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to delay oπuLnD’oj / nπsLCG
√ajjal-a/yu-√ajjil-u
to establish, found o¢ùp°qS’j / ¢ùs°SnCG
n Dn o
√assas-a/yu-√assis-u
to affirm oóucnD’oj / nóscnCG
√akkad-a/yu-√akkid-u
to affect oôuKnD’oj / nôsKnCG
√aththar-a/yu-√aththir-u
Form II 493


4.2 Medial hamza
The seat for medial hamza shifts from √alif in the past tense to yaa√ in the present
tense (because of the shift of stem vowel from fatHa to kasra).

¢ùuFôj / ¢SsCGnQ
to appoint as head ra√√as-a/ yu-ra√√is-u o no n

4.3 Final hamza
The seat for final hamza in Form II, as in other forms, shifts according to the rules
for word-final hamza; note that certain inflectional suffixes extend the word
length, and therefore the seat for hamza is affected (e.g., hanna√-uu-haa ÉghD’q¦g
˜they congratulated her™).

oÇuôn‘oj / nCGqnôH
to free barra√-a/yu-barri√-u n
to congratulate hanna√-a/yu-hanni√-u o…u¦n¡oj / nCÉs¦ng
to hide xabba√-a/yu-xabbi√-u o…u‘n®oj / nCÉs‘nN
to heat, warm daffa√-a/yu-daffi√-u o…uanóoj / nCÉsanO

5 Assimilated roots in Form II
Assimilated roots, where the first radical is either waaw or yaa√, are inflected as
sound roots in Form II; the waaw or yaa√ remains stable in both tenses.

to sign, endorse waqqa¬-a/yu-waqqi¬-u „b’j / „bh
ouno nsn
to stop, halt waqqaf-a/yu-waqqif-u o∞ubn’oj / ∞bh
n sn

6 Hollow roots in Form II
Hollow roots behave as sound roots in Form II, the waaw or yaa√ that is the second
radical functions as a stable consonant.

to create kawwan-a/yu-kawwin-u o¿u’nµoj / n¿s’nc
to change ghayyar-a/yu-ghayyir-u oôu«n¨oj / nôs«nZ
to photograph Sawwar-a/yu-Sawwir-u oQu’n°üoj / nQs’n°U
to appoint oøu«n©oj / nøs«nY
¬ayyan-a/yu-¬ayyin-u


7 Defective roots in Form II
Defective roots, where the final radical is either waaw or yaa√, behave as -aa/-ii
verbs in Form II. They depend on the stem vowel for the nature of the final rad-
ical, and the stem vowel is consistently /a/ in the past tense and /i/ in the present
tense.
494 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


to cover ghaTTaa/yu-ghaTTii »q£n¨oj / ≈q£nZ
to pray Sallaa/yu-Sallii »q∏n°üoj / ≈q∏n°U
to sing ghannaa/yu-ghannii »q¦n¨oj / ≈q¦nZ
to sacrifice DaHHaa/yu-DaHHii »q«n°†oj / ≈q«n°V

8 Doubly weak roots in Form II
These roots have two forms of weakness which may occur at any point in the root.

8.1 Hamzated and defective
to carry out; to perform (s.th.) ¦qO’j / iqOnCG
Dn o
√addaa/yu-√addii


8.2 Hamzated and hollow
to help, aid (s.o. or s.th.) ójnD ’oj / nósjnCG
ou
√ayyad-a/yu-√ayyid-u

8.3 Hollow and defective
to greet; keep alive; grant long life Hayyaa/yu-Hayyii »q«n«oj / ≈q«nM

9 Examples of Form II verbs in context
.‚ªq∏°ùj ¬∏dG
allaah-u yu-sallim-u-ka.
(May) God keep you safe.

.ójó·G ¢ù«FôdG …q¦¡j .ºµH –qMôf .kG’ãc ºà«q«°V
yu-hanni√-u l-ra√iis-a l-jadiid-a. nu-raHHib-u bi-kum. DaHHay-tum kathiir-an.
He congratulates the new We welcome you. You (pl.) have sacrificed
president. much.

.«“àM™G QGôªà°SÉH ¬«a Oqóf kÉfÉ«H Qó°UCG
√aSdar-a bayaan-an naddad-a fii-hi bi-stimraar-i l-iHtilaal-i.
He issued a statement in which he criticized the continuation of occupation.


10 Form II verbal nouns
Verbal nouns from Form II most often have the form taf¬iil π«©˜J; occasionally
taf¬iila á∏«©˜J .3 Variations on Form II verbal nouns also include taf¬aal «É©˜nJ or
tif¬aal «É©˜pJ and taf¬ila á∏p©˜nJ.


3
For an extensive list of Form II verbal noun variants in Classical Arabic see Wright 1967, I:115“16.
Form II 495


10.1 Sound/regular root
arrangement tartiib statue timthaal
–«JrônJ «ÉãrªpJ
reminder; souvenir tadhkaar experiment tajriba
QÉcrònJ ánHpôr©nJ
10.2 Geminate root
repetition takraar renewal tajdiid
QGôrµnJ ójór©J
n
10.3 Hamzated root
founding ta√siis visa ta√shiira
¢ù«°SrCÉnJ I’°TrCÉnJ
congratulating tahni√a heating tadfi√a
án„p¦r¡nJ án„parónJ
10.4 Assimilated root
unification tawHiid clarification tawDiiH
ó«Mr’J
n í«°Vr’J
n
10.5 Hollow root
creation takwiin appointing ta¬yiin
øj’rµJn Ú«r©nJ
photographing taSwiir change taghyiir
ôj’r°ünJ ’«r¨nJ
10.6 Defective root
naming tasmiya covering taghtiya
án«pªr°ùnJ án«p£r¨nJ
10.7 Doubly weak
Here are a few examples of doubly weak Form II verbal nouns.

10.7.1 Hamzated and defective

carrying out; ta√diya ánjpOrCÉnJ
performing

10.7.2 Hamzated and hollow

assistance ta√yiid ó«jrCÉnJ
10.7.3 Hollow and defective
greeting, salutation taHiyya ás«p«nJ
10.8 Borrowing from Form I
Occasionally a Form II verb uses a verbal noun derived from Form I:

singing ghinaa√ praying, prayer Salaat
AɦpZ I“n°U
496 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


10.9 Examples of Form II verbal nouns in context
áqjµcôe á„aóJ √’°üe ôjô¤J
tadfi√at-un markaziyyat-un taqriir-u maSiir-i-hi
central heating self-determination (˜deciding its
future™)
IôFGó∏d kGôjóe AG’∏dG Ú«©J áq«°SÉ«°ùdG ¤G’«¨àdG
ta¬yiin-u l-liwaa√-i mudiir-an li-l-daa√irat-i al-taghyiiraat-u l-siyaasiiyyat-u
appointing the general as director of the political changes
department

11 Form II participles
Form II participles occur as nouns and as adjectives. Examples are provided wher-
ever possible.

11.1 Form II active participle (AP): mufa¬¬il πu©n˜oe

11.1.1 Sound/regular root

coordinator; munassiq smuggler muharrib
≥u°ùn¦e
o Üuôn¡oe
organizer
inspector mufattish drug/s muxaddir/-aat ¤GQuón®oe / Quón®oe
¢»uàn˜oe
11.1.2 Geminate root
editor muHarrir analyst muHallil
Quôn«oe πu∏n«oe
11.1.3 Hamzated root

muezzin mu√adhdhin congratulating muhanni√
¿uPnD’oe …u¦n¡oe
11.1.4 Assimilated root

connecting muwaSSil πu°Un’oe
11.1.5 Hollow root

distinctive mumayyiz creator; mukawwin
µu«nªoe ¿u’nµoe
component
11.1.6 Defective root
The active participle of defective roots is inflected as a defective noun or adjective
(declension six) and ends with the defective marker of kasratayn:

praying4 muSall-in singer/singing mughann-in
xπn°üoe xøn¨oe
4
Also, ˜person in prayer.™
Form II 497


11.1.7 Examples of Form II active participles in context
ôqµ‘e ôªY ˜ Ió«qàŸG ·C™G ¤ÉWÉ°»f ≥q°ù¦e
fii ¬umr-in mubakkir-in munassiq-u nashaaTaat-i l-√umam-i
at an early age l-muttaHidat-i
the coordinator of UN activities

áqj ôµ°ù©dG áq«°SÉ«°ùdG ¿hD’°»dG πq∏¬
¤GQqó±G ’Hqô¡e
muharrib-uu l-mukhaddir-aat muHallil-u l-shu√uun-i l-siyaasiyyat-i
drug smugglers l-¬askariyyat-i
(smugglers of drugs) political-military affairs analyst

§˜¦∏d IQqó°üŸG áq«Hô©dG QÉ£bC™G áªq¶¦e
munaZZamat-u l-√aqTaar-i l-¬arabiyyat-i l-muSaddirat-i li-l-naf T-i
the organization of Arab oil-exporting countries

11.2 Form II passive participle (PP): mufa¬¬al πs©n˜oe

11.2.1 Sound/regular root
volume; tome mujallad complicated mu¬aqqad
ós∏n©oe ós¤n©oe
triangle muthallath cubic; cubed muka¬¬ab
ås∏nãoe –s©nµoe
square murabba¬ armed musallaH
„sHôe
no ís∏°ùoe
n
12.2 Assimilated root
employee muwaZZaf successful; lucky muwaffaq
∞sXn’oe ≥sa’e
no
12.3 Geminate root
shattered mufakkak set, delineated muHaddad
‚sµn˜oe Osó«e
no
12.4 Hamzated root
nationalized mu√ammam foundation mu√assassa
ºsenD’oe án°ùs°SnD’oe
12.5 Hollow root
illustrated muSawwar appointed, mu¬ayyan
Qs’n°üoe øs«n©oe
  designated
12.6 Defective root
The passive participle of defective roots ends with √alif maqSuura and is inflected
as an indeclinable noun or adjective (declension seven).

educated, raised; murabban covered mughaTTan
k≈qHnôoe k≈q£n¨oe
preserves, jam
498 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


11.2.7 Examples of Form II passive participles in context
πq°ü˜e º©©e á«q∏°ùŸG ¤Gq’¤dG
mu¬jam-un mufaSSal-un al-quwwaat-u l-musallaHat-u
a detailed lexicon the armed forces
Oqó¬ óY’e ˜ áªqeD’e ídÉ°üe
fii maw¬id-in muHaddad-in maSaaliH-u mu√ammamat-un
at a set time nationalized interests/assets

Qq’°üe ¢S’eÉb øq«©ŸG ’˜°ùdG
qaamuus-un muSawwar-un al-safiir-u l-mu¬ayyan-u
an illustrated dictionary the ambassador-designate

o–uJnôoj , –sJnQ AP: –qnJnôoe PP: –sJnôoe –«JrônJ
Form II Sound root: VN: ˜to arrange™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr‘sJnQ o–uJnQoCG n–uJnQoCG r–uJnQoCG oâr‘uJoQ o–sJnQoCG
nârfCG nâr‘sJnQ o–uJnôoJ n–sJnôoJ r–sJnôoJ r–uJnQ nâr‘uJoQ o–sJnôoJ
pârfCG pâr‘sJnQ nÚ‘uJnôoJ »‘uJnôoJ »‘uJnôoJ »‘uJnQ pâr‘uJoQ nÚ‘sJnôoJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr‘sJnQ p¿É‘uJnôoJ É‘uJnôoJ É‘uJnôoJ É‘uJnQ ɪoàr‘uJoQ p¿É‘sJnôoJ
n’og n–sJnQ o–uJnôoj n–uJnôoj r–uJnôoj n–uJoQ o–sJnôoj
n»pg rân‘sJnQ o–uJnôoJ n–uJnôoJ r–uJnôoJ rân‘uJoQ o–sJnôoJ
ɪog-m É‘sJnQ p¿É‘uJnôoj É‘uJnôoj É‘uJnôoj É‘uJoQ p¿É‘sJnôoj
ɪog-f Éàn‘sJnQ p¿É‘uJnôoJ É‘uJnôoJ É‘uJnôoJ Éàn‘uJoQ p¿É‘sJnôoJ
ø«f
orn ɦr‘sJnQ o–uJnôof n–uJnôof r–uJnôof ɦr‘uJoQ o–sJnôof
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr‘sJnQ n¿ ’‘uJnôoJ G’‘uJnôoJ G’‘uJnôoJ G’‘uJnQ rºoàr‘uJoQ n¿ ’‘sJnôoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr‘sJnQ nør‘uJnôoJ nør‘uJnôoJ nør‘uJnôoJ søoàr‘uJoQ nør‘sJnôoJ
ºog G’‘sJnQ n¿ ’‘uJnôoj G’‘uJnôoj G’‘uJnôoj G’‘uJoQ n¿ ’‘sJnôoj
søog nør‘sJnQ nør‘uJnôoj nør‘uJnôoj nør‘uJnôoj nør‘uJnQ nør‘uJoQ nør‘nJsôoj
Form II 499


Form II Geminate root: Quôn¤oj , nQsônb AP: Quôn¤oe PP: Qsôn¤oe VN: QGônb , ôjôr¤J ˜to decide™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rQ q ôb
n oQ uônboCG nQu ônboCG rQu ônboCG o¤rQuôob oQsônboCG
nârfCG n¤rQs ônb oQ uôn¤oJ nQu ôn¤oJ rQu ôn¤oJ rQuônb n¤rQuôob oQsôn¤oJ
pârfCG p¤rQs ôb
n nøjQu ôn¤oJ ¦Qu ôn¤oJ ¦Qu ôn¤oJ ¦Quônb p¤rQuôob nøjQs ôn¤oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrQsônb p¿GQu ôn¤oJ GQu ôn¤oJ GQu ôn¤oJ GQuônb ɪoJrQuôob p¿GQsôn¤oJ
n’og nQ ôb
sn oQu ôn¤oj nQu ôn¤oj rQu ôn¤oj nQuôob oQsôn¤oj
n»pg r¤nQs ôb
n oQu ôn¤oJ nQu ôn¤oJ rQu ôn¤oJ r¤nQuôob oQsôn¤oJ
ɪog-m GQs ôb
n p¿GQu ôn¤oj GQu ôn¤oj GQu ôn¤oj GQuôob p¿GQsôn¤oj
ɪog-f ÉJnQs ôb
n p¿GQu ôn¤oJ GQu ôn¤oJ GQu ôn¤oJ ÉJnQuôob p¿GQsôn¤oJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrQs ôb
n oQ uôn¤of nQu ôn¤of rQu ôn¤of ÉfrQuôob oQsôn¤of
ºoàrfnCG ºoJrQs ôb n¿ hQuôn¤oJ
n GhQu ôn¤oJ GhQu ôn¤oJ GhQuônb rºoJrQuôob n¿hQsôn¤oJ
søoàrfnCG øJrQ ôb
s o sn n¿r Qu ôn¤oJ n¿ rQ uôn¤oJ n¿rQu ôn¤oJ n¿ rQuônb søoJrQuôob n¿rQsôn¤oJ
ºog GhQsônb n¿ hQuôn¤oj GhQu ôn¤oj GhQuôn¤oj GhQuôob n¿hQsôn¤oj
søog n¿rQs ôb
n n¿r Q uôn¤oj n¿r Qu ôn¤oj n¿rQuôn¤oj n¿rQuôob n¿rQsôn¤oj
500 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form II hamza-initial root: oπuLnD’oj , πsLnCG AP: πuLnD’oe PP: πsLnD’oe VN: π«LrCÉnJ ˜to delay™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr∏sLnCG oπuLnDhoCG nπuLnDhoCG rπuLnDhoCG oâr∏uLoCG oπsLnDhoCG
nârfCG nâr∏sLnCG oπuLnD’oJ nπuLnD’oJ rπuLnD’oJ rπuLnCG nâr∏uLoCG oπsLnD’oJ
pârfCG pâr∏sLnCG nÚ∏uLnD’oJ »∏uLnD’oJ »∏uLnD’oJ »∏uLnCG pâr∏uLoCG nÚ∏sLnD’oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr∏sLnCG p¿“uLnD’oJ “uL’J
Dn o “uL’J
Dn o “uLnCG ɪoàr∏uLoCG p¿“sLnD’oJ
n’og nπsLnCG oπuLnD’oj nπuLnD’oj rπuLnD’oj nπuLoCG oπsLnD’oj
n»pg rân∏sLnCG oπuLnD’oJ nπuLnD’oJ rπuLnD’oJ rân∏uLoCG oπsLnD’oJ
ɪog-m “sLnCG p¿“uLnD’oj “uL’j
Dn o “uL’j
Dn o “uLoCG p¿“sLnD’oj
ɪog-f Éàn∏sLnCG p¿“uLnD’oJ “uL’J
Dn o “uL’J
Dn o Éàn∏uLoCG p¿“sLnD’oJ
ø«f
orn ɦr∏sLnCG oπuLnD’of nπuLnD’of rπuLnD’of ɦr∏uLoCG oπsLnD’of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr∏sLnCG n¿ ’∏uLnD’oJ G’∏uLnD’oJ G’∏uLnD’oJ G’∏uLnCG rºoàr∏uLoCG n¿ ’∏sLnD’oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr∏sLnCG nør∏uLnD’oJ nør∏uLnD’oJ nør∏uLnD’oJ nør∏uLnCG søoàr∏uLoCG nør∏sLnD’oJ
ºog G’∏sLnCG n¿ ’∏uLnD’oj G’∏uLnD’oj G’∏uLnD’oj G’∏uLoCG n¿ ’∏sLnD’oj
søog nør∏sLnCG nør∏uLnD’oj nør∏uLnD’oj nør∏uLnD’oj nør∏uLoCG nør∏sLnD’oj
Form II 501


Form II hamza-final root: o…u¦n¡oj , nCÉq¦ng AP: …u¦n¡oe PP: CÉs¦n¡oe VN: án„p¦r¡nJ ˜to congratulate™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâ rCÉs¦ng o…u¦ngoCG n…u¦ngoCG r…u¦ngoCG oâr„u¦og oCÉs¦ngoCG
nârfCG nâ rCÉs¦ng o…u¦n¡oJ n…u¦n¡oJ r…u¦n¡oJ r…u¦ng nâr„u¦og oCÉs¦n¡oJ
pârfCG pâ rCÉs¦ng nÚp„u¦n¡oJ »p„u¦n¡oJ »p„u¦n¡oJ »p„u¦ng pâr„u¦og nÚp„s¦n¡oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJ CÉq¦ng p¿Én„u¦n¡oJ Én„u¦n¡oJ Én„u¦n¡oJ Én„u¦ng ɪoàr„u¦og p¿BÉs¦n¡oJ
n’og nCÉq¦ng o…u¦n¡oj n…u¦n¡oj r…u¦n¡oj n…u¦og oCÉs¦n¡oj
n»pg râ nCÉs¦ng o…u¦n¡oJ n…u¦n¡oJ r…u¦n¡oJ rân„u¦og oCÉs¦n¡oJ
ɪog-m BÉq¦ng p¿Én„u¦n¡oj Én„u¦n¡oj Én„u¦n¡oj Én„u¦og p¿BÉs¦n¡oj
ɪog-f ÉJ nCÉq¦ng p¿Én„u¦n¡oJ Én„u¦n¡oJ Én„u¦n¡oJ Éàn„u¦og p¿BÉs¦n¡oJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrCÉs¦ng o…u¦n¡of n…u¦n¡of r…u¦n¡of ɦr„u¦og oCÉs¦n¡of
ºoàrfnCG rºoJ CÉq¦ng n¿’o„u¦n¡oJ G’o„u¦n¡oJ G’o„u¦n¡oJ G’o„u¦ng rºoàr„u¦og n¿ hD ’s¦n¡oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrCÉs¦ng nør„u¦n¡oJ nør„u¦n¡oJ nør„u¦n¡oJ nør„u¦ng søoàr„u¦og n¿rCÉs¦n¡oJ
ºog GhD’s¦ng ¿’o„u¦n¡oj G’o„u¦n¡oj G’o„u¦n¡oj G’o„u¦og n¿ hD ’s¦n¡oj
søog n¿rCÉs¦ng nør„u¦n¡oj nør„u¦n¡oj nør„u¦n¡oj nør„u¦og n¿rCÉs¦n¡oj
502 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form II Defective root: »q£n¨oj , ≈s£nZ AP: x§n¨oe PP: k≈£n¨oe VN: án«p£r¨nJ ˜to cover™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr«s£nZ »q£nZoCG n»q£nZoCG u§nZoCG oâ«u£oZ ≈s£nZoCG
ârfCG nâr«s£nZ »q£n¨oJ n»q£n¨oJ §¨J
uno §Z
un nâ«u£oZ ≈s£n¨oJ
pârfCG pâr«s£nZ nÚq£n¨oJ n»q£n¨oJ »q£n¨oJ »q£nZ pâ«u£oZ nør«s£n¨oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr«s£nZ p¿É«u£n¨oJ É«u£n¨oJ É«u£n¨oJ É«q£nZ ɪoà«u£oZ p¿É«s£n¨oJ
n’og ≈q£nZ »s£n¨oj n»u£n¨oj §¨j
uno n»u£oZ ≈s£n¨oj
n»pg râs£nZ »q£n¨oJ n»u£n¨oJ §¨J
uno rân«u£oZ ≈s£n¨oJ
ɪog-m É«s£nZ p¿É«u£n¨oj É«u£n¨oj É«u£n¨oj É«u£oZ p¿É«s£n¨oj
ɪog-f Éàs£nZ p¿É«u£n¨oJ É«u£n¨oJ É«u£n¨oJ Éàn«u£oZ p¿É«s£n¨oJ
ø«f
orn ɦr«s£nZ »q£n¨of n»u£n¨of §¨f
uno ɦ«u£oZ ≈s£n¨of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr«s£nZ n¿ ’t£n¨oJ G’t£n¨oJ G’t£n¨oJ G’t£nZ rºoà«u£oZ n¿r ’s£n¨oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr«s£nZ nÚq£n¨oJ nÚq£n¨oJ nÚq£n¨oJ Úu£nZ søoà«u£oZ nør«s£n¨oJ
ºog Gr’s£nZ n¿ ’t£n¨oj G’t£n¨oj G’t£n¨oj G’t£oZ n¿ r’s£n¨oj
søog nør«s£nZ nÚu£n¨oj nÚu£n¨oj nÚu£n¨oj nÚu£oZ nør«s£n¨oj
24
Form III triliteral verb


1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern: faa¬al-a nπnYÉa/ yu-faa¬il-u oπpYɘoj
Form III is augmented from Form I by insertion of the long vowel /aa/ after the
first radical of the root. It has the basic stem patterns C1aaC2aC3- in the past tense
and -C1aaC2iC3- in the present tense, maintaining the long vowel in both tenses.

1.2 Meaning
In terms of meaning, Form III often has the meaning of involving another person
in the action. For this reason it is termed “associative.” Related semantic modifi-
cations conveyed by this inflectional class include reciprocal action, repeated
action, and attempted action.1

1.3 Transitivity
Form III verbs are usually transitive, but may occasionally be intransitive.

1.4 In¬‚ection
A distinctive inflectional characteristic of Form III verbs is that the present tense
subject-marker vowel is Damma and the present tense stem vowel is kasra (yu-
saa¬id-u).

2 Regular (sound) triliteral root
These verbs are examples of Form III sound triliteral roots:

to experience maaras-a/yu-maaris-u o¢SpQɪoj / n¢SnQÉe
to defend daafa¬-a/yu-daafi¬-u „aGóoj / „aGO
op nn
to assist, help saa¬ad-a/yu-saa¬id-u oópYÉ°ùoj / nónYÉ°S
to observe raaqab-a/yu-raaqib-u o–pbGôoj / n–nbGQ
1
For an extensive analysis of Form III and its semantic implications, see Fleisch 1979, II:288“301.


503
504 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


2.1 Associative meaning
Arabic Form III associative verbal concepts are often directly transitive whereas
English would need to use the word “with” to indicate reciprocality or associa-
tiveness:

to correspond with (s.o.) raasal-a/yu-raasil-u oπp°SGôoj / nπn°SGQ
to share with (s.o.) shaarak-a/yu-shaarik-u o‘pQÉ°»oj / n‘nQÉ°T
to deal with (s.o., s.th.) oèpdÉ©oj / nèndÉY
¬aalaj-a/yu-¬aalij-u

to compete with (s.o.) saabaq-a/yu-saabiq-u ≥HÉ°ùoj / ≥HÉ°S
op nn
3 Geminate (doubled) root Form III
It is rare to find geminate roots in Form III. The ones that do exist have two variant
patterns: one where the identical consonants are written together with a shadda
and one where they are written separately, with an intervening fatHa. The follow-
ing stem patterns occur: C1aaC2C2-a ( faa¬¬-) and C1aaC2aC2-a ( faa¬a¬-) in the past
tense, and yu-C1aaC2C2 - ( yu-faa¬¬- or yu-C1aaC2iC2 - ( yu-faa¬i¬-) in the present.2

to punish qaaSaS-a/yu-qaaSiS-u o¢üp°Uɤoj / n¢ün°UÉb
4 Hamzated roots in Form III
The hamza may occur in the first, second, or third position in the triliteral root.
Depending on its position, and the surrounding vowels, the hamza may have to
change its seat when the verb inflects for person and tense.

4.1 Initial hamza
In Form III, initial hamza merges with the long vowel -aa of the first syllable in the
past tense and it written as one √alif with madda. In the present tense, initial
hamza sits on a waaw seat because it is preceded by the Damma of the person-
marking prefix:

to censure, to blame oòpNGD’oj / nònNBG
√aaxadh-a/yu-√aaxidh-u

to consult oôpeGD’oj / nôneBG
√aamar-a/yu-√aamir-u

4.2 Medial hamza
The medial hamza sits aloof in the past tense of Form III.3 In the present tense it
sits on a yaa√ seat because it is followed by a kasra.

2
See Wright 1967, I:71 for further discussion of this variation.
3
This is because it is situated after a long vowel /aa/ and before a short vowel /a/. It would have an
√alif seat, but the general rule is that two √alifs cannot follow each other in Arabic script, so the
hamza here floats aloof.
Form III triliteral verb 505


to match; to be suitable for laa√am-a/yu-laa√im-u oºpF“oj / n„¦nA™
to question, interrogate saa√al-a/yu-saa√il-u oπpFÉ°ùoj / n«nAÉ°S

4.3 Final hamza
Final hamza sits on an √alif seat in the past tense and on a yaa√ seat in the present
tense, but because it is the final consonant in the stem, the seat of the hamza may
shift with inflectional suffixes.

to surprise faaja√-a/yu-faaji√-u o…pLɘoj / nCÉnLÉa
to reward; to be kaafa√-a/yu-kaafi√-u o…paɵoj / nCÉnaÉc
commensurate with


5 Assimilated roots in Form III
Assimilated roots, where the first radical is either waaw or yaa√, are inflected as
sound roots in Form III; the waaw or yaa√ is stable.

to agree with waafaq-a/yu-waafiq-u ≥aG’oj / ≥aGh
op nn
to face, confront waajah-a/yu-waajih-u o¬pLG’oj / n¬nLGh

6 Hollow roots in Form III
Hollow roots behave as strong roots in Form III, the waaw or yaa√ that is the second
radical functions as a consonant.

to answer jaawab-a/yu-jaawib-u oÜphÉ©oj / nÜnhÉL
to try, attempt Haawal-a/yu-Haawil-u o«phÉ«oj / n«nhÉM
to consult with shaawar-a/yu-shaawir-u oQphÉ°»oj / nQnhÉ°T
to be gentle with laayan-a/yu-laayin-u oøpj“oj / nønj™

7 Defective roots in Form III
Defective roots, where the final radical is either waaw or yaa√, behave as -aa/-ii
verbs in Form III. They depend on the stem vowel for the nature of the final radi-
cal, and the stem vowel is consistently /a/ in the past tense and /i/ in the present
tense.

to call; summon; invite naadaa/yu-naadii ¦Oɦoj / iOÉf
to compete (with) baaraa/yu-baarii ¦QÉ‘oj / iQÉH
to endure, to suffer (s.th.) ÊÉ©oj / ≈fÉY
¬aanaa/yu-¬aanii
506 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


8 Doubly weak roots in Form III
Hollow and defective:

to be equivalent to; saawaa/yu-saawii ¦hÉ°ùoj / ihÉ°S
to equalize

9 Examples of Form III verbs in context
.á˜∏ଂ ¤É©eÉL ˜ ô°VÉ“ .kGóZ ôaÉ°ù«°S
tu-HaaDir-u fii jaami¬aat-in muxtalifat-in. sa-yu-saafir-u ghad-an.
She lectures at different universities. He will travel tomorrow.

.§°ShC™G ¥ô°»dG ˜ áq«°SÉ«°ùdG ´É°VhC™G èdÉ©j ¬‘àc ˜
fii kutub-i-hi yu-¬aalij-u l-√awDaa¬-a l-siyaasiyyat-a fii l-sharq-i l-√awsaT-i.
In his books he deals with political conditions in the Middle East.

.¥qµªàdG øe ÊÉ©j
¬f’°ü°Uɤ«°S
sa-yu-qaaSiS-uuna-hu. yu-¬aanii min-a l-tamazzuq-i.
They will punish him. It suffers from fragmentation.

10 Form III verbal noun
The verbal noun of Form III verbs takes two basic forms: mufaa¬ala and fi¬aal.
Usually, one of these verbal nouns is used for a particular Form III verb, but
occasionally, a verb may use both of these Form III verbal nouns, with either
equivalent or slightly different meanings. For example:

Form: Form III Haawar-a ˜talk, debate, argue™

argument, muHaawara conversation, Hiwaar
InQnhÉ«oe QG’pM
dispute dialogue

Form: Form III kaafaH-a ˜to combat, fight, struggle™

confrontation, mukaafaHa fight, battle, kifaaH
án«naɵoe ¬É˜pc
battle strife

For the most part, however, one of these two verbal nouns suffices for a Form III
verb. Both of these verbal noun patterns take the sound feminine plural.

10.1 Sound/regular root
mufaa¬ala án∏Yɘoe
n
lecture muHaaDara debate munaaqasha
Inôn°VÉ«oe án°»nbɦoe
boycott muqaaTa¬a initiative mubaadara
án©nWɤoe InQnOÉ‘oe
review muraaja¬a conversation mukaalama
án©nLGôoe ánªndɵoe
Form III triliteral verb 507


fi¬aal «É©pa

struggle niDaal struggle jihaad
«É°†pf OÉ¡pL
combat kifaaH defense difaa¬
¬É˜pc ´ÉapO
10.2 Hamzated root

10.2.1 Hamza initial
The hamza sits on a waaw seat.

censure, mu√aaxadha consultation; mu√aamara
InónNGD’oe InôneGD’oe
blame plotting

10.2.2 Hamza medial
In these verbal nouns, the hamza “floats” aloof by itself and has no chair.

suitability; appropriateness mulaa√ama ánenA“oe
questioning, interrogation musaa√ala ándnAÉ°ùoe
10.2.3 Hamza ¬nal
In these verbal nouns, hamza sits on √alif.
surprise mufaaja√a reward mukaafa√a
ICÉLɘoe ICÉaɵoe
10.3 Assimilated root
The assimilated root behaves as a sound root in the Form III verbal noun.

agreement muwaafaqa balance muwaazana
án¤naG’oe ánfnRG’oe
10.4 Hollow root
The hollow root behaves as a sound root in the Form III verbal noun.
attempt muHaawala vicinity jiwaar
ándnhÉ«oe QG’pL
negotiation mufaawaDa dialogue; Hiwaar
án°Vnhɘoe QG’pM
conversation

10.5 Defective root
In verbal nouns of defective Form III verbs, the second radical is followed by an
√alif and taa√ marbuuTa.

legal defense muHaamaat suffering, mu¬aanaat
IÉeÉ«oe IÉfÉ©oe
enduring
equality musaawaat competition, mubaaraat
IGhÉ°ùoe IGQÉ‘oe
match
508 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


10.6 Examples of Form III verbal nouns in context
áq«f’˜«∏J áŸÉµe AÉ©¦°U á¶aɬ
mukaalamat-un tiliifuuniyyat-un muHaafaZat-u San¬aa√-a
a telephone conversation the province of Sanaa

ï«°»dG Ú«©J IOÉYEG á‘°Sɦà π«ÿG ¥É‘°S
sibaaq-u l-xayl-i
bi-munaasabat-i √i¬aadat-i ta¬yiin-i l-shaykh-i
on the occasion of the re-appointment of horse racing
the sheikh

´ÉaódG IQGRh ! IòNGD’e ™
wizaarat-u l-difaa¬-i laa mu√aaxadhat-a!
ministry of defense No offense [intended]!

á∏°TÉa IqóY ¤™hɬ ó©H ¤GQÉ°†—G ´Gô°U
ba¬d-a muHaawalaat-in ¬iddat-in faashilat-in Siraa¬-u l-HaDaaraat-i
after several failed attempts culture wars
(˜the struggle of cultures™)

11 Form III participles
Form III participles occur as nouns and as adjectives. In some cases they occur in
both functions.

11.1 Form III active participle (AP): mufaa¬il πpYɘoe

11.1.1 Sound/regular root

lecturer muHaaDir similar mumaathil
ôp°VÉ«oe πpKɪoe
assistant musaa¬id contemporary mu¬aaSir
ópYÉ°ùoe ôp°UÉ©oe
farmer muzaari¬ adjacent mutaaxim
´pQGµoe ºpNÉàoe
observer muraaqib appropriate munaasib
–pbGôoe –p°Sɦoe
11.1.2 Hamzated root
The final root hamza sits on a yaa√ because it is preceded by kasra.

surprising mufaaji√ …pLɘoe
11.1.3 Assimilated root
Assimilated roots behave as sound roots in the Form III AP.

citizen muwaaTin øpWG’oe
Form III triliteral verb 509


11.1.4 Hollow root
Hollow roots also behave as sound roots in the Form III AP.

on duty munaawib Üphɦoe
neutral muHaayid ópjÉ«oe
neighboring, adjacent mujaawir Qphɩoe

11.1.5 Defective root
The Form III defective root AP falls into declension six, the defective declension,
where the indefinite form of the noun shows the final root consonant as two kas-
ras in the nominative and genitive cases. See Chapter 7, section 5.4.3.

lawyer muHaamin „¦É«oe
m
11.1.6 Examples of Form III APs in context

Iô°UÉ©ŸG ¿’¦˜dG á°VQÉ©ŸG « hódG
al-funuun-u l-mu¬aaSirat-u al-duwal-u l-mu¬aariDat-u
contemporary arts the opposing states

ÜhɦŸG £HÉ°†dG Iójɬ ádhO
al-DaabiT-u l-munaawib-u dawlat-un muHaayidat-un
the officer on duty a neutral country

QhÉÛG 󩤟G ≈∏Y ¿’q«µjôeCG ¿’eɬ
¬alaa l-maq¬ad-i l-mujaawir-i. muHaam-uuna √amriikiyy-uuna
on the adjacent seat American lawyers

11.2 Form III passive participle (PP): mufaa¬al πnYɘoe
This particular type of passive participle is infrequent, but does exist:

blessed mubaarak ‘nQÉ‘oe
‘QÉ‘ŸG ¿É°†eQ ô¡°T
shahr-u ramaDaan-a l-mubaarak-u
the blessed month of Ramadan
510 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form III Sound root: oópYÉ°ùoj , nónYÉ°S AP: ópYÉ°ùoe PP: ónYÉ°ùoe VN: InónYÉ°ùoe ˜to help™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rónYÉ°S oópYÉ°SoCG nópYÉ°SoCG rópYÉ°SoCG o¤rópY’°S oónYÉ°SoCG
nârfCG n¤rónYÉ°S oópYÉ°ùoJ nópYÉ°ùoJ rópYÉ°ùoJ rópYÉ°S n¤rópY’°S oónYÉ°ùoJ
pârfCG p¤rónYÉ°S nøjópYÉ°ùoJ ¦ópYÉ°ùoJ ¦ópYÉ°ùoJ ¦ópYÉ°S p¤rópY’°S nøjónYÉ°ùoJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrónYÉ°S p¿GópYÉ°ùoJ GópYÉ°ùoJ GópYÉ°ùoJ GóYÉ°S ɪoJrópY’°S p¿GónYÉ°ùoJ
n’og nónYÉ°S oópYÉ°ùoj nópYÉ°ùoj rópYÉ°ùoj nópY’°S oónYÉ°ùoj
n»pg r¤nónYÉ°S oópYÉ°ùoJ nópYÉ°ùoJ rópYÉ°ùoJ r¤nópY’°S oónYÉ°ùoJ
ɪog-m GónYÉ°S p¿GópYÉ°ùoj GópYÉ°ùoj GópYÉ°ùoj GópY’°S p¿GónYÉ°ùoj
ɪog-f ÉJnónYÉ°S p¿GópYÉ°ùoJ GópYÉ°ùoJ GópYÉ°ùoJ ÉJnópY’°S p¿GónYÉ°ùoJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrónYÉ°S oópYÉ°ùof nópYÉ°ùof rópYÉ°ùof ÉfrópY’°S oónYÉ°ùof
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrónYÉ°S n¿ hópYÉ°ùoJ GhópYÉ°ùoJ GhópYÉ°ùoJ GhópYÉ°S rºoJrópY’°S n¿ hónYÉ°ùoJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrónYÉ°S n¿rópYÉ°ùoJ n¿rópYÉ°ùoJ n¿rópYÉ°ùoJ n¿rópYÉ°S søoJrópY’°S n¿rónYÉ°ùoJ
ºog GhónYÉ°S n¿ hópYÉ°ùoj GhópYÉ°ùoj GhópYÉ°ùoj GhópY’°S n¿ hónYÉ°ùoj
søog n¿rónYÉ°S n¿rópYÉ°ùoj n¿rópYÉ°ùoj n¿rópYÉ°ùoj n¿rópY’°S n¿rónYÉ°ùoj
Form III triliteral verb 511


Form III hamza-final root: o…pLɘoj , nCÉnLÉa AP: …pLɘoe PP: CÉnLɘoe VN: InCÉnLɘoe ˜to surprise™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rCÉnLÉa o…pLÉaoCG n…pLÉaoCG r…pLÉaoCG oâr„pL’a oCÉnLÉaoCG
nârfCG n¤rCÉnLÉa o…pLɘoJ n…pLɘoJ r…pLɘoJ r…pLÉa nâr„pL’a oCÉnLɘoJ
pârfCG p¤rCÉnLÉa nÚ„pLɘoJ »„pLɘoJ »„pLɘoJ »„pLÉa pâr„pL’a nÚp„nLɘoJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrCÉnLÉa p¿É„pLɘoJ É„pLɘoJ É„pLɘoJ É„pLÉa ɪoàr„pL’a p¿BÉnLɘoJ
n’og nCÉnLÉa o…pLɘj n…pLɘoj r…pLɘoj n…pL’a oCÉnLɘoj
n»pg r¤nCÉnLÉa o…pLɘoJ n…pLɘoJ r…pLɘoJ ân„pL’a oCÉnLɘoJ
ɪog-m BÉnLÉa p¿É„pLɘoj É„pLɘoj É„pLɘoj É„pL’a p¿BÉnLɘoj
ɪog-f ÉJnCÉnLÉa p¿É„pLɘoJ É„pLɘoJ É„pLɘoJ Éàn„pL’a p¿BÉnLɘoJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrCÉnLÉa o…pLɘf n…pLɘof …pLɘof ɦr„pL’a CoÉnLɘof
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrCÉnLÉa n¿ hoD’pLɘoJ GhoD’pLɘoJ GhoD’pLɘoJ GhoD’pLÉa rºoàr„pL’a n¿ hoD ’nLɘoJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrCÉnLÉa nør„pLɘoJ nør„pLɘoJ nør„pLɘoJ nør„pLÉa søoàr„pL’a n¿rCÉnLɘoJ
ºog GhoD’nLÉa n¿ hoD ’pLɘoj GhoD’pLɘoj GhoD’pLɘoj Gho’L’a n¿ hoD’nLɘoj
Dp
søog n¿rCÉnLÉa nør„pLɘoj nør„pLɘoj nør„pLɘoj nør„pL’a n¿rCÉnLɘoj
512 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form III Assimilated root: ¬pLG’oj , ¬LGh AP: ¬pLG’oe PP: ¬nLG’oe VN: án¡LG’oe ˜to face, confront™
nn n
Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr¡nLGh o¬pLGhoCG n¬pLGhoCG r¬pLGhoCG â¡Lhoh
o rp o¬nLGhoCG
nârfCG nâr¡nLGh o¬pLG’oJ n¬pLG’oJ r¬pLG’oJ r¬pLGh â¡Lhoh
n rp o¬nLG’oJ
pârfCG pâr¡nLGh nÚ¡pLG’oJ »¡pLG’oJ »¡pLG’oJ »¡pLGh â¡Lhoh nÚ¡nLG’oJ
p rp
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr¡nLGh p¿É¡pLG’oJ É¡pLG’oJ É¡pLG’oJ É¡pLGh ɪoàr¡pLhoh p¿É¡nLG’oJ
n’og n¬nLGh o¬pLG’oj n¬pLG’oj r¬pLG’oj ¬Lhoh
np o¬nLG’oj
n»pg rân¡nLGh o¬pLG’oJ n¬pLG’oJ r¬pLG’oJ â¡Lhoh
r np o¬nLG’oJ
ɪog-m É¡nLGh p¿É¡pLG’oj É¡pLG’oj É¡pLG’oj É¡pLhoh p¿É¡nLG’oj
ɪog-f Éàn¡nLGh p¿É¡pLG’oJ É¡pLG’oJ É¡pLG’oJ Éàn¡pLhoh p¿É¡nLG’oJ
ø«f
orn ɦr¡nLGh o¬pLG’of n¬pLG’of r¬pLG’of ɦr¡pLhoh o¬nLG’of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr¡nLGh n¿ ’o¡pLG’oJ G’o¡pLG’oJ G’o¡pLG’oJ G’o¡pLGh rºoàr¡pLhoh n¿ ’¡nLG’oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr¡nLGh nør¡pLG’oJ nør¡pLG’oJ nør¡pLG’oJ nør¡pLGh øà¡Lhoh nør¡nLG’oJ
s or p
ºog G’o¡nLGh n¿ ’o¡pLG’oj G’o¡pLG’oj G’o¡pLG’oj G’¡pLhoh n¿ ’¡nLG’oj
søog nør¡nLGh nør¡pLG’oj nør¡pLG’oj nør¡pLG’oj ø¡Lhoh nør¡nLG’oj
nrp
Form III triliteral verb 513


Form III Hollow root: o«phÉ«oj , «nhÉM AP: «phÉ«oe PP: «nhÉ«oe VN: ándnhÉ«oe ˜to try™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârdnhÉM o«phÉMoCG n«phÉMoCG r«phÉMoCG
nârfCG nâdnhÉM o«phÉ«oJ n«phÉ«oJ r«phÉ«oJ r«phÉM
pârfCG pârdnhÉM nÚdphÉ«oJ ‹phÉ«oJ ‹phÉ«oJ ‹phÉM
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrdnhÉM p¿™phÉ«oJ ™phÉ«oJ ™phÉ«oJ ™phÉM
n’og n«nhÉM o«phÉ«oj n«phÉ«oj r«phÉ«oj n«ph’M o«nhÉ«oj
n»pg rândnhÉM o«phÉ«oJ n«phÉ«oJ r«phÉ«oJ rândph’M o«nhÉ«oJ
ɪog-m ™nhÉM p¿™phÉ«oj ™phÉ«oj ™phÉ«oj
ɪog-f ÉàndnhÉM p¿™phÉ«oJ ™phÉ«oJ ™phÉ«oJ
ø«f
orn ɦdnhÉM o«phÉ«of n«phÉ«of r«phÉ«of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrdnhÉM n¿ ’odphÉ«oJ G’odphÉ«oJ G’odphÉ«oJ G’dphÉM
søoàrfnCG søoàrdnhÉM nørdphÉ«oJ nørdphÉ«oJ nørdphÉ«oJ nørdphÉM
ºog G’ndnhÉM n¿ ’odphÉ«oj G’odphÉ«oj G’odphÉ«oj
søog nørdnhÉM nørdphÉ«oj nørdphÉ«oj nørdphÉ«oj
514 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form III Defective root: ¦Oɦoj , iOÉf AP: mOɦoe PP: kiOɦoe VN: IGOɦoe ˜to call™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârjnOÉf ¦pOÉfoCG n¦pOÉfoCG pOÉfoCG âjpO’of
o inOÉfoCG
nârfCG nârjnOÉf ¦OɦoJ n¦OɦoJ pOɦoJ pOÉf âjpO’of
n inOɦoJ
pârfCG pârjnOÉf nøjOɦoJ ¦OɦoJ ¦OɦoJ ¦OÉf âjpO’of nørjnOɦoJ
p
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrjnOÉf p¿ÉjpOɦoJ ÉjpOɦoJ ÉjpOɦoJ ÉjpOÉf ɪoàjpO’of p¿ÉjnOɦoJ
n’og iOÉf ¦Oɦoj n¦Oɦoj pOɦoj ¦O’of
np inOɦoj
n»pg r¤nOÉf ¦OɦoJ n¦OɦoJ pOɦoJ âjO’of
r np inOɦoJ
ɪog-m ÉjnOÉf p¿ÉjpOɦoj ÉjpOɦoj ÉjpOɦoj ÉjpO’of p¿ÉjnOɦoj
ɪog-f ÉJnOÉf p¿ÉjpOɦoJ ÉjpOɦoJ ÉjpOɦoJ ÉànjpO’of p¿ÉjnOɦoJ
ø«f
orn ɦrjnOÉf ¦Oɦof n¦Oɦof pOɦof ɦjpO’of inOɦof
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrjnOÉf n¿ hoOɦoJ GhoOɦoJ GhoOɦoJ GhoOÉf rºoàjpO’of n¿ rhnOɦoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrjnOÉf nøjOɦoJ nøjOɦoJ nøjOɦoJ øjpOÉf
n søoàjpO’of nørjnOɦoJ
ºog GrhnOÉf n¿ hoOɦoj GhoOɦoj GhoOɦoj GhoO’of n¿r hnOɦoj
søog nørjnOÉf nøjOɦoj nøjOɦoj nøjOɦoj øjpO’of nørjnOɦoj
n
25
Form IV triliteral verb


1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern: √af¬al-a nπn©ranCG / yu-f¬il-u oπp©r˜oj
Form IV is augmented from Form I by the prefixing of hamza plus fatHa on the past
tense stem. It has the stem pattern √aC1C2aC3- in the past tense and the stem pat-
tern yu-C1aC2iC3- in the present tense.

1.2 Meaning
Form IV verbs are often causative of Form I. If the Form I verb is intransitive, Form
IV is transitive; if the Form I verb is transitive, Form IV may be doubly transitive,
taking two objects. Form IV verbs may have meanings similar to Form II verbs. For
example, xabbar-a and √axbar-a, both mean ˜to inform™; waqqaf-a and √awqaf-a both
mean ˜to halt, to stop.™ Sometimes the meanings of Form II and Form IV verbs are
close but not exactly the same. For example, ¬allam-a means ˜to teach™ whereas
√a¬lam-a means ˜to inform.™1

1.3 Transitivity
Form IV verbs are usually transitive and sometimes doubly transitive.2 Intransitive
Form IV is rare.3
A doubly transitive Form IV verb may take two objects. It often has the option of
marking the indirect object (or beneficiary) with a dative-marking preposition
such as li-.4

.IôcòàdG É¡```«£©«°S
sa-yu-¬Tii-haa l-tadhkarat-a.
He will give her the ticket.
1
Sterling 1904, 51“53 lists four other less common semantic modifications of Form IV: “finding
[estimative],” “change,” “motion to,” and “to be in season,” with examples from Classical Arabic.
Wright 1967, I:34“36 gives also a denominative meaning for Form IV.
2
Kouloughli 1994, 203 estimates 80 percent of Form IV verbs are transitive.
.
3
One example is: “to grow dark” √aZlam-a/yu-Zlim-u oºp∏¶oj / nºn∏rXnCG
4
For more on double accusatives and use of dative-marking prepositions, see Chapter 4, section 2.5.


515
516 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


1.4 In¬‚ection
Inflectional characteristics of Form IV verbs include:

(1) the present tense subject-marker vowel is Damma and the present tense
stem vowel is kasra (√akmal-a/yu-kmil-u).
(2) the prefixed hamza plus fatHa in the past tense disappears in the present
tense, replaced by the subject markers.5
(3) the prefixed hamza in the past tense is stable (hamzat al-qaT¬) and is not
deleted when pronounced after a vowel.


2 Regular (sound) triliteral root: √af¬al-a nπn©ranCG / yu-f¬il-u oπp©r˜oj
These verbs are examples of Form IV sound triliteral roots:

to include, insert oêpQróoj / nênQrOnCG
√adraj-a/yu-drij-u

to disturb, bother oèpYrµoj / nènYrRnCG
√az¬aj-a/yu-z¬ij-u

to announce oøp∏r©oj / nøn∏rYnCG
√a¬lan-a/yu-¬lin-u

to supervise o±pôr°»oj / n±nôr°TnCG
√ashraf-a/yu-shrif-u

to send oπp°Srôoj / nπn°SrQnCG
√arsal-a/yu-rsil-u

to please o–p©r©oj / n–n©rYnCG
√a¬jab-a/yu-¬jib-u


3 Geminate (doubled) root Form IV: √afa¬¬-a s„nanCG / yu-f¬¬-i q„p˜oj
The geminate root in Form IV behaves very much as Form I geminates. The gemi-
nate or doubled consonant is doubled and written with shadda when followed by
a vowel suffix and it separates into two separate consonants when followed by a
suffix that begins with a consonant.

to feel, perceive, sense ¢üp«j / s¢ünMnCG
to
√aHass-a/yu-Hiss-u

to like, to love t–p«oj / s–nMnCG
√aHabb-a/yu-Hibb-u

to persist in, insist on ≈∏Y tôp°üoj / sôn°UnCG
√aSarr-a/yu-Sirr-u ¬alaa

to prepare tóp©oj / sónYnCG
√a¬add-a/yu-¬idd-u


5
This has the effect of making unvoweled Form IV verbs resemble Form I verbs in written Arabic.
oQoór°ünj / nQnón°U ˜to emanate, come
For verbs which exist in both forms (for example, Sadar-a/ ya-Sdur-u
oQpór°üoj/ nQnór°UnCG ˜to publish™), context is used to disambiguate form as well
out™ and √aSdar-a/yu-Sdir-u
as meaning.
Form IV triliteral verb 517


4 Hamzated roots in Form IV

4.1 Initial hamza
In Form IV, initial root hamza merges with the prefix hamza in the past tense and
they are written as one √alif with a madda over it. In the present tense, initial
hamza sits on a waaw seat because it is preceded by the Damma of the person-
marking prefix:

to believe, have faith oøperD’oj / nøneBG
√aaman-a/yu-√min-u

to rent out, to lease oôpLrD’oj / nônLBG
√aajar-a/yu-√jir-u

4.2 Medial hamza
The medial hamza sits on an √alif seat in the past tense. In the present tense it sits
on a yaa√ seat because it is followed by a kasra.

to comply with someone™s request oπp„r°ùoj / n«nCÉr°SnCG
√as√al-a/yu-s√il-u

4.3 Final hamza
Final hamza may sit on an √alif seat in the past tense, but because it is the final con-
sonant in the stem, the seat of hamza may shift with certain suffixes:

to set up, establish √ansha√-a / yu-nshi√-u o…p°»r¦oj / nCÉn°»rfnCG
to extinguish o…p˜r£oj / nCÉn˜rWnCG
√aTfa√-a/yu-Tfi√-u

5 Assimilated roots in Form IV: √af¬al-a nπn©ranCG / yuu-¬il-u oπpY’j
In the past tense of Form IV, the initial waaw or yaa√ of the assimilated root
behaves as a regular consonant. In the present tense, however, it assimilates to the
vowel /u/ of the subject-marking prefix and becomes long /uu/.

to explain, clarify oíp°V’j / nín°VrhnCG
√awDaH-a/yuuDiH-u

to halt, stop o∞pb’j / n∞nbrhnCG
√awqaf-a/yuuqif-u
to awaken ßb’j / nßn¤rjnCG
op
√ayqaZ-a/yuuqiZ-u
to bring, convey oπp°U’j / nπn°UrhnCG
√awSal-a/yuuSil-u
˜to cause to arrive™

oπjaoj/nπÉanD G
6 Hollow roots in Form IV: √afaal-a/ yu-¬il-u
The semi-consonants waaw and yaa√ of hollow roots in Form IV show up as √alif
(long stem) and fatHa (short stem) in the past tense and yaa√ and kasra in the pres-
ent tense stem. The pattern is √afaal-a/ yu-fiil-u. Examples of both stems are given
518 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


in both tenses: in addition to the standard citation form of third person mascu-
line singular, first person singular (in the past), and third person feminine plural
(in the present).

to broadcast √adhaa¬-a (√adha¬-tu) (oârYnPnCG) n´GPCG
/yu-dhii¬-u (yudhi¬-na) (nørYpòoj) o„jòoj/
to manage, administer √adaar-a (√adar-tu) (o¤rQnOnCG) nQGOCG
/yu-diir-u (yu-dir-na) (nørQpOoj) oQjOoj/
7 Defective roots in Form IV: √af¬aa ≈©ranCG / yu-f¬ii »©r˜oj
Defective roots, where the final radical is either waaw or yaa√, behave as -aa/-ii verbs
in Form IV. They depend on the stem vowel for the nature of the final radical, and
the stem vowel is consistently /a/ in the past tense and /i/ in the present tense.

to eliminate »¨r∏oj / ≈¨rdnCG
√alghaa/yu-lghi
to conduct, to run ¦ôr©j / iôrLnCG
o
√ajraa/yu-jrii

to throw; to deliver (a speech) »¤r∏oj / ≈¤rdnCG
√alqaa/yu-lqii
to give »£r©oj / ≈£rYnCG
√a¬Taa/yu-¬Tii

8 Doubly weak roots in Form IV

8.1 Hamza-initial, hollow, and defective
√aawaa/yu-√wii6
to shelter, accommodate ¦hrD’oj / ihBG
(from√-w-y ˜to seek refuge™)

8.2 Hamza-medial and defective
√araa/yu-rii7
to show (s.o. s.th.) ¦ôoj / iQCG
(˜to cause to see™) (from r-√- y ˜to see™)

8.3 Hamza-¬nal and hollow
to harm, to hurt oA»°ùoj / nAÉ°SnCG
√asaa√-a/yu-sii√-u

9. Exclamatory Form IV (¬¬l al-ta¬ajjub –q©©àdG π©a)
A Form IV verb in the citation form (3 m.sg. past tense) may be used in written Arabic
preceded by the function word maa to indicate surprise, wonder, or astonishment

6
The initial root hamza merges with the prefix hamza in the past tense and the initial vowel /a/
lengthens to /aa/.
7
This verb in Form IV has lost its root hamza completely and inflects as a defective -aa/-ii verb.
Form IV triliteral verb 519


at a certain quality or characteristic of something or someone. It is followed by a
noun in the accusative, or a pronoun suffix that denotes the possessor of the qual-
ity. The occurrence of this construction in media Arabic is rare, but it is found in
literary contexts.
The verbs used in this type of construction are usually related to adjectival roots
and are sometimes referred to as “adjectival verbs.”8 They are also termed “verbs
of surprise or admiration” (Cowan 1964, 177). Cantarino describes the word fol-
lowing maa as “an elative in the accusative of exclamation” (1974“76, II:210), that
is, as a comparative adjective. See also in this book Chapter 7, section 5.3.3.12 on
“less frequent accusatives.”

! nâ«‘dG πªLCG Ée ! º¡``˜£dCG Ée
maa √alTaf-a-hum! 9
maa √ajmal-a l-bint-a!
How beautiful the girl is! How nice they are!

10 Examples of Form IV verbs in context
.√ó°ü¤J Ée â«°VhCÉ``a .ÚdhD’°ùŸG ¢†©H „e ¤ÉKOɬ iôLCG
fa-√awDaH-at maa ta-qSid-u-hu. √ajraa muHaadathaat-in ma¬-a ba¬D-i
She clarified what she meant. l-mas√uul-iina.
He conducted talks with some officials.

.IójóL AÉ«°TCG ∞«°†j ™ .kɪq«b kÉHÉàc ÊGógCG
laa yu-Diif-u √ashyaa√-a jadiidat-an. √ahdaa-nii kitaab-an qayyim-an.
It does not add anything new (˜new He gave me a valuable book.
things™).

.áqj µ«∏µfE™G á¨∏dG ó«©j øŸ á«∏°†aCG ‘ɦg .É¡˜°SCG øY âHôYCG
hunaaka √afDaliyyat-un li-man yu-jiid-u √a¬rab-at ¬an √asaf-i-haa.
l-lughat-a l-√inkliiziyyat-a. She expressed her sorrow.
There is a preference for whomever is
proficient in English.

11 Verbal noun of Form IV: √if¬aal «É©raEG
The verbal noun of Form IV normally has the pattern √if¬aal.

11.1 Sound/regular root

announcement sending
¿“rYpEG «É°SrQpEG
√i¬laan √irsaal
disturbance, bother bankruptcy
êÉnYrRpEG ¢S“raGEp
√iz¬aaj √iflaas
8
See Abboud and McCarus 1976, Part 2:272.
9
These examples are taken from The MECAS Grammar 1965, 239. See also Fischer 2002, 80.
520 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


11.2 Geminate root
The geminate root maintains the √i¬faal pattern, splitting the doubled consonant:

perception, preparation
¢SÉ°ùrMpEG OGórYpEG
√iHsaas √i¬daad
sensation
injury, harm insistence,
QGôr°VpEG QGôr°UpEG
√iDraar √iSraar
persistence

11.3 Hamzated root

11.3.1 Hamza-initial root
The verbal noun of hamza-initial roots in Form IV lengthens the kasra of the initial
syllable into long /ii/ and deletes the root hamza:
faith √iimaan (*instead rent, renting √iijaar (*instead
¿ÉªrjGE QÉ©rjGE
of √i√jaar)
 of √i√maan)
11.3.2 Hamza-¬nal root
In this verbal noun, the hamza sits aloof after the √alif.
establishment, √inshaa√ extinguishing
AÉ°»rfpEG AɘrWpEG
√iTfaa√
setting up

11.4 Assimilated root: √ii¬aal «É©jEG
In the verbal nouns of Form IV assimilated verbs, the initial waaw or yaa√ of the
root is assimilated to the kasra /i/ of the initial hamza, and it lengthens to /ii/, i.e.,
√if¬aal becomes √ii¬aal.
clarification bringing,
¬É°†jEG «É°üjEG
√iiDaaH √iiSaal
conveying
stopping, awakening
±É¤jEG ®É¤jEG
√iiqaaf √iiqaaZ
halting

11.5 Hollow root: √ifaala ádÉaEG
The verbal noun of Form IV hollow roots is √ifaala ádÉaEG , ending with taa√ marbuuTa.
inflicting administration
áHÉ°UEG IQGOEG
√iSaaba √idaara
broadcasting √idhaa¬a repetition
áYGPEG IOÉYEG
√i¬aada

11.6 Defective root: √if¬aa√ AÉ©raEG
In the Form IV verbal noun of defective verbs, the defective semi-consonant (waaw
or yaa√) disappears and is replaced by hamza, i.e., √if¬aal becomes √if¬aa√ AÉ©raEG.
elimination conducting
AɨdEG AGôLEG
√ilghaa√ √ijraa√
giving delivery (of a speech) √ilqaa√
AɣYEG AɤdEG
√i¬Taa√
Form IV triliteral verb 521


11.7 Examples of Form IV verbal nouns in context
OÉ°üàb™G ¢TÉ©fEG q¦Q’˜dG qÊóŸG ´ÉaódG ±É©°SEG
√in¬aash-u l-iqtiSaad-i √is¬aaf-u l-difaa¬-i l-madaniyy-i l-fawriyy-u
reviving the economy emergency civil defense aid

.êQÉÿG ¤EG áq«µjôeCG ¤Gq’b «É°SQEG ójôj ™
laa yu-riid-u √irsaal-a quwwaat-in √amriikiyyat-in √ilaa l-xaarij-i.
He doesn™t want to send American forces abroad.

.πLQ IÉ«M PɤfEG «hÉM ¤GQqó±G ¿ÉeOEG á∏µ°»e
Haawal-a √ inqaadh-a Hayaat-i rajul-in. mushkilat-u √ idmaan-i l-mukhaddir-aat-i
He tried to save a man™s life. the problem of drug addiction

QÉ©jE“d â«H „¦Éªàg™G ®É¤jEG
bayt-un li-l-iijaar-i √iiqaaZ-u l-ihtimaam-i
a house for rent the awakening of interest

12 Form IV participles
Form IV participles occur as nouns and as adjectives. In some cases they occur in
both functions.

12.1 Form IV active participle (AP): muf¬il πp©r˜oe

12.1.1 Sound/regular root
Muslim muslim possible mumkin
ºp∏r°ùoe øpµrªoe
supervisor; supervising mushrif rainy mumTir
±pôr°»oe ôp£rªoe
director (stage or screen) muxrij snowy muthlij
êpôr®oe èp∏rãoe
12.1.2 Geminate root: mu¬¬¬ q„p˜oe
The final two consonants of the geminate root are written together, with no inter-
vening vowel. Thus instead of being in the pattern mufi¬l, they are of the pattern
mufi¬¬ q„p˜oe

tedious, boring mumill injurious, muDirr
qπpªoe qôp°†oe
harmful

insistent, determined muSirr preparing, mu¬idd
qôp°üoe qóp©oe
preparer

12.1.3 Hamzated root

12.1.3.1 Hamza-INITIAL
faithful mu√min regrettable mu√sif
øpeD’oe ∞p°SD’oe
522 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


12.1.3.2 Hamza-FINAL:
founder munshi√ mistaken muxTi√
…p°»r¦oe …£r®oe
12.1.4 Assimilated root: muu¬il πpY’e
In this root type, the initial waaw assimilates to the Damma of the miim-prefix and
yields a long /-uu-/ as the first vowel.
clarifying muuDiH consignor, depositor muudi¬
íp°V’e ´pO’e
originator muujid deep-reaching muughil
ópL’e πpZ’e
12.1.5 Hollow root: mu¬il π«˜oe
ocean muHiiT manager; director mudiir
§««oe ôjóoe
broadcaster mudhii¬ beneficial mufiid
„jòoe ó«˜oe
12.1.6 Defective root: muf¬in m„r˜oe

giver; giving mu¬Tin mufti, giver of formal muftin
m§r©oe mâr˜oe
legal opinions

12.1.7 Examples of Form IV APs in context
áaô°»ŸG ᦩ∏dG ᦵªŸG IóYÉ°ùŸG qπc Ëó¤àH
al-lajnat-u l-mushrifat-u bi-taqdiim-i kull-i l-musaa¬adat-i l-mumkinat-i
the supervising committee by offering all possible aid

á∏gòe áYô°ùH kGqóL ∞°SD’e A»°T
bi-sur¬at-in mudhhilat-in shay√-un mu√sif-un jidd-an
with amazing speed a very regrettable thing

q»°ù∏WC™G §«™G »à˜ŸG áMɪ°S
al-muHiiT-u l-√aTlasiyy-u samaaHat-u l-muftii
the Atlantic Ocean His Eminence the Mufti

12.2 Form IV passive participle (PP): muf¬al πn©r˜oe

12.2.1 Sound/regular root

lexicon mu¬jam compacted mudmaj
ºn©r©oe èneóe
ro
singular word mufrad attach©, officer mulHaq
Onôr˜oe ≥n«∏e
ro
12.2.2 Geminate root: mufa¬¬ q„n˜oe
The final two consonants of the root fall together, with no intervening vowel.

ready, prepared mu¬add qón©oe
Form IV triliteral verb 523


12.2.3 Hamzated root
foundation, establishment; munsha√a ICÉ°»r¦oe
installation

12.2.4 Assimilated root: muu¬al «nYhª
summary muujaz µnL’e
12.2.5 Hollow root: mufaal «É˜oe
melted, dissolved mudhaab injured, afflicted muSaab
ÜGòoe ÜÉ°üoe

12.2.6 Defective root: muf¬an k≈©r˜oe
abolished; abrogated mulghan cast off; discarded mulqan
k≈¨r∏oe k≈¤r∏oe

12.2.7 Examples of Form IV PPs in context
áq«aɤãdG ¿hD’°»dG ≥«∏e áZô˜e á¤∏M
mulHaq-u l-shu√uun-i l-thaqaafiyyat-i Halqat-un mufraghat-un
cultural affairs attach© a vicious circle (˜a seamless circle™)

πq°ü˜e º©©e èeóe ¢Uôb
mu¬jam-un mufaSSal-un qurS-un mudmaj-un
a detailed lexicon a compact disk

QÉ‘NC™G µL’e AÉŸG ˜ ÜGòŸG Ú©°ùcC™G
muujaz-u l-√axbaar-i al-√uuksijiin-u l-mudhaab-u fii l-maa√-i
summary of the news oxygen dissolved in water
524 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form IV Sound root: oπp°Srôoj , nπn°SrQnCG AP: πp°Srôoe PP: πn°Srôoe VN: «É°SrQpEG ˜to send™

Active Active Active Active Active Active Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr∏n°SrQnCG oπp°SrQoCG nπp°SrQoCG rπp°SrQoCG oâr∏p°SrQoCG oπn°SrQoCG
nârfCG nâr∏n°SrQnCG oπp°SrôoJ nπp°SrôoJ rπp°SrôoJ rπp°SrQnCG nâr∏p°SrQoCG oπn°SrôoJ
pârfCG pâr∏n°SrQnCG nÚ∏p°SrôoJ »∏p°SrôoJ »∏p°SrôoJ »∏p°SrQnCG pâr∏p°SrQoCG nÚ∏n°SrôoJ
ɪoàfGC -m/f ɪoàr∏n°SrQnCG
r p¿“p°SrôoJ “p°SrôJ
o “p°SrôJ
o “p°SrQnCG ɪoàr∏p°SrQoCG p¿“n°SrôoJ
n’og nπn°SrQnCG oπp°Srôoj nπp°Srôoj rπp°Srôoj nπp°SrQoCG nør∏n°Srôoj
n»pg rân∏n°SrQnCG oπp°SrôoJ nπp°SrôoJ rπp°SrôoJ rân∏p°SrQoCG oπn°SrôoJ
ɪog-m “n°SrQnCG p¿“p°Srôoj “p°Srôj
o “p°Srôj
o “p°SrQoCG p¿“n°Srôoj
ɪog-f Éàn∏n°SrQnCG p¿“p°SrôoJ “p°SrôJ
o “p°SrôJ
o Éàn∏p°SrQoCG p¿“n°SrôoJ
ø«f
orn ɦr∏n°SrQnCG oπp°Srôof nπp°Srôof rπp°Srôof ɦr∏p°SrQoCG oπn°Srôof
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr∏n°SrQnCG n¿’∏p°SrôoJ G’∏p°SrôoJ G’∏p°SrôoJ G’∏p°SrQnCG rºoàr∏p°SrQoCG n¿’∏n°SrôoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr∏n°SrQnCG nør∏p°SrôoJ nør∏p°SrôoJ nør∏p°SrôoJ nør∏p°SrQnCG søoàr∏p°SrQoCG nør∏n°SrôoJ
ºog G’∏n°SrQnCG n¿’∏p°Srôoj G’∏p°Srôoj G’∏p°Srôoj G’∏p°SrQoCG nø h∏n°Srôoj
søog nør∏n°SrQnCG nør∏p°Srôoj nør∏p°Srôoj nør∏p°Srôoj nør∏p°SrQoCG nør∏n°Srôoj
Form IV triliteral verb 525


Form IV Geminate root: tóp©oj , sónYnCG AP: qóp©oe PP: qón©oe VN: OGórYpEG ˜to prepare™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive* Imperative**

ÉfCG o¤rOnórYnCG tópYoCG sópYoCG sópYoCG o¤rOpórYoCG tónYoCG
nârfCG n¤rOnórYnCG tóp©oJ sóp©oJ sóp©oJ sópYnCG n¤rOpórYoCG tón©oJ
pârfCG p¤rOnórYnCG nøjqóp©oJ ¦qóp©oJ ¦qóp©oJ ¦qópYnCG p¤rOpórYoCG nøjuón©oJ
ɪoàfGC -m/f ɪoJrOnórYnCG
r p¿Gqóp©oJ Gqóp©oJ Gqóp©oJ GqópYnCG ɪoJrOpórYoCG p¿Gqón©oJ
n’og sónYnCG tóp©oj sóp©oj sóp©oj sópYoCG tón©oj
n»pg r¤sónYnCG tóp©oJ sóp©oJ sóp©oJ r¤sópYoCG tón©oJ
ɪog-m GsónYnCG p¿Gqóp©oj Gsóp©oj Gsóp©oj GsópYoCG p¿Gqón©oj
ɪog-f ÉJsónYnCG p¿Gqóp©oJ Gqóp©oJ Gqóp©oJ ÉJsópYoCG p¿Gqón©oJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrOnórYnCG tóp©of sóp©of sóp©of ÉfrOpórYoCG tón©of
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrOnórYnCG n¿hqóp©oJ Ghqóp©oJ Ghqóp©oJ GhqópYnCG rºoJrOpórYoCG n¿ hqó©J
no
søoàrfnCG søoJrOnórYnCG n¿rOpór©oJ n¿rOpór©oJ n¿rOpór©oJ n¿rOpórYnCG søoJrOpórYoCG n¿r Onór©oJ
ºog GhqónYnCG n¿hqóp©oj Ghqóp©oj Ghqóp©oj GhsópYoCG n¿ htó©j
no
søog n¿rOnórYnCG n¿rOpór©oj n¿rOpór©oj n¿rOpór©oj n¿rOpórYoCG n¿rOnór©oj
*Also rOpórYoCG ; rOpór©oJ ; ¦Opór©oJ ; GOpór©oJ ; rOpór©oj ; rOpór©oJ ; rOpór©of ; GhoOpór©oJ ; GhoOpór©oj

**Also rOpórYnCG ; ¦OpórYnCG ; GOpórYnCG ; GhoOpórYnCG
526 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form IV hamza-final: o…p°»r¦oj , nCÉn°»rfnCG AP: …p°»r¦oe ˜to establish™
PP: CÉn°»r¦oe VN: AÉ°»rfEG

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

o¤rCÉn°»rfnCG o…p°»rfoCG n…p°»rfoCG r…p°»rfoCG oâr„p°»rfoCG
ÉfCG oCÉn°»rfoCG
n¤rCÉn°»rfnCG o…p°»r¦oJ n…p°»r¦oJ r…p°»r¦oJ r…p°»rfnCG nâr„p°»rfoCG
nârfCG oCÉn°»r¦oJ
p¤rCÉn°»rfnCG nÚ„p°»r¦oJ »„p°»r¦oJ »„p°»r¦oJ »„p°»rfnCG pâ„p°»rfoCG
pârfCG nÚp„n°»r¦oj
ɪoàfGC -m/f ɪoJrCÉn°»rfnCG p¿É„p°»r¦oJ É„p°»r¦oJ É„p°»r¦oJ É„p°»rfnCG ɪoàr„p°»rfoCG
r p¿BÉn°»r¦oJ
nCÉn°»rfnCG o…p°»r¦oj n…p°»r¦oj r…p°»r¦oj n…p°»rfoCG
n’og oCÉn°»r¦oj
r¤nCÉn°»rfnCG o…p°»r¦oJ n…°p»r¦oJ r…p°»r¦oJ rân„p°»rfoCG
n»pg oCÉn°»r¦oJ
ɪog-m BÉn°»rfnCG p¿É„p°»r¦oj É„p°»r¦oj É„p°»r¦oj É„p°»rfoCG p¿BÉn°»r¦oj
ɪog-f ÉJnCÉn°»rfnCG p¿É„p°»r¦oJ É„p°»r¦oJ É„p°»r¦oJ ÉJn„p°»rfoCG p¿BÉn°»r¦oJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrCÉn°»rfnCG o…p°»r¦of n…p°»r¦of r…p°»r¦of ɦr„p°»rfoCG oCÉn°»r¦of
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrCÉn°»rfnCG n¿ hD’p°»r¦oJ GhD’p°»r¦oJ GhD’p°»r¦oJ GhoD’p°»rfnCG rºoàr„p°»rfoCG n¿hoD’n°»r¦oJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrCÉn°»rfnCG nør„p°»r¦oJ nør„p°»r¦oJ nør„p°»r¦oJ nør„p°»rfnCG søoàr„p°»rfoCG n¿rCÉn°»r¦oJ
ºog GhoD’n°»rfnCG n¿hD’p°»r¦oj GhD’p°»r¦oj GhD’p°»r¦oj GhoD’p°»rfoCG n¿hoD’n°»r¦oj
søog n¿rCÉn°»rfnCG nør„p°»r¦oj nør„p°»r¦oj nør„p°»r¦oj nør„p°»rfoCG n¿rCÉn°»r¦oj
Form IV triliteral verb 527


Form IV Assimilated root: oíp°V’oj , nín°VrhnCG AP: íp°V’oe PP: ín°V’oe VN: ¬É°†jpEG ˜to clarify™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

oâr«n°VrhnCG oíp°VhoCG níp°VhoCG ríp°VhoCG
ÉfCG
nâr«n°VrhnCG í°V’oJ
op í°V’oJ
np í°V’oJ
rp ríp°VrhnCG
nârfCG
pâr«n°VrhnCG nÚ«p°V’oJ »«p°V’oJ »«p°V’oJ »«p°VrhnCG
pârfCG
ɪoàfGC -m/f ɪoàr«n°VrhnCG p¿É«p°V’oJ É«p°V’oJ É«p°V’oJ É«p°VrhnCG
r
nín°VrhnCG í°V’oj
op í°V’oj
np í°V’oj
rp níp°VhoCG í°V’oj
on
n’og
rân«n°VrhnCG í°V’oJ
op í°V’oJ
np í°V’oJ
rp rân«p°VhoCG í°V’oJ
on
n»pg
ɪog-m Én«n°VrhnCG p¿É«p°V’oj É«p°V’oj É«p°V’oj
ɪog-f Éàn«n°VrhnCG p¿É«p°V’oJ É«p°V’oJ É«p°V’oJ
ø«f
orn ɦr«n°VrhnCG í°V’of
op í°V’of
np í°V’of
rp
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr«n°VrhnCG n¿’«p°V’oJ G’o«p°V’oJ G’o«p°V’oJ G’o«p°VrhnCG
søoàrfnCG søoàr«n°VrhnCG nør«p°V’oJ nør«p°V’oJ nør«p°V’oJ nør«°VrhnCG
ºog G’«n°VrhnCG n¿ ’«p°V’oj G’o«p°V’oj G’o«p°V’oj
søog nør«n°VrhnCG nør«p°V’oj nør«p°V’oj nør«p°V’oj
528 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form IV Hollow root: o„jòoj ˜to broadcast™
, n´GPnCG AP: „jòoe PP: ´Gòoe VN: ánYGPpEG

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

oârYnPnCG „jPoGC
o „jPoGC
n r´pPoCG oârYpPoCG
ÉfCG o´GPoCG
nârYnPnCG „jòoJ
o „jòoJ
n r´pòoJ r´pPnCG nârYpPoCG
nârfCG o´GòoJ
pârYnPnCG nÚ©jòoJ »©jpòoJ »©jpòoJ »©jpPnCG pârYpPoCG
pârfCG nÚYGòoJ
ɪoàfGC -m/f ɪoàrYnPnCG p¿É©jòoJ É©jpòoJ É©jpòoJ É©jpPnCG ɪoàrYpPoCG
r p¿ÉYGòoJ
n´GPnCG „jòoj
o „jpòj
no r´pòoj „jPoGC
n
n’og o´Gòoj
rânYGPnCG „jòoJ
o „jòoJ

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