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n r´pòoJ rân©jPoCG
n»pg o´GòoJ
ɪog-m ÉnYGPnCG p¿É©jòoj É©jpòoj É©jpòoj É©jPoCG p¿ÉYGòoj
ɪog-f ÉànYGPnCG p¿É©jòoJ É©jpòoJ É©jpòoJ Éàn©jPoCG p¿ÉYGòoJ
ø«f
orn ɦrYnPnCG „jòof
o „jòof
n r´pòof ɦrYpPoCG o´Gòof
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrYnPnCG n¿’©jòoJ G’o©jòoJ G’o©jòoJ G’o©jPnCG rºoàrYpPoCG n¿’oYGòoJ
nqøoàrYnPnCG
søoàrfnCG nørYpòoJ nørYpòoJ nørYpòoJ nørYpPnCG søoàrYpPoCG nørYnòoJ
ºog G’YGPnCG n¿’©jòoj G’o©jòoj G’o©jòoj G’o©jPoCG n¿ ’oYGòoj
søog nørYnPnCG nørYpòoj nørYpòoj nørYpòoj nørYpPoCG nørYnòoj
Form IV triliteral verb 529


Form IV Defective: »¨r∏oj , ≈¨rdnCG AP: m≠r∏oe PP: k≈¨r∏oe VN: AɨrdpEG  ˜to abolish™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

oâr«n¨rdnCG »p¨rdoCG n»p¨rdoCG p≠rdoCG oâ«p¨rdoCG
ÉfCG ≈n¨rdoCG
nâr«n¨rdnCG »p¨r∏oJ n»p¨r∏oJ p≠∏J
ro p≠rdnCG nâ«p¨rdoCG
nârfCG ≈n¨r∏oJ
pârfCGp pâr«n¨rdnCG nÚp¨r∏oJ »p¨r∏oJ »p¨r∏oJ »p¨rdnCG pâ«p¨rdoCG nør«n¨r∏oJ
ɪoàfGC -m/f ɪoàr«n¨rdnCG p¿É«p¨r∏oJ É«p¨r∏oJ É«p¨r∏oJ É«p¨rdnCG ɪoà«p¨rdoCG
r p¿É«n¨r∏oJ
≈n¨rdnCG »p¨r∏oj n»p¨r∏oj p≠∏j
ro n»p¨rdoCG
n’og ≈n¨r∏oj
rân¨rdnCG »p¨r∏oJ n»p¨r∏oJ p ro
≠∏J rân«p¨rdoCG
n»pg ≈n¨r∏oJ
ɪog-m É«n¨rdnCG p¿É«p¨r∏oj É«p¨r∏oj É«p¨r∏oj É«p¨rdoCG p¿É«n¨r∏oj
ɪog-f Éàn¨rdnCG p¿É«p¨r∏oJ É«p¨r∏oJ É«p¨r∏oJ Éàn«p¨rdoCG p¿É«n¨r∏oJ
ø«f
orn ɦr«n¨rdnCG »p¨r∏of n»p¨r∏of p ro
≠∏f ɦ«p¨rdoCG ≈n¨r∏of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr«n¨rdnCG n¿’o¨r∏oJ G’o¨r∏oJ G’o¨r∏oJ G’o¨rdnCG rºoà«p¨rdoCG n¿r’n¨r∏oJ
søoàrfnCG rsøo૨rdoCG nÚp¨r∏oJ nÚp¨r∏oJ nÚp¨r∏oJ nÚp¨rdnCG søoà«p¨rdoCG nør«n¨r∏oJ
ºog Gr’n¨rdnCG n¿’o¨r∏oj G’o¨r∏oj G’o¨r∏oj G’o¨rdoCG n¿r’n¨r∏oj
søog nør«n¨rdnCG nÚp¨r∏oj nÚp¨r∏oj nÚp¨r∏oj nÚp¨rdoCG nør«n¨r∏oj
26
Form V triliteral verb


1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern: tafa¬¬al-a nπs©n˜nJ/ya-tafa¬¬al-u oπs©n˜nànj
Form V verbs are augmented with respect to Form I in that the medial consonant
of the triliteral root is doubled (as in Form II) and a prefix ta- is added to the stem.1
In the present tense, the subject-marking prefix vowel is fatHa and the two stem
vowels are fatHa. Form V verbs thus have the stem patterns taC1aC2C2aC3- in the
past tense and ya-taC1aC2C2aC3- in the present.2

1.2 Meaning
In many cases Form V is the reflexive of the Form II verb, meaning that the action
expressed in Form II is done to or happens to one™s self. This is sometimes referred
to by grammarians as mediopassive.3 Form V may also be resultative of Form II,
showing the result of the Form II action, e.g., kassar-tu-haa fa-takassar-at ˜I broke it
(Form II) and it broke (Form V).™4 Other semantic modifications embodied in this
form include gradual progress in an activity or state (e.g., taHassan-a ˜to improve,™
tadaxxal-a ˜to meddle, to interfere,™ tamazzaq-a ˜to be ripped apart, fragmented™)
and acquisition or imitation of a quality (e.g., ta√assaf-a ˜to be or act sorry™;
ta√addab-a ˜to behave courteously™).


1
The prefixed ta-, used as a derivational affix is often characterized as a marker of reflexive action
or even of the passive. “Its main derivational function is that of the passive” (Cowell 1964, 85).
In more recent studies of this form, it is said often to represent “unaccusative” constructions in
Arabic. See Mahmoud 1991 for further discussion of both Form V and Form VII as Arabic counterparts
for unaccusative structures.
2
Note that in the present tense, there is both an inflectional prefix (the subject marker) and a
derivational prefix (the ta- of Form V).
3
“No grammatical distinction is made in Arabic verbs between ˜reflexive™ acts and spontaneous
developments “ what one does to one™s self and what simply happens to one are equally
accommodated by the mediopassive” (Cowell 1964, 238).
4
The Arabic term used to refer to the resultative meaning of derived forms (especially V, VII, and
VIII) is muTaawa¬a áYhÉ£e ˜obedience, conformity™ or muTaawi¬ ´hÉ£e ˜obedient, conforming™ “
that is, conforming with a particular, lexically related action. Fleisch 1979 states (II:305) “Ce
muTaawi¬ exprime l™©tat dans lequel se trouve un sujet, sous l™action . . . [d™un verbe] pr©c©dente.”


530
Form V triliteral verb 531


1.3 Transitivity
Form V verbs are often reflexive or intransitive, but they may be transitive as well.


1.4 In¬‚ection
Inflectional characteristics of Form V verbs:
The present tense subject-marker vowel is fatHa and the present tense stem
vowel is fatHa (taqaddam-a/ya-taqaddam-u).


2 Regular (sound) triliteral root
These verbs are examples of Form V sound triliteral roots:

to breathe tanaffas-a/ya-tanaffas-u o¢ùs˜n¦nànj / n¢ùs˜n¦nJ
to move, be in motion taHarrak-a/ya-taHarrak-u o‘sôn«nànj / n‘sôn«nJ
to require taTallab-a/ya-taTallab-u o–s∏n£nànj / –∏£J
n sn n
oºs∏nµnànj / nºnq∏nµnJ
to speak takallam-a/ya-takallam-u

to get, to receive tasallam-a/ya-tasallam-u oºs∏n°ùnànj / nºs∏n°ùnJ
to avoid tajannab-a/ya-tajannab-u o–s¦n©nànj / –s¦n©nJ

3 Geminate (doubled) root Form V
Geminate roots in Form V have the following stem patterns: taC1aC2C2aC2- in the
past tense and yataC1aC2C2aC2- in the present. For example;

to hesitate taraddad-a/ya-taraddad-u oOsOnônànj / nOsOnônJ
to feel (s.th.); handle, taHassas-a/ya-taHassas-u o¢ùs°ùn«nànj / ¢ùs°ùn«J
n n
touch (s.th.)

4 Hamzated roots in Form V
The hamza may occur in the first, second, or third position in the triliteral root.
Depending on its position, and the surrounding vowels, the hamza may have to
change its “seat” when the verb inflects for person and tense.

4.1 Initial hamza
In hamza-initial Form V verbs, the hamza sits on √alif in both tenses:

to be late ta√axxar-a/ya-ta√axxar-u oôsNnCÉnànj / nôsNnCÉnJ
to be affected (by) ta√aththar-a/ya-ta√aththar-u bi- p–oôsKnCÉnànj / nôsKnCÉnJ
to be sorry ta√assaf-a/ya-ta√assaf-u o∞s°SnCÉnànj / n∞s°SnCÉnJ
532 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


to be composed (of) ta√allaf-a/ya-ta√allaf-u min ¿eo∞sdnCÉnànj / n∞sdnCÉnJ
to contemplate (s.th.) ta√ammal-a/ya-ta√ammal-u oπsenCÉnànj / nπsenCÉnJ
4.2 Medial hamza
to be at the head; tara√√as-a/ ya-tara√√as-u o¢SsCGnônànj / n¢SsCGnônJ
to chair

4.3 Final hamza
to get prepared tahayya√-a/ya-tahayya√-u oCÉs«n¡nànj / nCÉs«n¡nJ
to predict, forecast tanabba√-a/ya-tanabba√-u oCÉs‘n¦nànj / nCÉs‘n¦nJ
5 Assimilated roots in Form V
Assimilated roots, where the first radical is either waaw or yaa√, are inflected as
sound roots in Form V; the waaw or yaa√ remain in both tenses.
to be extended, spread out tawassa¬-a/ya-tawassa¬-u o„s°Sn’nànj / n„s°Sn’nJ
to be abundant, plentiful tawaffar-a/ya-tawaffar-u oôsan’nànj / nôsan’nJ
to expect, anticipate tawaqqa¬-a/ya-tawaqqa¬-u „b’àj / „b’J
o s nnn n s nn
to stop; stand still tawaqqaf-a/ya-tawaqqaf-u o∞sbn’nànj / n∞sbn’nJ
6 Hollow roots in Form V
Hollow roots behave as sound roots in Form V, the waaw or yaa√ that is the second
radical functions as a normal consonant, with shadda.
oônq«n¨nànj / nôs«n¨nJ
to change (intr.) taghayyar-a/ya-taghayyar-u
to volunteer taTawwa¬-a/ya-taTawwa¬-u o´s’n£nànj / n´s’n£nJ
7 Defective roots in Form V: tafa¬¬aa ≈q©n˜nJ/ ya-tafa¬¬aa ≈q©n˜nànj
Defective roots, where the final radical is either waaw or yaa√, behave as -aa/-aa
verbs in Form V.5

to receive, accept talaqqaa/ya-talaqqaa ≈q¤n∏nànj / ≈q¤n∏nJ
to wish tamannaa/ya-tamannaa ≈q¦nªnànj / ≈q¦nªnJ
to trespass, to transcend ta¬addaa/ya-ta¬addaa iqón©nànj / iqón©nJ
to challenge taHaddaa/ya-taHaddaa iqó«Jj / iqó“
n nn n
5
They depend on the stem vowel for the nature of the final radical, and the stem vowel is consis-
tently /a/ in the past tense and also /a/ in the present tense.
Form V triliteral verb 533


8 Doubly weak roots in Form V
These roots have two forms of weakness which may occur at any point in the root.
For example:

8.1 Assimilated and defective
to take charge of ; tawallaa/ya-tawallaa ≈qdn’nànj / ≈qdn’nJ
be entrusted with (root: w-l-y)

9 Examples of Form V verbs in context
.IójóL áqj ôµ°ùY áq«’GΰSG ¥Gô©dG ≈q¦‘J
tabannaa l-¬iraaq-u straatijiyyat-an ¬askariyyat-an jadiidat-an.
Iraq has adopted a new military strategy.
.IOhÈH ±qô°üJ πLôdGh .¥Gô°»à°S™G øY §qó“
wa-l-rajul-u taSarraf-a bi-buruudat-in. taHaddath-a ¬an-i l-istishraaq-i.
(And) the man behaved coldly. He spoke of orientalism.

.CG’°SCG ¤EG Aq»°S øe «q’«àJ .kÉcQÉ‘e kGó«Y ºµd ≈q¦ªàf
ta-taHawwal-u min sayyi√-in na-tamannaa la-kum ¬iid-an
mubaarak-an.
√ilaa √aswa√-a.
It changes from bad to worse. We wish you a blessed holiday.
.kGóZ ¬‘°ü¦e ≈qd’à«°S .øq°ù«àj ±’°S
sa-ya-tawallaa manSib-a-hu ghad-an. sawfa ya-taHassan-u.
He will assume his office tomorrow. It will get better.

10 Form V verbal nouns: tafa¬¬ul πt©n˜nJ

10.1 Sound roots
Form V verbal nouns of regular or sound verbs have the pattern taC1aC2C2uC3.
breathing tanaffus progress taqaddum
¢ùt˜n¦nJ „¦tó¤nJ
n
avoidance tajannub interference tadaxxul
–t¦n©nJ πtNóJ nn
10.2 Geminate roots
hesitation taraddud feeling, taHassus
OtOnônJ ¢ùt°ùn«J
n
  touching
10.3 Hamzated roots
The placement of hamza on a particular seat is determined by contiguous vowels.
lateness ta√axxur prediction tanabbu√
ôtNnCÉnJ D’t‘n¦nJ
qo Cn n
being affected ta√aththur chairmanship tara√√us
ôJÉJ ¢SthôJ
D nn
534 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


10.4 Assimilated roots
πqoZn’nJ
being extended, tawassu¬ penetration, tawaghghul
„t°Sn’J
n
spreading out absorption
oq n n
abundance, tawaffur tension tawattur
ôta’J
nn ôJ’J
availability

10.5 Hollow roots
change taghayyur development taTawwur
ôt«n¨nJ Qt’£J
nn
volunteering taTawwu¬ pollution talawwuth
´t’£J
nn §t’n∏nJ
10.6 Defective roots: tafa¬¬in m q„n˜nJ
The verbal nouns of defective verbs in Form V inflect as defective nouns (declen-
sion six in this book).

accepting talaqqin wishing tamannin
≥∏J
x nn xønªnJ
transcending, ta¬addin challenge taHaddin
xón©nJ ó«J
xn n
overtaking

10.7 Examples of Form V verbal nouns in context
.¥qµªàdG øe ÊÉ©j á°SÉFôdG ¬ªq∏°ùJ ò¦e
yu-¬aanii min-a l-tamazzuq-i. mundhu tasallum-i-hi l-ri√aasat-a
It suffers from fragmentation. since his assumption of the presidency

–qgÉàdG ádÉ« πqNóàdG „¦óY
C
Haalat-u l-ta√ahhub-i ¬adam-u l-tadaxxul-i
state of alert non-interference

11 Form V participles
The great majority of Form V participles occur as active participles. The Form V AP
may have active, passive, or reflexive meaning. Few occur as passive participles.

11.1 Form V active participle (AP): mutafa¬¬il πu©n˜nàoe
The Form V active participle may have an active meaning but it may also have a
passive or reflexive sense because of the reflexive or resultative meaning of many
verbs of this form.

11.1.1 Strong/regular root
spokesperson mutakallim frozen mutajammid
ºu∏nµnàoe óuªn©nàoe
extremist mutaTarrif married mutazawwij
±uôn£nàoe êuhnµnàoe
Form V triliteral verb 535


11.1.2 Geminate root

specialist mutaxaSSiS renewed mutajaddid
¢üu°ün®nàoe Ouón©nàoe

11.2.3 Hamzated root

sorry, regretful muta√assif late muta√axxir
∞u°SnCÉnàoe ôuNnCÉnàoe

11.2.4 Assimilated root

abundant mutawaffir middle mutawassiT
ôuan’nàoe §u°Sn’àe
no

11.2.5 Hollow root

volunteer mutaTawwi¬ ´u’n£nàoe

11.2.6 Defective root: mutafa¬¬in x„n˜nàoe
These participles inflect as defective nouns (declension six).

challenger; mutaHaddin wishing mutamannin
xón«nàoe xønªnàoe
challenging

11.2 Form V passive participle (PP): mutafa¬¬al πnq©n˜nàoe
Occurrences of these are few due to the passive-like or reflexive meaning of the
many Form V verbs. A few examples include:

forced, feigned mutakallaf ∞sdncnàoe
requirement/s mutaTallab/aat ¤G / Üs∏n£nàoe
expected mutawaqqa¬ „sbn’àe
no

11.3 Form V participles in context

11.3.1 Active participle

q‹Éª°»dG óqª©àŸG §«™G §q°S’àŸG ¢†«HC™G ô«‘dG
al-muHiiT-u l-mutajammid-u al-baHr-u l-√abyaD-u l-mutawassiT-u
l-shimaaliyy-u the Mediterranean Sea (˜the middle white sea™)
the Arctic Ocean (the ˜frozen
northern™ ocean)

.¢ùjQÉH ¤EG É¡qL’àe „¦’«dG IôgɤdG QOɨj
k
yu-ghaadir-u l-qaahirat-a l-yawm-a mutawajjih-an √ilaa baariis.
He leaves Cairo today heading for Paris.
536 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


11.3.2 Passive participle

. . .¿CG „qb’àŸG øe
min-a l-mutawaqqa¬-i √an . . .
it is expected that



Form V Sound root: oºs∏nµnànj , nºs∏nµnJ AP: ºu∏nµnàoe PP: ºs∏nµnàoe VN: ºt∏nµnJ ˜to speak™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârªs∏nµnJ oºs∏nµnJnCG nºs∏nµnJnCG rºs∏nµnJnCG oârªu∏oµoJ oºs∏nµnJoCG
nârfCG nârªs∏nµnJ oºs∏nµnànJ nºs∏nµnànJ rºs∏nµnànJ rºs∏nµnà nârªu∏oµoJ oºs∏nµnàoJ
pârfCG pârªs∏nµnJ nÚªs∏nµnànJ »ªs∏nµnànJ »ªs∏nµnànJ »ªs∏nµnà pârªu∏oµoJ nÚªs∏nµnàoà
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrªs∏nµnJ p¿Éªs∏nµnànJ ɪs∏nµnànJ ɪs∏nµnànJ ɪs∏nµnà ɪoàrªu∏oµoJ p¿Éªs∏nµnàoJ
n’og nºs∏nµnJ oºs∏nµnànj nºs∏nµnànj rºs∏nµnànj nºu∏oµoJ oºs∏nµnàoj
n»pg rânªs∏nµnJ oºs∏nµnànJ nºs∏nµnànJ rºs∏nµnànJ rânªu∏oµoJ oºs∏nµnàoJ
ɪog-m ɪs∏nµnJ p¿Éªs∏nµnànj ɪs∏nµnànj ɪs∏nµnànj ɪu∏oµoJ p¿Éªs∏nµnàoj
ɪog-f Éànªs∏nµnJ p¿Éªs∏nµnànJ ɪs∏nµnànJ ɪs∏nµnànJ Éànªu∏oµoJ p¿Éªs∏nµnàoJ
ø«f
orn ɦrªs∏nµnJ oºs∏nµnànf nºs∏nµnànf rºs∏nµnànf ɦrªu∏oµoJ oºs∏nµnàof
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrªs∏nµnJ n¿ ’ªs∏nµnànJ G’oªs∏nµnànJ G’oªs∏nµnànJ G’ªs∏nµnà rºoàrªu∏oµoJ n¿ ’ªs∏nµnàoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrªs∏nµnJ nørªs∏nµnànJ nørªs∏nµnànJ nørªs∏nµnànJ nørªs∏nµnà qøoàrªu∏oµoJ nørªs∏nµnàoJ
ºog G’oªs∏nµnJ n¿ ’oªs∏nµnànj G’oªs∏nµnànj G’oªs∏nµnànj G’ªu∏oµoJ n¿’s∏nµnàoj
søog nørªs∏nµnJ nørªs∏nµnànj nørªs∏nµnànj nørªs∏nµnànj nørªu∏oµoJ nørªs∏nµnàoj
Form V triliteral verb 537


Form V Geminate root: oOsOnônànj , nOsOnônJ AP: OuOnônàoe PP: VN: OtOnônJ ˜to hesitate™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rOsOnônJ oOsOnônJnCG nOsOnônJnCG rOsOnônJnCG
nârfCG n¤rOsOnônJ oOsOnônànJ nOsOnônànJ rOsOnônànJ rOsOnônJ
pârfCG p¤rOsOnônJ nøjOsOnônànJ ¦OsOnônànJ ¦OsOnônànJ ¦OsOôJ
nn
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrOsOnônJ p¿GOsOnônànJ GOsOnônànJ GOsOnônànJ GOsOnônJ
n’og nOsOnônJ oOsOnônànj nOsOnônànj rOsOnônànj
n»pg r¤nOsOnônJ oOsOnônànJ nOsOnônànJ rOsOnônànJ
ɪog-m GOsOnônJ p¿GOsOnônànj GOsOnônànj GOsOnônànj
ɪog-f ÉJnOsOnônJ p¿GOsOnônànJ GOsOnônànJ GOsOnônànà
ø«f
orn ÉfrOsOnônJ oOsOnônànf nOsOnônànf rOsOnônànf
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrOsOnônJ n¿ hoOsOnônànJ GhoOsOnônànJ GhoOsOnônànJ GhoOsOnônJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrOsOnônJ n¿rOsOnônànJ n¿rOsOnônànJ n¿rOsOnônànJ n¿rOsOnônJ
ºog GhoOsOnônJ n¿ hoOsOnônànj GhoOsOnônànj GhoOsOnônànj
søog n¿rOsOnônJ n¿rOsOnônànj n¿rOsOnônànj n¿rOsOnônànj
538 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form V hamza-initial root: oôsNnCÉnànj , nôsNnCÉnJ AP: ôuNnCÉnàoe VN: ôtNnCÉnJ ˜to be late, delayed™
PP:

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rôsNnCÉnJ oôsNnCÉnJnCG nôsNnCÉnJnCG rôsNnCÉnJnCG
nârfCG n¤rôsNnCÉnJ oôsNnCÉnànJ nôsNnCÉnànJ rôsNnCÉnànJ rôsNnCÉnJ
pârfCG p¤rôsNnCÉnJ nøjôsNnCÉnànJ ¦ôsNnCÉnànJ ¦ôsNnCÉnànJ ¦pôsNnCÉnJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrôsNnCÉnJ p¿GôsNnCÉnànJ GôsNnCÉnànJ GôsNnCÉnànJ GôsNnCÉnJ
n’og nôsNnCÉnJ oôsNnCÉnànj nôsNnCÉnànj rôsNnCÉnànj
n»pg r¤nôsNnCÉnJ oôsNnCÉnànJ nôsNnCÉnànJ rôsNnCÉnànJ
ɪog-m GôsNnCÉnJ p¿GôsNnCÉnànj GôsNnCÉnànj GôsNnCÉnànj
ɪog-f ÉJnôsNnCÉnJ p¿GôsNnCÉnànJ GôsNnCÉnànJ GôsNnCÉnànJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrôsNnCÉnJ oôsNnCÉnànf nôsNnCÉnànf rôsNnCÉnànf
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrôsNnCÉnJ n¿ hoôsNnCÉnànJ GhoôsNnCÉnànJn GhoôsNnCÉnànJ GhoôsNnCÉnJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrôsNnCÉnJ n¿rôsNnCÉnànJ n¿rôsNnCÉnànJ n¿ rôsNnCÉnànJ n¿ rôsNnCÉnJ
ºog GhoôsNnCÉnJ n¿ hoôsNnCÉnànj GhoôsNnCÉnànj GhoôsNnCÉnànj
søog n¿r ôsNnCÉnJ n¿ rôsNnCÉnànj n¿rôsNnCÉnànj n¿rôsNnCÉnànj
Form V triliteral verb 539


oCÉs‘n¦nànj , nCÉs‘n¦nJ AP: …u‘n¦nàoe PP: CÉs‘n¦nàoe VN: D’t‘n¦nJ ˜to predict™
Form V hamza-final root:

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rCÉs‘n¦nJ oCÉs‘n¦nJnCG nCÉs‘n¦nJnCG rCÉs‘n¦nJnCG oâr„u‘o¦oJ oCÉs‘n¦nJoCG
nârfCG n¤rCÉs‘n¦nJ oCÉs‘n¦nànJ nCÉs‘n¦nànJ rCÉs‘n¦nànJ rCÉs‘n¦nJ nâr„u‘o¦oJ oCÉs‘n¦nàoJ
pârfCG p¤rCÉs‘n¦nJ nÚp„s‘¦nànJ »„s‘¦nànJ »„s‘¦nànJ »p„s‘n¦nJ pâr„u‘o¦oJ nÚ„s‘n¦nàonà
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrCÉs‘n¦nJ p¿BÉs‘n¦nànJ BÉs‘n¦nànJ BÉs‘n¦nànJ BÉs‘n¦nJ ɪoàr„u‘o¦oJ p¿BÉs‘n¦nàoJ
n’og nCÉs‘n¦nJ oCÉs‘n¦nànj nCÉs‘n¦nànj rCÉs‘n¦nànj n…u‘o¦oJ oCÉs‘n¦nàoj
n»pg r¤nCÉs‘n¦nJ oCÉs‘n¦nànJ nCÉs‘n¦nànJ rCÉs‘n¦nànJ rân„u‘o¦oJ oCÉs‘n¦nàoJ
ɪog-m BÉs‘n¦nJ p¿BÉs‘n¦nànj BÉs‘n¦nànj BÉs‘n¦nànj É„u‘o¦oJ p¿BÉs‘n¦nàoj
ɪog-f ÉJnCÉs‘n¦nJ p¿BÉs‘n¦nànJ BÉs‘n¦nàJ BÉs‘n¦nànJ Éàn„u‘o¦oJ p¿BÉs‘n¦nàoJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrCÉs‘n¦nJ oCÉs‘n¦nànf nCÉs‘n¦nànf rCÉs‘n¦nànf ɦr„u‘o¦oJ oCÉs‘n¦nàof
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrCÉs‘n¦nJ n¿ hoD’s‘n¦nànJ GhoD’s‘n¦nànJ GhoD’s‘n¦nànJ GhoD’s‘n¦nJ rºoàr„u‘o¦oJ n¿ hD’s‘n¦nàoà
søoàrfnCG søoJrCÉs‘n¦nJ n¿rCÉs‘n¦nànJ n¿rCÉs‘n¦nànJ n¿rCÉs‘n¦nànJ n¿rCÉs‘n¦nJ søoàr„u‘o¦oJ n¿rCÉs‘n¦nàoJ
ºog GhoD’s‘n¦nJ n¿ hoD’s‘n¦ànj GhoD’s‘n¦nànj GhoD’s‘n¦nànj G’„u‘o¦oJ n¿ hD’s‘n¦nàoj
søog n¿rCÉs‘n¦nJ n¿rCÉs‘n¦nànj n¿rCÉs‘n¦nànj n¿rCÉs‘n¦nànj nør„u‘o¦oJ n¿rCÉs‘n¦nàoj
540 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form V Hollow root: o´s’n£nànj , n´s’n£nJ AP: ´u’n£nàoe PP: VN: ´t’£J ˜to volunteer™
nn
Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârYs’n£nJ o´s’n£nJnCG n´s’n£nJnCG r´s’n£nJnCG
nârfCG nârYs’n£nJ o´s’n£nànJ n´s’n£nànJ r´s’n£nànJ ´’£J
r sn n
pârfCG pârYs’n£nJ nÚpYs’n£nànJ »pYs’n£nànJ »pYs’n£nànJ »pYs’n£nJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrYs’n£nJ p¿ÉYs’n£nànJ ÉYs’n£nànJ ÉYs’n£nànJ ÉYs’n£nJ
n’og ´’£J
n sn n o´s’n£nànj n´s’n£nànj r´s’n£nànj
n»pg rânYs’n£nJ o´s’n£nànJ n´s’n£nànJ r´s’n£nànJ
ɪog-m ÉYs’n£nJ p¿ÉYs’n£nànj ÉYs’n£nànj ÉYs’n£nànj
ɪog-f ÉànYs’n£nJ p¿ÉYs’n£nànJ ÉYs’n£nànJ ÉYs’n£nànJ
ø«f
orn ɦrYs’n£nJ o´s’n£nànf n´s’n£nànf r´s’n£nànf
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrYs’n£nJ n¿ ’oYs’n£nànJ G’Ys’n£nànJ G’Ys’n£nànJ G’oYs’n£nJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrYs’n£nJ nørYs’n£nànJ nørYs’n£nànJ nørYs’n£nànJ nørYs’n£nJ
ºog G’oYs’n£nJ n¿ ’oYs’n£nànj G’Ys’n£nànj G’Ys’n£nànj
søog nørYs’n£nJ nørYs’n£nànj nørYs’n£nànj nørYs’n£nànj
Form V triliteral verb 541


Form V Assimilated root: „sb’àj , „sb’J AP: „ub’nàe PP: „sbn’àoe VN: „tb’J
o nnn n nn no n nn ˜to expect™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr©sbn’nJ o„sbn’nJnCG n„sbn’nJnCG r„sbn’nJnCG oâr©ubo’oJ o„sbn’nJoCG
nârfCG nâr©sbn’nJ „b’àJ
o s nnn „b’àJ
n s nnn „b’àJ
r s nnn „b’J
rsnn nâr©ubo’oJ „b’àJ
o s nno
pârfCG pâr©sbn’nJ nÚ©sbn’nànJ »©sbn’nànJ »©sbn’nànJ »©sbn’nJ pâr©ubo’oJ nÚ©sbn’nàoJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr©sbn’nJ p¿É©sbn’nànJ É©sbn’nànJ É©sbn’nànJ É©sbn’nJ ɪoàr©ubo’oJ p¿Én©sbn’nàoJ
n’og „b’J
nsnn „b’àj
o s nnn „b’àj
n s nnn „b’àj
r s nnn „b’J
nuoo „b’àj
o s nno
n»pg rân©sbn’nJ „b’àJ
o s nnn „b’àJ
n s nnn „b’àJ
r s nnn rân©ubo’oJ „b’àJ
o s nno
ɪog-m É©sbn’nJ p¿É©sbn’nànj É©sbn’nànj É©sbn’nànj É©ubo’oJ p¿Én©sbn’nàoj
ɪog-f Éàn©sbn’nJ p¿É©sbn’nànJ É©sbn’nànJ É©sbn’nànJ ɦr©ubo’oJ p¿Én©sbn’nàoJ
ø«f
orn ɦr©sbn’nJ „b’àf
o s nnn „b’àf
n s nnn „b’àf
r s nnn „b’àf
o s nno
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr©sbn’nJ n¿ ’o©sbn’nànJ G’o©sbn’nànJ G’o©sbn’nànJ G’©sbn’nJ rºoàr©ubo’oJ n¿ ’o©sbn’nàoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr©sbn’nJ nør©sbn’nànJ nør©sbn’nànJ nør©sbn’nànJ nør©sbn’nJ søoàr©ubo’oJ nør©sbn’nàoJ
ºog G’o©sbn’nJ n¿ ’o©sbn’nànj G’©sbn’nànj G’©sbn’nànj G’o©ubo’oJ n¿ ’o©sbn’nàoj
søog nør©sbn’nJ nør©sbn’nànj nør©sbn’nànj nør©sbn’nànj nør©ubo’oJ nør©sbn’nàoj
542 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form V Defective root: iqó«àj , iqó«J AP: qmón«nàoe PP: kiqón«nàoe VN: ó«J ˜to challenge™
n nn nn mq n n
Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG âjó«J
o rsn n iqó«JGCn
nn iqó«JGnC
nn són«nJnCG âjqó«J
o oo iqó«JGoC
nn
nârfCG âjó«J
n rsn n iqó«àJ
n nn iqó«àJ
n nn són«nànJ ó«J
sn n âjqó«J iqó«àJ
n oo n no
pârfCG âjó«J
p rsn n nørjsón«nànJ ¦ó«àJ
r sn nn ¦ó«àJ
r sn nn ¦ó«J
r sn n âjqó«J nørjsón«nàoJ
p oo
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrjsón«nJ p¿Éjsón«nànJ Éjsón«nànJ Éjsón«nànJ Éjsó«J
nn ɪoàjuóo«oJ p¿Éjsón«nàoJ
n’og iqó«J
nn iqó«àj
n nn iqó«àj
n nn són«nànj ¦ó«J
n uo o iqó«àj
n no
n»pg r¤són«nJ iqó«àJ
n nn iqó«àJ
n nn són«nànJ âjó«J iqó«àJ
r nuo o n no
ɪog-m Éjsó«J
nn p¿Éjsón«nànj Éjsón«nànj Éjsón«nànj Éjuó«J p¿Éjsón«nàoj
oo
ɪog-f ÉJsó«J
nn p¿Éjsón«nànJ Éjsón«nànJ Éjsón«nànJ Éànjuóo«oJ p¿Éjsón«nàoJ
ø«f
orn ɦrjsón«nJ iqó«àf
n nn iqó«àf
n nn són«nànf ɦjuóo«oJ iqó«àf
n no
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrjsón«nJ n¿ hó«àJ
r sn nn Grhsón«nànJ Grhsón«nànJ Grhó«J
sn n rºoàjuóo«oJ n¿r hsó«àJ
n no
søoàrfnCG søoàrjsón«nJ nørjsón«nànJ nørjsón«nànJ nørjsón«nànJ øjó«J
n rsn n øàjuó«J nørjsón«nàoJ
so oo
ºog Gr’són«nJ n¿ hó«àj
r sn nn Grhsón«nànj Grhsón«nànj Ghqó«J n¿ r hó«àj
oo sn no
søog øjó«J
n rsn n nørjsón«nànj nørjsón«nànj nørjsón«nànj øjqó«J nørjsón«nàoj
n oo
27
Form VI triliteral verb


1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern: tafaa¬al-a nπnYɘnJ /ya-tafaa¬al-u oπnYɘnànj
Form VI verbs are augmented with respect to Form I in that there is a prefixed
/ta-/ and a long vowel /-aa-/ inserted after the first consonant of the triliteral root.
It looks like a Form III verb with a /ta-/ prefix. In the present tense, the subject-
marking prefix vowel is fatHa and the two stem vowels are fatHa. Form VI verbs
thus have the stem patterns taC1aaC2C2aC3- in the past tense and ya-taC1aaC2aC3-
in the present.

1.2 Meaning
In many cases Form VI is the reciprocal of the Form III verb, meaning that the
action expressed in Form VI is mutual and happens to two (or more) parties (e.g.,
˜to embrace one another™ ta¬aanaq-a ≥nfÉ©nJ/ya-ta¬aanaq-u o≥nfÉ©nànj).1 Other meanings
of this form of the verb include gradual, continuous movement or increase in a
quality (e.g., ˜to diminish, grow smaller™ taDaa√al-a n«nAÉ°†nJ/ya-taDaa√al-u o«nAÉ°†nànj),
and also pretending or feigning something (e.g., ˜to feign ignorance™ tajaahal-a
nπngÉ©nJ/ya-tajaahal-u oπngÉ©nànj).

1.3 Transitivity
Form VI verbs are often reciprocal or intransitive, but sometimes they are
transitive.

1.4 In¬‚ection
The present tense subject-marker vowel is fatHa and both the past and present
tense stem vowels are fatHa (e.g., tabaadal-a/ya-tabaadal-u ˜to exchange™).

2 Regular (sound) triliteral root
These verbs are examples of Form VI sound triliteral roots:

1
See LeTourneau 1998 for discussion of Form VI reciprocality.


543
544 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


to retire, be pensioned taqaa¬ad-a/ya-taqaa¬ad-u oónYɤnànj / nónYɤnJ
to correlate (with) taraafaq-a/ya-taraafaq-u (ma¬-a) („e) o≥naGônànj / ≥aGônJ
nn
to understand each tafaaham-a/ya-tafaaham-u oºngɘnànj/ nºngɘnJ
other

3 Geminate (doubled) root Form VI
Geminate roots in Form VI have the following stem patterns: taC1aaC2C2aC2- in the
past tense and ya-taC1aaC2C2aC2- in the present. These are very rare. No examples
occurred in the corpus.

4 Hamzated roots in Form VI
The hamza may occur in the first, second, or third position in the triliteral root.
Depending on its position, and the surrounding vowels, the hamza may have to
change its “seat” when the verb inflects for person and tense:

4.1 Initial hamza
When an initial root hamza meets the √alif infix of Form VI, they are written
together as √alif madda:
to deliberate; to ta√aamar-a/ya-ta√aamar-u oôneBÉnànj / nôneBÉnJ
conspire
to harmonize (with ta√aallaf-a/ya-ta√aallaf-u („e) o∞ndBÉnànj / n∞ndBÉnJ
each other) (ma¬a)

4.2 Medial hamza
The medial hamza in Form VI sits aloof, after the long vowel √alif in the past tense.
In the present tense it also sits aloof after the √alif.2

to be optimistic tafaa√al-a/ya-tafaa√al-u o«nAɘnànj / n«nAɘJ
to be pessimistic tashaa√am-a/ya-tashaa√am-u o„¦nAÉ°»ànj / n„¦nAÉ°»nJ
to be mended; be talaa√am-a/ya-talaa√am-u o„¦nA“ànj / „¦A“nJ
n
in harmony
to diminish taDaa√al-a/ ya-taDaa√al-u o«nAÉ°†ànj / n«nAÉ°†nJ

4.3 Final hamza
Final hamza may sit on an √alif seat in the past tense, but because it is the final
consonant in the stem, the seat of hamza may shift with certain suffixes.

2
This is because it is situated after a long vowel /aa/ and before a short vowel /a/. It would have an
√alif seat, but two √alifs cannot follow each other in Arabic script, so it floats aloof.
Form VI triliteral verb 545


be equal to; to takaafa√-a/ya-takaafa√-u oCÉnaɵnànj / nCÉnaɵnJ
counterbalance

5 Assimilated roots in Form VI
Assimilated roots, where the first radical is either waaw or yaa√, are inflected as
sound roots in Form VI; the waaw or yaa√ remains.

to coincide; agree with tawaafaq-a/ya-tawaafaq-u ≥aG’nàj / ≥aG’nJ
on n nn
each other
to be in equilibrium tawaazan-a/ya-tawaazan-u o¿ nRG’nànj / n¿ nRG’nJ
6 Hollow roots in Form VI
Hollow roots behave as sound roots in Form VI, the waaw or yaa√ that is the second
radical functions as a normal consonant.

to deliberate; consult tashaawar-a/ya-tashaawar-u oQ nhÉ°»nànj / nQ hÉ°»nJ
n
one another

to cooperate with ta¬aawan-a/ya-ta¬aawan-u o¿ nhÉ©nànj / n¿ nhÉ©nJ
one another

to coexist ta¬aayash-a/ya-ta¬aayash-u o¢»njÉ©nànj / n¢»njÉ©nJ
to deal with; treat tanaawal-a/ya-tanaawal-u o«n hɦnànj / n« nhɦnJ

7 Defective roots in Form VI
Defective roots, where the final radical is either waaw or yaa√, behave as -aa/-aa
verbs in Form VI. They depend on the stem vowel for the nature of the final
radical, and the stem vowel is consistently /a/ in the past tense and /a/ in the
present tense.

to take, undertake, pursue ta¬aaTaa/ya-ta¬aaTaa ≈WÉ©nàj / ≈WÉ©nJ
(a task)

to meet each other, come talaaqaa/ya-talaaqaa ≈b“nàj / ≈b“nJ
together

to be equivalent to; be in tasaawaa/ya-tasaawaa ihÉ°ùàj / ihÉ°ùnJ
balance

8 Examples of Form VI verbs in context
.nÉq«©jQóJ «AÉ°†àj .‚¦gP ¤EG QOÉ‘àj ób
ya-taDaa√al-u tadriijiyy-an. qad ya-tabaadar-u √ilaa dhihn-i-ka.
It diminishes gradually. It might cross your mind.
546 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


.Ú‘NɦdG ¢†©H øe ihɵ°T „e ‚dP ≥aGôJh
wa-taraafaq-a dhaalika ma¬-a shakaawaa min ba¬D-i l-naaxib-iina.
This correlated with complaints of some of the voters.

. . .±qô£àdG „e ºgó¦Y ihÉ°ùàj „¦“°SE™G s¿nCG
√anna l-√islaam-a ya-tasaawaa ¬ind-a-hum ma¬-a l-taTarruf-i . . .
that for them, Islam equates with extremism . . .

9 Form VI verbal noun: tafaa¬ul πoYɘnJ
The verbal noun from Form VI has the pattern CaCaaCuC:

9.1 Strong/regular root
embracing ta¬aanuq partition taqaasum
≥ofÉ©nJ ºo°SɤnJ
retirement taqaa¬ud mutual tafaahum
óoYɤnJ ºogɘnJ
understanding

9.2 Geminate root
This is rare in Form VI.

9.3 Hamzated root

9.3.1 Hamza-initial
Here the root hamza combines with the infixed √alif of Form VI to result in √alif madda:

harmony; ta√aaluf conspiracy ta√aamur
∞odBÉnJ ôoeBÉnJ
camaraderie

9.3.2 Hamza-medial
In these verbal nouns, the hamza sits on a waaw seat because it is followed by Damma.

optimism tafaa√ul pessimism tashaa√um
«ohɘnJ
D „¦ohÉ°»nJ
D
9.3.3 Hamza-¬nal
In these verbal nouns, hamza sits on waaw because it is preceded by Damma:

equivalence, sameness takaafu√ D’oaɵnJ
9.4 Assimilated root
Assimilated roots preserve their initial root consonant and behave as regular
roots in the Form VI verbal noun.

congruity; coinciding tawaafuq ≥oaG’nJ
Form VI triliteral verb 547


9.5 Hollow root
The hollow roots behave as regular roots in the Form VI verbal noun.

cooperation ta¬aawun increase, tazaayud
¿ ohÉ©nJ óojGµnJ
increment

joint tashaawur alternation tanaawub
Q hÉ°»nJ
o ÜohɦnJ
consultation

9.6 Defective root
In verbal nouns of defective Form VI verbs, the noun is defective:

meeting, talaaq-in equivalence, tasaaw-in
¥“nJ
m hÉ°ùnJ
m
encounter sameness

9.7 Examples of Form VI verbal nouns in context
¬àq«Yô°Th „¦É¶¦dG Iq’b ÚH §HGÎdG
al-taraabuT-u bayn-a quwwat-i l-niZaam-i wa-shar¬iyyat-i-hi
the interconnection between the power of the system and its legitimacy

Ü’©°»dG ÚH q»ª∏°ùdG ¢»jÉ©àdGh íeÉ°ùàdG „¦É«b
qiyaam-u l-tasaamuH-i wa-l-ta¬aayush-i l-silmiyy-i bayn-a l-shu¬uub-i
establishing mutual tolerance and coexistence among peoples

.q»FɦK º°SɤJ ¤EG O’¤j ób
qad ya-quud-u √ilaa taqaasum-in thunaa√iyy-in.
It might lead to a bilateral partition.

ÊÉ£jÈdG »Hô©dG ºgɘàdG µjµ©J ¢ù∏›
majlis-u ta¬ziiz-i l-tafaahum-i l-¬arabiyy-i l-bariiTaaniyy-i
the council for strengthening Arab-British (mutual) understanding

áe’µ—G „e ôeBÉàdÉH º¡ª¡qJG ¿CG ó©H
ba¬d-a √an-i ttaham-a-hum bi-l-ta√aamur-i ma¬-a l-Hukuumat-i
after it accused them of conspiracy with the government

.Üô©dG AGô˜°ùdG ¢ù∏› „e ¿hÉ©àdÉH ÜÉàµdG Qó°U
Sadar-a l-kitaab-i bi-l-ta¬aawun-i ma¬-a majlis-i l-sufaraa√-i l-¬arab-i.
The book was published with the cooperation of the council of Arab ambassadors.

10 Form VI participles
As with other participle forms, Form VI active and passive participles occur both
as nouns and as adjectives. The active participle is much more frequent in
occurrence.
548 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


10.1 Form VI active participle (AP): mutafaa¬il πpYɘnàoe

10.1.1 sound/regular root

synonym mutaraadif scattered mutanaathir
±pOGônàoe ôpKɦnàoe
retired mutaqaa¬id mutual, mutaDaamin
ópYɤnàoe øpeÉ°†nàoe
reciprocal

10.1.2 Geminate root
This is rare in Form VI.

10.1.3 Hamzated root

10.1.3.1 Hamza-INITIAL
harmonious muta√aalif corroded muta√aakil
∞pdBÉàoe πpcBÉàoe

10.1.3.2 Hamza-MEDIAL
optimistic mutafaa√il pessimistic mutashaa√im
πpFɘnàoe ºpFÉ°»nàoe
10.1.3.3 Hamza-FINAL
commensurate, alike mutakaafi√ …paɵnàoe

10.1.4 Assimilated root

balanced mutawaazin continuous mutawaaSil
¿ pRG’nàoe πp°UG’nàoe

10.1.5 Hollow root

increasing mutazaayid alternating, mutanaawib
ópjGµnàoe Üphɦnàoe
rotating

10.1.6 Defective root

successive, following mutataalin m«Éànàoe

10.1.7 Examples of Form VI APs in context

„¦“°SE™ÉH ójGµàŸG „¦Éªàg™G á„aɵàe IGQÉ‘e
al-ihtimaam-u l-mutazaayid-u bi-l-√islaam-i mubaaraat-un mutakaafi√at-un
the increasing interest in Islam an equal match
Form VI triliteral verb 549


á«dÉààe ¤G’¦°S ˜ IôKɦàe –∏Y
fii sanawaat-in mutataaliyat-in ¬ilab-un mutanaathirat-un
in successive years scattered containers

10.2 Form VI passive participle (PP): mutafaa¬al πnYɘàe
This participle form is not frequent in MSA, but a few examples are provided here.

10.2.1 Sound/regular root

mutual, reciprocal mutabaadal «nOÉ‘nàoe

10.2.2 Hollow root

prevailing, mutadaawal availability; reach; mutanaawal
« nhGónàoe « nhɦnàoe
current available

10.2.3 Examples of Form VI PPs in context
«hGóàŸG ≈¦©ŸÉH «OÉ‘àŸG „¦GÎM™G
bi-l-ma¬naa l-mutadaawal-i al-iHtiraam-u l-mutabaadal-u
in the current meaning mutual respect
550 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form VI Sound root:oo ónYɤnànj / nónYɤnJ  AP: ópYɤnàoe PP: VN: óoYɤnJ ˜to retire™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rónYɤnJ oónYɤnJnCG nónYɤnJnCG rónYɤnJnCG
nârfCG n¤rónYɤnJ oónYɤnànJ nónYɤnànJ rónYɤnànJ rónYɤnJ
pârfCG p¤rónYɤnJ nøjónYɤnànJ ¦ónYɤnànJ ¦ónYɤnànJ ¦ónYɤnJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrónYɤnJ p¿GónYɤnànJ GónYɤnànJ GónYɤnànJ GónYɤnJ
n’og nónYɤnJ oónYɤnànj nónYɤnànj rónYɤnànj
n»pg r¤nónYɤnJ oónYɤnànJ nónYɤnànJ rónYɤnànJ
ɪog-m GónYɤnJ p¿GónYɤnànj GónYɤnànj GónYɤnànj
ɪog-f ÉJnónYɤnJ p¿GónYɤnànJ GónYɤnànJ GónYɤnànJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrónYɤnJ oónYɤnànf nónYɤnànf rónYɤnànf
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrónYɤnJ n¿ hónYɤnànJ GhónYɤnànJ GhónYɤnànJ GhónYɤnJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrónYɤnJ n¿rónYɤnànJ n¿rónYɤnànJ n¿rónYɤnànJ n¿rónYɤnJ
ºog GhónYɤnJ n¿ hónYɤnànj GhónYɤnànj GhónYɤnànj
søog n¿rónYɤnJ n¿rónYɤnànj n¿rónYɤnànj n¿rónYɤnànj
Form VI triliteral verb 551


Form VI hamza-initial root: oôneBÉnànj / nôneBÉnJ AP: ôpeBÉàoe PP: VN: ôoeBÉnJ ˜to conspire™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rôneBÉnJ oôneBÉnJnCG nôneBÉnJnCG rôneBÉnJnCG
nârfCG n¤rôneBÉnJ oôneBÉnànJ nôneBÉnànJ rôneBÉnànJ rôneBÉnJ
pârfCG p¤rôneBÉnJ nøj ôneBÉnànJ ¦ôneBÉnànJ ¦ôneBÉnànJ ¦ôneBÉnJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrôneBÉnJ p¿GôneBÉnànJ GôneBÉnànJ GôneBÉnànJ GôneBÉnJ
n’og nôneBÉnJ oôneBÉnànj nôneBÉnànj rôneBÉnànj
n»pg r¤nôneBÉnJ oôneBÉnànJ nôneBÉnànJ rôneBÉnànJ
ɪog-m GôneBÉnJ p¿GôneBÉnànj GôneBÉnànj GôneBÉnànj
ɪog-f ÉJnôneBÉnJ p¿GôneBÉnànJ GôneBÉnànJ GôneBÉnànJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrôneBÉnJ oôneBÉnànf nôneBÉnànf rôneBÉnànf
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrôneBÉnJ n¿ hôneBÉnànJ GhôneBÉnànJ GhôneBÉnànJ GhôneBÉnJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrôneBÉnJ n¿ rôneBÉnànJ n¿r ôneBÉnànJ n¿ rôneBÉnànJ n¿ rôneBÉnJ
ºog GhôneBÉnJ n¿ hôneBÉnànj GhôneBÉnànj GhôneBÉnànj
søog n¿rôneBÉnJ n¿r ôneBÉnànj n¿rôneBÉnànj n¿ rôneBÉnànj
552 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form VI hamza-medial root: o«nAɘànj/ «nAÉn˜nJ AP: πpFɘnàoe PP: VN: «oDhɘnJ ˜to be optimistic™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârdnAÉn˜nJ o«nAÉn˜nJnCG n«nAÉn˜nJnCG r«nAÉn˜nJnCG
nârfCG nârdnAÉn˜nJ o«nAÉn˜nànJ n«nAÉn˜nànJ r«nAÉn˜nànJ r«nAÉn˜nJ
pârfCG pârdnAÉn˜nJ nÚdnAÉn˜nànJ ‹nAÉn˜nànJ ‹nAÉn˜nànJ ‹nAÉn˜nJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrdnAÉn˜nJ p¿™nAÉn˜nànJ ™nAÉn˜nànJ ™nAÉn˜nànJ ™nAÉn˜nJ
n’og n«nAÉn˜nJ o«nAÉn˜nànj n«nAÉn˜nànj r«nAÉn˜nànj
n»pg rândnAÉn˜nJ o«nAÉn˜nànJ n«nAÉn˜nànJ r«nAÉn˜nànJ
ɪog-m ™nAÉn˜nJ p¿™nAÉn˜nànj ™nAÉn˜nànj ™nAÉn˜nànj
ɪog-f ÉàndnAÉn˜nJ p¿™nAÉn˜nànJ ™nAÉn˜nànJ ™nAÉn˜nànJ
ø«f
orn ɦrdnAÉn˜nJ o«nAÉn˜nànf n«nAÉn˜nànf r«nAÉn˜nànf
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrdnAÉn˜nJ n¿ ’dnAÉn˜nànJ G’dnAÉn˜nànJ G’dnAÉn˜nànJ G’dnAÉn˜nJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrdnAÉn˜nJ nørdnAÉn˜nànJ nørdnAÉn˜nànJ nørdnAÉn˜nànJ nørdnAÉn˜nJ
ºog G’dnAÉn˜nJ n¿ ’dnAÉn˜nànj G’dnAÉn˜nànj G’dnAÉn˜nànj
søog ørdnAÉn˜nJ nørdnAÉn˜nànj nørdnAÉn˜nànj nørdnAÉn˜nànj
Form VI triliteral verb 553


Form VI hamza-final root: oCÉnaÉnµànj , DnÉaÉnµnJ AP: …paɵnàoe PP: VN: D’oaɵnJ ˜to be equal™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rCÉnaÉnµnJ oCÉnaÉnµnJnCG nCÉnaÉnµnJnCG rCÉnaÉnµnJnCG
nârfCG n¤rCÉnaÉnµnJ oCÉnaÉnµnànJ nCÉnaÉnµnànJ rCÉnaÉnµnànJ rCÉnaÉnµnJ
pârfCG p¤rCÉnaÉnµnJ nÚ„naÉnµnàJ »„naÉnµnànJ »„naÉnµnànJ »„naÉnµnJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrCÉnaÉnµnJ p¿BÉnaÉnµnànJ BÉnaÉnµnànJ BÉnaÉnµnànJ BÉnaÉnµnJ
n’og nCÉnaÉnµnJ oCÉnaÉnµnànj nCÉnaÉnµnànj rCÉnaÉnµnànj
n»pg r¤nCÉnaÉnµnJ oCÉnaÉnµnànJ nCÉnaÉnµnànJ rCÉnaÉnµnànJ
ɪog-m BÉnaÉnµnJ p¿BÉnaÉnµnànj BÉnaÉnµnànj BÉnaÉnµnànj
ɪog-f ÉJnCÉnaÉnµnJ p¿BÉnaÉnµnànJ BÉnaÉnµnànJ BÉnaÉnµnànJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrCÉnaÉnµnJ oCÉnaÉnµnànf nCÉnaÉnµnànf rCÉnaÉnµnànf
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrCÉnaÉnµnJ n¿ hD’naÉnµnànJ GhD’naÉnµnànJ GhD’naÉnµnànJ GhD’naÉnµnJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrCÉnaÉnµnJ n¿rCÉnaÉnµnànJ n¿rCÉnaÉnµnànJ n¿rCÉnaÉnµnànJ n¿rCÉnaÉnµnJ
ºog GhD’naÉnµnJ n¿ hD’naÉnµnànj GhD’naÉnµnànj GhD’naÉnµnànj
n¿rCÉnaÉnµnJ n¿ DrÉnaÉnµnànj
søog n¿rCÉnaÉnµnànj n¿rCÉnaÉnµnànj
554 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form VI Defective root: ≈YGónànj , ≈YGónJ AP: m´Gónàoe VN: m´GónJ ˜to decline, subside™
PP:

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârjnYGónJ ≈YGónJnCG ≈YGónJnCG n´GónJnCG
nârfCG nârjnYGónJ ≈YGónànJ ≈YGónànJ n´GónànJ n´GónJ
pârfCG pârjnYGónJ nør«nYGónànJ r»nYGónànJ r»nYGónànJ r»nYGónJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrjnYGónJ p¿É«nYGónànJ É«nYGónànJ É«nYGónànJ É«nYGónJ
n’og ≈YGónJ ≈YGónànj ≈YGónànj n´Gónànj
n»pg rânYGónJ ≈YGónànJ ≈YGónànJ n´GónànJ
ɪog-m ÉjnYGónJ p¿É«nYGónànj É«nYGónànj É«nYGónànj
ɪog-f ÉJnYGónJ p¿É«nYGónànJ
n É«nYGónànJ É«nYGónànJ
ø«f
orn ɦrjYGónJ
n ≈YGónànf ≈YGónànf n´Gónànf
ºoàrfnCG rºoJjYGónJ n¿r’nYGónànJ
rn Gr’nYGónànJ Gr’nYGónànJ Gr’nYGónJ
søoàrfnCG søoJjYGónJ nør«nYGónàJ
rn nør«nYGónàJ nør«nYGónàJ nør«nYGónJ
ºog GrhnYGónJ n¿r’nYGónànj Gr’nYGónànj Gr’nYGónànj
søog øjYGónJ
n rn nør«nYGónànj nør«nYGónànj nør«nYGónànj
28
Form VII triliteral verb


1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern: infa¬al-a nπn©n˜rfG /ya-nfa¬il-u oπp©n˜r¦nj
Form VII verbs are augmented with respect to Form I in that a prefix /n/ is added
to the Form I stem. Form VII has the past tense stem inC1aC2aC3- and the present
tense stem -nC1aC2iC3-. A prefixed elidable hamza with kasra is added to the past
tense stem of Form VII; this hamza and its vowel are deleted in the present tense,
replaced by the present tense subject markers. There is a restriction on the roots
that can be used in Form VII: roots beginning with the consonants hamza, waaw,
yaa√, raa√, laam, or nuun do not have a Form VII.1 In these instances, either Form V
or Form VIII is used instead.

1.2 Meaning
Form VII verbs may be reflexive, resultative, passive, or mediopassive in meaning.
They may express the consequences of a Form I verb action and have been classified
also as verbs that express ergative and “unaccusative” constructions in Arabic.2 The
Arabic term for referring to their meaning is muTaawi¬ ˜obeying, corresponding
with™ “ that is, Form VII verbs show the result of Form I action, e.g., fataH-tu l-baab-a
fa-nfataH-a ˜I opened (Form I) the door and it opened (Form VII).™3

1.3 Transitivity
Form VII verbs are intransitive.

1.4 In¬‚ection
The prefixed hamzat al-waSl with kasra in the past tense stem is deleted in the pres-
ent tense and replaced by the subject-marker prefix. The vowel of the present


1
The prefixed /n/ of Form VII is considered phonologically incompatible with these consonants. In
addition, roots whose initial consonant is miim are relatively rare in Form VII in MSA.
2
See Mahmoud 1991 for further discussion and definition of Arabic unaccusatives.
3
For more on muTaawi¬ see Chapter 26 on Form V, note 4.


555
556 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


tense subject-marker prefix is fatHa and the stem vowel in the present tense is
kasra (e.g., inSaraf-a/ya-nSarif-u ˜to leave, go out™).

2 Regular (sound) triliteral root

2.1 Intransitive
to explode infajar-a/ya-nfajir-u oôp©n˜r¦nj / nôn©n˜rfpG
to be at ease, be happy4 inbasaT-a/ya-nbasiT-u o§p°ùn‘r¦nj / n§n°ùn‘rf G
to sink, decline inxafaD-a/ya-nxafiD-u o¢†p˜n®r¦nj / n¢†n˜n®rfpG
to withdraw; be withdrawn insaHab-a/ya-nsaHib-u o–p«n°ùr¦nj / n–n«n°ùrfpG

2.2 Passive/re¬‚exive
Form VII is often the passive, resultative, or reflexive of Form I:
to be separated, divided inqasam-a/ya-nqasim-u oºp°ùn¤r¦nj / nºn°ùn¤rfpG
to be cut off inqaTa¬-a/ya-nqaTi¬-u o„p£n¤r¦nj / n„n£n¤rfpG
to be reflected in¬akas-a/ya-n¬akis-u o¢ùpµn©r¦nj / n¢ùnµn©rfpG
to be held, convened in¬aqad-a/ya-n¬aqid-u oóp¤n©r¦nj / nón¤n©rfpG

3 Geminate (doubled) root Form VII
Geminate roots in Form VII have the following stem patterns: inC1aC2C2- in the
past tense and ya-nC1aC2C2 - in the present.
to affiliate; join (with) inDamm-a/ya-nDamm-u (√ilaa) tºn°†r¦nj / sºn°†rfpG
to disintegrate inHall-a/ya-nHall-u tπn«r¦nj / sπn«rfnG
to split, crack inshaqq-a/ya-nshaqq-u ≥°»r¦j / ≥°»rfGp
tn n sn

4 Hamzated roots in Form VII
The hamza may occur in the second or third position of the triliteral root in Form
VII, but not in root-initial position. Depending on its position and the surround-
ing vowels, the hamza may have to change its “seat” when the verb inflects for per-
son and tense:

Medial hamza: rare
Final hamza:

to be extinguished inTafa√-a/ya-nTafi√-u o…p˜n£r¦nj / nCÉn˜n£rfpG
4
Also, ˜to be spread out;™ s.v. basaT-a in Wehr 1979.
Form VII triliteral verb 557


5 Assimilated roots in Form VII
These do not occur (see 1.1).

6 Hollow roots in Form VII infaal-a «É˜rfG /ya-nfaal-u «É˜r¦j
n on
Hollow roots in Form VII are inflected with √alif as the long vowel and fatHa as the
short vowel in the present and in the past: inC1aaC3-a /ya-nC1aaC3 -u.
to take sides, align inHaaz-a/ya-nHaaz-u oRÉ«r¦nj / nRÉ«rfpG
to decline, collapse inhaar-a/ya-nhaar-u oQÉ¡r¦nj / nQÉ¡rfpG

7 Defective roots in Form VII
Defective roots in Form VII inflect as -aa/-ii defectives.

to be necessary; ought to inbaghaa/ya-nbaghii »¨n‘r¦nj / ≈¨n‘rfpG
to elapse; expire inqaDaa/ya-nqaDii »°†n¤r¦nj / ≈°†n¤rfpG
to be folded; be absorbed5 inTawaa/ya-nTawii ¦’n£¦j / i’n£fGp
rn r

8 Examples of Form VII verbs in context
.´QG’°»dG ˜ „°V’dG ô©˜fG .ád’¡°ùH Iójó·G É¡JÉ«M ˜ â›ófG
infajar-a l-waD¬-u fii l-shawaari¬-i. indamaj-at fii Hayaat-i-haa l-jadiidat-i
The situation exploded in the streets. bi-suhuulat-in.
She easily got involved in her
new life.

.q»FÉHô¡µdG QÉq«àdG „£¤fG .∞«¦Y «óL ˜ G’Wô®fG
inqaTa¬-a l-tayyaar-u l-kahrabaa√iyy-u. inxaraT-uu fii jadal-in ¬aniif-in.
The electric current was cut off. They plunged into violent debate.

9 Form VII verbal noun: in¬¬aal «É©p˜rfpG

9.1 Strong/regular root
reflection in¬ikaas coup d™©tat inqilaab
¢Sɵp©rfpG Ü“p¤rfpG
explosion infijaar isolation in¬izaal
QÉ©p˜rfpG «Gµp©rfpG
9.2 Geminate root
The Form VII verbal noun of geminate roots has the regular pattern infi¬aal, the
alif coming between the identical second and third root consonants:

affiliating inDimaam disintegration inHilaal
„¦Éªp°†rfG «“p«rfpG
5
Used with the preposition ¬alaa, inTawaa means ˜to contain.™
558 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


9.3 Hamzated root
extinguishing inTifaa√ Aɘp£rfpG
9.4 Assimilated root
These do not occur.

9.5 Hollow root: in¬yaal «É«p˜rfpG
The verbal noun for Form VII hollow verbs has a yaa√ as the medial consonant, no
matter what the root of origin.

alignment inHiyaaz collapse; decline inhiyaar
RÉ«p«rfpG QÉ«p¡rfpG
9.6 Defective root: in¬¬aa√ AÉ©p˜rfpG
The verbal noun of defective Form VII verbs is of the pattern infi¬aa√ AÉ©˜fG, with
hamza after the long /-aa-/.6
expiration, elapsing inqiDaa√ introversion inTiwaa√
AÉ°†p¤rfpG AG’p£rfpG
9.7 Examples of Form VII verbal nouns in context
q»°SÉ«°ùdG «“«f™G ÚdhD’°ùŸG «É¨°»fG –‘°ùH
al-inHilaal-u l-siyaasiyy-u bi-sabab-i nshighaal-i l-mas√uul-iina
political disintegration because of the preoccupation of the
officials
‚dP ≈∏Y „¦ÉY AÉ°†¤fG π‘b .q»YɪàL™G „bG’∏d ¢Sɵ©fG ’g
qabl-a nqiDaa√-i ¬aam-in ¬alaa dhaalika huwa n¬ikaas-un li-l-waaq¬-i
before the elapsing of a year after that l-ijtimaa¬iyy-i.
It is a reflection of social reality.

10 Form VII participles

10.1 Form VII active participle (AP): munfa¬il πp©n˜r¦oe

10.1.1 Sound/regular root
isolated mun¬azil sloping munHadir
«pµn©r¦oe Qpón«r¦oe
introverted; shrunk munkamish sliding munzaliq
¢»pªnµr¦oe ≥pdnµr¦oe
10.1.2 Geminate root: munfa¬¬ q„n˜r¦oe
The active and passive participles for geminate roots in Form VII have the same
pattern; munfa¬¬. If the verb itself has a passive, reflexive, or intransitive meaning,

6
Because of the shift of the semi-consonant (waaw or yaa√) to hamza, this verbal noun winds up
looking like the verbal noun for hamza-final roots.
Form VII triliteral verb 559


the AP will carry that passive or reflexive meaning. It is therefore sometimes dif-
ficult to tell the Form VII AP and PP apart.

closely packed; munDamm separatist munshaqq
qºn°†r¦oe ≥°»r¦e
qn o
affiliated with

10.1.3 Hamzated root
extinguished munTafi√ …p˜n£r¦oe
10.1.4 Assimilated root
These do not occur.

10.1.5 Hollow root: munfaal «É˜r¦e
o
The active and passive participles for hollow roots in Form VII have the same pat-
tern; munfaal. If the verb itself has a passive, reflexive, or intransitive meaning,
the AP will carry that passive or reflexive meaning. It is often difficult to distin-
guish between the Form VII AP and PP.

aligned munHaaz RÉ«r¦oe
10.1.6 Defective root
introverted munTawin m’n£r¦oe
10.2 Form VII passive participle (PP): munfa¬al πn©n˜r¦oe
These are not frequent in occurrence because of the intransitivity or reflexivity of
the meaning of this form. Form VII PPs that do occur tend to be used as nouns of
place.

10.2.1 Sound/regular root
slope, incline munHadar starting point munTalaq
Qnón«r¦oe ≥n∏£¦e
n ro
lowland munxafaD ¢†n˜n®r¦oe
10.2.2 Geminate root: munfa¬¬ q„n˜r¦oe
As noted in 10.1.2, the passive participle and active participle are indistinguish-
able in form.

10.2.3 Hamzated root
This does not occur.

10.2.4 Assimilated root
This does not occur.
560 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


10.2.5 Hollow root: munfaal «É˜r¦e
o
As noted in 10.1.5, the passive participles and active participles of hollow roots in
this form are identical.

10.2.6 Defective root: munfa¬an k≈©n˜r¦oe
enclosed, folded in munTawan i’n£¦e
k ro

10.3 Examples of Form VII participles in context
IRÉ«¦ŸG ’Z «hódG ≥dµ¦e ÜÉH
al-duwal-u ghayr-u l-munHaazat-i baab-un munzaliq-un
non-aligned states a sliding door

.QÉ©°TC™G ¬JGQó«¦e ¥q’£J
tu-Tawwiq-u munHadaraat-i-hi l-√ashjaar-u.
Trees encircle its slopes.
Form VII triliteral verb 561


§°ùn‘¦j , n§n°ùn‘rfpG
o p rn §p°ùn‘r¦oe •É°ùp‘rfpG
Form VII Sound root: AP: PP: VN: ˜to be glad, happy™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr£n°ùn‘rfpG o§p°ùn‘rfnCG n§p°ùn‘rfnCG r§p°ùn‘rfnCG
nârfCG nâr£n°ùn‘rfpG §°ùn‘¦J
o p rn §°ùn‘¦J
n p rn §°ùn‘¦J
r p rn r§°ùn‘rfpG
p
pârfCG pâr£n°ùn‘rfpG nÚ£p°ùn‘r¦nJ »£p°ùn‘r¦nJ »£p°ùn‘r¦nJ »£p°ùn‘rfpG
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr£n°ùn‘rfpG p¿É£p°ùn‘r¦nJ É£p°ùn‘r¦nJ É£p°ùn‘r¦nJ É£p°ùn‘rfpG
n’og n§n°ùn‘rfGp §°ùn‘¦j
o p rn §°ùn‘¦j
n p rn §°ùn‘¦j
r p rn
n»pg rân£n°ùn‘rfpG §°ùn‘¦J
o p rn §°ùn‘¦J
n p rn §°ùn‘¦J
r p rn
ɪog-m É£n°ùn‘rfpG p¿É£p°ùn‘r¦nj É£p°ùn‘r¦njp É£p°ùn‘r¦nj
ɪog-f Éàn£n°ùn‘rfpG p¿É£p°ùn‘r¦nJ É£p°ùn‘r¦nJp É£p°ùn‘r¦nJ
ø«f
orn ɦr£n°ùn‘rfpG §°ùn‘¦f
o p rn §°ùn‘¦f
n p rn §°ùn‘¦f
r p rn
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr£n°ùn‘rfpG n¿ ’£p°ùn‘¦J
rn G’£p°ùn‘r¦nJ G’£p°ùn‘r¦nJ G’£p°ùn‘rfpG
søoàrfnCG søoàr£n°ùn‘rfpG nør£p°ùn‘r¦nJ ør£°ùn‘¦J
p rn nør£p°ùn‘r¦nJ nør£p°ùn‘rfpG
ºog G’£n°ùn‘rfpG n¿ ’£p°ùn‘¦j
rn G’£p°ùn‘r¦nj G’£p°ùn‘r¦nj
søog nør£n°ùn‘rfpG nør£p°ùn‘r¦nj nør£p°ùn‘r¦nj nør£p°ùn‘r¦nj
562 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


º°n †¦nj / º°n †rfGp
t s AP: º°†r¦e PP: VN: „¦Éªp°†rfG ˜to join with, affiliate with™
qn o p
Form VII Geminate root:


Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârªnªn°†rfpG tºn°†rfnCG sºn°†rfnCG sºn°†rfnCG
nârfCG nârªnªn°†rfpG tºn°†r¦nJ sºn°†r¦nJ sºn°†r¦nJ sºn°†rfpG
pârfCG pârªnªn°†rfpG nÚqªn°†r¦nJ »qªn°†r¦nJ »qªn°†r¦nJ »qªn°†rfpG
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ºoàrªnªn°†rfpG p¿Éqªn°†r¦nJ Éqªn°†r¦nJ Éqªn°†r¦nJ Éqªn°†rfpG
n’og sºn°†rfpG tºn°†r¦nj sºn°†r¦nj sºn°†r¦nj
n»pg râsªn°†rfpG tºn°†r¦nJ sºn°†r¦nJ sºn°†r¦nJ
ɪog-m Éqªn°†rfpG p¿Éqªn°†r¦nj Éqªn°†r¦nj Éqªn°†r¦nj
ɪog-f Éàsªn°†rfpG p¿Éqªn°†r¦nJ Éqªn°†r¦nJ Éqªn°†r¦nJ
ø«f
orn ɦrªnªn°†rfpG tºn°†r¦nf sºn°†r¦nf sºn°†r¦nf
ºoàrfnCG ºoàrªnªn°†rfpG n¿ ’qªn°†r¦nJ G’qªn°†r¦nJ G’qªn°†r¦nJ G’qªn°†rfpG
søoàrfnCG søoàrªnªn°†rfpG nørªpªn°†r¦nJ nørªpªn°†r¦nJ nørªpªn°†r¦nJ nørªpªn°†rfpG
ºog G’qªn°†rfpG n¿ ’qªn°†r¦nj G’qªn°†r¦nj G’qªn°†r¦nj
søog nørªnªn°†rfpG nørªpªn°†r¦nj nørªpªn°†r¦nj nørªpªn°†r¦nj
Form VII triliteral verb 563


Form VII Hollow root: oRÉ«r¦nj / nRÉ«rfpG AP: RÉ«r¦oe VN: RÉ«p«rfpG
PP: ˜to take sides™


Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rµn«rfpG oRÉ«rfnCG nRÉ«rfnCG rµn«rfnCG
nârfCG n¤rµn«rfpG oRÉ«r¦nJ nRÉ«r¦nJ rµn«r¦nJ rµn«rfpG
pârfCG p¤rµn«rfpG nøj RÉ«r¦nJ ¦RÉ«r¦nJ ¦RÉ«r¦nJ ¦RÉ«rfpG
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrµn«rfpG p¿GRÉ«r¦nJ GRÉ«r¦nJ GRÉ«r¦nJ GRÉ«rfpG
n’og nRÉ«rfpG oRÉ«r¦nj nRÉ«r¦nj rµn«r¦nj
n»pg r¤nRÉ«rfpG oRÉ«r¦nJ nRÉ«r¦nJ rµn«r¦nJ
ɪog-m GRÉ«rfpG p¿GRÉ«r¦nj GRÉ«r¦njp GRÉ«r¦nj
ɪog-f ÉJnRÉ«rfpG p¿GRÉ«r¦nJ GRÉ«r¦nJ GRÉ«r¦nJ
ø«f
orn Éfrµn«rfpG oRÉ«r¦nf nRÉ«r¦nf rµn«r¦nf
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrµn«rfpG n¿hRÉ«r¦nJ GhRÉ«r¦nJ GhRÉ«r¦nJ GhRÉ«rfpG
søoàrfnCG søoJrµn«rfpG n¿ rµn«r¦nJ n¿rµn«r¦nJ n¿ rµn«r¦nJ n¿ rµn«rfpG
ºog GhRÉ«rfpG n¿hRÉ«r¦nj GhRÉ«r¦nj GhRÉ«r¦nj
søog n¿r µn«rfpG n¿ rµn«r¦nj n¿r µn«r¦nj n¿ rµn«r¦nj
564 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form VII Defective root: »°†n¤r¦nj / ≈°†n¤rfpG AP: m¢†n¤r¦oe PP: VN: AÉ°†p¤rfpG ˜to elapse, expire™


Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr«n°†n¤rfpG »°†n¤rfnCG n»p°†n¤rfnCG p¢†n¤rfnCG
nârfCG nâr«n°†n¤rfpG »°†n¤r¦nJ n»p°†n¤r¦nJ p¢†n¤r¦nJ p¢†n¤rfpG
pârfCG pâr«n°†n¤rfpG nÚ°†n¤r¦nJ »°†n¤r¦nJ »°†n¤r¦nJ »°†n¤rfpG
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr«n°†n¤rfpG p¿É«p°†n¤r¦nJ É«p°†n¤r¦nJ É«p°†n¤r¦nJ É«p°†n¤rfpG
n’og ≈°†n¤rfpG »°†n¤r¦nj n»°†n¤r¦nj p¢†n¤r¦nj
n»pg rân°†n¤rfpG »°†n¤r¦nJ n»p°†n¤r¦nJ p¢†n¤r¦nJ
ɪog-m É«n°†n¤rfpG p¿É«p°†n¤r¦nj É«p°†n¤r¦nj É«p°†n¤r¦nj
ɪog-f Éàn°†n¤rfpG p¿É«p°†n¤r¦nJ É«p°†n¤r¦nJ É«p°†n¤r¦nJ
ø«f
orn Éfr«n°†n¤rfpG »°†n¤r¦nf n»p°†n¤r¦nf p¢†n¤r¦nf
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr«n°†n¤rfpG n¿ ’°†n¤r¦nJ G’°†n¤r¦nJ G’°†n¤r¦nJ G’°†n¤rfpG
søoàrfnCG søoàr«n°†n¤rfpG nÚ°†n¤r¦nJ nÚ°†n¤r¦nJ nÚ°†n¤r¦nJ nÚ°†n¤rfpG
ºog Gr’n°†n¤rfpG n¿ ’°†n¤r¦nj G’°†n¤r¦nj G’°†n¤r¦nj
søog n¿r«n°†n¤rfpG nÚ°†n¤r¦nj nÚ°†n¤r¦nj nÚ°†n¤r¦nj
29
Form VIII triliteral verb


1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern: ifta¬al-a nπn©nàrapG / ya-fta¬il-u oπp©nàr˜nj
Form VIII verbs are augmented with respect to Form I in that an infix /t/ is added
to the Form I stem after the first radical. Thus Form VIII has the past tense stem
iC1taC2aC3- and the present tense stem -C1taC2iC3-. A prefixed elidable hamza with
kasra is added to the past tense stem of Form VIII in order to make it pronounce-
able; this hamza and its vowel are deleted in the present tense, replaced by the
present tense subject markers.


1.2 Meaning
Form VIII verbs may be reflexive or medio-passive in meaning, but they also
express a wide range of meanings that are difficult to predict. They may
express the consequences of a Form I verb action and are sometimes considered
resultative (muTaawi¬ ´phÉ£oe), in the same way that Form VII verbs may be resul-
tative of the action of a Form I verb. This is especially true for verb roots start-
ing with the consonants hamza, waaw, yaa√, raa√, laam or nuun, because these
roots do not occur in Form VII and often use Form VIII instead to express the
resultative (e.g., Form I rafa¬-a/ya-rfa¬-u ˜to raise™ and Form VIII irtafa¬-a n„n˜nJrQpG /ya-
rtafi¬-u o„p˜nJrônj ˜to be raised, to rise™). Form VIII is distinguished from Form VII by
the ability to have a reciprocal meaning, that is, the action takes place mutu-
ally among several entities, e.g., Form I jama¬-a/ya-jma¬-u ˜to collect, gather
(s.th.)™ and Form VIII ijtama¬-a n„nªnàrLpG / ya-jtami¬-u o„pªnàr©nj to meet with each other;
collect together.™ 1


1.3 Transitivity
Form VIII verbs may be transitive or intransitive. Some are doubly transitive, such
as i¬tabar-a nôn‘nàrYpG /ya-¬ tabir-u oôp‘nàr©nj ˜to consider (s.o.) (s.th.).™


1
On this point see Fleisch 1979, II: 311.


565
566 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


1.4 In¬‚ection
The prefixed hamzat al-waSl with kasra in the past tense stem is deleted in the pres-
ent tense and replaced by the subject-marker prefix. The vowel of the present
tense subject-marker prefix is fatHa and the stem vowel in the present tense is
kasra (e.g., intaxab-a n–n®nàrfpG /ya-ntaxib-u o–p®nàr¦nj ˜to elect™).

1.5 Special phonological characteristics of Form VIII
The insertion of the extraneous consonant /t/ within the root sometimes affects
the spelling and pronunciation of Form VIII verbs. Various forms of assimilation
of the infixed taa√ to the initial root consonant occur, and with assimilated verb
roots the taa√ itself assimilates the initial waaw or yaa√ completely.

1.5.1 Progressive assimilation
In progressive assimilation, the taa√ is influenced by the preceding sound in the
word.


1.5.1.1 Where the initial root consonant is velarized (S, D, T, Z)
VELARIZATION:
and the infixed taa√ acquires the velarization feature. This results in a spelling
change from taa√ to Taa√.

to crash (into); collide with iSTadam-a/ya-STadim-u ( bi-) „¦ó£°ünj / „¦ó£°UpG
o pn r n nn r
(root: S-d-m)

to be disturbed, agitated iDTarab-a/ya-DTarib-u oÜpôn£r°†nj / nÜnôn£r°VpG
(root: D-r-b)

(≈∏Y) o„p∏s£nj / n„n∏nqWpG
to be aware; examine, iTTala¬-a/ya-TTali¬-u (¬alaa)
look into (root: T-l-¬ )


1.5.1.2 Where the initial root consonant is voiced and
VOICED ALVEOLARS:
alveolar (d or z)

daal-initial root: The taa√ assimilates totally to the daal.
(1)

to be inserted; to assimilate iddagham-a/ya-ddaghim-u oºpZsónj / nºnZsOpG
(root: d-gh-m)

to allege, claim idda¬aa/ya-dda¬ii »Ysónj / ≈YsOpG
(root: d-¬-w)

(2) zaay-initial root: In the zaay-initial root, the infixed taa√ partially assimi-
lates to the /z/ sound by becoming a voiced dental stop (daal) instead of a
voiceless dental stop (/t/). That is, instead of ifta¬al-a it becomes ifda¬al-a.
Form VIII triliteral verb 567


to flourish izdahar-a/ya-zdahir-u oôpgnOrµnj / nôngnOrRpG
(root: z-h-r)

to be crowded izdaHam-a/ya-zdaHim-u oºpMnOrµnj / nºnMnOrRpG
(root: z-H-m)
to be doubled, be paired izdawaj-a/ya-zdawij-u nênhnOrµnj / nênhnOrRpG
(root: z-w-j)

to increase izdaad-a/ya-zdaad-u oOGOrµnj / nOGOrRpG
(root: z-w-d)

1.5.1.3 INTERDENTALS: Where the initial root consonant is interdental (th, dh, Z)
The infixed taa√ assimilates completely to the interdental root consonant.

thaa√-initial root
(1)

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