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Form I: The base form triliteral verb

1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern
Form I is considered the base form because of its fundamental structure. In
Arabic, this form is termed mujarrad Osôn©oe: ˜bare; stripped™ because it is the
simplest stem of all. The base pattern for Form I past tense is CaCVC, that is,
consonant-fatHa-consonant-short vowel-consonant. Although the first short vowel
is consistently fatHa, the second, or stem vowel, may be fatHa, kasra or Damma:
fa¬al-a nπn©na, fa¬il-a nπp©na, fa¬ul-a nπo©na.
The present tense stem vowel (the vowel that follows the second root consonant)
is also variable in Form I. It may be /a/, /u/, or /i/.

1.2 Meaning
Form I is the closest indicator of the meaning of the lexical root. There are shades
of meaning associated with the stem vowel differences in the past tense citation
forms, but these semantic differences are very subtle. Note that every verb and
verbal noun has a range of meanings, sometimes extensive. Glosses or English
equivalents provided here are not exclusive or exact meanings but represent com-
mon standard usage.

1.3 Transitivity
Form I covers a wide semantic range and may be either intransitive or transitive.
Occasionally it is doubly transitive.

1.4 In¬‚ection
A particular inflectional characteristic of Form I verbs is that the present tense
subject-marker vowel is fatHa (e.g., ya-drus-u, ya-wadd-u, ya-¬nii).

1.5 Root types
The nature of the three root consonants determines the root type. Phonological
and morphophonemic rules apply to various kinds of sound and irregular roots,

456 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

as follows.1 Paradigm charts for all Form I root types are located at the end of this

2 Regular (sound) triliteral root (al-¬¬l al-SaHiiH al-saalim „É°ùdG í««°üdG π©˜dG)
Sound or regular verbal roots consist of three consonants, all of which are differ-
ent and none of which are waaw, yaa√, or hamza. The Form I verbs are presented
here by their stem types, which fall into three groups.2

2.1 Past tense stem vowel is fatHa
When the past tense stem vowel is fatHa, the present tense stem vowel may be /a/,
/u/, or /i/, so there are three subgroups within this class. Occasionally, the present
tense may show two different stem vowels.

2.1.1 fa¬al-a/ ya-f¬al-u
Here fatHa is the stem vowel in both the past and present tenses. There is some
indication that the present tense medial vowel in this verb form is conditioned by
the nature of its contiguous consonants, which would be the second and third
root consonants. The general theory is that a fatHa in the present tense is associ-
ated with a back (pharyngeal or glottal) consonant.3

to gather, to collect jama¬-a/ya-jma¬-u o„nªr©nj/„nªnLn
to open; to conquer fataH-a/ya-ftaH-u oínàr˜nj/ íàa
n nn
to go dhahab-a/ya-dhhab-u o–ngrònj/ n–ngnP
to grant manaH-a/ya-mnaH-u o„n¦rªnj/ n„n¦ne
to remove, take off xala¬-a/ya-xla¬-u o„n∏r®nj/ n„n∏nN
2.1.2 fa¬al-a / ya-f¬il-u
This type of Form I verb has fatHa in the past tense stem and kasra as the medial
vowel in the present tense.

to return, to go back raja¬-a/ya-rji¬-u o„pLrônj/ n„nLnQ
to dig Hafar-a/ya-Hfir-u oôp˜r«nj/ nôn˜nM
Traditional Arabic grammar divides verb roots into two major classes: (1) SaHiiH í««°U ˜sound™
and (2) mu¬tall qπà©e ˜weak.™ Sound roots are ones that do not contain either waaw or yaa√; weak
roots contain waaw or yaa√ as one or more of the root phonemes. In this text, I have allotted
separate categories for doubled and hamzated verbs because they sometimes involve stem changes
when inflected, even though they are considered SaHiiH, or ˜sound,™ in Arabic grammatical terms.
Certain roots may have more than one stem in the past. Sometimes this indicates a meaning
difference, sometimes not. For example, shamal-a/ya-shmal-u ˜to contain, include™ and also shamil-a/
ya-shmal-u with the same meaning.
For more analysis of the Form I stem-vowel alternation see McCarthy 1991, esp. pp. 69“70, and see
also McOmber 1995, 178“85.
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 457

to carry Hamal-a/ya-Hmil-u oπpªr«nj/ nπnªnM
to know o±pôr©nj/ n±nônY

to acquire, possess malak-a/ya-mlik-u o‚p∏rªnj/ n‚n∏ne
2.1.3 fa¬al-a/ ya-f¬ul-u
The past tense stem vowel is fatHa, the present tense stem vowel is Damma.
to rub farak-a/ya-fruk-u o‘oôr˜nj/ n‘nôna
to leave tarak-a/ya-truk-u o‘oôrànj/ n‘nônJ
to request, ask for Talab-a/ya-Tlub-u –∏£j/ n–n∏nW
o or n
to study daras-a/ya-drus-u o¢SoQrónj/ n¢SnQnO
to transfer naqal-a/ya-nqul-u oπo¤r¦nj/ nπn¤nf
2.2 Past tense stem vowel is kasra: fa¬il-a/ ya-f¬al-u
When the past tense stem vowel is kasra, the present tense stem vowel is normally

to drink sharib-a/ya-shrab-u oÜnôr°»nj/ nÜpôn°T
to do, make; to work oπnªr©nj/ nπpªnY
to know oºn∏r©nj/ nºp∏nY

to hear sami¬-a/ya-sma¬-u o„nªr°ùnj/ n„pªn°S
2.3 Past tense stem vowel is Damma: fa¬ul-a/ ya-f¬ul-u
This Form I stem has Dammas as both stem vowels. This stem class generally denotes
states of being, or the acquisition or increase of a certain quality. These roots therefore
also are the roots of many adjectives. This type of Form I verb is usually intransitive.

to be heavy thaqul-a/ya-thqul-u oπo¤rãnj / nπo¤nK
(adjective: ˜heavy™ thaqiil π«¤K)

to grow or be big; grow older kabur-a/ya-kbur-u oôo‘rµnj / nôo‘nc
(adjective: ˜big, great™ kabiir ’‘c)

to be good Hasun-a/ya-Hsun-u oøo°ùr«nj / nøo°ùnM
(adjective: ˜good™ Hasan ø°ùM)

2.4 Examples of Form I sound verbs in context
.«É‘·G ≈∏Y è∏ãdG «p§r¡nj .øªãdG ¿’©aój
ya-hTil-u l-thalj-u ¬alaa l-jibaal-i. ya-dfa¬-uuna l-thaman-a.
Snow falls on the mountains. They are paying the price.
458 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

.Ú∏q㪟G øe OóY Aɤ∏dG ô°†M .ÜÉ‘dG íàa
HaDar-a l-liqaa√-a ¬adad-un min-a l-mumaththil-iina. fataH-a l-baab-a.
A number of representatives attended the meeting. It opened the door.

3 Geminate verb root (al-¬¬l al-muDa¬¬af ∞q©°†ŸG π©˜dG)4
Geminate or doubled verbal roots are ones where the second and third consonant
of the root are the same. In the citation form of Form I, the doubled or geminate
consonant is written only once, with a shadda above it to show that it is double.

3.1 Stem shifts
Geminate verbs have two stems in the past and also two in the present. This is
because of a phonological rule that prevents two identical consonants from being
in sequence with a short vowel between them when they are directly followed by
a vowel, e.g., instead of *radad-a it is radd-a (˜he replied™), instead of *ya-HTuT-uuna,
it is ya-HuTT-uuna (˜they put™).
However, if the second identical stem consonant is followed by another con-
sonant, the identical consonants remain separated, e.g., radad-tu (˜I replied™),
ya-HTuT-na (˜they (f.) put™).5 This second type of stem, where the identical conso-
nants are split, is referred to here as the “split stem.”
In the past tense conjugation, many of the inflectional suffixes start with con-
sonants (-tu, -ta, -ti, -tumaa, -naa, -tunna, -tum, -na), so the split stem in the past tense
is fairly common; in the present tense, however, the only suffix that starts with a
consonant is the -na of the second and third persons feminine plural (e.g., ya-rdud-na
˜they (f.) reply™).

3.2 Stem types
Doubled Form I verbs fall into three stem types, according to their stem vowels.
The citation forms of the past tense third person singular all look alike, so in
order to know the stem type, it is necessary to know the stem vowel in the present
tense. The first person singular past tense and the third person feminine plural
present tense are given as examples for these verbs to illustrate the stem vowels.

3.2.1 fa¬al-a /ya-f¬ul-u (a/u) “> fa¬l-a/ya-fu¬l-u
t«oónj /n q«nO
to show, indicate dall-a/ya-dull-u
past tense split stem: dalal-tu oâr∏ndnO
present tense split stem: ya-dlul-na nør∏odrónj
The technical Arabic term for “doubled” is given as muDa¬¬af ∞q©°†e in ¬Abd al-Latif et al. (1997,
140) and as muDaa¬af ∞YÉ°†e by Wright 1967 (I:69).
Abboud and McCarus 1983 (Part 2:81“88) have a detailed description of the phonological rules and
the forms of the doubled Form I verb.
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 459

to put, place HaTT-a/ya-HuTT-u §«j / §M
ton sn
past tense split stem: HaTaT-tu ⣣M
present tense split stem: ya-HTuT-na ø££«j
3.2.2 fa¬al-a/ya-f¬il-u (a/i) “> fa¬l-a/ya-¬¬l-u

be small, few; diminish qall-a/ya-qill-u tπp¤nj / sπnb
past tense split stem: qalal-tu oâr∏n∏nb
present tense split stem: ya-qlil-na nør∏p∏r¤nj
to be complete tamm-a/ya-timm-u tºpànj / sºnJ
past tense split stem: tamam-tu oârªnªnJ
present tense split stem: ya-tmim-na nørªpªrànj
3.2.3 fa¬il-a/ya-f¬a-lu (i/a) “> fa¬l-a/ya-fa¬l-u
In this stem type, the past tense stem vowel kasra shows up only in the split stem,
when the verb has a suffix that starts with a consonant. In the citation form, it
has been deleted because of phonological restrictions.6

to want; to like wadd-a/ya-wadd-u tOn’nj / sOnh
past tense split stem: wadid-tu o¤rOpOnh
present tense split stem: ya-wdad-na n¿rOnOr’nj
to continue, keep doing (s.th.) Zall-a/ya-Zall-u tπn¶nj /sπnX
past tense split stem: Zalil-tu oâr∏p∏nX
present tense split stem: ya-Zlal-na nør∏n∏r¶nj
3.1 Examples of Form I geminate verbs in context
.¥É˜qJ™G q” ´QÉ°»dG ˜ qô“ IQÉ«°S
tamm-a l-ittifaaq-u. sayyaarat-un ta-murr-u fii l-shaari¬-i
The agreement was completed. a car passing by in the street

.«GD’°S ≈∏Y ¤qOQ ?A“NE™G ¤É«∏ªY ºàJ ∞«c
radd-at ¬alaa su√aal-in. kayf-a ta-timm-u ¬amaliyyaat-u l-√ixlaa√-i?
She responded to a question. How are the evacuation operations

Wehr (1979) gives both the citation form and the split-stem form for this stem type of doubled verb.
460 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

4 Hamzated verb root (al-¬¬l al-mahmuuz R’ª¡ŸG π©˜dG)
A hamzated verb is one where any one of the root consonants is hamza. It may
occur as the first, second, or third consonant. These verbs are considered a sepa-
rate category because of rules that govern the occurrence and distribution of
hamza, and also because of hamza spelling rules. As the verbal roots inflect within
conjugations or as they shift into derived forms, the seat of hamza may change.

4.1 Hamza-initial Form I verbs
to eat √akal-a/ya-√kul-u to take √axadh-a/ya-√xudh-u
oπocrCÉnj / πncnCG oòoNrCÉnj / nònNnCG
4.2 Hamza-medial Form I verbs
to ask (s.o. s.th.) sa√al-a/ya-s√al-u o«nCÉr°ùnj / n«nCÉn°S
to repair, to bandage la√am-a/ya-l√am-u „¦“j / n„¦nC™
o Cn n
4.3 Hamza-¬nal Form I verbs
to begin bada√-a/ya-bda√-u to read qara√-a/ya-qra√-u
oCGnór‘nj / nCGnónH oCGnôr¤nj / nCGnônb
Examples of Form I hamzated verbs in context:
.ô˜°üdG øe CGó‘f ¿CG ɦ«∏Y .¥ô°»dG ô«°S CGó‘j ¤h’H ˜
¬alay-naa √an na-bda√-a min-a l-Sifr-i. fii bayruut-a ya-bda√-u siHr-u l-sharq-i.
We have to begin from zero. In Beirut starts the magic of the East.

5 Assimilated verb root (al-¬¬l al-mithaal «ÉãŸG π©˜dG)
Assimilated verb roots begin with a semi-consonant (waaw or yaa√ ), most often
waaw. They are called assimilated in English because the initial waaw, even though
it is part of the root, often disappears in the present tense, deleted or assimilated
to the subject-marker prefix. The yaa√ does not normally get assimilated.7

5.1 First root consonant deleted in present tense
This group consists of a number of frequently occurring verbs in MSA. They fall
into two groups: those with fatHa in the past tense stem and kasra in the present
tense, and those with fatHa as the stem vowel in both tenses.

5.1.1 fatHa/kasra
to arrive waSal-a/ya-Sil-u to be wajab-a/ya-jib-u
π°p ünj / π°n Unh
o n –©j/n–Lh
opn nn
to find wajad-a/ya-jid-u to weigh wazan-a/ya-zin-u
ó©j / óLh
op n nn n ¿µj / ¿n R h
o pn n n
Wright 1967 (I:78“81 ) provides an extensive analysis of this verb type in Classical Arabic.
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 461

5.1.2 fatHa/fatHa

to fall waqa¬-a/ya-qa¬-u to put waDa¬-a/ya-Da¬-u
„¤j / „bh
o nn n nn „°n †nj/ „°n Vnh
o n
5.2 First root consonant not deleted in present tense
This group consists of waaw-initial verbs whose stem vowel in the past is kasra or
Damma, and of verbs whose initial root consonant is yaa√. They behave as regular
or sound verbs.

5.2.1 kasra/fatHa

to ache, hurt waji¬-a/ya-wja¬-u „L’j /n „pLh
on rn n
to like, love tOn’nj / sOnh
5.2.2 Damma/Damma

to be wide wasu¬-a/ya-wsu¬-u „°Sr’j / „°Snh
oo n no
5.2.3 yaa√-initial

to be easy oôp°ùr«nj / nôp°ùnj
to wake up oßn¤r«nj / nßp¤nj
Examples of Form I assimilated verbs in context:

.∞qb’àJ ¿CG –©j .Ég’˜°Uh
ya-jib-u √an ta-tawaqqaf-a. waSaf-uu-haa.
They must stop (˜it is necessary that they stop™). They described her.

.¢ùeCG ¢ùf’J ¤EG ¢ù«FôdG π°Uh
waSal-a l-ra√iis-u √ilaa tuunis-a √ams-i.
The president arrived in Tunis yesterday.

6 Hollow root (al-¬¬l al-√ajwaf ±’LC™G π©˜dG)
Hollow verbs are ones in which the second root consonant is actually a semi-
consonant: either waaw or yaa√. These two semi-consonants undergo various muta-
tions, turning into √alif, a short vowel, or a long vowel depending on the word
structure and derivation. In the past tense citation form, for example, the waaw or
yaa√ is not present and is replaced by √alif. However, to look up one of these words

This verb is geminate as well as assimilated. Phonotactic rules prevent the initial waaw from
becoming assimilated in this case.
9 10
Also ya-sur-a/ya-ysur-u ˜to be small; to be easy.™ Also ya-quZ-a/ya-yquZ-u.
462 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

in a dictionary, one must know what the medial root consonant is, either waaw or
yaa√. The medial root consonant often shows itself in the present tense verb stem
(as a long or short vowel) and elsewhere, as in the verbal nouns or participles.
There are essentially three variations on the hollow verb root, determined by
which long vowel is in the present tense or imperfective stem: waaw, yaa√, or √alif.

6.1 Hollow-waaw
These verbs have waaw as their medial radical. The stem vowel in the past tense is
√alif when it is long and Damma when it is short. Examples of both stems are given.
The first person singular is used to exemplify the short stem. The stem vowel in
the present tense is waaw when long and Damma when short. The third person
feminine plural is used to exemplify the short stem.

to say qaal-a (qul-tu)/ya-quul-u (ya-qul-na) (nør∏o¤nj) o« ’¤nj / (oâr∏ob) n«Éb
to visit zaar-a (zur-tu)/ya-zuur-u (ya-zur-na) (n¿r Qo µnj) oQ hµnj / (o¤r Q oR) nQ GR

6.2 Hollow yaa√
These verbs have yaa√ as the medial radical. The stem vowel in the past tense is √alif
when it is long and kasra when it is short. Examples of both stems are given. The
first person singular is used to exemplify the short stem. The stem vowel in the
present tense is yaa√ when long and kasra when short. The third person feminine
plural is used to exemplify the short stem.

to live ¬aash-a (¬ish-tu) /ya-¬iish-u (ya-¬ish-na) (nør°»p©nj) o¢»«©nj / (oâr°»pY) n¢TÉY
to sell baa¬-a (bi¬-tu)/ya-bii¬-u (ya-bi¬-na) (nør©p‘nj) o„«‘nj / (oâr©pH) n´ÉH

6.3 Hollow √alif
These verb roots have either medial waaw or yaa√ but do not show it in the present
tense, using √alif instead. The stem vowel in the past tense is √alif when it is long
and kasra when it is short. Examples of both stems are given. The first person sin-
gular is used to exemplify the short stem. The stem vowel in the present tense is
√alif when long and fatHa when short. The third person feminine plural is used to
exemplify the short stem.

to sleep naam-a (nim-tu)/ya-naam-u (ya-nam-na) (nøª¦j) „¦É¦nj / (oâªf) „¦Éf
r nn o rp n
(root: n-w-m)
to fear xaaf-a (xif-tu)/ya-xaaf-u (ya-xaf-na) (nør˜n®nj) o±É®nj / (oâr˜pN) n±ÉN
(root: x-w-f)
to obtain naal-a (nil-tu)/ya-naal-u (ya-nal-na) (nø∏r ¦j) «É¦nj / (oâ∏r f) «Éf
nn o pn
(root: n-y-l)
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 463

6.3.3 Examples of Form I hollow verbs in context

.á«dɤàfG á∏Môe ¢»«©j .É¡«dEG GhOÉY
ya-¬iish-u marHalat-an-i ntiqaaliyyat-an. ¬aad-uu √ilay-haa.
It is living [through] a transitional stage. They returned to it.
.«’¤J GPÉe º¡aCG ™ .ÉgQhóH „¦’¤J ¿CG ádhódG ≈∏Yh
laa √a-fham-u maadhaa ta-quul-u. wa-¬alaa l-dawlat-i √an ta-quum-a
I don™t understand what you are bi-dawr-i-haa.
saying. It is up to the state to undertake its role.

7 Defective verb root (al-¬¬l al-naaqiS ¢übɦdG π©˜dG)
Defective verb roots are ones where the final consonant is either waaw or yaa√.
These final semi-consonants may take on various forms and even seem to disap-
pear under certain circumstances. In the past tense citation form, these roots all
have final √alif. Roots where yaa√ is the final consonant appear with √alif maqSuura
or yaa√; roots where waaw is the final consonant are written with √alif Tawiila.11

7.1 waaw-defective roots
to appear, to seem badaa/ya-bduu hór‘j/ GnóH
to hope; wish; request rajaa/ya-rjuu ’Lrônj / ÉLnQ
to call, invite da¬aa/ya-d¬uu ’Yrónj / ÉYO
7.2 yaa√ defective roots
Yaa√ defective Form I verbs fall into two main categories: ones that end in -aa (√alif
maqSuura) and ones that end with yaa√. The ones ending in -aa usually inflect in
the present tense with -ii; the ones that end with yaa√ in the past tense usually
take -aa in the present tense. A few verbs take -aa in both the past and the present.

7.2.1 -aa/-ii verbs
to build banaa/ya-bnii »¦r‘nj / ≈¦nH
to be sufficient kafaa/ya-kfii »˜rµnj / ≈˜nc
to walk mashaa/ya-mshii »°»rªnj / ≈°»ne
7.2.2 -ya/-aa verbs
to remain baqiy-a/ya-bqaa ≈¤r‘nj / n»p¤nH
to forget nasiy-a/ya-nsaa ≈°ùr¦nj / n»p°ùnf
to encounter laqiy-a/ya-lqaa ≈¤r∏nj / n»p¤nd
For a concise phonological analysis of hollow and defective verbs, see Timothy Mitchell 1981.
464 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

7.2.3 -aa/-aa verbs
to move forward; to strive sa¬aa/ya-s¬aa ≈©r°ùnj / ≈©n°S
7.2.4 -ya/-ii verb

to be near; to follow; to govern waliy-a/ya-lii »∏nj / n»pdnh
7.3 Examples of Form I defective verbs in context
.I“°üdG ˜ º¡«dÉ«d ¿’°†¤j .»˜µj ™ Gòg
ya-qDuuna layaalii-him fii l-Salaat-i. haadhaa laa ya-kfii.
They spend their nights in prayer. This is not enough.
.„É©dG IôcGP ˜ k“j’W ≈¤‘à°S .A§‘H ’ª¦J
sa-ta-bqaa Tawiil-an fii dhaakirat-i l-¬aalam-i ta-nmuu bi-buT√-in.
It will remain long in the world™s memory. They grow slowly.

.Ú‘NɦdG øe OóY ɵ°T .IQGOE™ÉH «É°üqJ™G ’Lôf
shakaa ¬adad-un min-a l-naaxib-iina. na-rjuu l-ittiSaal-a bi-l-√idaarat-i.
A number of voters complained. We would like to contact the

8 Doubly weak or “mixed” verb root
Doubly weak verb roots have semi-consonants and/or hamza in two places, some-
times as the first and third consonants, and sometimes as the second and third.
They are not many in number, but some of them are frequently used:

8.1 Hollow and hamzated
to come jaa√-a ( ji√-tu)/ya-jii√-u (ya-ji√-na) (nør„p©nj) o…«©nj / (oâr„pL) nAÉL
(root: j-y-√)

8.2 Hamzated and defective
to come to see ra√aa/ya-raa
»JrCÉnj / ≈JnCG iônj / iCGnQ
(root: √-t-y) (root: r-√-y)

8.3 Assimilated and defective (al-¬¬l al-la¬if al-mafruuq ¥hô˜ŸG ∞«˜∏dG π©˜dG)
These roots have waaw or yaa√ in the first and third root consonants.

to perceive, be aware of wa¬aa/ya-¬ii »©nj / ≈Ynh
(root: w-¬-y)

to be near; to follow; to govern waliya/yalii »∏nj / n»pdnh
(root: w-l-y)
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 465

8.4 Hollow and defective (al-¬¬l al-la¬if al-maqruun ¿hô¤ŸG ∞«˜∏dG π©˜dG)
Where a root is both hollow and defective, the medial root semi-consonant
(usually waaw) appears as a regular consonant:

to intend nawaa/ya-nwii to narrate rawaa/ya-rwii
¦’r¦j / i’nf
n ¦hrônj / ihnQ
(root: n-w-y) (root: r-w-y)

8.5 Examples of Form I doubly weak verbs in context
π«ÿG Ü’cQ ¦’gCG »qfC™ .ɦg ¤EG »JCÉj ¿CG ¬«∏Y
sa-taraa! ¬alay-hi √an ya-√tiy-a √ilaa hunaa.
li√ann-ii √a-hwii rukuub-a
You™ll see! l-xayl-i He has to come here.
because I am fond of riding

9 Verbal nouns of Form I
Form I verbal nouns have many variations of pattern.12 Wright lists forty-four pos-
sible verbal noun patterns for Form I or as he terms it, “the ground form” of the
ordinary triliteral verb (1967, I:110“112); Ziadeh and Winder (1957, 71“72) list
eighteen of the most commonly used ones in MSA. ¬Abd al-Latif, ¬Umar and
Zahran give an extensive list (in Arabic) with examples and some explanations
(1997, 83“86). To some extent, particular verbal noun patterns may be associated
with particular Form I verb stem types. For a discussion of this, see Blachère and
Demombynes 1975, 78“84. See also Bateson 2003, 15“21 for a general discussion of
Arabic noun derivation. The most common forms of Form I verbal nouns are listed
here by root type. Sometimes the meaning of the verbal noun is abstract and
sometimes it has acquired a specific, concrete denotation.
Note that many verbs have more than one verbal noun. In this case, the nouns
usually have different connotations. Owing to space restrictions, I have not listed
all verbal noun options for Form I, only typical examples.

9.1 Form I sound root verbal nouns
The most common verbal noun patterns of Form I regular or sound verbs are:
support da¬m jumping qafz
ºrYnO µr˜nb

Beeston states (1970, 35): “Morphologically, the verbal abstracts which match primary verbs have
unpredictable word-patterns, and constitute lexical items.” ¬Abd al-Latif, ¬Umar and Zahran
declare that “The verbal nouns of the base form are many and varied and cannot be known except
by resorting to language [reference] books” maSaadir-u l-thulaathiyy-i kathiirat-un wa-mutanawwa¬-
at-un laa tu¬-raf-u √illaa bi-l-rujuu¬-i √ilaa kutub-i l-lughat-i (1997, 83).
466 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


danger xaTar honor sharaf
n ±nôn°T
distance bu¬d life-span, age
ór©oH ôrªoY


thinking fikr root jidhr jadhr
ôrµpa QròpL
fi¬la fu¬la fa¬la

error, mistake ghalTa expertise xibra
án£r∏nZ Inôr‘pN
wisdom Hikma license, permit ruxSa
ánªrµpM án°ürNoQ
attendance HuDuur feeling shu¬uur
Q’°†oM Q’©o°T

heroism buTuula flexibility muruuna
ánd’£oH ánf hôoe
mixture mizaaj scope, sphere niTaaq
êGµpe ¥É£pf
fi¬aala fa¬aala

writing kitaaba studying diraasa
ánHÉàpc án°SGQpO
splendor faxaama happiness sa¬aada
áneÉ®na InOÉ©n°S
fu¬laan fi¬laan

forgiveness ghufraan loss; losing fiqdaan
¿Gôr˜oZ ¿Gór¤pa
maf ¬il maf ¬ila

logic manTiq knowledge; ma¬rifa
≥p£¦ne ánaô©e

9.2 Form I geminate root verbal nouns
Common verbal noun patterns for Form I geminate verbs include:
fa¬l fu¬l

pilgrimage Hajj response radd
qn qOnQ
solution Hall friendship wudd
qπnM Oh
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 467

number reason sabab
OnónY –n‘n°S
necessity Daruura In Q hôn°V
indication dalaala ánd™nO
paucity qilla áq∏pb

9.3 Form I hamzated verbal nouns
fa¬l, fu¬l, fi¬l
command part juz√
ôrenCG ArµoL
light; brightness Daw√ burden
Ar’n°V Ar–pY
question su√aal «GD’o°S
fi¬aala , fa¬aala
reading qiraa√a beginning badaa√a/bidaaya
InAGôpb ánjGópHn
growth nushuu√ refuge lujuu√
A’°»of A’©od
9.4 Form I Assimilated root verbal nouns
¬ila: In this form of verbal noun, assimilated roots delete the first root semi-
direction jiha trust thiqa
án¡pL án¤pK
promise wa¬d delegation wafd
n órah
arrival wuSuul clarity wuDuuH
«’°Uoh ¬’°Voh
agency wikaala sovereignty; wilaaya
ándÉcph ánj™ph
468 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

feeling; ecstasy wijdaan ¿Gór©’
wishing, wanting mawadda IqO’ne
9.5 Form I hollow root verbal nouns
Common hollow verb verbal noun patterns include:
victory fawz shame
Rr ’a
n –r«nY

sleep nawm living; life
„¦r’f n ¢»r«nY

revolution thawra return
In Q ’K
rn InOr’nY
fu¬l: This pattern in combination with a hollow root yields a long vowel /uu / in the
middle of the word.

length Tuul intensity; lute
«’W O’Y
fi¬aal and fi¬aala: When hollow verbs use this pattern for the verbal noun, the
medial semi-consonant often takes the form of yaa√ even if the root consonant is
establishing, qiyaam mathematics; riyaaDa
„¦É«pb án°VÉjpQ
setting up sports
(root: q-w-m) (root: r-w-D)
visit ziyaara increase ziyaada
InQÉjp R InOÉjp R
(root: z-w-r) (root: z-y-d)

chaos; disorder fawDaa ≈°V’a
flying Tayaraan flooding fayaDaan
¿Gôn«nW ¿É°†n«na
mafaal ˜ mafiil ˜ mafiila: These are miimii maSdars.
destiny maSiir obtaining manaal
’°üne «É¦ne
livelihood ma¬iisha procession masiira
á°»«©ne I’°ùne
The phonological sequence /-iw-/ is usually avoided in Arabic. Therefore hypothetical forms like
*ziwaara and *qiwaam shift to become ziyaara ˜visit™ or qiyaam ˜establishing.™
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 469

9.6 Form I defective root verbal nouns
pardon; negation nafy
’˜nY »˜nf
fa¬aal fi¬aal; In this verbal noun pattern, the final root semi-consonant shifts to
building binaa√ space faDaa√
AɦpH AÉ°†na
singing ghinaa√ meeting liqaa√
AɦpZ Aɤpd
building binaaya protection Himaaya
ánjɦpH ánjɪpM
fu¬uul: This pattern is often found with final-waaw verbs. The combination of the
long /uu/ vowel in this pattern with the final waaw consonant yields a doubled waaw:
height, growth numuww
q’∏Y q’°
fa¬laa: Because these nouns terminate with an added /-aa/ suffix, they are femi-
nine in gender.
piety taqwaa complaint shakwaa
i’r¤nJ i’rµn°T
fi¬laan ˜ fu¬laan
aggression; forgetting; nisyaan
¿GhróoY ¿É«r°ùpf
hostility oblivion
maf ¬an (maf ¬al π©˜e)
meaning ma¬nan effort; striving mas¬an
k≈¦r©ne k≈©r°ùne
9.7 Form I doubly weak or ˜mixed™ verb roots

9.7.1 Hollow and hamzated
maf ¬il:
coming majii√ D »©ne
9.7.2 Defective and hamzated

opinion ra√y ¦rCGnQ
seeing ru√ya ánjrD h oQ
470 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

9.7.3 Hollow and defective
fi¬la and fa¬l: In these verbal noun patterns, the medial waaw assimilates to the
yaa√, yielding a double yaa√:
intent niyya ironing kayy
ás«pf q»nc
When a hollow root combines with a defective root, the medial waaw is main-
tained in these verbal noun patterns:

narrative riwaaya hobby; hiwaaya
ánj GhpQ ánjG’pg
medicine, dawaa√ AGhnO

9.8 Form I verbal nouns in context
ô«‘dG ¤EG áMÉ‘°ùdG π‘b .¬àjD h ôd ô¡› ¤EG êÉà«f
qabl-a l-sibaaHat-i √ilaa l-baHr-i na-Htaaj-u √ilaa mijhar-in li-ru√yat-i-hi
before swimming to the sea We need a microscope to see it.

¿ ’fɤdG ádhO „¦É«b ?Gòg ≈¦©e Ée
qiyaam-u dawlat-i l-qaanuun-i maa ma¬naa haadhaa?
establishing a state of law What is the meaning of this?

10 Form I participles

10.1 Form I active participle (AP): faa¬il πYÉa
APs that refer to living beings take the natural gender of the referent; APs that
refer to non-living things may be either masculine or feminine. For more detail on
AP morphology and syntax see Chapter 6 on participles. Examples are provided
here of how the various root types fit into the pattern. The items are categorized
as either noun or adjective, but many have both noun and adjective functions.

10.1.1 Strong/regular root

writer kaatib/ rule; base qaa¬ida/
ÜÉqàoc /–pJÉc ópYG’nb / InópYÉb
kuttaab qawaa¬id
researcher baaHith/ university jaami¬a/
n¿’ãpMÉH /åpMÉH ¤É©peÉL/án©peÉL
-uuna -aat
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 471


former saabiq empty faarigh
≥pHÉ°S ÆpQÉa
10.1.2 Geminate root: faa¬¬
In the active participle of the geminate root, the usual form of the AP is faa¬¬, that
is, the second and third radicals are together (written with shadda), with no vowel
between them.

commodity; material qOG’ne / IsOÉe
dry jaaff hot Haarr
important haamm urgent, pressing maass
q„¦Ég q¢SÉe

10.1.3 Hamzated root
Certain spelling rules for the hamza apply in the AP hamzated root, depending
where in the word the hamza occurs.

reader qaari√/qurraa√ AGqôob / ÇpQÉb
accident; Taari√a/ Tawaari√ ÇpQG’W / ánFpQÉW
refugee laaji√ / laaji√uuna n¿’„pL™ / …pL™
√aaxir15/√awaaxir √aaxir-uuna
final; last n¿hôpNBG ôpNGhnCG/ ôpNBG
calm, peaceful haadi√ ÇpOÉg
10.1.4 Assimilated root: faa¬il
Assimilated roots are regular in Form I active participle formation.

mother waalida/-aat import/s waarid/-aat
¤GópdGh / InópdGh ¤GOpQGh / OpQGh
The plural mawaadd is the form that the plural pattern fawaa¬il takes in geminate nouns because
of the phonological restriction on sequences that include a vowel between identical consonants.
*mawaadid “> mawaadd. It is diptote (CaCaaCiC pattern).
From the hamzated root √-x-r; the initial hamza followed by the long /aa/ of the faa¬il pattern creates
/√aa/, spelled with √alif madda.
472 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

father waalid/-uuna duty; homework waajib/-aat
n¿hópdGh / ópdGh ¤É‘pLGh / –pLGh
wide, broad waasi¬ dry; arid yaabis
„p°SGh ¢ùpHÉj
10.1.5 Hollow root: faa√il
Hollow roots of Form I have hamza between the long /aa/ and the short /i/ of the AP

visitor/s zaa√ir/zuwwaar QGqhoR / ôpFGR
fluid; liquid/s saa√il/sawaa√il πFG’n°S / πpFÉ°S
being/s kaa√in/-aat ¤É¦pFÉc/ øpFÉc
circle/s; department/s daa√ira/dawaa√ir ôpFGhnO / InôpFGO
visiting zaa√ir/zaa√ir-uuna dreadful haa√il
n¿hôpFGR / ôpFGR πFÉg
10.1.6 Defective root: faa¬-in ´Éa
The defective root shows its weakness in the AP form by having its final waaw or
yaa√ in the form of kasrataan on the base masculine form, putting it into the
defective declension. In feminine APs the weakness is regularized into an /-iya /

judge/s qaaDin/quDaah IÉ°†ob / m¢VÉb
corner/s zaawiya/zawaayaa ÉjGhnR / ánjphGR
club/s naadin/ √andiya nawaad-in mOG’f ánjpórfnCG /mOÉf
pedestrian/s; infantry maashin/mushaat IÉ°»oe / m¢TÉe
walking maashin last; past maaDin
m¢TÉe m¢VÉe
remaining baaqin adequate kaafin
m¥ÉH m±Éc
10.1.7 Examples of Form I AP in context
á«bÉ‘dG „j QÉ°»ŸG IóYÉ°ùŸG ¤EG áq°SÉe áLÉM ˜
al-mashaarii¬-u l-baaqiyat-u fii Haajat-in maassat-in √ilaa l-musaa¬adat-i
the remaining projects in urgent need of help
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 473

¦QÉ·G AÉK“ãdG ¿ÉeR „¦ÉqjCG πaG’b
al-thulaathaa√-u l-jaarii qawaafil-u √ayyam-i zamaan-in
this (˜current™) Tuesday the caravans of yesteryear

áFQÉW á°ù∏L ˜ .áqeÉJ áH’‘«Z ˜ âq∏X
fii jalsat-in Taari√at-in Zall-at fii ghaybuubat-in taammat-in.
at an emergency session She remained in a complete coma.

10.2 Form I passive participle (PP): maf¬uul «’©r˜ne
The maf ¬uul pattern is maintained in most root types except for the hollow and

10.2.1 Strong/regular root

concept/s mafhuum/mafaahiim º«gɘne / „¦’¡r˜ne
plan/s mashruu¬/aat mashaarii¬ „jQÉ°»ne ¤ÉYhô°»e / ´hôr°»ne
prisoner/s masjuun/-uuna n¿’f’©r°ùne / ¿n’©r°ùne
group/s majmuu¬a/“aat ¤ÉY’ªr©ne / ánY’ªr©ne
famous mashhuur reserved maHjuuz
ô’¡°»e R’©r«ne
blessed mabruuk audible masmuu¬
‘hôr‘ne ´’ªùe
10.2.2 Geminate root

yield; marduud manuscript/s maxTuuT/
n •’£r®e/n
return aat ¤ÉW’£r®ne

lucky maHZuuZ beloved maHbuub
®’¶«e Ü’‘r«ne
10.2.3 Hamzated root


official mas√uul readable maqruu√
r Ahôr¤ne

taken ma√xuudh peopled ma√huul
P’NrCÉne «’grCÉne
474 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

10.2.4 Assimilated root
topic, mawDuu¬ ´’°Vr’ne

present; mawjuud inherited mawruuth
O’Lr’ne §hQr’ne

10.2.5 Hollow root
In the hollow root, the maf¬uul pattern becomes mafuul for roots whose middle
radical is waaw, and mafiil for roots whose middle radical is yaa√:
blamed maluum (l-w-m) sold mabii¬ (b-y-¬)
„¦’∏ne „«‘ne

10.2.6 Defective root
In the defective root, the maf¬uul PP pattern becomes maf¬uww for roots whose
final radical is waaw and maf¬iyy for roots whose final radical is yaa√:


invited mad¬uww (d-¬-w) stuffed maHshuww
q’Yóe ’°»¬
forgotten mansiyy (n-s-y) spoken maHkiyy (H-k-y)
q»°ù¦e q»µ¬

10.2.7 Examples of Form I PP™s in context
IR’©¬ ádhÉW É¡H ¥’K’e QOÉ°üe ¿e
Taawilat-un maHjuuzat-un min maSaadir-a mawthuuq-in bi-haa
a reserved table from trusted sources

á°S’‘µe Q’“ .Ahô¤e É¡£N
tumuur-un makbuusat-un xaTT-u-haa maqruu√-un.
pressed dates Her handwriting is legible.

q¢»¤dÉH ’°»¬ áq«µ™G áq«Hô©dG
maHshuww-un bi-l-qashsh-i al-¬arabiyyat-u l-maHkiyyat-u
stuffed with straw spoken Arabic

In spoken Arabic this PP is often converted to maHshiyy, used especially when referring to stuffed
meat or other food items.
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 475

Form I Sound root: oπn©r˜nj , nπn©na AP: πpYÉa PP: «’©r˜ne VN: πr©pa ˜to do; to make™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

oπn©ranCG nπn©ranCG rπn©raCnG
ÉfCG oâr∏n©na oâr∏p©oa oπn©raoCG
nârfCG nâr∏n©na oπn©r˜nJ nπn©r˜nJ rπn©r˜nJ rπn©rapG nâr∏p©oa oπn©r˜oJ
pârfCG pâr∏n©na nÚ∏n©r˜nJ »∏n©r˜nJ »∏n©r˜nJ »∏n©rapG pâr∏p©oa nÚ∏n©r˜oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr∏n©na p¿“n©r˜nJ “n©r˜nJ “©r˜nJ “n©rapG ɪàr∏p©oa p¿“n©r˜oJ
n’og nπn©na oπn©r˜nj nπn©r˜nj rπn©r˜nj nπp©oa oπn©r˜oj
n»pg rân∏n©na oπn©r˜nJ nπn©r˜nJ rπn©r˜nJ rân∏p©oa oπn©r˜oJ
ɪog-m “n©na p¿“n©r˜nj “n©r˜nj “n©r˜nj “p©oa p¿“n©r˜oj
ɪog-f Éàn∏n©na p¿“n©r˜nJ “n©r˜nJ “n©r˜nJ Éàn∏p©oa p¿“n©r˜oJ
orn ɦr∏n©na oπn©r˜nf nπn©r˜nf rπn©r˜nf ɦr∏p©oa oπn©r˜of
ºoàrfCG ºoàr∏n©na n¿’∏n©r˜nJ G’∏n©r˜nJ G’∏n©r˜nJ G’∏n©rapG ºoàr∏p©oa n¿ ’∏n©r˜oJ
sÏrfnCG søoàr∏n©na nør∏n©r˜nJ nør∏n©r˜nJ nør∏n©r˜nJ nør∏n©rapG nøoàr∏p©oa nør∏n©r˜oJ
ºog G’∏n©na n¿ ’∏n©r˜nj G’∏n©r˜nj G’∏n©r˜nj G’∏p©oa n¿ ’∏n©r˜oj
søog nør∏n©na nør∏n©r˜nj nør∏n©r˜nj nør∏n©r˜nj nør∏p©oa nør∏n©r˜oj
476 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

Form I Geminate root: oq«oónj , s«nO AP: q«GO PP: «’dróne VN: ánd™nO ˜to indicate™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr∏ndnO s«oOnCG s«oOnCG oâr∏pdoO t«nOoCG
nârfCG nâr∏ndnO t«oónJ s«oónJ s«oónJ rπodrOoCG/ s«oO nâr∏pdoO t«nóoJ
pârfCG pâr∏ndnO nÚqdoónJ »qdoónJ »qdoónJ »qdoO pâr∏pdoO nÚqdnóoJ
ɪoàrfCG -m/f ɪoàr∏ndnO p¿q™oónJ q™oónJ q™oónJ q™oO ɪoàr∏pdoO p¿q™nóoJ
n’og s«nO t«oónj s«oónj s«oónj s«oO t«nóoj
n»pg râsdnO t«oónJ s«oónJ s«oónJ t«nóoJ
ɪog -m q™nO p¿q™oónj q™oónj q™oónj q™oO p¿q™nóoj
ɪog -f ÉàqdnO p¿q™oónJ q™oónJ q™oónJ ÉàsdoO p¿q™nóoJ
orn ɦr∏ndnO t«oónf s«oónf s«oónf ɦr∏pdoO t«nóof
ºoàrfnCG ºoàr∏ndnO n¿ ’qdoónJ G’qdoónJ G’qdoónJ G’qdoO ºoàr∏pdoO n¿’qdnóoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr∏ndnO nør∏odrónJ nør∏odrónJ nør∏odrónJ nør∏odrOoCG søoàr∏pdoO nør∏ndróoJ
ºog G’qdnO n¿’qdoónj G’qdoónj G’qdoónj G’tdoO n¿ ’qdnóoj
søog nør∏ndnO nør∏odrónj nør∏odrónj nør∏odrónj nør∏pdoO nør∏ndróoj
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 477

Form I hamza-initial root: oπocrCÉnj , nπncnCG AP: πpcBG PP: «’crCÉne VN: πrcnCG ˜to eat™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr∏ncnCG oπocBG nπocBG rπocBG oâr∏pcoCG oπnchCG
nârfCG nâr∏ncnCG oπocrCÉnJ nπocrCÉnJ rπocrCÉnJ rπoc nâr∏pcoCG oπncrD’oJ
pârfCG pâr∏ncnCG nÚ∏ocrCÉnJ »∏ocrCÉnJ »∏ocrCÉnJ »∏oc pâr∏pcoCG nÚ∏ncrD’oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr∏ncnCG p¿“ocrCÉnJ “ocrCÉnJ “ocrCÉnJ “oc ɪoàr∏pcoCG p¿“ncrD’oJ
n’og nπncnCG oπocrCÉnj nπocrCÉnj rπocrCÉnj nπpcoCG oπncrD’oj
n»pg rân∏ncnCG oπocrCÉnJ nπocrCÉnJ rπocrCÉnJ rân∏pcoCG oπncrD’oJ
ɪog -m “ncnCG p¿“oµrCÉj “ocrCÉnj “ocrCÉnj “pcoCG n¿’∏ncrD’oj
ɪog -f Éàn∏ncnCG p¿“ocrCÉnJ “ocrCÉnJ “ocrCÉnJ Éàn∏pcoCG p¿“ncrD’oJ
orn ɦr∏ncnCG oπocrCÉnf nπocrCÉnf rπocrCÉnf ɦr∏pcoCG oπncrD’of
ºoàrfnCG ºoàr∏ncnCG n¿ ’∏ocrCÉnJ G’∏ocrCÉnJ G’∏ocrCÉnJ G’∏oc ºoàr∏pcoCG n¿ ’∏ncrD’oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr∏ncnCG nør∏ocrCÉnJ nør∏ocrCÉnJ nør∏ocrCÉnJ nør∏oc søoàr∏pcoCG nør∏ncrD’oJ
ºog G’∏ncnCG n¿’∏ocrCÉnj G’∏ocrCÉnj G’∏ocrCÉnj G’∏pcoCG n¿ ’∏ncrD’oj
søog nør∏ncnCG nør∏ocrCÉnj nør∏ocrCÉnj nør∏ocrCÉnj nør∏pcoCG nør∏ncrD’oj
478 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

Form I hamza-medial root: o«nCÉr°ùnj , n«nCÉn°S AP: πFÉ°S PP: «hD’r°ùne VN: «GD’o°S ˜to ask™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârdnCÉn°S o«nCÉr°SkCG n«nCÉr°SnCG r«nCÉr°SnCG oâr∏p„o°S o«nCÉr°SoCG
nârfCG nârdnCÉn°S o«nCÉr°ùnJ n«nCÉr°ùnJ r«nCÉr°ùnJ r«nCÉr°SpG nâr∏p„o°S o«nCÉr°ùoJ
pârfCG pârdnCÉn°S nÚdnCÉr°ùnJ ‹nCÉr°ùnJ ‹nCÉr°ùnJ ‹nCÉr°SpG pâr∏p„o°S nÚdnCÉr°ùoJ
ɪoàrfCG -m/f ɪoàrdnCÉn°S n¿™nCÉr°ùnJ ™nCÉr°ùnJ ™nCÉr°ùnJ ™nCÉr°SpG ɪoàr∏p„o°S p¿™nCÉr°ùoJ
n’og n«nCÉn°S o«nCÉr°ùnj n«nCÉr°ùnj r«nCÉr°ùnj nπp„o°S o«nCÉr°ùoj
n»pg ândnCÉn°S o«nCÉr°ùnJ n«nCÉr°ùnJ r«nCÉr°ùnJ rân∏p„o°S p¿™nCÉr°ùoJ
ɪog-m ™nCÉn°S p¿™nCÉr°ùnj ™nCÉr°ùnj ™nCÉr°ùnj “p„°S
o p¿™nCÉr°ùoj
ɪog-f ÉàndnCÉn°S n¿™nCÉr°ùnJ ™nCÉr°ùnJ ™nCÉr°ùnJ ɪoàr∏p„o°S p¿™nCÉr°ùoJ
orn ɦrdnCÉn°S o«CÉr°ùnf n«nCÉr°ùnf r«nCÉr°ùnf ɦr∏p„o°S o«nCÉr°ùof
ºoàrfnCG ºoàrdnCÉn°S n¿ ’dnCÉr°ùnJ G’dnCÉr°ùnJ G’dnCÉr°ùnJ G’dnCÉr°SpG ºoàr∏p„o°S n¿ ’dnCÉr°ùoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrdnCÉn°S nørdnCÉr°ùnJ nørdnCÉr°ùnJ nørdnCÉr°ùnJ søoàr∏p„o°S nørdnCÉr°ùoJ
ºog G’dnCÉn°S n¿ ’dnCÉr°ùnj G’dnCÉr°ùnj G’dnCÉr°ùnj G’∏p„o°S n¿’dnCÉr°ùoj
søog nørdnCÉn°S nørdnCÉr°ùnj nørdnCÉr°ùnj nørdnCÉr°ùnj nørdnCÉr°SpG nør∏p„o°S nørdnCÉr°ùoj
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 479

Form I hamza-final root: oCGnôr¤nj , nCGnônb AP: ÇpQÉb PP: Ahôr¤ne VN: InAGôpb ˜to read™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rCGnônb oCGnôrbnCG nCGnôrbnCG rCGnôrbnCG oârFpôob oCGnôrboCG
nârfCG n¤rCGnônb oCGnôr¤nJ nCGnôr¤nJ rCGôr¤nJ rCGôrbpG nârFpôob oCGnôr¤oJ
pârfCG p¤rCGnônb nÚpFnôr¤nJ »pFnôr¤nJ »pFnôr¤nJ »FnôrbpG pârFpôob nÚpFnôr¤oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrCGnônb p¿BGnôr¤nJ BGnôr¤nJ BGnôr¤nJ BGnôrbpG ɪoàrFôob p¿BGnôr¤oJ
n’og nCGnônb oCGnôr¤nj nCGnôr¤nj rCGôr¤nj Çôb
n po oCGnôr¤oj
n»pg r¤nCGnônb oCGnôr¤nJ nCGnôr¤nJ rCGôr¤nJ rânFpôob oCGnôr¤oJ
ɪog-m BGnônb p¿BGnôr¤nj BGnôr¤nj BGnôr¤nj ɪoàrFpôob p¿BGnôr¤oj
ɪog-f ÉJnCGnônb p¿BGnôr¤nJ BGnôr¤nJ BGnôr¤nJ ÉnFpôob p¿BGnôr¤oJ
orn ÉfrCGnônb nCGnôr¤nf rCGnôr¤nf ɦrFpôob oCGnôr¤of
ºoàrfnCG ɪoJrCGnônb n¿hoDhnôr¤nJ GhoDhnôr¤nJ GhoDhnôr¤nJ GhoDhnôrbpG ºoàrFpôob n¿hoDhnôr¤oJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrCGnônb n¿rCGnôr¤nJ n¿rCGnôr¤nJ n¿rCGnôr¤nJ n¿rCGnôrbpG søoàrFpôob n¿rCGnôr¤oJ
ºog Ghohôb
Dnn n¿hoDhnôr¤nj GhoDhnôr¤nj GhoDhnôr¤nj G’pFpôob n¿hoDhnôr¤oj
søog n¿rCGnônb n¿rCGnôr¤nj n¿rCGnôr¤nj n¿rCGnôr¤nj øFôb
n rpo n¿rCGnôr¤oj
480 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

o„n°†nj , „n°Vnh AP: „p°VGh PP: ´’°Vr’ne VN: „r°Vnh ˜to put, to place™
Form I Assimilated root:

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr©n°Vnh o„n°VnCG n„n°VnCG r„n°VnCG oâr©p°Voh o„n°VhoCG
nârfCG nâr©n°Vnh „°†nJ
on „°†nJ
nn „°†nJ
rn r„n°V nâr©p°Voh o„n°V’oJ
pârfCG pâr©n°Vnh nÚ©n°†nJ »©n°†nJ »©n°†nJ »©n°V pâr©p°Voh nÚ©n°†’J
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr©n°Vnh p¿É©n°†nJ É©n°†nJ É©n°†nJ É©n°V ɪoàr©p°Voh p¿É©n°†’J
n’og „°Vnh
nn „°†nj
on „°†nj
nn „°†nj
rn n„p°Voh „°†’j
n»pg rân©n°Vnh „°†nJ
on „°†nJ
nn „°†nJ
rn rân©p°Voh „°†’J
ɪog-m É©n°Vnh p¿É©n°†nj É©n°†nj É©n°†nj É©p°Voh p¿É©n°†’j
ɪog-f Éàn©n°Vnh p¿É©n°†nJ É©n°†nJ É©n°†nJ Éàn©p°Voh p¿É©n°†’J
orn ɦr©n°Vnh „°†nf
on „°†nf
nn „°†nf
rn ɦr©p°Voh o„n°V’of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr©n°Vnh n¿’©n°†nJ G’©n°†nJ G’©n°†nJ G’©n°V rºoàr©p°Voh n¿’©n°V’oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr©n°Vnh nør©n°†nJ nør©n°†nJ nør©n°†nJ nør©n°V søoàr©p°Voh nør©n°V’oJ
ºog G’©n°Vnh n¿’©n°†nj G’©n°†nj G’©n°†nj G’©p°Voh G’©n°V’oj
søog nør©n°Vnh nør©n°†nj nør©n°†nj nør©n°†nj nør©p°Voh nør©n°V’oj
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 481

Form I Hollow, Medial waaw root: Qhµnj ,QGR AP: ôpFGR PP: Qhµne VN: InQÉjpR ˜to visit™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rQoR oQhRnCG nQhRCG rQoRnCG o¤rQpR oQGRoCG
nârfCG n¤rQoR oQhµnJ nQhµnJ rQoµnJ r Qo R n¤rQpR oQGµoJ
pârfCG p¤rQoR øjQhµnJ
n ¦QhµnJ ¦QhµnJ ¦QhR p¤rQpR nøjQGµoJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrQoR p¿GQhµnJ GQhµnJ GQhµnJ GQhR ɪoJrQpR p¿GQGµoJ
n’og nQGR oQhµnj nQhµnj rQoµnj nôjR oQGµoj
n»pg r¤nQGR oQhµnJ nQhµnJ rQoµnJ r¤nôjR oQGµoJ
ɪog-m GQGR p¿GQhµnj GQhµnj GQhµnj GôjR p¿GQGµoj
ɪog-f ÉJnQGR p¿GQhµnJ GQhµnJ GQhµnJ ÉJnôjR p¿GQGµoJ
orn ÉfrQoR oQhµnf nQhµnf rQoµnf ÉfrQpR oQGµof
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrQoR n¿hQhµnJ GhQhµnJ GhQhµnJ GhQhR rºoJrQpR n¿hQGµoJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrQoR n¿rQoµnJ n¿rQoµnJ n¿rQoµnJ n¿rQoR søoJrQpR n¿rQnµoJ
ºog GhQGR n¿hQhµnj GhQhµnj GhQhµnj GhôjR n¿hQGµoj
søog n¿rQoR n¿rQoµnj n¿rQoµnj n¿rQoµnj n¿rQpR n¿rQnµoj
482 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

Form I Hollow Medial yaa√ root: „«‘nj , n´ÉH AP: „pFÉH PP: „«‘ne VN: „r«H
n ˜to sell™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr©pH o„«HnCG n„«HnCG r„pHnCG oâr©pH o´ÉHoCG
nârfCG nâr©pH o„«‘nJ n„«‘nJ „‘J
r pn „H
rp nâr©pH o´É‘oJ
pârfCG pâr©pH nÚ©«‘nJ »©«‘nJ »©«‘nJ »©«H pâr©pH nÚYÉ‘oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr©pH p¿É©«‘nJ É©«‘nJ É©«‘nJ É©«H ɪoàr©pH p¿ÉYÉ‘oJ
n’og n´ÉH o„«‘nj n„«‘nj „‘j
r pn „«H
n o´É‘oj
n»pg rânYÉH o„«‘nJ n„«‘nJ „‘J
r pn rân©«H o´É‘oJ
ɪog-m ÉYÉH p¿É©«‘nj É©«‘nj É©«‘nj É©«H p¿ÉYÉ‘oj
ɪog-f ÉànYÉH p¿É©«‘nJ É©«‘nJ É©«‘nJ Éàn©«H p¿ÉYÉ‘oJ
orn ɦr©pH o„«‘nf n„«‘nf „‘f
r pn ɦr©pH o´É‘of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr©pH n¿’©«‘nJ G’©«‘nJ G’©«‘nJ G’©«H rºoàr©pH n¿’YÉ‘oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr©pH nør©p‘nJ nør©p‘nJ nør©p‘nJ nør©pH søoàr©pH nør©n‘oJ
ºog G’YÉH n¿’©«‘nj G’©«‘nj G’©«‘nj G’©«H n¿’YÉ‘oj
søog nør©pH nør©p‘nj nør©p‘nj nør©p‘nj nør©pH nør©n‘oj
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 483

Form I Hollow, Medial √alif root: o±É®nj , n±ÉN AP: ∞pFÉN PP: ±’®ne VN: ±r’nN ˜to fear™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr˜pN o±ÉNCG n±ÉNnCG r∞nNnCG oâr˜pN o±ÉNoCG
nârfCG nâr˜pN o±É®nJ n±É®nJ r∞n®nJ r∞nN nâr˜pN o±É®oJ
pârfCG pâr˜pN nÚaÉ®nJ ˜É®nJ ˜É®nJ ˜ÉN pâr˜pN nÚaÉ®oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr˜pN n¿ÉaÉ®nJ ÉaÉ®nJ ÉaÉ®nJ ÉaÉ® ɪoàr˜pN p¿ÉaÉ®oJ
n’og n±ÉN o±É®nj n±É®nj r∞n®nj n∞«pN o±É®oj
n»pg rânaÉN o±É®nJ n±É®nJ r∞n®nJ rân˜«pN o±É®oJ
ɪog-m ÉaÉN p¿ÉaÉ®nj ÉaÉ®nj ÉaÉ®nj ɘ«pN p¿ÉaÉ®oj
ɪog-f ÉànaÉN n¿ÉaÉ®nJ ÉaÉ®nJ ÉaÉ®nJ Éàn˜«pN p¿ÉaÉ®oJ
orn ɦr˜pN o±É®nf n±É®nf r∞n®nf ɦr˜pN o±É®of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr˜pN n¿’aÉ®nJ G’aÉ®nJ G’aÉ®nJ G’aÉN rºoàr˜pN n¿’aÉ®oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr˜pN nør˜n®nJ nør˜n®nJ nør˜n®nJ nør˜nN søoàr˜pN nør˜n®oJ
ºog G’aÉN n¿’aÉ®nj G’aÉ®nj G’aÉ®nj G’˜«pN n¿’aÉ®oj
søog nør˜pN nør˜n®nj nør˜n®nj nør˜n®nj nør˜pN nør˜n®oj
484 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

Form I Defective root (waaw): ’Yrój , ÉYOn AP: ´GO PP: ’Yóe VN: AÉYoO / In’YO ˜to call, invite™
n m qo rn rn
Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤r’nYnO ’oYrOnCG n’oYrOnCG o´rOnCG oâ«pYoO ≈nYrOoCG
nârfCG n¤r’nYnO ’rYrónJ n’rYrónJ o´rónJ o´rOoG nâ«pYoO ≈nYróoJ
pârfCG p¤r’nYnO nÚpYrónJ »pYrónJ »pYrónJ »pYrOoG pâ«pYoO nør«nYróoJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJr’nYnO p¿G’oYrónJ Gn’oYrónJ Gn’oYrónJ Gn’oYrOoG ɪoà«pYoO p¿Gn’nYróoJ
n’og ÉYnO ’oYrónj n’oYrónj o´rónj n»pYoO ≈nYróoj
n»pg rânYnO ’oYrónJ n’rYrónJ o´rónJ rân«pYoO ≈nYróoJ
ɪog-m Gn’nYnO p¿G’oYrónj Gn’oYrónj Gn’oYrónj Én«pYoO p¿Gn’nYróoj
ɪog-f ÉànYnO p¿G’oYrónJ Gn’oYrónJ Gn’oYrónJ Énàn«pYoO p¿Gn’nYróoJ
orn Éfr’nYnO ’oYrónf n’oYrónf o´rónf ɦ«pYoO ≈nYróof
ºoàrfnCG rºoJr’nYnO n¿’oYrónJ G’oYrónJ G’oYrónJ G’oYrOoG rºoà«pYoO n¿r’nYróoJ
søoàrfnCG søoJr’nYnO n¿’oYrónJ n¿’oYrónJ n¿’oYrónJ n¿’oYrOoG søoà«pYoO nør’nYróoJ
ºog Gr’nYnO n¿’oYrónj G’oYrónj G’oYrónj G’oYoO n¿r’nYróoj
søog n¿r’nYnO n¿’oYrónj n¿’oYrónj nø’oYrónj nÚpYoO nø r’nYróoj
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 485

Form I Defective root (-aa/-ii): »¦r‘nj , ≈n¦nH AP: m¿ÉH PP: q»p¦r‘ne VN: AɦpH ˜to build™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr«n¦nH »p¦rHnCG n»p¦rHnCG pørHnCG oâ«p¦oH ≈n¦rHoCG
nârfCG nâr«n¦nH »p¦r‘nJ n»p¦r‘nJ pør‘nJ pørHpG nâ«p¦oH ≈n¦r‘oJ
pârfCG pâr«n¦nH nÚp¦r‘nJ »p¦r‘nJ »p¦r‘nJ »¦rHpG pâ«p¦oH nør«n¦r‘oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr«n¦nH p¿É«p¦r‘nJ É«p¦r‘nJ É«p¦r‘nJ Én«p¦rHpG ɪoà«p¦oH p¿Én«n¦r‘oJ
’og ≈n¦nH »p¦r‘nj n»p¦r‘nj pør‘nj n»p¦oH ≈n¦r‘oj
n»pg rân¦nH »p¦r‘nJ n»p¦r‘nJ pør‘nJ rân«p¦oH ≈n¦r‘oJ
ɪog-m Én«n¦nH p¿Én«p¦r‘nj Én«p¦r‘nj Én«p¦r‘nj Én«p¦oH p¿Én«n¦r‘oj
ɪog-f Énàn¦nH p¿É«p¦r‘nJ É«p¦r‘nJ É«p¦r‘nJ Éàn«p¦oH p¿Én«n¦r‘oJ
orn ɦr«n¦nH »p¦r‘nf n»p¦r‘nf pør‘nf ɦ«p¦oH ≈n¦r‘of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr«n¦nH n¿’o¦r‘nJ G’o¦r‘nJ G’o¦r‘nJ G’o¦rHpG rºoà«p¦oH n¿r’n¦r‘oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr«n¦nH nÚp¦r‘nJ nÚp¦r‘nJ Úp¦r‘nJ nÚp¦rHpG søoà«p¦oH nør«n¦rHJ
ºog Gr’n¦nH n¿’o¦r‘nj G’o¦r‘nj G’o¦r‘nj G’o¦oH n¿r’n¦r‘oj
søog nør«n¦nH nÚp¦r‘nj nÚp¦r‘nj nÚp¦r‘nj nør«p¦oH nør«n¦r‘oj
486 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

Form I Defective (-iy/-aa): ≈n°ùr¦nj , n»p°ùnf AP: m¢SÉf PP: q»p°ùr¦ne VN: ¿Én«r°ùpf ˜to forget™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâ«p°ùnf ≈n°ùrfnCG ≈n°ùrfnCG n¢ùrfnCG oâ«p°ùof ≈n°ùrfoCG
nârfCG nâ«p°ùnf ≈n°ùr¦nJ ≈n°ùr¦nJ ¢ùr¦J
nn ¢ùrfGp
n nâ«p°ùof ≈n°ùr¦oJ
pârfCG pâ«p°ùnf nør«n°ùr¦nJ r»n°ùr¦nJ r»n°ùr¦nJ r»n°ùrfpG pâ«p°ùof nør«n°ùr¦oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoà«p°ùnf p¿Én«n°ùr¦nJ Én«n°ùr¦nJ Én«n°ùr¦nJ Én«n°ùrfpG ɪoà«p°ùof p¿Én«n°ùr¦oJ
n’og n»p°ùnf ≈n°ùr¦nj ≈n°ùr¦nj ¢ùr¦j
nn n»p°ùof ≈n°ùr¦oj
n»pg rân«p°ùnf ≈n°ùr¦nJ ≈n°ùr¦nJ ¢ùr¦J
nn rân«p°ùof ≈n°ùr¦oJ
ɪog-m Én«p°ùnf p¿Én«n°ùr¦nj Én«n°ùr¦nj Én«n°ùr¦nj Én«p°ùof p¿Én«n°ùr¦oj
ɪog-f Énàn«p°ùnf p¿Én«n°ùr¦nJ Én«n°ùr¦nJ Én«n°ùr¦nJ Énàn«p°ùof p¿Én«n°ùr¦oJ
orn ɦ«p°ùnf ≈n°ùr¦nf ≈n°ùr¦nf ¢ùr¦f
nn ɦ«p°ùof ≈n°ùr¦of
ºoàrfnCG ºoà«p°ùnf n¿r’n°ùr¦nJ Gr’n°ùr¦nJ Gr’n°ùr¦nJ Gr’n°ùrfpG rºoà«p°ùof n¿r’n°ùr¦oJ
søoàrfnCG søoà«p°ùnf nør«n°ùr¦nJ nør«n°ùr¦nJ nør«n°ùr¦nJ nør«n°ùrfpG søoà«p°ùof nør«n°ùr¦oJ
ºog G’o°ùnf n¿r’n°ùr¦nj Gr’n°ùr¦nj Gr’n°ùr¦nj G’o°ùof n¿r’n°ùr¦oj
søog nÚp°ùnf ør«n°ùr¦nj nør«n°ùr¦nj nør«n°ùr¦nj nÚp°ùof nør’n°ùr¦oj
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 487

Form I Hollow and hamzated root: oA»p©nj , AÉL AP: mAÉL PP: A»p©ne VN: A»p©ne ˜to come™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr„pL oA»pLnCG nA»pLnCG oâr„pL oAÉLoCG
nârfCG nâr„pL oA»p©nJ nA»p©nJ r…p©nJ n«É©nJ nâr„pL oAÉ©oJ
pârfCG pâr„pL nÚ„«p©nJ »„«p©nJ »„«p©nJ r»ndÉ©nJ pâr„pL nÚFÉ©oJ
ɪoàfGC -m/f ɪoàr„pL
r p¿É„«p©nJ É„«p©nJ É„«p©nJ É«ndÉ©nJ ɪoàr„pL p¿GAÉ©oJ
n’og nAÉL oA»p©nj nA»p©nj r…p©nj n…«pL oAÉ©oj
n»pg r¤nAÉL oA»p©nJ nA»p©nJ r…p©nJ rân„«pL oAÉ©oJ
ɪog-m GnAÉL p¿É„«p©nj É„«p©nj É„«p©nj É„«pL p¿GAÉ©oj
ɪog-f ÉJnAÉL p¿É„«p©nJ É„«p©nJ É„«p©nJ Éàn„«pL p¿GAÉ©oJ
orn ɦr„pL oA»p©nf nA»p©nf r…p©nf ɦr„pL oAÉ©of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr„pL n¿’„«p©nJ G’„«p©nJ G’„«p©nJ Gr’ndÉ©nJ rºoàr„pL ¿hDhÉ©oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr„pL nør„p©nJ nør„p©nJ nør„p©nJ nør«ndÉ©nJ søoàr„pL n¿rCÉn©oJ
ºog GhAÉL ¿’„«p©nj G’„p«©j G’„p«©j G’„«pL ¿hDhÉ©oj
søog nør„pL nør„p©nj nør„p©nj nør„p©nj ør„pL n¿rCÉn©oj
This verb has a replacive form for the imperative.
488 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

Form I Doubly weak root: iônj , inCGnQ AP: mAGQ PP: q»Fpône VN: ¦rCGnQ ˜to see™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârjnCGnQ iQnCG iQnCG nQnCG oâ«FoQ iQoCG
nârfCG nârjnCGnQ iônJ iônJ nônJ nQ nâ«FoQ iôoJ
pârfCG pârjnCGnQ nørjnônJ ¦ôJ
r nn ¦ôJ
r nn r¦nQ pâ«FoQ nørjnôoJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrjnCGnQ ¿ÉjnônJ ÉjnônJ ÉjnônJ ÉjnQ ɪoà«FoQ p¿ÉjnôoJ
n’og inCGnQ iônj iônj nônj n»pFoQ iôoj
n»pg r¤CGnQ iônJ iônJ nônJ rân«pFoQ iôoJ
ɪog-m ÉjnCGnQ p¿Éjnônj Éjnônj Éjnônj É«pFoQ p¿Éjnôoj
ɪog-f ÉJnCGnQ ¿ÉjnônJ ÉjnônJ ÉjnônJ Éàn«pFoQ p¿ÉjnôoJ
orn ɦrjnCGnQ iônf iônf nônf ɦ«pFoQ iôof
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrjCGnQ n¿rhnônJ GrhnônJ GrhnônJ GrhnQ rºoà«pFoQ n¿rhnôoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrjnCGnQ nørjnônJ nørjnônJ nørjnônJ søoà«pFoQ nørjnôoJ
ºog GrhnCGnQ n¿rhnônj Grhnônj Grhnônj GQDhoQ n¿rhnôoj
søog nørjnCGnQ nørjnônj nørjnônj nørjnônj nørjnQ nÚpFoQ nørjnôoj
Form I: The base form triliteral verb 489

Form I Doubly weak: »©nj , ≈Ynh AP: m´Gh PP: q»Yr’ne VN: »Ynh ˜to perceive™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr«nYnh »pYnCG n»pYnCG p´nCG oâ«pYoh ≈YhoCG
nârfCG nâr«nYnh »p©nJ n»p©nJ „J
pn p´ nâ«pYoh ≈Y’oJ
pârfCG pâr«nYnh nÚp©nJ »p©nJ »p©nJ »pY pâ«pYoh nør«nY’J
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr«nYnh p¿É«p©nJ É«p©nJ É«p©nJ É«pY ɪoà«pYoh pønÉ«nY’J
n’og ≈nYnh p¿É«p©nj »p©nj „j
pn n»pYoh ≈Y’oj
n»pg rânYnh »p©nJ n»p©nJ „J
pn rân«pYoh ≈Y’oJ
ɪog-m É«nYnh p¿É«p©nj É«p©nj É«p©nj É«pYoh pøÉ«nY’oj
ɪog-f ÉànYnh p¿É«p©nJ É«p©nJ É«p©nJ Éàn«pYoh p¿Én«nY’J
orn ɦr«nYnh »p©nf n»p©nf „f
pn ɦ«pYoh ≈Y’¦
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr«Ynh n¿’o©nJ G’o©nJ G’o©nJ G’oY rºoà«pYoh nør ’nY’J
søoàrfnCG søoàr«nYnh nÚp©nJ nÚp©nJ nÚp©nJ nÚpY søoà«pYoh nÚrY’J
ºog Gr’nYnh n¿’o©nj G’o©nj G’o©nj G’oYoh nør ’nY’j
søog nør«nYnh nÚp©nj nÚp©nj nÚp©nj nÚpYoh nør«nY’j
490 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

Form I Hollow, defective root: ¦’r¦nj , in’nf AP: hÉf
m PP: q¦’r¦ne VN: ás«pf ˜to intend™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG âj’f
o rnn ¦p’rfnCG n¦p’rfnCG p’rfnCG âjp’f
oo in’rfoCG
nârfCG âj’f
n rnn ¦p’¦J
rn n¦p’r¦nJ p’r¦nJ p¿ âjp’f
no in’¦J
pârfCG âj’f
p rnn nøjp’r¦nJ ¦p’¦J
rn ¦p’¦J
rn »pf âjp’f
po nørjn’r¦oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrjn’nf p¿Éjp’r¦nJ Éjp’r¦nJ Éjp’r¦nJ É«pf ɪoàj’of n¿Éjn’r¦oJ
n’og in’f
n ¦p’¦j
rn n¦p’r¦nj p’r¦nj ¦’f
n po in’¦j
n»pg r¤n’nf ¦p’¦J
rn n¦p’r¦nJ p’r¦nJ âj’f
r npo in’¦J
ɪog-m Énjn’nf p¿Éjp’r¦nj Éjp’r¦nj Éjp’r¦nj Éjp’of p¿Éjn’r¦oj
ɪog-f ÉnJn’nf p¿Éjp’r¦nJ Éjp’r¦nJ Éjp’r¦nJ Éànjp’of n¿Éjn’r¦oJ
orn ɦrjn’nf ¦p’¦f
rn n¦p’r¦nf p’r¦nf ɦjp’of in’¦f
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrjn’nf n¿ho’r¦nJ Gho’r¦nJ Gho’r¦nJ G’of rºoàjp’of n¿rhn’ràoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrjn’nf nøjp’r¦nJ nøjp’r¦nJ nøjp’r¦nJ nÚpf søoàjp’of nørjn’r¦oJ
ºog Grh’f
nn n¿ho’r¦nj Gho’r¦nj Gho’r¦nj Gho’f
o n¿rhn’r¦oj
søog øj’f
n rnn øj’r¦j
nn øj’r¦j
nn øj’r¦nj
n øjp’f
no nørjn’r¦oj
Form II

1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern: fa¬¬al-a nπs©na / yu-fa¬¬il-u oπu©n˜oj
Form II verbs are augmented with respect to Form I in that the medial consonant
is doubled. They have the stem patterns C1aC2C2aC3- in the past tense and yu-
C1aC2C2iC3- in the present. The medial root consonant retains its doubled status
throughout the past and present tense conjugations.

1.2 Meaning
Form II verbs are often causative of transitive Form I verbs, or, if Form I is intran-
sitive, Form II may have transitive meaning. Another shade of meaning that is
said to be conveyed by Form II is intensive or repeated action (kassar-a ˜to smash,
to shatter™). Form II may also be denominative, used to form verbs out of nouns
(e.g., Sawwar-a ˜to photograph™ from Suura, ˜picture™).1

1.3 Transitivity
Form II is normally transitive but may sometimes be intransitive.2 It may also be
doubly transitive, taking two direct objects (e.g., darras-a ˜to teach (s.o. s.th.)™).

1.4 In¬‚ection
A particular inflectional characteristic of Form II verbs is that the present tense sub-
ject-marker vowel is Damma and the present tense stem vowel is kasra (yu-darris-u).

In Arabic, the verb is usually considered the most elemental form of a lexical entry, but in a few
instances, the verb is derived from a noun. These “denominal” verbs tend to exist in Forms II and V
and rarely in other forms. They can be triliteral or quadriliteral. Denominal verbs rarely have a
Form I. Some examples of Form II denominal verbs include:

waHHad-a/yu-waHHid-u óqM’j / óqMh (from ˜one™ waaHid óMGh)
to unite
ra√√as-a/yu-ra√√is-u ¢ùqFôj / ¢SqCGQ (from ˜head™ ra√s ¢SCGQ)
to head

sammaa/yu-sammii »qª°ùj / ≈qª°S (from ˜name™ ism º°SG)
to name
Kouloughli 1994, 201 states that Form II is transitive 95 percent of the time. Likewise he states that
Form II is “l™une des plus vivaces de l™arabe moderne” (ibid.).

492 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic

Paradigm charts for Form II verbs of various root types are located at the end of
this chapter.

2 Regular (sound) triliteral root
These are examples of verbs that have sound triliteral roots:

to prefer faDDal-a/yu-faDDil-u oπu°†n˜oj / nπs°†na
to arrange rattab-a/yu-rattib-u o–uJnôoj / n–sJnQ
o∞u¶¦j / ∞¶f
to clean naZZaf-a/yu-naZZif-u no n s n
to appreciate qaddar-a/yu-qaddir-u oQuón¤oj / nQsónb
3 Geminate (doubled) root Form II
Geminate roots in Form II have the following stem patterns: C1aC2C2aC2- in the
past tense and yuC1aC2C2iC2- in the present. The doubling of the medial conso-
nant changes the geminate root in Form II so that it inflects as a regular Form II,
that is, there is no stem shift as there is in Form I geminates. For example:

to cause sabbab-a/yu-sabbib-u o–u‘n°ùoj / n–s‘n°S
to decide, determine qarrar-a/ yu-qarrir-u oQuôn¤oj / nQsônb
to criticize naddad-a/yu-naddid-u oOuón¦oj / Oóf
to analyze Hallal-a/yu-Hallil-u oπu∏n«oj / nπs∏nM
4 Hamzated roots in Form II
A hamza may occur in the first, second, or third position in the triliteral root.
Depending on its position, and the surrounding vowels, the hamza may have to
change its “seat” when the verb inflects for person and tense in Form II.

4.1 Initial hamza
Hamza-initial verbs in Form II have √alif as the hamza seat in the past tense, and
waaw as the hamza seat in the present tense. The hamza seat is determined by its
position in the word, according to the orthographical rules for hamza described in
Chapter 2, section 3.3. In Form II verbs, initial hamza shifts from word-initial posi-
tion in the past tense stem to word-medial position in the present tense stem and
is influenced by the Damma of the present tense subject-marking prefix so that its
seat shifts from √alif to waaw.


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