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Black holes in the Universe

I.D. Novikov
Theoretical Astrophysics Center, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
University Observatory, Juliane Maries Vej 30,
DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Astrospace Center, P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117810 Moscow, Russian Federation
Nordita, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Tel. (45-35 32) 52-00. Fax (45-35 32) 59-10
E-mail: novikov@nbitac.tac.dk
V.P. Frolov
University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics,
Edmonton, T6G 2J1 Canada
Tel. (1-780) 492-10 75. Fax (1-780) 492-07 14
E-mail: frolov@phys.ualberta.ca

Some physics and astrophysics aspects of black holes are reviewed. We start by describing a membrane paradigm approach in which a
black hole is treated as a physical body with very special properties. In particular, a black hole behaves as a conducting sphere with a
universal ©nite resistivity, so that when rotating in an external magnetic ©eld it becomes a unipolar inductor capable of producing a huge
voltage difference. Astrophysical applications of this mechanism are described and properties of spacetime inside a black hole are brieêy
considered. In the bulk of the review, possible sources of observational evidence for the existence of black holes are discussed. Prospects
for detection of gravitational waves from black holes by gravitational-wave observatories are also examined. The review is concluded
with a discussion of the universality phenomenon discovered recently in the study of the critical gravitational collapse.

PACS numbers: 04.70. ± s, 04.80.Nn, 97.60.Lf, 98.62.Js

Bibliography ¬ 125 references
Received 19 April 2000

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