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Index




Abduction 99 Barnet, Richard 131, 149
Abrams, Phillip 105 Barone, Enrico 150
Abstraction 35, 76, 84“85, 102, 129, Becker, Gary 194
176“177 Bell, Daniel 116
degrees of 92, 118 on human science 104
and representation 84“85 Belluci, Patricia 87, 99
and typi¬cation 85 Bendix, Reinhard 104, 107, 113“114
see Generalization Benhabib, Seyla 31
Achen, Christopher 153“156 Berle, Adolph A. 131
Achinstein, Peter 8 Bhaskar, Roy 2, 8, 16, 72, 76, 146,
Agents 2 172
as causes 4, 75, 83 complex causality 35
denial of 53, 180 experiments 33
and generative social mechanisms 75“84 experimental closure 35
as powerful particulars 72 goals of science 14
reproduce and transform structure 68, methodological individualism 82
115 reasons as causes 54
see Structuration, Duality of Structure. regularity determinism 37
AJS (American Journal of Sociology) social science as emancipatory 67
Debate 171“174 theory in social science
Alexander, Jeffrey 8, 112 transformational model 70“71
Ancestry 47 Bickerton, Derek 50
Anderson, P. W. 145 Biggart, Nicole W. 127
Anderson, Perry 106, 107, 112 Biography 115
Appadura¨, Arjun 149
± Blau, Peter 178
Archer, Margaret 72, 73 Bloch, Marc 104
Aristotle 55, 72 Boettke, Peter J. 126, 129, 140
Aronson, Gerald 8 on micro and macro economics
on ontology and explanation 14 191“192
Arrow, Kenneth 126, 145 on transactions costs 196
Arrow™s Paradox 196 role of price system 146
Ashley, Richard 67“68 Bogomolov, Oleg 136
(American Sociological Review) Debate Bohm, David, on causality 21“22, 23
171“174 Bohr, Niels 36
Atkins, Peter 14“16, 17, 27, 36 Boltzman, Ludwig 8
on the period table 23 Bonham, Vence L. 47
Augier, Mie 147 Bottomore, Tom 133
Boudon, Raymond 76
Bahktin, Mikhail 65 on causality 171
Bakan, Joel 131 on rational choice theory 82
Balough, Thomas 128 social mechanisms 90
Baran, Paul 142, 190, 191, 192, 197 Bourgois, Phillip 87

217
218 Index

Bourdieu, Pierre 2, 55, 66, 76 Collins, Patricia Hill 66
on re¬‚exivity 65 Collins, Randall 86
task of sociology 76 on Weber 118
Brackman, Steven 190 Commons, John R. 127
Brenner, Robert 148, 149 Comte, August 17, 103
Brown, Harold I. 29 Con¬rmation
Brownstein, Henry H. 87, 99 logic of 32
Bunge, Mario, on causal mechanisms 16, Conley, Dalton 34
73, 175 Consciousness 56
Burawoy, Michael 4, 68, 76, 113, 163, as social 50
166 Coyne, Jerry A. 46
Burian, Richard 39 Craver, Carl F. 44
Bush, George W. 114 Comparative Sociology
goals of 108“109, 157“158,
Calhoun, Craig 171 168“169
on causal explanation, centrality of 171 modes of 107“110
confusions over 171 Comparison 157“158
what is at stake in 173 nominal 158“163
sociology of historical sociology 105 Durkheim on 164
Camic, Charles 104 ordinal 164“165
Campbell, Donald 52 Competition 190
Cartwright, Nancy 16 perfect vs imperfect 131, 141“142, 187,
Causal Mechanisms 1“2, 4, 28, 50, 189“191
172“173 in process theories 145, 147
and general laws 183“185 See Neo-classical Theory, Markets
persons as product of many 3, 51 Covering Law (D-N) Model 2, 5, 8, 18,
as promissory notes 103, 126
structures as 168“169, 173 see Deductive-Nomological Explanation.
and understanding 16“25, 28 Culture / structure dichotomy 71“72
Causes 1“2 in structuration debate 161
agents as 2 Moore on 120
analyzed as necessary and suf¬cient
conditions 160“162 Darwin, Charles 39“40, 50
effort at extensionalist analysis of 161 Davis, Mike 148
in AJS debate 171“174 Davis, William L. 128
Humean account of 17“21, 160 DeBreu, G. 126, 129
as productive powers 2, 21“24 Deductivism
and nomicity 21“22, 115 de¬ned 2
are non-additive 52 in economics 5
realist analysis of 2, 21“24, 160, see Covering Law Model, D-N Model.
172“173 Deductive-Nomological (D-N)
reasons as 54“56 Explanation 2, 8, 18, 19
versus correlations 151“152, 164“169 assumes the wrong relation 12
working conjunctively 3 de¬ned 9
see Causal Mechanisms fails in any science 11
Cavelli-Sforzsa, Luigi Luca 45, 47 symmetry of explanation and prediction
Chai, Sun-Ki 178 11
Chakrabarty, Dipesh 93“94 Delanty, Gerard 105
Chamberlin, E. H. 142, 190, 191 Descartes, Ren´ 26
e
Chandler, Alfred D. 131 Determinism
Clifford, J. 64 and causality 3
Coase, R. H. 130, 133, 134“137 regularity 37“39, 55
Cobb, Jonathan 76 structural 68
Coleman, James 76, 178 versus free will 53
Collier, Andrew 99 Dewey, John 23
Collingwood, R. G. 53 character and habits 55
Index 219

on social consciousness 50 of events 11
spectator theory 65 historical 115
Dilthey, Wilhelm 10 mis-conceived as a logical relation
Dixit, Avinash K. 190 18
Dobbin, Frank 127 narrative 104, 116, 121, 123, 124,
Drechsel, Emanuel 45 157
Dretske, Fred 8, 123 and understanding 12“13
Droysen, Johann Gustav 10 uncritically assumed 7
Dugger, William M. 127, 131, 148 see Covering Law Model,
Duhem, Pierre 8 Understanding,
rejection of explanation 17 Idiographic / Nomothetic
Durkheim, Emile 69, 103 Experiment 2
on history and sociology 103, 127 and closure 33“35, 160
structuralist explanation 58 mathematical vs experimental control
Duster, Troy 153
on “race” and disease 47, 48, 49 “natural” 99“101
Dyck, Charles F. 135, 188, 198
Fabian, Johannes 65
Einstein, Albert 30 Fallibilism 30
advice to philosophers of science 7 Falsi¬cation 26“33
as metaphysician 18 Feinberg, Gerald 135
Eisenstadt, S. N. 106 Feyerabend, Paul K. 29
Elias, Norbert 104 Finley, Moses I. 104
Elson, Diane 140, 150 Ford, Henry 191
Elster, Jon 76 Foundationalism 29, 33
Emergence 44, 49 Frankfort-Nachmias, Chava 18, 26
Empiricism 3, 172 Freedom
analysis of dispositional terms 21, de¬ned 135
27“28, 29 Friedman, Michael
and theory 27“29 on explanation 12“14
see Foundationalism, Positivism on intelligibility 14
Engels, Friedrich 103 on uni¬cation in science 32
Epigenesis Friedman, Milton 8, 36“37, 129
de¬ned 43“45 Functionalism 111, 112
and factor analysis 52
and human development 51 Galbraith, John Kenneth 131, 142,
see Human Nature 190
Episodes 121, 123 Gambetta, Diego 86
and events 11, 123 Gar¬nkel, Harold 66, 76“81
Epistemology Gemes, Ken 13
de¬ned 9 Genetic Code 44, 186, 187
Ethnography 4, 63, 121 as program 51
as ¬rst step in social science 4, 66 Geertz, Clifford 66
and privileging a point of view 65“66 Geneen, Harold 131
Ethnomethodology 63 General Equilibrium Theory 38
Etzioni, Amitai 127 founders of 126
Evolutionary biology as myth 150
as model for social science 39 role in planned economies 150
Explaining Behavior see also Neo-Classical Theory, Markets
by means of reasons 54“56 Generalization
improving on the ordinary way of 52“57 and abstraction 84“85, 176“177
and psychology 52 confusion over 108“110, 176
and regularity determinism 52 and laws 9, 108“110, 183
see also Rational Choice Theory and prediction 37, 56
Explanation 1“2, 7“25 role of 89, 97, 109“110, 123, 156,
asymmetry with prediction 11, 36 162“163
220 Index

Giddens, Anthony 2, 3, 59, 66, 76, Henningsen, Manfred 46
115 Hermeneutic 2, 4, 10, 62“64
criticism of functionalism 112 double 62“64
structuration theory 58“60 and interpretive sociology 113
Gillespie, Alex 50 see Verstehen, Ethnography
Gilroy, Paul 46 Hernes, Gudmund
Glassner, Barry 88 on social mechanisms 81“84
Glover, Jonathan 31 con¬rming models 99“100
Goffman, Erving 1“2, 4, 63, 69, 76 Hexter, J. H. 167
Asylums as model of social mechanism Hicks, J. R. 141, 194
95“96, 102 Hill, Christopher 104
Goldstein, Paul 87“88, 99 Hintikka, Jaako 13
Goldstone, Jack A. on laws and Hirsch, Fred 197
explanation 171, 183“185 Hirschman, A. O. 128
Goldthorpe, John 105 Historical sociology 4, 103“107
Gould, Roger V. 105, 171 absence of consensus on 105
Gould, Stephen Jay 45 comparison in 157“158
Gowan, Peter 149 goals of 108“109
Granovetter, Mark 143 interpretative 171
Grathoff, Richard 104, 127 realist 115
Green, Donald 127 Skocpol on 110“115
Grossman, Sanford 147 Tilly on 107“110
see Narrative. AJS Debate
Hacking, Ian 30, 180 History
Hahn, Frank 126 a concrete science 4, 11, 39, 116
Hamouda, O. F. 141 as the one human science 103
Hanaford, Ivan 46 not a science 104
Hanson, Norwood 29 and sociology 121“125
Harr´ , Rom 3, 8, 14, 16, 17, 56, 70,
e see Historical Sociology
172 Hobbs, Jesse, on prediction and chaos
conception of theory 27 theory 12“13, 40“41
conversational model 73 Hobsbawm, Eric 104
critic of deductivism 26 Holden, Gerald 7, 18
foreclosure of inquiry 21, 23 Holland, John 145
illicit regression 41 Holmwood, John 98, 156
importance of time 41 Homosocial reproduction 91
powerful particulars 72“73 Hull, David 44
role of experiments 33 Human nature
Harris, Kathleen 116 and biology 45
Harris, Judith Rich 51 a useful concept of 45
Harvey, David 148, 191 Human powers, explaining 43“57
Hausman, Daniel F. 186 see Epigenesis
Hayek, F. A. 126, 128, 147 Hume, David 17“21
importance of process 144
on price system 140 Ideal types 85
and Schutz 147, 196
¨ Ideology 78“79, 80, 87, 96, 101“102, 120,
Hector, Michael, in AJS debate 171“181 128, 133, 134, 140
Hedstrom, Peter 76 Idiographic / Nomothetic 4, 103
Hegel, George Wilhelm Friedrich 120 Indifference Curves 171, 188
Heijdra, Ben J. 190 Inductivism 31, 32
Helmholz, Hermann 18 Institutional facts 57
Hempel, Carl 8“11, 55, 112 vs brute facts 73
D-N model as appropriate for human Intentionality 49“50
sciences 10 collective 49“50
theoretician™s dilemma 28 Interpretative sociology 8
Hendrix, Jimmy 56 not part of AJS debate
Index 221

rejects causal explanation 10, 113 Lorenz, Edward 38
see Hermeneutics. Historical Sociology Luhmann, Niklas 112
Lukas, Robert 129, 191
Jorde, Lynn B. 47, 48, 49 Lukes, Steven 127

Kalecki, Michael 190 Mach, Ernst 8, 18, 27
Kant, Immanuel 53 Machamer, Peter, on mechanisms 16, 23,
metaphysics no part of science 18 27“28
and the “thing it itself” 29 Madden, Edward 17
Kanter, Rosabeth Ross 91 Mahoney, James 105, 157“169
Keezer, Dexter M. 191 Mandel, Ernest 150
Kelvin, Lord (William Thomson) 8, Manicas, Peter T. 7, 8, 11, 30, 32, 39, 52,
14 76, 103, 118, 122, 158, 168
Kemp, Stephen 98, 156 Mann, Michael 106
Keynes, John Maynard 189, 191“194 Marcus, G. E. 64
Kim, Jaegwon 8, 21 Markets
Kirchoff, M. M. 8 behavior in, as micro-rational vs
Kirzner, Israel M. 146 macro-irrational 196“198
Kiser, Edgar 171“181 capitalist 137
see AJS Debate de¬nition of 132, 140
Kitcher, Philip 13 ef¬ciency of 194“199
Knorr-Cetina, Karen 30 externalities in 196
Kripke, Saul 181 kinds of 129, 131
Kuhn, Thomas S. 8, 29 free-exchange in 133“134, confounded
criticism of foundationalism 29, 33 with voluntary exchange in 133,
grounds for scienti¬c consensus 29“31 134“137
in¬‚uence on sociology of knowledge 30 as historical product 148
and post-modern theory 30, 175 independence of irrelevant alternatives
Somers on 179“180 as de¬ning feature of 188, 198
labor
Lachman, Ludwig M. 144 neo-classical theory of 5, 129“130,
Laplace, Pierre Simon 2“3, 26, 53 140
Latour, Bruno 30 as process 144“147
Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent 25 socialist 137, 150
Lawrence, Paul R. 127 utopian conception of 128, 140
Lawson, Tony 85, 124, 127, 147, Marshall, Alfred 126
182 Marx, Karl 4, 69, 76, 103, 106, 115,
on con¬rmation of theory 100“101 148
demi-regs 97“99 abstract labor 86
Lazonick, William 128, 131 alienation 138
Leamer, E. E. 100“101 Capital as model of social mechanism
Lekachman, Robert 192 92“94, 122, 124, 174
Lenski, Gerhard W. 106 on contradictions in capitalism 191
Lentin, Alana 46 in¬‚uence on Bhaskar, Giddens, and
Leontief, Wassily 130 Willis 76
versus deductivism 127 and Hegel 120
LeRoi, Armand, Marie 46 and Weber 117
Lewis, Paul 72“73, 145, 147 May, Timothy, on Harr´ ™s account of
e
Lewis, David 8 social structure 73
Lewontin, Richard 30, 45, 154 McAdam, Douglas 76, 86, 123
Lindbloom, Charles 134 McClean, Scott 89, 155
Lipset, Seymour Martin 106 McCloskey, Deirdre 152
functionalism 111 McDonald, Terrance 105, 161
Locke, John 139 McNeil, Jr., Donald G. 115
Logical empiricism 27“29 Mead, George Herbert 50, 55
see Positivism, Realism consciousness as social 50
222 Index

Mendel, Gregor 47 Packard, Vance 191
Mendeleev, Dmitrii 23, 36 Paige, Jeffrey 112
Menger, Karl 127 Pareto, Wilfredo
Merton, Robert K. 8, 177 on closed systems 38
Meteorology, and social science 39, 40“41 optimality 195
Methodenstreit 10, 103 Parsons, Talcott 104, 106
Methodological Individualism 2, 5, 75, 82, on closed systems 38
127 in¬‚uence of Durkheim 58
Michaelson, Albert Abraham 33 Schutz™s criticism of 63
¨
Mill, John Stuart 157“163 see Functionalism
Mill™s methods 6, 157“163, 167 Passmore, John 8
Mills, C. Wright 55, 64, 91, 104, 168 Pasteur, Louis 161
on social change 68, 112, 115, 170 Path dependency 161, 182, 183
Miroski, Phillip 126, 129 Pearson, Karl 8
Misanin, James R. 52 Phenotype, and genotype 43
Mittleman, James H. 149 and “norms of reaction” 154“155
Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat 103 Pickering, Andrew 30, 65
Moore, Barrington 76, 104, 106, 112, 113, Pitellis, Christos 198
170 Planck, Max 14, 18
on ideology 120 Poincar´ , Henri 8
e
Social Origins of Dictatorship and Polanyi, Karl 104, 138“140, 141, 148
Democracy 119“121 Pomeranz, Kenneth 148
Morgan, John P. 88, 156 Popper, Karl, on falsi¬cation 31“32
Morley, Edward W. 33 Porpora, Douglas 71“72, 73
Mossadegh, Mohammed 163 Positivism, de¬ned 7, 8
Multiple Regression 151“156 see Logical Empiricism
Munch, Richard 112
¨ Posner, Richard A. 196
Prediction
Nagel, Ernest 112 and generalization 37, 56
Napoleon Bonaparte 114, 116 in open systems 34
Naturalism 53 under conditions of closure 34“37
in philosophy of human sciences 9, 10 see Explanation, Regularity Determinism
Neo-Classical Theory 5 Price Systems, as coordinating mechanism
criticism of, by insiders 128 137“140
history of criticism of 127 see Markets
and history 126, 145 Promissory notes 11, 88, 115, 166,
micro vs macro 191“194 168“169
as positivism 5 see Causal Mechanisms
relation to reality 5 Putnam, Robert D. 88“89
see Markets, General Equilibrium
Theory Qualitative Research 64
Neo-Liberal 193 see Ethnography
Nelson, Benjamin 104 Quine, W. V. O. 29, 64
Newton, Sir Isaac 18, 26
Nomothetic 4, vs. idiographic 103 Race
North, Douglas 148 de-mysti¬ed 45“46
Nove, Alec 136 and disease 49
Nussbaum, Martha 31 and racism 88, 90, institutional 91
Ragin, Charles 109
Ogbu, John 88, 91 Rational Choice Theory 55, 76, 82, 111,
Olsen, Steve 48, 156 127
Olson, Mancur 197 and historical sociology 171“183, ASR
Ostwald, Wilhelm 8 debate on 177“178
Oxenfeld, Alfred 128, 139 Ravetz, Jerome 30
Outhwaite, William 133 Rawls, John 140, 195
Index 223

Realist Theory of science 2, 3, 172 Scienti¬c, practice 30, method 30, 31
in AJS debate 171“174, theoretical vs. Scriven, Michael 8
relational 178“181 Searle, John R.
Regularity determinism 37“39 on collective intentionality 49, compared
see Laplace to Mead 50, 59, 71
Relations, internal vs. external 181 on institutional and brute facts 57“58,
Ricardo, David 192 69
Ringer, Fritz 103 ways to explain behavior 55“57
on causality in Weber 117“118 Secord, Paul F. 52, 56, 76
Ritzer, George 149 Sellers, Wilfred 29
Robertson, Roland 149 Sen, Amartya 128
Robinson, Joan 190, 191 Sennett, Richard 76
Rorty, Richard 29, 180 Sewell, William K. Jr. 6, 59, 76, 113, 157,
Rosaldo, Renato 64 158, 163
Roscher, Wilhelm 11 critique of Bourdieu 74
Rosenberg, Alan 30 critique of Giddens 69“70
Rosenberg, Alex 39 debate with Skocpol 157
Roth, Guenther, on Weber 117“118, 119, eventful sociology 170
123 experimental temporality 159, 166
Rothstein, Richard 86 indispensability of concept of social
Rotimi, Charles W. 46, 48, 49 structure 58
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 178 Schumpeter, Joseph A. 126, 190
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich 105 Shapiro, Ian 127
Runciman, W. G. 106 Skocpol, Theda 6, 105, 110“115
Runde, J. H. 145, 147 an assessment of States and Social
Russell, Bertrand, on causality 18 Revolutions 115, 157“163
Ryan, Patrick J. 87, 99 promissory notes in 168“169
causes of social revolution 112“113
Sahlins, Marshall 76, 116 on comparison 165, 169
on ethnography 64, 65 debate with Sewell 167
two types of structural agency 116 on Moore 119
Salmon, Wesley 8 on narrative 164“165
Samuelson, Paul 126, 193, 196 structural explanation 161, 167“168
Sangster, Robert 131 uses of cases 112
Sassan, Saskia 149 Smelser, Neil 106, 127
Sawyer, R. Keith 73 Smith, Adam 126, 139, 195
Sayer, Andrew 101, 121, 123 Smith, Charles W. 131“132
Sayer, Derek 117 Smith, Dennis 105, 106
Say™s Law 192 Social change 61“62, 68
Schelling, Thomas C. 97 Mills on 68, 112, 115, 170
Schlick, Moritz 18 Social mechanism 4, 75, 76“102
Schonfeld, Andrew 148 hermeneutic moment 4
Schor, Juliet B. 142 as micro-foundation 93“94
Schrodinger, Erwin 36
¨ and self-ful¬lling prophecies 97
Schutz, Alfred 83, 101, 130
¨ social structure as 168“169, 173
critique of Parsons 63 structure of 81“84
and Hayek 147 and understanding 122“125
see Typi¬cation as virtual 85
Sciences 35, 75 Social sciences
abstract vs concrete 11, 25, 109“110, compared to physical sciences 43, 57
117 as emancipatory 67
goals of 14 explanation in 1“2, 3
“shoddy, reckless and dirty” 30 and history 4, 103, 104, 121“125
success of abstract 35, 124 meta-theory for 2, 175“177
see Social Sciences misunderstandings of 42“43
224 Index

Social sciences (cont.) in Parsons 177
nature and goals of 4 and prediction 34“37
ontological assumptions of 43, 57, realist interpretation of 27“35, 76,
177“178 84“85
Social structure 2, 58“62 as representation 3, 27, 76, 84“85
constrains and enables action 68 and uni¬cation 32
as indispensable concept 58 Thomas, Scott L. 198
as medium and product of action 60“61 Thompson, E. P. 76, 93, 106
reality of 3, 61 Thurow, Lester 128, 194
Skocpol on 169“170 Ticktin, Hilail 136, 139
as social mechanism 168“169, 173 Tilly, Charles 4, 76, 86, 105, 107
see Agency, Structuration Theory on Bendix 114
Solow, Robert 128 demise and recovery of historical
Somers, Margaret 76, 105 sociology 104
on epistemology 179“180 four approaches to historical sociology
on Kuhn 180 107“110, 164
on ontology 177 on labor markets 143
relational realism 171 mechanisms of state-formation 94“95,
see ASR Debate 122
Spencer, Herbert 7 mechanisms of urbanization 86, 90
Steele, Claude 91, 92 Tobin, James 128
Stefan™s law 5, 19 Tocqueville, Alexis 103
Steger, Manfred 149 Toulmin, Stephen 29
Stewart, A. 98 Trotsky, Leon 106
Stigler, George 129 Turner, Jonathan 23
Stiglitz, Joseph 128, 140, 147, 149, 190 Typi¬cation 85, 87, 117
Stinchcombe, Arthur 76, 105, 106
on mechanisms 95 Understanding 1“2, 7“25
Strong programme 30 and causal mechanisms 16“25
Structuration theory 58“60 and explanation as equivocal 12“13
criticism of 67“74 as goal of science 2, 3, 11
see Giddens not to be identi¬ed with verstehen 4
Suppe, Frederick 29 in social science 3, 12“13
Swedburg, Richard 76, 127
Sweezy, Paul 142, 190, 197 Varella, Charles 70
Symbolic Interactionism 63 Veblen, Thorstein 127, 190
System closure, Verstehen 4, 64“65
de¬ned 33“34 Vlastos, Stephen 47
and linearity 44 Voegelin, Eric 46
see Experiment Voluntarism 46
von Mises, Ludwig 144
Tarrow, Sidney 76
Tawney, R. H. 148 Wagner, Helmut 104
Theory Wallace, William 8
and abstraction 35, 76, 84“85, 99, 102 Wallerstein, Emanuel 106
acceptance of 63, in social science War on terror 116
99“101 Watson, John B. 50
de¬ned 26“27 Weber, Max 4, 11, 56, 83, 85, 101, 103,
and experiment 2, 26“33 104, 106, 107, 148
general 104 adequate causation 117“118, 151
goals of 1 anti-positivism 117, 127
instrumentalist interpretation of 27“29, calculability 40
35, 85 causality 117“118
in Kiser and Hector 174“177 heuristics 130
and meta-theory 175“177 historical sociology 114, 123
Index 225

human science as concrete 4, 108“109, Williams, Malcolm 65
118, 123 Williams, Terry 87
idiographic vs. nomothetic 109 Willis, Paul 4, 76“81, 102
mono-causal explanation 47 Learning to Labor as model of social
narrative 5 mechanism 76“81
pragmatism 123 Wimsatt, William 44
and realism 117 Woodling, Stephen P. 47, 48, 49
search for laws 183 Woodward, James 8
verstehen 64 Wundt, Wilhelm 50
Weiss, Paul 44
Whit¬eld, Keith 155 Zaret, David 109
Wien™s law 14, 19 Ziliak, Stephen 152
Wight, Colin 72 Zimmer, Lynn 88

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