“4
281, 285. See also custom Clarkson, Thomas on, 326
change in, 84“6, 105 de¬ned, 70
described, 48, 83 Dickinson on, 198, 213“14, 245
Dickinson distrusts, 213 as a living entity, 11, 45, 101, 213,
as experience, 286 310
liberty of conscience and, 75 man-made, 31, 46, 77
Quakers distrust, 61, 91, 93, 287 Quaker theory of, summarized, 11, 78,
reason and, 80, 84, 91, 285, 286 100, 101, 325
as structure of discourse, 88 as sacred and perpetual, 45“6, 73, 83,
Concessions and Agreements (West 101, 108, 130, 213, 216, 235, 282,
Jersey, 1676“77), 81“2, 101“2, 291, 296
106 Scripture compared with, 77
Congress, Confederation, 251, 276, 277 unwritten, 72, 85, 297
Congress, Continental, 232 written, 10, 43“7, 72“3, 77, 85, 89,
Articles of Confederation (1776) 101, 104, 291, 295“6, 298
revised by, 252 Constitution, U.S., 279, 288, 297, 310,
conscientious objectors and, 267, 271 323
convening of the First, 226 Constitutional Convention, 14, 194, 214,
Dickinson™s instructions to 247, 259, 279, 285, 296, 302“3,
Pennsylvania delegates, 234, 309, 314
239“40 Constitutionalists, 259, 265“6, 271,
Dickinson™s membership in, 14, 226, 275
252“3, 262 Continental Army, 276
Dickinson™s motives in, 242 Conventicle Acts (1664), 58, 169
Dickinson™s reputation in, 234“5, 265 Convention (Pennsylvania
Dickinson™s writings for, 233“5, 258 Revolutionary), 253“6, 258“9, 263,
as an illegal meeting, 298 266“7
independence, debates/votes on, convincement, 11, 35, 38, 53, 59,
241“2 148“54, 290. See also
Pennsylvania government, overthrow proselytization
planned by, 239, 254 Council of Censors (Pennsylvania), 258,
Pennsylvania placed under martial law 275“6
by, 260 Council of Safety (Pennsylvania), 260,
Quakers and, 226“33, 239, 268, 263“4, 267
270“1. See also Virginia Exiles covenant. See government (civil and
Congress, Federal, 306, 308 ecclesiastical), contract theory of
Congress, Stamp Act, 14, 208 Cr` vec“ur, J. Hector St. John de, 122,
e
Connecticut, 227, 276 143, 156
Index 369

Crook, John, 86 Constitutional Convention, member
custom, 212. See also common law; of, 14
history on constitutional perfection, 296,
as a guide, 28, 86 310“11
law and, 10, 48, 60, 72, 84, 86, 88, in the Continental Congress, 226,
90“1, 209, 285“7 252“3, 262
Quakers reject, 35, 44, 50, 52, 91, 158, custom, suspicious of, 287
209, 213, 287, 297 his Declaration for the Causes and
as ritual, 70, 287 Necessity of Taking Up Arms
Cutler, Manasseh, 152 (1775), 14, 233, 234
defensive war, belief in, 192, 233,
D™Emilio, John, 330 312
Dayton, Elias, 253 Delaware, president of, 14, 193
De Berthune, Maximillian, Duke of Sully, on dissent, duty of, 201, 212, 216,
200 219, 287, 289“90, 295
Deane, Silas, 227, 229 on dissent, limits of, 216“21, 243,
death penalty, 149, 258, 262 290
Declaration of Independence (1776), 13, his Essay of a Frame of Government
15, 207, 242, 262“4, 293 for Pennsylvania (1776), 255, 258,
Declaration of Indulgence (1687), 54 262, 302
Declaration of Rights (Pennsylvania), on experience, 285“6
179, 255, 258“9, 272 his Fabius Letters (1788), 15, 281“11
deism, 146 on factions, 306“7
Delaware, 15, 259, 263“5, 308 federalism, 299“310
Dickinson president of, 14, 193, 323 First Petition to the King (1774), 14
democracy, 34, 41, 260, 309 on ¬rst principles (of government),
danger of excesses in, 300, 306 213“14
despotism in, 38, 257, 294, 307, “Friends and Countrymen” (1765),
308 209
pure, 257, 260, 301 on government, limits of, 63, 213, 215,
representative, 41, 100, 125, 257, 260, 218
301 on government, order and method of,
Descartes, Ren´ , 89
e 295, 299“310
Dewsbury, William, 40 on government, origins and purpose,
Dickinson, John 290“5
his Address from Congress to the independence and, 14“15, 241“4
Inhabitants of Quebec (1774), 14 in¬‚uence of, 193, 222, 225“6, 262“5,
America™s ¬rst political hero, 211 313“14
Annapolis Convention, chairman of, his Late Regulations Respecting the
278 British Colonies on the Continent of
Articles of Confederation (1776), 241, America Considered (1765), 210
249“53 on law, distinguishes between positive
and the Bible, 284 and fundamental, 213“15
in the campaign for royal government, his Letter to the Inhabitants of Quebec
198“202 (1774), 258
civil disobedience, advocates, 208“9, his Letters from a Farmer in
211, 225 Pennsylvania (1767“68), 14, 207,
on constitutional amendment, 217, 211“21, 224“5, 288“9
220, 245, 259, 274“5, 310“11 Liberty Song, The (1768), 211
370 Index

Dickinson, John (cont.) Stamp Act Congress, 208
major achievements of, 14“15 testimonies of, 193“4, 273,
military service of, 14, 234“5, 242 287“88
moderation of, 193, 202“3, 207, 216, traditional Quaker faction, leader of,
225, 289“90, 313 179, 198, 224, 260
and national peaceful protest traditional Quakerism, exemplar of, 6,
movement, leader of, 225, 233, 246, 178, 203, 211, 224, 230, 232“3,
312 236, 241, 244
Olive Branch Petition (1775), 14, as trimmer, principled, 202, 233
233“4 and Virginia Exiles, 272
opposes slavery, 274 withdrawing Quakers, criticizes,
paci¬sm of, 178, 217, 233, 313 222
patriotism of, 220, 284 Dickinson, Mary (Polly) Norris (wife of
as “Penman of the Revolution”, John), 189, 190, 239
14“15, 245, 264 Dickinson, Mary Cadwalader (mother of
Pennsylvania constitution (1776), John), 189, 239
protests, 255“9 Dickinson, Philemon (brother of John),
Pennsylvania, president of, 14, 273“7 263
persecution of, 245, 263“5 Dickinson, Samuel (father of John), 189
as political martyr, 202, 241, 245 Digger(s), 67
on popular sovereignty, 299“310 Discipline, The (Quaker ecclesiastical
prepares for war, 233, 235, 241 constitution, Canons and
his Proclamation Against Vice and Institutions, 1668“69), 46, 123
Immorality (1783), 274 creation of, 43“7
on property, 222 Dickinson, Mary (Polly) Norris
Quaker in¬‚uence, acknowledges, 239, transgresses, 190
242 Pennsylvania laws based on, 145“57
Quaker process, advocates, 218“20, provisions of, 44, 102, 124, 190
237“8, 281, 290 Scripture, compared to, 77
Quakerism of, 16“17, 189“95, 202, U.S. Constitution, creation of
273, 279“80, 284 compared with, 310
religious af¬liation of, 16, 178, 191, dissent, 7, 25“51, 76, 77, 83, 99, 100,
233, 248 101, 130, 287. See also civil
his Reply to a Piece called The speech disobedience; proselytization;
of Joseph Galloway (1764), 203 Quaker process; testimonies
reputation of, 211, 225“6, 234, 238, constitutional, 88, 101
241, 264, 313 duty of, 37“8, 158, 201, 212, 216,
Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress 219, 224, 237, 243, 266, 289“90,
(1765), 14 295, 332
on revelation and reason, 283“7 ethic of disseminated, 184“9, 197, 224,
on revolution, 219, 312 230, 236
scholarship on, 13“17, 201, 246, 277, institutionalized, 160“76
280 limits of, 11“12, 42, 184, 210, 214,
slavery, opposes, 193“4, 302“3, 323 216“21, 243, 289“90
on speaking as obligation, 212, 219, silence as, 62, 328
241, 303 Truth, as a means to, 38, 57
his Speech Delivered in the House of unity and, 25, 38, 55, 100, 117, 136,
Assembly of the Province of 176“8, 180, 226
Pennsylvania (1764), 198“9 District of Columbia, 277
Index 371

divine competence (to rule), 78, 81, 139, on government, order and method of,
297 102, 116, 260
Duane, James, 227 on government, origins and purpose of,
Duplessis-Mornay, Phillip, 95 31“3
Dyer, Eliphalet, 234 oppressor, viewed as, 32, 131
Dyer, Mary, 52 peace testimony and, 36, 52
Dymond, Jonathan, 243“4, 325“7, 330, proselytization and, 26, 55
332 Quakerism, founder of, 26
Society of Friends, president of, 44
egalitarianism, 34, 49, 66, 123, 154, 236, Frame of Government of Pennsylvania
257, 300, 302 (1681), 73, 78, 93, 105, 107“10
ekkl¯ sia, 145, 280“1. See also
e (1683), 110“21, 127“8, 131“2
government(civil and ecclesiastical), (1696), 126“9, 132
civil as ecclesiastical writ large France, 126, 143, 189
Elazar, Daniel J., 154 Franklin, Benjamin, 273
Ellwood, Thomas, 57 in the campaign for royal government,
Enlightenment, 71, 138, 143, 284 197, 200, 230
Evangelicals, 153, 279 cartoon of, 172
Evans, Joshua, 158, 159 Pennsylvania Assembly, loses seat in,
Executive Council (Pennsylvania), 201
268“70, 275 Pennsylvania Convention, president of,
experience 254
Dickinson on, 285, 286 Quakers and, 188“9, 197, 229“30
as a guide, 74, 80, 150, 280, 283, 285, radical Quaker faction, leader of, 178,
308, 326, 331 183, 188, 197, 254
as history, 285 Free Quakers, 122, 228“32, 237
policy derived from, 309 French and Indian War, 170, 180, 187
reasonable, as foundation of common Fundamentall Constitutions
law, 286 (Pennsylvania, c. 1681), 82, 96,
revelation as, 286 106“8, 110, 170
spiritual, 34, 285 Furly, Benjamin, 93, 108
worldly, 286
Galloway, Joseph, 203
Fabius, 290 in the campaign for royal government,
federalism, 40“1, 245, 251, 277, 189, 197, 199“200
298“310 as a Loyalist, 232, 244
Federalist Papers (1789), 46, 288, 307, Pennsylvania Assembly, leader of,
310 222
Fighting Quakers. See Free Quakers his Plan of Union (1774), 232, 244
First Great Awakening, 260, 284 in radical Quaker faction, 178
¬rst principles (of government), 91“3, and rioting in Philadelphia, 211
96, 213“14, 218 and traditional Quaker faction, 178
Fisher, Sarah, 267 Gandhi, Mohandas, 7, 12, 312,
Five Mile Act (1665), 58 329“31
Fletcher, Benjamin, 126“7, 132, 149 Garrison, William Lloyd, 320“4
Flower, Milton E., 14, 16 George II, 182
Fothergill, Samuel, 182, 197 Germans, 161, 171“2, 174, 188
Fox, George, 59, 124, 146, 322 Gerry, Elbridge, 239, 268
on government, authority of, 323 Gervais, John Lewis, 269
372 Index

Glorious Revolution, 86, 98, 126. Hoadly, Benjamin, 95
government (civil and ecclesiastical). See Hobbes, Thomas, 26, 71, 73, 89
also ekkl¯ sia
e Holme, Thomas, 114
civil as ecclesiastical writ large, 26, 53, Hooper, William, 263
56, 64, 101, 106, 108“9, 119, 125, Howell, David, 274
137“8, 212, 279“80 humanitarianism, 154
contract theory of, 85, 89, 200, 291“3, Hutcheson, Francis, 97
297
creation myth of, 26, 281 Indians, 150“1, 172, 187“8
de¬ned, 70, 72 innovation(s), legal
as divinely ordained, 33, 46, 52, 56, British government a collection of, 310
73, 78, 84, 280, 291, 323 as dangerous, 44, 83, 87, 209
limits of, 63, 72, 96, 213, 215, 218 inspired by false guides, 213
locus of authority in, 31“2, 34, 36, less dangerous in a Quaker
121, 124, 127, 131, 136, 138, constitution, 91
257 of Parliament, 213
as man-made, 31“2, 46 in Pennsylvania constitution (1776),
order and method of, 33“40, 56, 260, 275
78“83, 108, 116, 260, 295“6, precedent, compared with, 209
299“310 royal government in Pennsylvania as,
origins and purpose of, 30“3, 40“7, 199
290“5
trust theory of, 200, 290“4, 297“8, Jacobson, David L., 15
302 James II, 54, 87, 99, 126, 202
Greene, Nathanael, 229 James, William, 146
Gregg, Richard, 329“30 Jay, John, 233, 275
gubernaculum, 63, 218. See also Jefferson, Thomas, 194, 234, 282, 291,
government (civil and ecclesiastical), 293“4, 314
limits of Jones, John, 232, 262
Jones, Rufus M., 329
habeas corpus, 262, 269, 274 judicial review, 94, 97
Hamilton, Andrew, 168, 180, 195 Junius (New York) Friends Meeting,
Hamm, Thomas D., 322 320
Harrington, James, 67, 85 jurisdictio, 63, 218. See also government
Heinrichs, Johann, 229“30 (civil and ecclesiastical), limits of
Henry, Patrick, 194, 269
Hewes, Joseph, 228, 231 Keith, George. See Keithian Controversy
Hicks, Elias, 321 Keith, William, 169
Hicksite Separation, 28, 46, 319 Keithian Controversy, 121“7, 130, 324
Hill, Christopher, 3 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 6“8, 12, 57,
history 312
apostolic, 287 on civil disobedience, 332“3
as custom, 91, 282, 285 Quaker in¬‚uences on, 329“32
Dickinson™s use of, 218 Kinsey, John, 161“8, 169“70, 177, 179,
as experience, 117, 167, 285 180“1, 197
as a guide, 28, 44, 79, 80, 84, 91, 124, Knollenberg, Bernhard, 16
237, 284, 308
Quakers critical of, 91 Lambert, Frank, 146
sacred, 285 Lamb™s War, 31, 53, 54
Index 373

Laurens, Henry, 269 modern, Quakerism mistaken for, 146,
law. See also amendment (of laws or 148, 154
constitution); common law; liberty of conscience, 18, 63, 144, 172,
constitution; custom; Light within 244, 262, 287
discernment of, 26“7, 30“2, 44“5, Charter of Privileges, guaranteed in,
55“6, 62, 68“72, 77, 78“81, 83, 132, 134
86“91, 96, 101, 108“11, 124, 134, civil unity preserved by, 75“6, 213
185, 215, 283“90, 297, 302. See defended not with carnal weapons,
also Light within; synteresis 52
distinction between positive and as fundamental law, 62, 75, 82, 145,
fundamental, 57, 61“2, 85, 87, 89, 147
93, 96, 98, 106, 209, 215“18, 311, inhibited by human law and
325 conventions, 48
divine/fundamental (constitutional), 9, Massachusetts laws inconsistent with,
27“9, 32, 36, 45“6, 48, 56“7, 61, 228
64, 67, 70, 72“4, 78, 82, 90, 92, as a negative liberty, 144, 146, 148,
102, 121, 199, 282“3, 298, 313 154
liberty of conscience as fundamental, non-Quakers in Pennsylvania troubled
75, 148 by, 147
living spirit of, opposed to dead letter, in Pennsylvania, 104, 130, 132“3, 137,
27, 45, 49, 213, 287 142, 147, 255
of nature (reason), 62, 68“72, 84, 86, philosophes admire, 147
88, 283, 326 as a positive liberty, 146
Pennsylvania based on Quaker purpose of, 145
Discipline, 145“57 Quaker process and, 26, 28, 53, 59,
positive (human), 10, 42, 48“9, 56, 57, 94, 96
72“3, 75, 92, 134, 169, 215, 295, Quaker views on important to
298, 333 delegates of Constitutional
against Quakers, 58, 267 Convention, 279
Quakers challenge, 56, 87“88, 90, speech-acts advocate, 49
100, 216, 269. See also civil as tool of proselytization, 144“8
disobedience West Jersey Concessions and
in Revolutionary Pennsylvania, Agreements, 82
253“62, 270, 274“5 Light within, 32, 55, 68, 103, 149, 287.
Roman, 309 See also revelation; testimonies
speech-acts publicize the divine, 49 civil disobedience arises from, 62, 95
statute, 70, 84, 87“8, 214, 218 described, 28, 30, 35, 47, 49, 80
testimonies as expression of the divine, Dickinson and, 192, 283
48, 57, 58, 94 law, 31, 44, 48, 62, 124. See also
unwritten, 72, 84 law
virtual repeal of, 62, 96, 98, 225 obedience to, 57, 139, 157, 215,
written, 44“5, 60, 72, 77, 89“90, 288, 235
298 as Pope within, 50
Lay, Benjamin, 39, 40, 158 as positive and negative liberty, 31, 47,
Lee, Arthur, 222 185“6, 299, 323
Lee, Richard Henry, 263, 268“9 reason and, 61“2, 86, 91, 285, 321,
Levellers, 26, 93, 185 326
liberalism Scripture and, 28
classical, 18, 67, 281 unequal distribution of, 34, 109, 301
374 Index

Light within (cont.) Meeting for Sufferings
as universal, 34, 55, 74, 80, 140, 192, London, 59, 130, 181, 198, 218
301“2, 330“1 Philadelphia, 224, 266, 267
varying interpretations of, 31, 34, 42, Meredith, Samuel, 229
123“5, 185, 283“4, 320“1, 323 Mif¬‚in, Thomas, 225, 229
Lincoln, Abraham, 224 Mif¬‚in, Warner, 158, 194
Little Quaker Wax Beans, 317 Miller, Samuel, 191
Little Women, 315 Milton, John, 67
Lloyd, David, 93, 127“9, 132“3, Moby Dick, 315
134 moderation 13, 98. See also balance;
Lloyd, Thomas, 106, 112, 118, 125, trimmer(s)
159 Dickinson advocates, 313
Locke, John, 26, 70, 73, 85“6, 95, 97, Dickinson and, 193, 202“3, 207, 216,
282, 307 225, 289“90, 313
contract theory of, 89, 297 Pennsylvania Convention, lacking in,
Penn™s in¬‚uence on, 97 253
on religious toleration, 76“7 persecution for, 99, 262
Logan, James, 132“4, 164 Quakers and, 6, 11, 98“9, 119, 134,
London Yearly Meeting, 33, 46, 125, 261, 321
179, 182, 300 of Whigs, 97
Loyalism, 5, 223, 244, 271, 315 Molesworth, John, 85
Ludlow, Edmund, 85 Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, 143
Lunardini, Christine A., 328 Montgomery, John, 273
moral jiu jitsu, 330
Machiavelli, Niccolo, 76, 92, 214 Morris, Samuel, Jr., 229
`
Madison, James, 302, 305“7 Mott, James, 321
Magna Carta, 63, 77, 84, 220 Mott, Lucretia, 36, 320“4
Marietta, Jack D., 181 Munster, 50
¨
Markham, William, 113, 115“16, 118, Mutiny of 1783, 276“7
127“8
Marshall, Christopher, 229 National American Woman Suffrage
martyrdom, 10, 59, 202, 212, 216, 241, Association, 328
245, 329 Navigation Acts (1660), 126
Marx, Karl, 331 neutrality, Quaker, 236, 245, 248, 261,
Maryland, 15, 120“1, 229 271“2
Massachusetts, 26, 114, 140, 156, Neville, Henry, 85
242 New Jersey, 121, 253
as city on a hill, 139 Congress in, 277
established church in, 147 Dickinson joins battalion in, 242, 262
persecution of Quakers in, 1, 117, 148, Paul, Alice from, 328
262 Quaker constitution of, 67, 81
punishment in, 149 Quaker polity, 100“3, 110, 199
religious liberty in, 184, 227 Spanktown Friends Meeting, 268
Matlack, Timothy, 229 New Quaker Bonnet, The, 315“16
McDonald, Ellen Shapiro, 17 New York, 126, 128, 156, 208, 214,
McDonald, Forrest, 16, 279 232, 235, 277, 320
McIlwain, Charles, 63 Newton, Isaac, 71, 86
McKean, Thomas, 269 Non-Associators, 267
Mead, William, 90, 294 nonresistance, 321“2, 324
Index 375

Norman Yoke, 93 Quaker heritage of, 236
Norris, Isaac, Jr. patriotism
in the campaign for royal government, of Dickinson, 220, 245, 264, 284
197 Dickinson on the Quakers™, 221“2
Dickinson™s father-in-law, 190 paci¬sm and, 313
on political engagement, 183 in the Revolution, 220, 228, 248“9
Quaker Reformation and, 182 Paul, Alice, 328“29
resists Pennsylvania proprietors, 168, Paxton Riot, 185, 187
173“6, 179“80 peace testimony, 42, 66. See also
testimonies of, 169, 181, 192 paci¬sm
traditional Quakerism of, 178 advent of, 36
Norris, Isaac, Sr., 133, 141, 186 balances unity and dissent, 180
North Carolina.See Carolina (North and as basis for factions 177. See also
South) Quakers, political factions of
disownment for transgression of,
oaths. See also af¬rmation 224
Dickinson on, 252 dissent shaped by, 52
Quakers refuse to administer, 126, 157 evasion of military service and, 271
Quakers refuse to swear, 57“8, 126, nonresisters and, 322
266, 269“70, 272, 288 Pennsylvania Assembly abandons,
Revolutionary Pennsylvania, 259, 262, 184
266 and Pennsylvania defense, 137,
oligarchy, 41, 125, 142, 309 162“5, 180“1, 228. See also Free
Quakers
paci¬sm. See also peace testimony persecution lessened by, 63
in America, 8, 313 preserves order, 39
civil disobedience and, 11 as primary testimony, 36
of Dickinson, 178, 217, 233 proselytization, effect on, 53
Franklin, Benjamin, not advocated by, Quaker historiography and, 56
189 Quakerism before, 178
of King, Martin Luther, Jr., 331 radicals disregard, 231, 261, 271
of nonresisters, 322 reinvented as political tool, 162“5
patriotism and, 313 scope of, 37, 94, 115, 184, 192, 248,
Quaker, 3, 5, 9, 18, 36, 120, 161, 271, 322
164, 207, 231, 237, 260, 268, traditional Quakers™ interpretation of,
331 178
reform and, 97, 153, 217, 237“8, Pearson, John, 103
313, 331 Pemberton, Israel, 172, 177, 180, 182,
Paine, Thomas, 229“30, 272 197, 228, 270
Common Sense (1776), 235“8, 254, Pemberton, John, 183, 193, 268
265 Penington, Isaac, 213
Free Quakers, aligned with, 237 on breaking the law, 94
on government, 74, 291 on constitutional amendment, 89, 92,
Pennsylvania constitution (1776), 217“18
in¬‚uence on, 254, 260“1 on ¬rst principles (of government), 92
Pennsylvania Revolutionary on government, ideal form of, 78
Convention and, 254 on government, origins and purpose,
political theory inspired by Quakerism, 142
260 persecution of, 56, 63
376 Index

Penington, Isaac (cont.) on natural rights, 71, 282
on political obligation, 98 oppressor, viewed as, 113, 126, 131,
on politicians, spiritual quali¬cations 136
of, 106 Pennsylvania restored to, 127
on popular sovereignty, 79“80 Pennsylvania, deprived of, 126
Quaker process, advocates, 80, 86, Pennsylvania, misjudgments in, 107“8,
88, 96 113, 115“18, 127, 129, 132
representatives, duties of, 105, 113 Pennsylvania, power nulli¬ed in,
works of, edited by Quakers, 45 131“3
Penn, Thomas, 160, 195, 201 Pennsylvania, power undermined in,
Penn, William, 107“8, 128, 213, 322“3 103“34
on balance in the polity, 304 Pennsylvania™s reputation, concern for,
on breaking the law, 94, 110 115
celebrated as founder of Pennsylvania, persecution of, 56
143, 274 on political engagement, 77, 183
on civil unity, 75“6, 117, 144, 213, political philosophy of, 65
220 on popular sovereignty, 79, 106, 111
on the common law, 90, 93 Quaker politicians, concern for
Concession and Agreements, author of, spiritual welfare of, 114
102 Quaker process, advocates, 96, 115,
considers selling Pennsylvania to the 139, 145, 290
crown, 196 Quakers respect, 111
on constitutional amendment, 89“90, on Ranters, 185
92“3, 105, 110, 217 on revolution, 75, 218
counsels Quakerly behavior in on separation of church and state, 87,
Pennsylvania, 112 125, 141, 147
criticized by political thinkers, 108 on synteresis, 68“72, 80
Declaration of Indulgence, author of, trial of (Bushell™s Case), 90, 294
54 Whigs, in¬‚uence on, 97
depiction of, 51 Pennsylvania constitution (1776),
Dickinson quotes, 200 253“61, 265, 270
displeased with Quaker politicians, Charter of Privileges, compared with,
109, 115, 179 254“5
on diversity of opinion, 75, 213, 306 disputed, 268
encourages resistance in Pennsylvania, as an innovation, 258
126 qualities and provisions of, 254
on ¬rst principles (of government), Pennsylvania Hospital, 152
214 penology, 148“50, 157
on fundamental law, 82 perfection
on government, order and method of, constitutional, 11, 31, 45, 86, 89, 296,
78 297, 310“11, 324
on government, origins and purpose of, human, 29, 31, 43, 66, 74, 89, 91,
27, 72“7, 82, 89, 291, 296 140, 154, 322, 324
on Indians, 151 of reason, 84
law, distinguishes between positive and Quaker, 240
fundamental, 89, 93, 96, 213 persecution, 52
on liberty of conscience, 74“6, 82, 105, combated through unity, 37, 47, 54
126, 130, 132, 144, 147 of Dickinson, 245, 263“5
on the Light within, 70 liberty of conscience prevents, 63, 144
Index 377

in Massachusetts, 54, 117 Powell, John H., 16
Meeting for Sufferings established to Presbyterian(s), 130, 145, 161, 174,
combat, 59, 95, 218 259
of Penn, William, 56 as faction in Pennsylvania government,
Pennsylvania, none of religious 201“2
dissenters in, 145 in the Revolution, 223, 248, 260“1
political, 202 progress, 89
Quaker response to, 2, 45, 53, 56“9, property
95, 100, 216, 271, 287. See also destruction of in Revolution, 208,
civil disobedience; Meeting for 262
Sufferings destruction of not allowed in civil
Quakers accused of in Pennsylvania, disobedience, 7, 211
142, 155 Dickinson on, 208“9, 211, 225
religious the worst form of, 75 Dickinson™s seized, 263“4
in Revolutionary Pennsylvania, of¬ceholding, quali¬cation for,
261“73 302
Peters, Richard, 157, 161, 166“9, 179, ownership of, by blacks in
197 Pennsylvania, 151
Philadelphia Friends Meeting, 274 protection of, 57, 82, 131, 162, 196,
Philadelphia Prison, 149 200, 273, 289
Philadelphia Quarterly Meeting, 170 purpose of, for Anglicans, 87
Philadelphia Regiment, First, 234 purpose of, for Puritans, 82
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting (PYM) purpose of, for Quakers, 82
its Ancient Testimony (1776), 235“36, Quakers™ destroyed, 270
238 slaves as, 151
campaign for royal government, as voting quali¬cation, 141, 255,
against, 198 266, 302
Pennsylvania government controlled Proprietary Party
by, 124, 140“42, 150, 155, 171 in the campaign for royal government,
politicians active in, 106, 161, 164 195, 201
the Reformation in, 177, 181, 184. See Dickinson and, 201, 203, 242
also “Quaker Reformation” opposes Quaker Party, 170, 173,
Revolution, 223“4, 228, 231“2, 237 179, 187
philosophes, 143, 145, 151, 164 Quaker Party aligned with, 270
Plan of Union (1774), 232 Quakers accuse of popery, 175
Plato, 68, 78 rise of, 160
Pleasants, Robert, 194 Society of Friends and, 182
Pocock, J. G. A., 8 violence used by, 167“8
political obligation proselytization, 2, 50. See also dissent;
civil disobedience, requisite for, 7, 10, Society of Friends, opinions of;
96, 324 Quaker process; testimonies
Dickinson on, 217 civil disobedience as, 47“63
Dymond, Jonathan on, 243, 326 by Dickinson, 194
Quakers and, 11, 52, 63, 78, 83, 162, dissent as, 9, 37“8, 48
181, 325 duty of, 28, 38, 40, 55, 112, 151,
Ranters and, 185 210
popery, 50, 79, 87, 124, 175, 202 economic activity as tool of, 158
popular sovereignty, 41, 81, 85, 92, 200, Fox, George and, 26, 55
288, 298“310, 326 individual initiative in, 54
378 Index

proselytization (cont.) as divine law and order, 27, 91, 108,
institutionalized, 136“75 185
liberty of conscience as tool of, ends and means in, 11“12, 28, 33,
144“8 57, 73, 75, 98, 125, 134, 169,
martyrdom important for, 10 216, 219“20, 224, 288“9, 323“4,
peace testimony affects, 53 326, 330“2
purpose of, 55, 75, 140, 185 federalism and, 41
Quaker meeting established for, 47, and the individual, 10, 27, 28“31, 33
55 King, Martin Luther, Jr. advocates,
radicalism unintended consequence of, 332
184“9, 229“31, 325 as nondeliberative, 34, 70
silence as, 49, 62, 155 nonresisters abandon, 324
testimonies as, 48, 54, 226 as peaceful, 11, 94, 104, 133, 198,
publicity. See Society of Friends, 331
opinions of; proselytization in Pennsylvania government, 64,
Puritan Revolution, 5, 79, 218. See also 104“5, 108“9, 117, 119, 130,
Civil War, English 133“4, 137, 161, 166, 175, 184
Puritan(s), 2, 5, 116 ritual in, 34
Quakers compared with, 8, 11, 67, silence in, 34“5, 58, 63, 78, 108“9,
139, 140, 147, 160, 187, 291 143, 149, 192, 237, 287
Quakers harass, 1, 49 and speaking as obligation, 38
Quakers persecuted by, 54, 262 speech-acts in, 12, 27, 33“7,
Puritanism 48“9
in¬‚uence of, 66, 279 spiritual aristocracy in, 115
Quakerism compared with, 5“6, 18, unity in, 33“9, 47
50, 66, 261 Quaker Reformation, 177, 182“3
Putnam, Israel, 263 “Quakerism Drooping”, 240
Quakerism, political factions of, 177
Quaker Cigar, 319 radical, 177, 184“9, 196, 207, 231“2,
Quaker Oats man, 1, 54, 317 248, 254, 260
Quaker Party. See also Quakerism, traditional, 179, 185, 198“202, 248,
political factions of 260“1, 280
Dickinson leads, 198 withdrawing, 177, 184“5, 207, 221“4,
factionalized, 179“89, 195“202 231“2, 248, 260“1
Pennsylvania dominated by, 155, 160, “Quakers Synod, The,” 50
176 “Quiet Quaker Quashing Quarrelsome
Proprietary Party aligned with, 270 Quidnunc,” 175
Society of Friends and, 181“3, 187“8, quietism, 3, 47, 56, 77, 184, 322
196 myth of in Quakerism, 2“4, 9, 53, 65,
Quaker process, 33“9, 101, 282, 322
289, 297. See also bureaucracy; political, 56
synteresis Quincy, Josiah, Jr., 313
antislavery debate, exempli¬ed by,
39“40 Rakove, Jack N., 251, 280
as collective activity, 30, 33, 287 Ranters Ranterism, 8, 26, 50, 185, 202
consensus in, 30, 33“6, 42, 82, 299, Raynal, Guillaume Thomas Fran§ois,
332 159
dissent and, 104, 125, 135, 138, Red Hot Chili Peppers, 317
164“5, 214, 243, 330 Reed, Joseph, 225, 270, 273“4
Index 379

religious toleration, 76“7, 147. See also separation of church and state, 87“8,
liberty of conscience 140, 146
republicanism, 18, 67, 75, 266, 280“1, Settlement, Act of (1683), 110
290, 315 Sewell, William, 235
Republicans, 256“9, 275 Sheeran, Michael, 243
Reuni¬cation Bill (1701), 130 Shippen, Edward, 168
revelation, 88, 123 sick-poor, 152
immediate, 33, 44, 71, 285 slavery, 39“40, 151“2, 158
immediate versus Scripture, 28, 66, America punished for, 272
123“5, 283“4, 321 American under the British, 241
progressive, 29, 38, 45, 86, 326 damaging to America™s reputation,
reason and, 61“2, 72“6, 86“8, 164, 302
284, 286, 326 Dickinson opposes, 193“4, 258, 274,
revolution, theory of 303, 324
Quakers deny legitimacy of, 11, 96, Garrison, William Lloyd and, 324
97, 218, 235, 324 Paine, Thomas opposes, 236
Whig/Calvinist, 85, 97, 221, 297, Pennsylvania ¬rst state to outlaw, 259
313 Quaker views on important to
Rhode Island, 274 delegates of the Constitutional
Robbins, Caroline, 3, 5 Convention, 279
Robin, Charles C´ sar, 175
e Quakers abolished, 272
Rogers, William, 32 as violence done to man, 39
Roman Church, 70, 75, 300n117, Smith, Adam, 146
308n168 Smith, Robert, 58, 61“2
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 26, 294, Smith, Thomas, 254
307 Smith, William, 170“3, 179
rule of law, 10, 25, 47 Society of Friends, opinions of, 1, 54,
Rush, Benjamin, 259, 263, 273, 137“8, 187, 197. See also
303 proselytizing
Rustin, Bayard, 329, 330“2 Adams, John, 152, 175, 239
Rutledge, Edward, 252“3 Americans, 1, 175, 284, 315“19
Blackwell, John, 119“20
safety, equated with unity and liberty, British, seventeenth century, 50, 52,
37, 75, 78“9, 131, 144, 213, 57“8, 62, 95“6, 115
241, 249, 251, 277, 299, 302, Bugg, Francis, 62, 142, 170
306 Dickinson, John, 190, 237
satyagraha, 330 Dickinson, Mary (Polly) Norris, 190
Savile, George, Marquess de Halifax, 13, Gerry, Elbridge, 239, 268
98“9, 261 James, William, 146
science, 71 Lee, Richard Henry, 269
Scott, Job, 35, 223 Locke, John, 77
Scottish Enlightenment, 18, 281 Paine, Thomas, 235, 237“238
Scripture, 70, 105, 125, 280, 293, 297. Penn, William, 141
See also Bible, The in Pennsylvania, by admirers, 145“6,
constitution compared with, 77 152“5
as a history book, 44, 285 in Pennsylvania, by critics, 138, 141,
immediate revelation and, 28, 42, 66, 147“8, 155, 157, 160, 167, 172,
68, 123“5, 283“4, 321 179, 181, 187“8, 196, 222, 230,
Seneca Falls Convention, 320 240
380 Index

Society of Friends, opinions of (cont.) frugality, 158, 210
philosophes, 142“3, 153, 156, 159, hat, 61“2, 159, 169“70
175 as hedge and Light, 55
Puritans, 185 Indian welfare, 150
Quakers™ concern with, 48“9, 54, inward, 69. See also Light within
115, 119, 160, 167, 173, 182, as law, expression of, 52. See also law
186, 222, 235 nonattendance at Church of England,
Quakers™ own, 103, 115, 142, 175 49
Revolutionaries, 226“32, 261, 266, non-Quakers, imposed on, 145, 157
269 numerical dates, 155, 193
Smith, William, 141, 170“3, 179 openness, 57“8
South Carolina. See Carolina (North and Pennsylvania law, codi¬ed in, 145,
South) 150, 155
South Park, 319 persecution for expressing, 52, 57
Spinoza, Benedictus de, 2 plain dress, 55, 125, 158, 189, 226,
St. Germain, Christopher, 90 288
Stamp Act (1765), 207“11, 216, 219, plain speech, 35, 88, 125, 193, 226“7,
225 269, 288
Townshend Acts compared to, 221, plainness, 58, 287“8
222 of politicians, 106
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 320, 323, politicized, 161, 169, 170
328 as proselytization, 48, 55
state of nature, 26, 73, 92“3, 296“7 Quaker uniqueness, mark of, 54
Storing, Herbert J., 313 reception of, 40, 158
Swarthmore College, 328 reform efforts, as basis for, 53
Sidney, Algernon, 79, 85, 95, 97, as republican virtues, 210
108 simplicity, 82, 189, 287
synteresis, 68“9, 72, 77, 80, 283, too rigid adherence to, 193
295. See also Light within; law, as Truths, 38
discernment of; Quaker process; of women, 50
revelation theater, 49, 156, 193, 309
in civil government, 108“9 theocracy, 140, 147, 161
de¬ned/described, 68“72 theologico-political, de¬ned, 2
theology, Quaker, 28
Tennant, Gilbert, 145 Thomas, George, 160“7, 169, 186
testimonies. See also af¬rmation; oaths; Thomson, Charles
peace testimony Dickinson and, 225, 239, 253, 277
anti-slavery, 39“40, 152, 158 faints at meeting, 225
Articles of Confederation (1776), Quakers, critical of, 222“3, 239
re¬‚ected in, 252 Virginia Exiles and, 270
as challenges to conventional order, 48 Thoreau, Henry David, 8, 327, 329“30
as civic virtues, 154 toasting healths, 156, 159, 227
for civil government, 162“3 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 56, 307, 324
de¬ned, 48 Toleration, Act of (1689), 54
Dickinson™s, 193“4, 273, Tolles, Frederick B., 17, 82
287“8 Tories/Toryism, 18, 65, 67, 261,
as dissent, 50, 170. See also dissent 270“1
expression of 38, 39“40, 44, 125. See Townshend Acts (1767), 207, 211, 214,
also proselytization 216
Index 381

Townshend, Charles, 222 Controversy; Wilkinson-Story
Trenchard, John, 85 Controversy; Free Quakers
trial by jury, 60, 82, 255, 262, 264, 274, universal salvation, 55, 66, 140
286, 294 unprogrammed meeting, 27
trimmer(s)
de¬ned/described, 12“13, 98“9 Valerius, 274
Dickinson as, 202, 233 Valiant Sixty, 26
faction in Glorious Revolution, 98“9, vegetarianism, 158“9
261 vessel, the polity as, 96, 98, 213, 238,
persecuted, 99, 261 241
Quakers as, 98“9, 108, 174, 178, 184, Virginia, 147, 229, 269“70, 276
231, 261, 262 Virginia Exiles, 265“70
Tully, Alan, 137, 138, 187 virtue, 159, 190, 237, 244, 263, 273,
tyranny, 12 289
in the American polity, 308 civic, 148
American sins punished with, 272 Quaker, 190, 193, 222, 237, 262
Barclay denies charges of, 138, Quaker and republican equated, 315
299 reason as a means to, 76
by the British, 214 republican, 143, 189, 210, 301“2, 307,
in a divine right monarchy, 85 325
federalism prevents, 299, 308 spiritual, 106
parliamentary, 225 Voltaire, Francis de, 143
in the Quaker polity, 32, 38, 136, 138, voluntary associations, 152“4
155, 166, 323 voting, 7, 82, 101, 109, 139, 171,
Quakers accuse one another of, 33, 173, 257, 259, 307, 328
123“4, 321 property quali¬cations for, 141, 255,
in Revolutionary Pennsylvania, 271 266, 302
Thomas, George charged with, 167
Tyrrell, James, 85 Walpole, Horace, 231
War of Jenkins™s Ear, 161, 180
Uncle Tom™s Cabin, 315 Warner, Michael, 298
unity/union, 138, 315, 324. See also Washington, George, 193
constitution; safety Washington, Lawrence, 145
American, 232, 246, 251, 268, 277, weapons, spiritual versus carnal, 58, 96,
295“8, 308, 316, 324 214, 322. See also arms
as the constitution of the people, 101 Weber, Max, 12, 25, 30, 47, 328
dissent with, 25, 38, 55, 100, 117, wet Quakers, 159
136, 176“8, 180, 185, 226, Wharton, Thomas, Jr., 229
289“90 Whig(s)
as divinely ordained/sacred, 30, 33, 52, conservatism of, 97
280“1, 294 Dickinson as, 234
government maintains, 31, 43, 46“7, Dickinson obnoxious to, 241
75, 83, 137, 144 government, theory of, 73, 80, 85, 89,
liberty of conscience preserves, 75“6, 291“2, 297
213 legal discernment of, 68“72, 80
in Quaker process, 33“9, 47, 55, 96, moderation of, 97
99, 100, 117, 134 oppositional rhetoric of, 175
of Quakers, 103, 132, 142, 174. See property, protection of, 82
also Hicksite Separation; Keithian Quakers allied with, 202
382 Index

Whig(s) (cont.) Winstanley, Gerrard, 67
Quakers compared with, 68“72, Witte, John, Jr., 252
82“3, 91, 96, 99, 218, 231 Wolcott, Oliver, 266
revolution, theory of, 85, 97, 221, Wolf, Edwin, 2nd, 1, 14
297, 313 Wolin, Sheldon, 16
tradition (Whiggism), 17“18, 65“7, Wood, Gordon S., 230, 298,
313 301
Whipple, William, 265 Woolman, John
Whiskey Rebellion, 313 antislavery testimony of, 39
Whitehead, George, 51 boycotting and, 158
Whittier, John Greenleaf, 316 Dickinson emulates, 210
Wilkinson-Story Controversy, 32“4, 104, Garrison, William Lloyd and, 322,
114, 123, 131 324
William and Mary, 126 proselytizing of, 157
Wilmington (Delaware) Friends Meeting, Quaker process, exemplar of, 39“40,
194 42
Wilson, James, 241 Wyoming Controversy, 275

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