<<

. 19
( 23)



>>


to avenge, get revenge iththa√ar-a/ya-ththa√ir-u oôp„sãnj / nQnCÉsKpG
(2) dhaal-initial root: In dhaal-initial roots, the dhaal and infixed taa√ mutually
influence one another, assimilating together as two daals (the dhaal loses its
interdental quality, the taa√ acquires voicing):

to amass, save iddaxar-a/ya-ddaxir-u oôpNsónj / nônNsOG
(root: dh-x-r)

Zaa√-initial root:
(3)

to be wronged, iZZalam-a/ya-ZZalim-u oºp∏s¶nj / nºn∏sXpG
suffer injustice (root: Z-l-m)

1.5.2 Form VIII regressive assimilation
In regressive assimilation, the initial root consonant waaw or yaa√ is affected by
the infixed taa√ and is assimilated into it. That is, for example, instead of the
shape *iwtaHad-a (from the root w-H-d) the actual Form VIII verb is ittaHad-a.

to be united ittaHad-a/ya-ttaHid-u oóp«sànj / nón«sJpG
(root w-H-d)

to expand ittasa¬-a/ya-ttasi¬-u o„p°ùsànj / n„n°ùsJpG
(root: w-s-¬ )
to face, take the ittajah-a/ya-ttajih-u o¬p©sànj / n¬n©sJpG
direction of (root: w-j-h)

to accuse ittaham-a/ya-ttahim-u oºp¡sànj / nºn¡sJpG
(root w-h-m)
568 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


2 Regular or sound roots
to celebrate, have a party iHtafal-a/ya-Htafil-u oπp˜nàr«nj / nπn˜nàrMpG
to respect iHtaram-a/ya-Htarim-u o„¦pônàr«nj / n„¦nônàrMpG
to earn iktasab-a/ya-ktasib-u o–p°ùnàrµnj / n–n°ùnàrcpG
to be different; to differ ixtalaf-a/ya-xtalif-u o∞p∏nàr®nj / n∞n∏nàrNG

2.1 Initial-nuun roots
A number of intransitive Form VIII verbs are from roots whose initial consonant
is /n/, since these do not assume Form VII.

to move, be transferred intaqal-a/ya-ntaqil-u oπp¤nàr¦nj / nπn¤nàrfpG
to spread out intashar-a/ya-ntashir-u oôp°»nàr¦nj / nôn°»nàrfpG
to elect intaxab-a/ya-ntaxib-u o–p®nàr¦nj / n–n®nàrfpG

3 Geminate (doubled) root Form VIII
to be interested, ihtamm-a/ya-htamm-u ( bi-) Ü tºnàr¡nj / sºnàrgpG
concerned (with)
to be spread, extended imtadd-a/ya-mtadd-u tónàrªnj / sónàrepG
to occupy iHtall-a/ya-Htall-u tπnàr«nj / sπnàrMpG

4 Hamzated roots in Form VIII

4.1 Hamza-initial
to deliberate; to plot i√tamar-a/ya-√tamir-u oôpªnJrCÉnj / nônªnàFpG
to go well together; i√talaf-a/ya-√talif-u o∞p∏nJrCÉnj / n∞n∏nàFpG
form a coalition

4.2 Hamza-medial
to be healed, to heal ilta√am-a/ya-lta√im-u oºp„nàr∏nj / n„¦nCÉnàrdpG

4.3 Hamza-¬nal
to begin ibtada√-a/ya-btadi√-u Çpónàr‘nj / nCGnónàrHpG
to be filled imtala√-a/ya-mtali√-u o…p∏nàrªnj / nC“nàrepG
Form VIII triliteral verb 569


5 Assimilated roots in Form VIII
In Form VIII, the inflixed taa√ assimilates the initial semi-consonant waaw or yaa√,
and doubles in strength (see above 1.5.2).

6 Hollow roots in Form VIII iftaal-a «ÉàraG / ya-ftaal-u «Éàr˜j
np on
Hollow roots in Form VIII are usually inflected with √alif as the long vowel and
fatHa as the short vowel in the present and in the past iC1CaaC3-a /ya-C1CaaC3-u.

to need iHtaaj-a/ya-Htaaj-u oêÉàr«nj / nêÉàrMpG
to assassinate ightaal-a/ya-ghtaal-u o«Éàr¨nj / n«ÉàrZpG
to choose ixtaar-a/ya-xtaar-u oQÉàr®nj / nQÉàrNG

6.1 Retention of medial semivowel
In some cases, a hollow root in Form VIII keeps its medial semi-consonant, as follows:

to be doubled, paired izdawaj-a/ya-zdawij-u oêphnOrµnj / nênhnOrRpG
to contain iHtawaa/ya-Htawii ¦’nàr«nj / i’nàrMpG

7 Defective roots in Form VIII
Defective roots in Form VIII inflect as -aa/-ii defectives:

to meet, encounter (s.o.) iltaqaa/ya-ltaqii »¤nàr∏nj / ≈¤nàrdpG
to be content, satisfied iktafaa/ya-ktafii »˜nàrµnj / ≈˜nàrcpG
to wear, be dressed (in) irtadaa/ya-rtadii ¦ónJrônj / iónJrQpG

7.1 Hollow and defective
The hollow-defective Form VIII verb keeps its medial semi-consonant (usually
waaw) as a strong consonant:

to contain (s.th.) iHtawaa/ya-Htawii ¦’nàr«nj / i’nàrMpG

8 Examples of Form VIII verbs in context
kAÉ£NCG kÉ°†jCG ∞°»àcGh ∞«àŸG Gòg ¦’à«j Ée
maa ya-Htawii haadhaa l-matHaf-u
wa-ktashaf-a √ayD-an √axTaa√-an
and he also discovered mistakes what this museum contains

.øjóq«·G Ü“£dG Üòà’ .QÉà®j ¿CG ¿É°ùfEG qπµd ‘Îj
ta-jtadhib-u l-Tullaab-a l-jayyid-iina. ya-truk-u li-kull-i insaan-in √an ya-xtaar-a.
It attracts good students. He leaves [it] to every person to choose.
570 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


9 Verbal nouns of Form VIII

9.1 Sound/regular root: ifti¬aal «É©pàrapG
respect iHtiraam meeting ijtimaa¬
„¦GÎprMpG ´ÉªpàrLpG
election intixaab difference ixtilaaf
ÜÉ®pàrfpG ±“pàrNpG

9.1.1 With assimilation of taa√
collision, crash iSTidaam flourishing, izdihaar
„¦Góp£r°UpG QÉgpOrRpG
bloom
disturbance, iDTiraab crowd, jam, izdiHaam
ÜGôp£r°VpG „¦ÉMpOrRpG
unrest crush

9.2 Geminate root
interest, concern ihtimaam occupation iHtilaal
„¦ÉªpàrgpG «“pàrMpG
spreading imtidaad gratitude imtinaan
OGópàrepG ¿É¦pàrepG

9.3 Hamzated root
coalition i√tilaaf beginning ibtidaa√
±“pàrFpG AGópàrHpG

9.4 Assimilated root
union ittiHaad accusation ittihaam
OÉ«qJpG „¦É¡qJpG

9.5 Hollow root
reserve; iHtiyaaT increase izdiyaad
•É«pàrMpG OÉjpORpG
precaution

izdiwaaj2
pleasure, delight irtiyaaH doubling,
¬É«pJrQpG êGhOrRpG
pairing


9.6 Defective root
In the defective root Form VIII verbal noun, the final defective root consonant is
represented by a hamza.

membership; intimaa√ disappearance ixtifaa√
AɪpàrfpG AɘpàrNpG
belonging

2
In this particular root, the waaw behaves as a strong consonant. See section 6 above.
Form VIII triliteral verb 571


9.7 Form VIII verbal nouns in context

Ú‘fÉ·G ¬É«JQG „¦óY ÚdhD ’°ùŸG QÉ‘c ´ÉªàLG
¬adam-u rtiyaaH-i l-jaanib-ayni ijtimaa¬-u kibaar-i l-mas√uul-iina
the discomfort of both sides the meeting of senior officials

.¿É°ùfE“d áq«°ü®°»dG ¥’¤«∏d „¦GÎMG ™ q–M πFÉ°SQ ±É°»àcG
laa Htiraam-a li-l-Huquuq-i l-shaxSiyyat-i li-l-insaan-i. iktishaaf-u rasaa√il-i Hubb-in
There is no respect for the personal rights the discovery of love letters
of humans.


10 Form VIII participles

10.1 Form VIII active participle (AP): mufta¬il πp©nàr˜oe
In addition to carrying the meaning of doer of the action, the AP of Form VIII may
sometimes convey a passive or resultative meaning, especially when derived from
a resultative verb, e.g., muqtani¬ ˜convinced™ or muttaHid ˜united.™


10.1.1 Sound/regular root: mufta¬il πp©nàr˜oe
respecting muHtarim convinced muqtani¬
„¦pônàr«oe „p¦nàr¤oe
listener mustami¬ objecting mu¬tariD
„pªnàr°ùoe ¢Vpônàr©oe
different, muxtalif spreading muntashir
∞p∏nàr®oe ôp°»nàr¦oe
differing


10.1.2 Geminate root: mufta¬¬ q„nàr˜oe
Because of the sequence of identical second and third root consonants, the stem
vowel kasra is deleted from this AP form. That is, instead of *mufta¬i¬, the form is
mufta¬¬.3 As a result of the deletion of the stem vowel in this AP form, the AP and
PP are identical.
occupying muHtall concerned muhtamm ( bi-)
qπnàr«oe Ü qºnàr¡oe
(with)


10.1.3 Hamzated root
Hamza-¬nal: mufta¬i√ …p©à˜e
nro
beginning mubtadi√ filled mumtali√
Çpónàr‘oe …p∏nàrªoe
3
This stems from phonological restrictions on identical consonants separated by a short vowel.
572 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


10.1.4 Assimilated root: mutta¬il πp©sàoe
united muttaHid facing muttajih
óp«sàoe ¬p©sàoe
contacting muttaSil accusing; muttahim
πp°üsàoe ºp¡sàoe
accuser

10.1.5 Hollow root: muftaal «Éàr˜e
o
muzdawij4
relaxing; murtaaH double
¬ÉJrôoe êphnOrµoe
satisfied
accustomed mu¬taad needing muHtaaj
≈∏Y OÉàr©oe êÉàr«oe
(to); usual (¬alaa)

10.1.6 Defective root: mufta¬in m„nà˜oe

belonging muntam-in containing muHtaw-in
mºnàr¦oe m’nàr«oe
10.1.7 Form VIII APs in context
Ió«qàŸG ¤Éj™’dG Ió«qàŸG ·C™G êhOµe ¥RÉe
al-wilaayaat-u l-muttaHidat-u al-√umam-u l-muttaHidat-u maaziq-un muzdawij-un
the United States the United Nations a double bind
OÉà©ŸG ¬fɵe ˜ .Ú©¦à¤e G’JÉH
fii makaan-i-hi l-mu¬taad-i baat-uu muqtani¬-iina.
in its usual place They have become convinced.

10.2 Form VIII passive participle (PP): mufta¬al πn©nàr˜oe
In addition to acting as an adjective, in many cases the Form VIII passive partici-
ple acts as a noun of place, denoting the location where the Form VIII verbal
activity takes place.

10.2.1 Strong/regular root: mufta¬al πn©nàr˜oe

respected muHtaram shared, mushtarak
„¦nônàr«oe ‘nônàr°»oe
common
society mujtama¬ document mustanad
„nªnàr©oe ón¦nàr°ùoe
elected muntaxab informed muTTala¬
–n®nàr¦oe „n∏£eqo

4
See note 2.
Form VIII triliteral verb 573


10.2.2 Geminate root: mufta¬¬ q„nàr˜oe
The AP and PP of geminate Form VIII verbs are identical. Context is often needed
to differentiate the meaning.
occupied muHtall qπnàr«oe

10.2.2 Hamzated root
Hamza- initial: mu√ta¬al πn©nJrD’oe

conference mu√tamar ônªnJrD’oe
10.2.3 Assimilated root: mutta¬al πn©sàoe
accused; suspected muttaham ºn¡sàoe

10.2.4 Hollow root: muftaal
The AP and PP of hollow Form VIII verbs are identical. Context is needed to differ-
entiate the meaning.
excellent, mumtaaz chosen muxtaar
RÉàrªoe QÉà®oe
distinguished

10.2.5 Defective root: mufta¬an k≈©nàr˜oe

required muqtaD-an level mustaw-an
kiónàr¤oe ki’nàr°ùoe
10.2.6 Examples of Form VIII PPs in context
á©∏q£e QOÉ°üe áq«ª°SôdG ¤Gó¦à°ùŸG ¬jód
maSaadir-u muTTala¬t-un laday-hi l-mustanadaat-u l-rasmiyyat-u.
informed sources He has the official documents.

¥’¤—G ≈°†à¤ª``H –®à¦ŸG ¢ù«FôdG
bi-muqtaDaa l-Huquuq-i al-ra√iis-u l-muntaxab-u
in accordance with the laws the president-elect

‘ΰ»e «ÉªYCG «hóL áq∏à™G »°VGQC™G ˜
jadwal-u √a¬maal-in mushtarak-un fii l-√araaDii l-muHtallat-i
a shared agenda in the occupied territories
574 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form VIII Sound root: o„¦pônàr«nj , „¦nônàrMpG AP: „¦pônàr«oe PP: „¦nônàr«oe VN: „¦GôpàrMpG ˜to respect™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oârenônàrMpG o„¦pônàrMnCG n„¦pônàrMnCG r„¦pônàrMnCG oârepôoàrMoG o„¦nônàrMoCG
nârfCG nârenônàrMpG o„¦pônàr«nJ n„¦pônàr«nJ r„¦pônàr«nJ r„¦pônàrMpG nârepôoàrMoG o„¦nônàr«oJ
pârfCG pârenônàrMpG nÚepônàr«nJ »epônàr«nJ »epônàr«nJ »epônàrMpG pârepôoàrMoG nÚenônàr«oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrenônàrMpG n¿Éepônàr«nJ Éepônàr«nJ Éepônàr«nJ ÉepônàrMpG ºoàrepôoàrMoG p¿Éenônàr«oJ
n’og n„¦nônàrMpG o„¦pônàr«nj n„¦pônàr«nj r„¦pônàr«nj n„¦pôoàrMoG o„¦nônàr«oj
n»pg rânenônàrMpG o„¦pônàr«nJ n„¦pônàr«nJ r„¦pônàr«nJ rânepôoàrMoG o„¦nônàr«oJ
ɪog-m ÉenônàrMpG n¿Éepônàr«nj Éepônàr«nj Éepônàr«nj ÉepôoàrMoG p¿Éenônàr«oj
ɪog-f ÉànenônàrMpG n¿Éepônàr«nJ Éepônàr«nJ Éepônàr«nJ ÉànepôoàrMoG p¿Éenônàr«oJ
ø«f
orn ɦrenônàrMpG o„¦pônàr«nf n„¦pônàr«nf r„¦pônàr«nf ɦrepôoàrMoG o„¦nônàr«of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàrenônàrMpG n¿ ’epônàr«nJ G’eônàr«nJ G’eônàr«nJ G’epônàrMpG rºoàrepôoàrMoG n¿ ’enônàr«oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrenônàrMpG nørepônàr«nJ nørepônàr«nJ nørepônàr«nJ nørepônàrMpG søoàrepôoàrMoG nørenônàr«oJ
ºog G’enônàrMpG n¿ ’epônàr«nj G’epônàr«nj G’epônàr«nj G’epôoàrMoG n¿ ’enônàr«oj
søog nørenônàrMpG nørepônàr«nj nørepônàr«nj nørepônàr«nj nørepôoàrMoG nørenônàr«oj
Form VIII triliteral verb 575


Form VIII Geminate root: tπnàr«nj , sπnàrMpG AP: qπnàr«oe PP: qπnàr«oe VN: «“pàrMG ˜to occupy™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

rπp∏nàrMnCG
tπnàrMoCG
ÉfCG oâr∏n∏nàrMpG tπnàrMnCG sπnàrMnCG oâr∏p∏oàrMoG
or sπnàrMnCG

rπp∏nàr«nJ rπp∏nàrMpG
nârfCG nâr∏n∏nàrMpG tπnàr«nJ sπnàr«nJ nâr∏p∏oàrMoG tπnàr«oJ
or sπnàr«nJ or sπnàrMpG

pârfCG pâr∏n∏nàrMpG nÚq∏nàr«nJ »q∏nàr«nJ »q∏nàr«nJ »q∏nàrMpG pâr∏p∏oàrMoG nÚq∏nàr«oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr∏n∏nàrMpG p¿q“nàr«nJ “à«J
q nr n “à«J
q nr n q“nàrMpG ɪoàr∏p∏oàrMoG p¿q“nàr«oJ
rπp∏nàq«nj
n’og sπnàrMpG tπnàr«nj sπnàr«nj sπoàrMoG tπnàr«oj
or sπnàr«nj

rπp∏nàr«nJ
n»pg râs∏nàrMpG tπnàr«nJ sπnàr«nJ râs∏oàrMoG tπnàr«oJ
or sπnàr«nJ

ɪog-m q“nàrMpG p¿q“nàr«nj “à«j
q nr n “à«j
q nr n q“oàrMoG p¿q“nàr«oj
ɪog-f Éàs∏nàrMpG p¿q“nàr«nJ “à«J
q nr n “à«J
q nr n Éàs∏oàrMoG p¿q“nàr«oJ
rπp∏nàr«nf
ø«f
orn ɦr∏n∏nàrMpG tπnàr«nf sπnàr«nf ɦr∏p∏oàrMoG tπnàr«of
or sπnàr«nf

ºoàrfnCG rºoàr∏n∏nàrMpG n¿ ’q∏nàr«nJ G’q∏nàr«nJ G’q∏nàr«nJ G’q∏nàrMpG rºoàr∏p∏oàrMoG n¿ ’q∏nàr«oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr∏n∏nàrMpG nør∏p∏nàr«nJ nør∏p∏nàr«nJ nør∏p∏nàr«nJ nør∏p∏nàrMpG søoàr∏p∏oàrMoG nør∏n∏nàr«oJ
ºog G’q∏nàrMpG n¿ ’q∏nàr«nj G’q∏nàr«nj G’q∏nàr«nj G’q∏oàrMoG n¿ ’q∏nàr«oj
søog nør∏n∏nàrMpG nør∏p∏nàr«nj nør∏p∏nàr«nj nør∏p∏nàr«nj nør∏p∏oàrMoG nør∏n∏nàr«oj
576 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form VIII hamza-final root: Çpónàr‘nj , nCGónàrHpG , AP: Çpónàr‘oe PP: CGónàr‘oe VN: AGópàrHpG ˜to begin™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rCGnónàrHpG oÇpónàrHnCG nÇpónàrHnCG rÇpónàrHnCG
nârfCG n¤rCGnónàrHpG oÇpónàr‘nJ nÇpónàr‘nJ rÇpónàr‘nJ rÇpónàrHpG
pârfCG p¤rCGnónàrHpG nÚFpónàr‘nJ »Fpónàr‘nJ »Fpónàr‘nJ »FpónàrHpG
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrCGnónàrHpG p¿ÉFpónàr‘nJ ÉFpónàr‘nJ ÉFpónàr‘nJ ÉFpónàrHpG
nCGnónàrHpG
n’og oÇpónàr‘nj nÇpónàr‘nj rÇpónàr‘nj
n»pg r¤nCGnónàrHpG oÇpónàr‘nJ nÇpónàr‘nJ rÇpónàr‘nJ
ɪog-m BGnónàrHpG p¿ÉFpónàr‘nj ÉFpónàr‘nj ÉFpónàr‘nj
ɪog-f ÉJnCGnónàrHpG p¿ÉFpónàr‘nJ ÉFpónàr‘nJ ÉFpónàr‘nJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrCGnónàrHpG oÇpónàr‘nf nÇpónàr‘nf rÇpónàr‘nf
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrCGnónàrHpG n¿’Fpónàr‘nJ G’Fpónàr‘nJ G’Fpónàr‘nJ G’FpónàrHpG
søoàrfnCG søoJrCGnónàrHpG nørFpónàr‘nJ nørFpónàr‘nJ nørFpónàr‘nJ nørFpónàrHpG
ºog GhDhónàHGp n¿’Fpónàr‘nj
r G’Fpónàr‘nj G’Fpónàr‘nj
søog n¿rCGnónàrHpG nørFpónàr‘nj nørFpónàr‘nj nørFpónàr‘nj
Form VIII triliteral verb 577


Form VIII Hollow root: oQÉàr®nj , nQÉàrNpG AP: QÉàr®oe PP: QÉàr®oe VN: QÉ«pàrNpG ˜to choose™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rônàrNpG oQÉàrNnCG nQÉàrNnCG rônàrNnCG o¤rôpàrNoCG oQÉàrNoCG
nârfCG n¤rônàrNpG oQÉàr®nJ nQÉàr®nJ rônàr®nJ rônàrNpG n¤rôpàrNoCG oQÉàr®oJ
pârfCG p¤rônàrNpG nøjQÉàr®nJ ¦QÉàr®nJ ¦QÉàr®nJ ¦QÉàrNpG p¤rôpàrNoCG nøj QÉàr®oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrônàrNpG p¿GQÉàr®nJ GQÉàr®nJ GQÉàr®nJ GQÉàrNpG ɪoJrôpàrNoCG p¿GQÉàr®oJ
n’og nQÉàrNpG oQÉàr®nj nQÉàr®nj rônàr®nj n’àrNoCG oQÉàr®oj
n»pg r¤nQÉàrNpG oQÉàr®nJ nQÉàr®nJ rônàr®nJ r¤n’àrNoCG oQÉàr®oJ
ɪog-m GQÉàrNpG p¿GQÉàr®nj GQÉàr®nj GQÉàr®nj G’àrNoCG p¿GQÉàr®oj
ɪog-f ÉJnQÉàrNpG p¿GQÉàr®nJ GQÉàr®nJ GQÉàr®nJ ÉJn’àrNoCG p¿GQÉàr®oJ
ø«f
orn ÉfrônàrNpG oQÉàr®nf nQÉàr®nf rônàr®nf ÉfrôpàrNoCG oQÉàr®of
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrônàrNpG n¿ hQÉàr®nJ GhQÉàr®nJ GhQÉàr®nJ GhQÉàrNpG rºoJrôpàrNoCG n¿ hQÉàr®oJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrônàrNpG n¿rônàr®nJ n¿r ônàr®nJ n¿ rônàr®nJ n¿ rônàrNpG søoJrôpàrNoCG n¿ rônàr®oJ
ºog GhQÉàrNpG n¿ hQÉàr®nj GhQÉàr®nj GhQÉàr®nj Gh’àrNoCG n¿ hQÉàr®oj
søog n¿rônàrNpG ¿r ônàr®nj ¿ rônàr®nj ¿ rônàr®nj n¿ rôpàrNoCG n¿rônàr®oj
578 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form VIII Defective root: »¤nàr∏nj , ≈¤nàrdpG AP: m≥nàr∏oe PP: k≈¤nàr∏oe VN: AɤpàrdpG ˜to encounter, meet™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG oâr«n¤nàrdpG »¤nàrdnCG n»p¤nàrdnCG p≥nàrdnCG o⫤oàrdoCG ≈¤nàrdoCG
nârfCG nâr«n¤nàrdpG »¤nàr∏nJ n»p¤nàr∏nJ ≥à∏J
p n rn p≥nàrdpG n⫤oàrdoCG ≈¤nàr∏oJ
pârfCG pâr«n¤nàrdpG nÚ¤nàr∏nJ »¤nàr∏nJ »¤nàr∏nJ »¤nàrdpG p⫤oàrdoCG nør«n¤nàr∏oJ
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr«n¤nàrdpG p¿É«p¤nàr∏nJ É«p¤nàr∏nJ É«p¤nàr∏nJ É«p¤nàrdpG ɪo૤oàrdoCG p¿É«n¤nàr∏oJ
n’og ≈¤nàrdpG »¤nàr∏nj n»p¤nàr∏nj ≥à∏j
p n rn n»p¤oàrdoCG ≈¤nàr∏oj
n»pg rân¤nàrdpG »¤nàr∏nJ n»p¤nàr∏nJ ≥à∏J
p n rn rân«p¤oàrdoCG ≈¤nàr∏oJ
ɪog-m É«n¤nàrdpG p¿É«p¤nàr∏nj É«p¤nàr∏nj É«p¤nàr∏nj É«p¤oàrdoCG p¿É«n¤nàr∏oj
ɪog-f Éàn¤nàrdpG p¿É«p¤nàr∏nJ É«p¤nàr∏nJ É«p¤nàr∏nJ Éàn«p¤oàrdoCG p¿É«n¤nàr∏oJ
ø«f
orn ɦr«n¤nàrdpG »¤nàr∏nf n»p¤nàr∏nf ≥à∏f
p n rn ɦ«¤oàrdoCG ≈¤nàr∏of
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr«n¤nàrdpG n¿ ’¤nàr∏nJ G’¤nàr∏nJ G’¤nàr∏nJ G’¤nàrdpG rºo૤oàrdoCG n¿ r’n¤nàr∏oJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr«n¤nàrdpG nÚ¤nàr∏nJ nÚp¤nàr∏nJ nÚp¤nàr∏nJ nÚp¤nàrdpG søo૤oàrdoCG nør«n¤nàr∏oJ
ºog Gr’n¤nàrdpG n¿ ’¤nàr∏nj G’¤nàr∏nj G’¤nàr∏nj G’¤oàrdoCG n¿ r’n¤nàr∏oj
søog nør«n¤nàrdpG nÚ¤nàr∏nj nÚp¤nàr∏nj nÚp¤nàr∏nj nÚ¤oàrdoCG nør«n¤nàr∏oj
30
Form IX triliteral verb


1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern: if¬all-a sπn©rapG / ya-f¬all-u tπn©r˜nj
Form IX verbs are augmented with respect to Form I in that the final root conso-
nant is doubled and the first and second root consonants are not separated by
a vowel. Form IX has the past tense stem iC1C2aC3C3 - and the present tense
stem -C1C2aC3C3-. A prefixed elidable hamza with kasra is added to the past
tense stem of Form IX to make it pronounceable; this hamza and its vowel are
deleted in the present tense, replaced by the present tense subject markers. The
vowel of the present tense subject marker in Form IX is fatHa.

1.2 Meaning
Form IX verbs generally denote the acquisition of a color or a physical trait. They
are normally based on roots occurring in the √af ¬al adjectival pattern, as the
colors, e.g., √aswad ˜black,™ √aHmar ˜red,™ or adjectives that describe physical
defects. These verbs are infrequent in MSA.1

1.3 Transitivity
Form IX verbs are intransitive.

1.4 In¬‚ection
The prefixed hamzat al-waSl with kasra in the past tense stem is deleted in the pres-
ent tense and replaced by the subject-marker prefix. The vowel of the present tense
subject-marker prefix is fatHa and the stem vowel in the present tense is fatHa.

2 Sound/regular roots in Form IX: if¬all-a sπn©rapG / ya-f¬all-u tπn©r˜nj
to be or become green ixDarr-a/ya-xDarr-u tôn°†r®nj / sôn°†rNpG

1
Kouloughli (1994, 207) reports their occurrence as 0.5 percent of all the augmented forms of the
verb (II“X).


579
580 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


to be or become red; to blush iHmarr-a/ya-Hmarr-u tônªr«nj / sônªrMpG
to be or become yellow; iSfarr-a/ya-Sfarr-u ô˜°r ünj / ô˜°UpG
tn snr
to become pale


3 Geminate (doubled) roots in Form IX
These roots are rare in Form IX.


4 Hamzated roots in Form IX
These roots are rare in Form IX.

5 Assimilated roots in Form IX
These roots are rare in Form IX.

6 Hollow roots in Form IX
The semi-consonant of the hollow root stabilizes in Form IX and acts as a strong
consonant (waaw or yaa√):
to become black iswadd-a/ya-swadd-u tOn’r°ùnj / sO’r°SpG
to be or become white ibyaDD-a/ya-byaDD-u t¢ün«r‘nj / s¢†n«rHpG
to squint; be cross-eyed iHwall-a/ya-Hwall-u t«n’r«nj / s« n’rMpG
to become crooked i¬wajj-a/ya-¬wajj-u tên’r©nj / sên’rYpG

7 Defective roots in Form IX: rare

8 Form IX verbs in context
.Iô©°»dG âqL’YG
i¬wajj-at-i l-shajarat-u.
The tree became crooked.

9 Verbal nouns of Form IX

9.1 Sound/regular root: if¬ilaal «“p©rapG
greenness ixDiraar QGôp°†rNpG
blushing iHmiraar QGôpªrMpG
yellowness; pallor iSfiraar QGôp˜r°UpG
Form IX triliteral verb 581


9.2 Hollow root: if¬ilaal
squinting iHwilaal «™p’rMpG
crookedness i¬wijaaj êÉLp’rYpG

10 Form IX participles

10.1 Form IX participles (AP and PP): muf¬all qπn©r˜oe
Form IX active participles and passive participles have the same pattern. However,
passive participles in this form are exceedingly rare, since the verbs are intransitive.

Strong/regular root:
blushing muHmarr qônªr«oe
Hollow root:

blackening muswadd qOn’r°ùoe
582 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form IX Sound root: otônªr«nj , sônªrMpG AP: qônªr«oe PP: VN: QGôpªrMpG ˜to become red™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

sônªrMnCG
ÉfCG o¤r Qn ônªrMpG tônªrMnCG sônªrMnCG or rQ pônªrMnCG

sônªr«nJ or sônªrMpG or
nârfCG n¤rQnônªrMpG tônªr«nJ sônªr«nJ
rQ pônªr«nJ rQ pônªrMpG
pârfCG p¤ rQ nônªrMpG nøjqônªr«nJ ¦qônªr«nJ ¦qônªr«nJ ¦qônªrMpG
ɪoàrfCG-m/f rºoJr Qn ônªrMpG p¿Gqônªr«nJ Gqônªr«nJ Gqônªr«nJ G qônªrMpG
sônªr«nj or
n’og sônªrMpG tônªr«nj sônªr«nj rQ pônªr«nj
sônªr«nJ or
n»pg r¤sônªrMpG tônªr«nJ sônªr«nJ
rQ pônªr«nJ
ɪog-m Gqônªr«pG p¿Gqônªr«nj Gqônªr«nj Gqônªr«nj
ɪog-f ÉJsônªrMpG p¿Gqônªr«nJ Gqônªr«nJ Gqônªr«nJ
sônªr«nf or
ø«f
orn ÉfrQnônªrMpG tônªr«nf sônªr«nf
rQ pônªr«nf
ºoàrfnCG rºoJrQ nônªrMpG n¿ hqônªr«nJ Ghqônªr«nJ Ghqônªr«nJ Gh sônªrMpG
søoàrfnCG øJr Q nônªrMpG n¿r Q pônªr«nJ
so n¿ rQ pônªr«nJ n¿r Q pônªr«nJ n¿r Q pônªrMpG
ºog Ghq ônªrMpG n¿ hqônªr«nj Ghqônªr«nj Ghqônªr«nj
søog n¿ rQ nônªrMpG n¿r Q pônªr«nj n¿r Q pônªr«nj n¿ rQp ônªr«nj
Form IX triliteral verb 583


Form IX Hollow root: otOn’r°ùnj , sO’r°SpG AP: qOn’r°ùoe PP: VN: OGOp’r°SpG ˜to turn black™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

rOpOn’r°SnCG
ÉfCG o¤rOnOn’r°SpG tOn’r°SnCG sOn’r°SnCG
or sOn’r°SnCG

rOpOn’r°ùnJ rOpOn’r°SpG
nârfCG n¤rOnOn’r°SpG tOn’r°ùnJ sOn’r°ùnJ
or sOn’r°ùnJ or sOn’r°SpG

pârfCG p¤rOnOn’r°SpG øjqO’°ùnJ
n nr ¦qO’°ùnJ
nr ¦qO’°ùnJ
nr ¦qOn’r°SpG
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrOnOn’r°SpG p¿GqOn’r°ùnJ GqOn’r°ùnJ GqOn’r°ùnJ GqOn’r°SpG
rOpOn’r°ùnj
n’og sOn’r°SpG tOn’r°ùnj sOn’r°ùnj
or sOn’r°ùnj

rOpOn’r°ùnJ
n»pg r¤sOn’r°SpG tOn’r°ùnJ sOn’r°ùnJ
or sOn’r°ùnJ

ɪog-m GqOn’r°SpG p¿GqO’r°ùnj GqO’r°ùnj GqO’r°ùnj
ɪog-f ÉJsOn’r°SpG p¿GqOn’r°ùnJ GqOn’r°ùnJ GqOn’r°ùnJ
rOpOn’r°ùnf
ø«f
orn ÉfrOnOn’r°SpG tOn’r°ùnf sOn’r°ùnf
or sOn’r°ùnf

ºoàrfnCG rºoJrOnOn’r°SpG n¿hqOn’r°ùnJ GhqO’°ùnJ
nr GhqO’°ùnJ
nr GhqOn’r°SpG
søoàrfnCG søoJrOnOn’r°SpG ¿rOpOn’r°ùnJ ¿rOpOn’r°ùnJ ¿rOpOn’r°ùnJ n¿rOpOn’r°SpG
ºog GhqOn’r°SpG n¿hqOn’r°ùnj GhqO’°ùnj
nr GhqO’°ùnj
nr
søog n¿rOnOn’r°SpG n¿rOpOn’r°ùnj n¿rOpOn’r°ùnj n¿rOpOn’r°ùnj
31
Form X triliteral verb


1 Basic characteristics

1.1 Pattern: istaf¬al-a nπn©r˜nàr°SpG/ya-staf¬il-u oπp©r˜nàr°ùnj
Form X verbs are augmented with respect to Form I in that a prefixed /-st-/ is added
and the first and second root consonants are not separated by a vowel. Form X
has the past tense stem istaC1C2aC3- and the present tense stem -staC1C2iC3-. A
prefixed elidable hamza with kasra is added to the past tense stem of Form X to
make it pronounceable; this hamza and its vowel are deleted in the present tense,
replaced by the present tense subject markers. The vowel of the present tense
subject marker in Form X is fatHa.

1.2 Meaning
Form X verbs may be requestative or estimative but may also reflect other semantic
modifications of the base form. Examples of requestatives include:
to request guidance istarshad-a/ya-starshid-u O°p »ônàr°ùnj / nO°n »ôràr°SpG
o
(from s.o.)
to request or seek istafsar-a/ya-stafsir-u oô°pùr˜nàr°ùnj /n ôn°ùr˜nàr°SpG
explanation (from s.o.)
Examples of estimatives include:
to consider (s.th.) good istaHsan-a/ya-staHsin-u oøp°ùr«nàr°ùnj / nøn°ùr«nàr°SpG
to consider (s.th.) strange istaghrab-a/ya-staghrib-u oÜpôr¨nàr°ùnj / nÜnôr¨nàr°SpG
Form X may be the reflexive of Form IV: Wright writes (1967, I:44) : “Form X
converts the factitive signification of Form IV into the reflexive or middle.” For
example, Form IV √a¬add-a óYG /yu-¬idd-u ó©j ˜to prepare (s.th.)™ and Form X ista¬add-a
s n Cn tpo
són©nàr°SpG /ya-sta¬idd-u tóp©nàr°ùnj ˜to prepare one™s self, get ready.™
1.3 Transitivity
Form X verbs may be transitive or intransitive.1
1
Kouloughli (1994, 208) reports that Form X is transitive more than 75 percent of the time.


584
Form X triliteral verb 585


1.4 In¬‚ection
The prefixed hamzat al-waSl with kasra in the past tense stem is deleted in the
present tense and replaced by the subject-marker prefix. The vowel of the present
tense subject-marker prefix is fatHa and the stem vowel in the present tense is
kasra (e.g., istaqbal-a nπn‘r¤nàr°SpG /ya-staqbil-u oπp‘r¤nàr°ùnj ˜to receive (s.o.)™).

2 Sound/regular root
to consume istahlak-a/ya-stahlik-u o‚p∏r¡nàr°ùnj / n‚n∏r¡nàr°SpG
to discover; invent istanbaT-a/ya-stanbiT-u o§p‘r¦nàr°ùnj / n§n‘r¦nàr°SpG
to disdain; detest istankar-a/ya-stankir-u oôpµr¦nàr°ùnj / nônµr¦nàr°SpG
to invest istathmar-a/ya-stathmir-u oôpªrãnàr°ùnj / nônªrãnàr°SpG
3 Geminate (doubled) roots in Form X
to continue, to last istamarr-a/ya-stamirr-u tôpªnàr°ùnj / sônªnàr°SpG
to be independent istaqall-a/ya-staqill-u tπp¤nàr°ùnj / sπn¤nàr°SpG

4 Hamzated roots in Form X
to rent, to hire ista√jar-a/ya-sta√jir-u oôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj / nônLrCÉnàr°SpG
to resume ista√naf-a/ya-sta√nif-u o∞pfrCÉnàr°ùnj / n∞nfrCÉnàr°SpG

5 Assimilated roots in Form X
The root-initial semi-consonant waaw or yaa√ acts as a regular consonant in the
inflected verb forms.

to import istawrad-a/ya-stawrid-u oOpQr’nàr°ùnj / nOnQr’nàr°SpG
to colonize, settle istawTan-a/ya-stawTin-u oøpWr’nàr°ùnj / nønWr’nàr°SpG
to awaken, wake up istayqaZ-a/ya-stayqiZ-u oßp¤r«nàr°ùnj / nßn¤r«nàr°SpG
6 Hollow roots in Form X
Hollow roots in Form X, whether based on roots with waaw or yaa√ as the medial
semi-consonant, inflect with long /ii/ in the present tense stem.

to benefit (from or by) istafaad-a/ya-stafiid-u (min) øe oó«˜nàr°ùnj / nOɘnàr°SpG
(root: f-y-d / O - ¦ - ±)
to be able (to do s.th.) istaTaa¬-a/ya-staTii¬-u o„«£àr°ùnj / n´É£nàr°SpG
(root: T-w-¬/´-h - •)
586 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


to resign istaqaal-a/ya-staqiil-u oπ«¤nàr°ùnj / n«É¤nàr°SpG
(root: q-y-l /«- ¦ - ¥)

7 Defective roots in Form X
Defective roots in Form X inflect as -aa/-ii defectives.

to except, exclude istathnaa/ya-stathnii »¦rãnàr°ùnj / ≈¦rãnàr°SpG
to seek an opinion istaftaa/ya-staftii »àr˜nàr°ùnj / ≈àr˜nàr°SpG
to appropriate istawlaa/ya-stawlii ‹r’nàr°ùnj / ¤r’nàr°SpG
8 Examples of Form X verbs in context
áqª¤dG âaÉ°†à°SG Éeó¦Y ≈qàM .ÜÉgòdG ¿’©«£à°ùj ™
Hattaa ¬ind-a-maa staDaafat-i l-qimmat-a laa ya-staTii¬-uuna l-dhahaab-a.
even when it hosted the summit [conference] They are not able to go.

ÉY’‘°SCG ¥ô¨à°ùJ É°ùfô˜d IQÉjR ˜
fii ziyaarat-in li-faransaka ta-staghriq-u √usbuu¬-an
on a visit to France that lasts a week
.QGPBG ≈qàM ÊÉãdG øjô°»J øe ê’∏ãdG IÎa ôªà°ùJ
q
ta-stamirr-u fatrat-u l-thuluuj-i min tishriin-a l-thaanii Hattaa √aadhaar-a.
The snow season lasts from November until March.

9 Form X verbal nouns: istif¬aal «É©r˜à°SpG
pr

9.1 Sound/regular root
inquiry istixbaar use istixdaam
QÉ‘r®pàr°SpG „¦Gór®pàr°SpG
investment istithmaar disdain istinkaar
Qɪrãpàr°SpG Qɵr¦pàr°SpG
9.2 Geminate root
The verbal noun of the geminate Form X verb is regular, using the istif¬aal pattern
and splitting the identical second and third root consonants:

continuation istimraar merit, worthiness, istiHqaaq
QGôrªpàr°SpG ¥É¤r«pàr°SpG
claim
preparation isti¬daad independence istiqlaal
OGór©pàr°SpG «“r¤pàr°SpG

9.3 Hamzated root
The verbal noun of hamzated roots of Form X is usually regular in formation. The
hamza takes a seat appropriate to its phonetic context.
renting isti√jaar resumption isti√naaf
QÉ©„pàr°SpG ±É¦„pàr°SpG
Form X triliteral verb 587


9.4 Assimilated root: «É©«àr°SpG
In the verbal noun of assimilated-root Form X, the root-initial waaw assimilates to
the preceding kasra and becomes long /ii/:

istiiraad2
importation colonizing istiiTaan
OG’àr°SpG ¿É£«àr°SpG
awakening istiiqaaZ ®É¤«àr°SpG

9.5 Hollow root: ándɘpàr°SpG
The verbal noun of Form X hollow verbs has the form istifaala ándɘpà°SpG spelled with
r
taa√ marbuuTa.

benefit istifaada ability istiTaa¬a
InOɘpàr°SpG ánYÉ£pàr°SpG
response istijaaba resignation istiqaala
ánHÉ©pàr°SpG ándɤpàr°SpG
9.6 Defective root: AÉ©r˜pàr°SpG
The verbal noun of defective roots in From X has the pattern istif¬aa√ AÉ©r˜pàr°SpG. The
weakness of the final root element converts into hamza:

exception istithnaa√ renunciation istighnaa√
Aɦrãpàr°SpG Aɦr¨pàr°SpG
plebiscite, istiftaa√ appropriation istiilaa√
AÉàr˜pàr°SpG A“«àr°SpG
referendum

9.7 Form X verbal nouns in context
q»WGôb’ÁO ¥É¤«à°SG É¡qfC™ ¤GQ™hódG Új“H Qɪãà°SG ¤EG
li-√anna-haa stiHqaaq-un √ilaa stithmaar-i balaayiin-i
diimuuqraaTiyy-un l-duulaaraat-i
because it is a democratic claim to the investment of billions of dollars

¿É¦‘d «“¤à°S™ Ú°ùªÿG ó«©dG ˜
fii l-¬iid-i l-xamsiina l-istiqlaal-i lubnaan-a
on the 50th [anniversary] celebration of the independence of Lebanon

10 Form X participles

10.1 Form X active participle (AP): mustaf¬il πp©r˜nàr°ùoe

10.1.1 Sound/regular root

consumer mustahlik orientalist mustashriq
‚p∏r¡nàr°ùoe ¥pôr°»nàr°ùoe

2
Instead of *istiwraad or *istiwTaan. The sequence /-iw-/ is usually avoided in Arabic.
588 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


10.1.2 Geminate root: musta¬¬¬ „˜à°ùoe
q pnr
continuous mustamirr independent mustaqill
qôpªnàr°ùoe qπp¤nàr°ùoe
ready musta¬idd entitled; mustaHiqq
qóp©nàr°ùoe ≥«à°ùoe
q p nr
worthy

10.1.3 Hamzated root
tenant, musta√jir ôpLrCÉnàr°ùoe
renter

10.1.4 Assimilated root
importer mustawrid colonizer mustawTin
OpQr’nàr°ùoe øpWr’nàr°ùoe

10.1.5 Hollow root: musta¬il π«˜nà°ùoe
r
circular mustadiir impossible mustaHiil
ôjónàr°ùoe π««nàr°ùoe

10.1.6 Defective root: mustaf¬in „˜à°ùe
m rnr
doing mustaghnin mør¨nàr°ùoe
without

10.1.7 Form X APs in context
Iôjóà°ùe áMÉ°S Úq∏¤à°ùŸG ÜGq’¦dG óMCG
saaHat-un mustadiirat-un √aHad-u l-nuwwaab-i l-mustaqill-iina
a circular courtyard one of the independent deputies

10.2 Form X passive participle (PP): mustaf¬al πn©r˜nàr°ùoe
In addition to acting as an adjective, the Form X passive participle may also serve
as a noun of place, denoting the location where the Form X activity takes place.

10.2.1 Sound/regular root: mustaf¬al πn©˜à°ùoe
rnr
laboratory mustaxbar colony musta¬mara
ôn‘r®nàr°ùoe Iônªr©nàr°ùoe
future mustaqbal strange mustaghrab
πn‘r¤nàr°ùoe Ünôr¨nàr°ùoe
swamp mustanqa¬ used musta¬mal
„n¤r¦nàr°ùoe πnªr©nàr°ùoe

10.2.2 Geminate root
This root type is rare in the passive participle.
Form X triliteral verb 589


10.2.3 Hamzated root
resumed musta√naf rented musta√jar
∞nfrCÉnàr°ùoe ônLrCÉnàr°ùoe
10.2.4 Assimilated root: mustaf¬al πn©˜à°ùoe
rnr
settlement mustawTana imported mustawrad
án¦nWr’nàr°ùoe OnQr’nàr°ùoe

10.2.5 Hollow root: mustafaal «É˜àr°ùoe
borrowed; false; musta¬aar counsellor mustashaar
QÉ©nàr°ùoe QÉ°»nàr°ùoe
artificial

10.2.6 Defective root: mustaf¬an
hospital mustashfan excepted mustathnan
k≈˜r°»nàr°ùoe k≈¦rãàr°ùoe

10.2.7 Form X PPs in context
IQÉ©à°ùe Aɪ°SCG ≈˜°»à°ùª∏d ¢SÉ°SC™G ô©M „°Vh
√asmaa√-un musta¬aarat-un waD¬-u Hajr-i l-√asaas-i li-l-mustashfaa
pseudonyms (˜borrowed names™) setting the foundation stone for the
hospital

–jô¤dG π‘¤à°ùŸG ˜ .áHô¨à°ùe â°ù«d Q™hO ¿’«∏e á„e
fii l-mustaqbal-i l-qariib-i mi√at-u milyuun-i duulaar-in lays-at
mustaghrabat-an.
in the near future
A hundred million dollars is not unusual.
590 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form X Sound root: o„¦pór®nàr°ùnj , n„¦nór®nàr°SpG AP: „¦pór®nàr°ùoe PP: „¦nór®nàr°ùoe VN: „¦Gór®pàr°SpG ˜to use™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect


Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative


ÉfCG oârenór®nàr°SpG o„¦pór®nàr°SnCG n„¦pór®nàr°SnCG r„¦pór®nàr°SnCG oârepór®oàr°SoG o„¦nór®nàr°SoG
nârfCG nârenór®nàr°SpG o„¦pór®nà°ùnJ
r n„¦pór®nàr°ùnJ r„¦pór®nàr°ùnJ r„¦pór®nàr°SpG nârepór®oàr°SoG o„¦nór®nàr°ùoJ

pârfCG pârenór®nàr°SpG nÚepór®nàr°ùnJ »epór®nàr°ùnJ »epór®nàr°ùnJ »epór®nàr°SpG pârepór®oàr°SoG nÚenór®nàr°ùoJ

ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàrenór®nàr°SpG p¿Éepór®nàr°ùnJ Éepór®nàr°ùnJ Éepór®nàr°ùnJ Éepór®nàr°SpG ɪoàrepór®oàr°SoG p¿Éenór®nàr°ùoJ
n’og n„¦nór®nàr°SpG o„¦pór®nà°ùnj
r n„¦pór®nàr°ùnj r„¦pór®nàr°ùnj n„¦pór®oàr°SoG o„¦nór®nàr°ùoj

n»pg rânenór®nàr°SpG o„¦pór®nà°ùnJ
r n„¦pór®nàr°ùnJ r„¦pór®nàr°ùnJ rânepór®oàr°SoG o„¦nór®nàr°ùoJ

ɪog-m Éenór®nàr°SpG p¿Éepór®nàr°ùnj Éepór®nàr°ùnj Éepór®nàr°ùnj Éepór®oàr°SoG p¿Éenór®nàr°ùoj
ɪog-f Éànenór®nàr°SpG p¿Éepór®nàr°ùnJ Éepór®nàr°ùnJ Éepór®nàr°ùnJ Éànepór®oàr°SoG p¿Éenór®nàr°ùoJ

ø«f
orn ɦrenór®nàr°SpG o„¦pór®nà°ùnf
r n„¦pór®nàr°ùnf r„¦pór®nàr°ùnf ɦrepór®oàr°SoG o„¦nór®nàr°ùof

ºoàrfnCG rºoàrenór®nàr°SpG n¿ ’epór®nàr°ùnJ G’epór®nàr°ùnJ G’epór®nàr°ùnJ G’epór®nàr°SpG rºoàrepór®oàr°SoG n¿ ’enór®nàr°ùoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàrenór®nàr°SpG nørepór®nàr°ùnJ nørepór®nàr°ùnJ nørepór®nàr°ùnJ nørepór®nàr°SpG sÏrepór®oàr°SoG nørenór®nàr°ùoJ

ºog G’enór®nàr°SpG n¿ ’epór®nàr°ùnj G’epór®nàr°ùnj G’epór®nàr°ùnj G’epór®oàr°SoG n¿ ’enór®nàr°ùoj

søog nørenór®nàr°SpG nørepór®nàr°ùnj nørepór®nàr°ùnj nørepór®nàr°ùnj nørepór®oàr°SoG nørenór®nàr°ùoj
Form X triliteral verb 591


Form X Geminate root: oqôpªnàr°ùnj , sônªnàr°SpG AP: qôpªnàr°ùoe PP: VN: QGôrªpàr°SpG ˜to last™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect


Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative


rQpôrªnàr°SnCG
ÉfCG o¤rQnôrªnàr°SpG tôpªnàr°SnCG sôpªnàr°SnCG
or sôpªnàr°SnCG


rQpôrªnàr°ùnJ rQpôrªnàr°SpG
nârfCG n¤rQnôrªnàr°SpG tôpªnàr°ùnJ sôpªnàr°ùnJ
or sôpªnàr°ùnJ or sôpªnàr°SpG


pârfCG p¤rQnôrªnàr°SpG nøjqôpªnàr°ùnJ ¦qôpªnàr°ùnJ ¦qôpªnàr°ùnJ ¦qôpªnàr°SpG
ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoJrQnôrªnàr°SpG p¿Gqôpªnàr°ùnJ Gqôpªnàr°ùnJ Gqôpªnàr°ùnJ Gqôpªnàr°SpG
rQpôrªnàr°ùnj
n’og sônªnàr°SpG tôpªnàr°ùnj sôpªnàr°ùnj
or sôpªnàr°ùnj


rQpôrªnàr°ùnJ
n»pg r¤sônªnàr°SpG tôpªnàr°ùnJ sôpªnàr°ùnJ
or sôpªnàr°ùnJ

ɪog-m Gqônªnàr°SpG p¿Gqôpªnàr°ùnj Gqôpªnàr°ùnj Gqôpªnàr°ùnj
ɪog-f ÉJqônªnàr°SpG p¿Gqôpªnàr°ùnJ Gqôpªnàr°ùnJ Gqôpªnàr°ùnJ
rQpôrªnàr°ùnf
ø«f
orn ÉfrQnôrªnàr°SpG tôpªnàr°ùnf sôpªnàr°ùnf
or sôpªnàr°ùnf


ºoàrfnCG rºoJrQ nôrªnàr°SpG n¿ hq ôpªnàr°ùnJ Ghqôpªnàr°ùnJ Ghqôpªnàr°ùnJ Ghqôpªnàr°SpG
søoàrfnCG øJrQ nôrªnàr°SpG n¿ rQ pôrªnàr°ùnJ
so n¿r Qp ôrªnàr°ùnJ n¿rQpôrªnàr°ùnJ n¿rQpôrªnàr°SpG
ºog Ghqônªnàr°SpG n¿ hq ôpªnàr°ùnj Ghq ôpªnàr°ùnj Ghqôpªnàr°ùnj
søog n¿r Qn ôrªnàr°SpG n¿ rQ pôrªnàr°ùnj n¿r Qp ôrªnàr°ùnj n¿rQpôrªnàr°ùnj
592 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form X hamza-initial root: ôLÉà°ùnj
o p Cr n r ,nôLÉà°SpG
n Cr n r AP: ôpLÉà°ùoe PP: ônLÉà°ùoe VN: QÉ©r„à°SpG ˜to rent™
Cr n r Cr n r pr
Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect
Imperfect


Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative

ÉfCG o¤rônLrCÉnàr°SpG oôpLrCÉnàr°SnCG nôpLrCÉnàr°SnCG rôpLrCÉnàr°SnCG o¤rôpLrD’oàr°SoG oônLrCÉnàr°SoCG
nârfCG n¤rônLrCÉnàr°SpG oôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ nôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ rôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ rôpLrCÉnàr°SpG n¤rôpLrD’oàr°SoG oônLrCÉnàr°ùoJ

pârfCG p¤rônLrCÉnàr°SpG nøjôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ ¦ôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ ¦ôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ ¦ôpLrCÉnàr°SpG p¤rôpLrD’oàr°SoG p¿GônLrCÉnàr°ùoJ

ɪoàfGC -m/f ɪoJrônLrCÉnàr°SpG p¿GôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ
r GôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ GôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ GôpLrCÉnàr°SpG É“rôpLrD’oàr°SoG p¿GônLrCÉnàr°ùoJ
n’og nônLrCÉnàr°SpG oôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj nôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj rôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj nôpLrD’oàr°SoG oônLrCÉnàr°ùoj

n»pg r¤nônLrCÉnàr°SpG oôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ nôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ rôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ r¤nôpLrD’oàr°SoG oônLrCÉnàr°ùoJ

ɪog-m GônLrCÉnàr°SpG p¿GôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj GôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj GôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj GôpLrD’oàr°SoG p¿GônLrCÉnàr°ùoj
ɪog-f ÉJnônLrCÉnàr°SpG p¿GôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ GôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ GôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ ÉJnôpLrD’oàr°SoG p¿GônLrCÉnàr°ùoJ

ø«f
orn ÉfrônLrCÉnàr°SpG oôpLrCÉnàr°ùnf nôpLrCÉnàr°ùnf rôpLrCÉnàr°ùnf ÉfrôpLrD’oàr°SoG oônLrCÉnàr°ùof

ºoàrfnCG rºoJrônLrCÉnàr°SpG n¿ hôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ GhôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ GhôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ GhôpLrCÉnàr°SpG r”rôpLrD’oàr°SoG n¿hônLrCÉnàr°ùoJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrônLrCÉnàr°SpG n¿r ôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ n¿r ôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ n¿ rôpLrCÉnàr°ùnJ n¿r ôpLrCÉnàr°SpG søoJrôpLrD’oàr°SoG n¿rônLrCÉnàr°ùoJ

ºog GhônLrCÉnàr°SpG n¿ hôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj GhôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj GhôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj GhôpLrD’oàr°SoG n¿hônLrCÉnàr°ùoj

søog n¿rônLrCÉnàr°SpG n¿r ôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj n¿r ôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj n¿ rôpLrCÉnàr°ùnj n¿r ôpLrD’oàr°SoG n¿r ônLrCÉnàr°ùoj
Form X triliteral verb 593


Form X Assimilated root: oOpQr’nàr°ùnj , nOnQr’nàr°SpG AP: OpQ’à°ùoe PP: OnQ’à°ùoe VN: OG’àr°SpG ˜to import™
rnr rnr
Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect


Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative


ÉfCG o¤rOnQ r’nàr°SpG oOpQr ’nàr°SnCG nOpQr’nàr°SnCG rOpQr’nàr°SnCG o¤rOpô’àr°SoG oOnQr ’nàr°SoCG
nârfCG n¤rOnQ r’nàr°SpG oOpQr ’nàr°ùnJ nOpQr’nàr°ùnJ rOpQr’nàr°ùnJ rOpQr’nàr°SpG n¤rOpô’àr°SoG oOnQr ’nàr°ùoJ

pârfCG p¤rOnQr ’nàr°SpG nøjOpQ r’nàr°ùnJ ¦OpQr’nàr°ùnJ ¦OpQr’nàr°ùnJ ¦OQr’nàr°SpG p¤rOpô’àr°SoG øjOnQ r’nàr°ùoJ
n

ɪoàfGC -m/f ɪoJrOnQ r’nàr°SpG p¿GOpQ r’nàr°ùnJ
r GOpQr’nàr°ùnJ GOpQr’nàr°ùnJ GOQr’nàr°SpG ɪoJrOpô’àr°SoG p¿GOnQr ’nàr°ùoJ
n’og nOnQr ’nàr°SpG Op Qr ’nàr°ùnj
o nOpQr’nàr°ùnj rOpQr’nàr°ùnj nOpô’àr°SoG oOnQr ’nàr°ùoj

n»pg r¤nOnQ r’nàr°SpG Op Q r’nàr°ùnJ
o nOpQr’nàr°ùnJ rOpQr’nàr°ùnJ r¤nOpô’àr°SoG oOnQr ’nàr°ùoJ

ɪog-m GOnQr ’nàr°SpG p¿GOpQr ’nàr°ùnj GOpQr’nàr°ùnj GOpQr’nàr°ùnj GOpô’àr°SoG p¿GOnQ r’nàr°ùoj
ɪog-f ÉJnOnQr ’nàr°SpG p¿GOpQr ’nàr°ùnJ GOpQr’nàr°ùnJ GOpQr’nàr°ùnJ ÉJnOpô’àr°SoG p¿GOnQr ’nàr°ùoJ

ø«f
orn ÉfrOnQr ’nàr°SpG oOpQr ’nàr°ùnf nOpQr’nàr°ùnf rOpQr’nàr°ùnf ÉfrOpô’àr°SoG oOnQr ’nàr°ùof

ºoàrfnCG rºoJrOnQr ’nàr°SpG n¿ hOpQ r’nàr°ùnJ GhOpQr’nàr°ùnJ GhOpQr’nàr°ùnJ GhOQr’nàr°SpG rºoJrOpô’àr°SoG n¿ hOnQ r’nàr°ùoJ
søoàrfnCG søoJrOnQ r’nàr°SpG n¿ rOpQr ’nàr°ùnJ n¿rOpQr’nàr°ùnJ n¿rOpQr’nàr°ùnJ n¿rOpQr’nàr°SpG søoJrOpô’àr°SoG n¿rOnQ r’nàr°ùoJ

ºog GhOnQ r ’nàr°SpG n¿ hOpQ r’nàr°ùnj GhOpQr ’nàr°ùnj GhOpQr ’nàr°ùnj GhOpô’àr°SoG n¿ hOnQ r’nàr°ùoj

søog n¿rOnQr ’nàr°SpG n¿ rOpQr ’nàr°ùnj n¿rOpQ r’nàr°ùnj n¿rOpQ r’nàr°ùnj n¿rOpô’àr°SoG n¿r OnQ r’nàr°ùoj
594 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


Form X Hollow root: „«£nà°ùnj , ´É£nà°SpG AP: „«£nà°ùoe PP: ´É£nà°ùoe VN: ánYÉ£pà°SpG ˜to be able™
orn r r
Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive


Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect

Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative


ÉfCG oâr©n£nàr°SpG o„«£nàr°SnCG n„«£nàr°SnCG r„p£nàr°SnCG oâr©p£oàr°SoCG o´É£nàr°SoCG

nârfCG nâr©n£nàr°SpG „«£nà°ùnJ
or „«£nà°ùnJ
nr „£à°ùnJ
r p nr r„p£nàr°SpG nâr©p£oàr°SoCG o´É£nàr°ùoJ

pârfCG pâr©n£nàr°SpG nÚ©«£nàr°ùnJ »©«£nàr°ùnJ »©«£nàr°ùnJ »©«£nàr°SpG pâr©p£oàr°SoCG nÚYÉ£nàr°ùoJ

ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr©n£nàr°SpG p¿É©«£nàr°ùnJ É©«£nàr°ùnJ É©«£nàr°ùnJ É©«£nàr°SpG ɪoàr©p£oàr°SoCG p¿ÉYÉ£nàr°ùoJ
n’og n´É£nàr°SpGn „«£nà°ùnj
or „«£nà°ùnj
nr „£à°ùnj
r p nr n„«£oàr°SoCG o´É£nàr°ùoj

n»pg rânYÉ£nàr°SpG „«£nà°ùnJ
or „«£nà°ùnJ
nr „£à°ùnJ
r p nr rân©«£oàr°SoCG o´É£nàr°ùoJ

ɪog-m ÉnYÉ£nàr°SpG p¿É©«£nàr°ùnj É©«£nàr°ùnj É©«£nàr°ùnj É©«£oàr°SoCG p¿ÉYÉ£nàr°ùoj
ɪog-f ÉànYÉ£nàr°SpG p¿É©«£nàr°ùnJ É©«£nàr°ùnJ É©«£nàr°ùnJ Éàn©«£oàr°SoCG p¿ÉYÉ£nàr°ùoJ

ø«f
orn ɦr©n£nàr°SpG „«£nà°ùnf
or „«£nà°ùnf
nr „£à°ùnf
r p nr ɦr©p£oàr°SoCG o´É£nàr°ùof
ºoàrfnCG rºoàr©n£nàr°SpG n¿’©«£nàr°ùnJ G’©«£nàr°ùnJ G’©«£nàr°ùnJ G’©«£nàr°SpG rºoàr©p£oàr°SoCG n¿’YÉ£nàr°ùoJ

søoàrfnCG søoàr©n£nàr°SpG nør©p£nàr°ùnJ nør©p£nàr°ùnJ nør©p£nàr°ùnJ nør©p£nàr°SpG søoàr©p£oàr°SoCG nør©n£nàr°ùoJ

ºog G’nYÉ£nàr°SpG n¿’©«£nàr°ùnj G’©«£nàr°ùnj G’©«£nàr°ùnj G’©«£oàr°SoCG n¿’YÉ£nàr°ùoj
søog nør©n£nàr°SpG nør©p£nàr°ùnj nør©p£nàr°ùnj nør©p£nàr°ùnj nør©p£oàr°SoCG nør©n£nàr°ùoj
Form X triliteral verb 595


Form X Defective root: »¦rãnàr°ùnj , ≈¦rãnàr°SpG AP: mørãnàr°ùoe PP: k≈¦rãnàr°ùoe VN: Aɦrãpàr°SpG ˜to except™

Active Active Active Active Active Passive Passive

Perfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect


Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative


ÉfCG oâr«n¦rãnàr°SpG »¦rãnàr°SnCG n»¦rãnàr°SnCG pørãnàr°ùnCG o⫦rãoàr°SoG ≈¦rãnàr°SoCG
nâr«n¦rãnàr°SpG
nârfCG »¦rãnàr°ùnJ n»¦rãnàr°ùnJ pørãnàr°ùnJ pørãnàr°SpG n⫦rãoàr°SoG ≈¦rãnàr°ùoJ

pârfCG pâr«n¦rãnàr°SpG nÚ¦rãnàr°ùnJ »¦rãnàr°ùnJ »¦rãnàr°ùnJ »¦rãnàr°SpG p⫦rãoàr°SoG nør«n¦rãnàr°ùoJ

ɪoàrfCG-m/f ɪoàr«n¦rãnàr°SpG p¿É«¦rãnàr°ùnJ É«¦rãnàr°ùnJ É«¦rãnàr°ùnJ É«¦rãnàr°SpG ɪo૦rãoàr°SoG p¿É«n¦rãnàr°ùoJ
n’og ≈¦rãnàr°SpG »¦rãnàr°ùnj n»¦rãnàr°ùnj pørãnàr°ùnj n»¦rãoàr°SoG ≈¦rãnàr°ùoj

n»pg rân¦rãnàr°SpG »¦rãnàr°ùnJ n»¦rãnàr°ùnJ pørãnàr°ùnJ rân«p¦rãoàr°SoG ≈¦rãnàr°ùoJ

ɪog-m É«n¦rãnàr°SpG p¿É«¦rãnàr°ùnj É«¦rãnàr°ùnj É«¦rãnàr°ùnj É«p¦rãoàr°SoG p¿É«n¦rãnàr°ùoj
ɪog-f Éàn¦rãnàr°SpG p¿É«¦rãnàr°ùnJ É«¦rãnàr°ùnJ É«¦rãnàr°ùnJ Éàn«p¦rãoàr°SoG p¿É«n¦rãnàr°ùoJ

ø«f
orn ɦr«n¦rãnàr°SpG »¦rãnàr°ùnf n»¦rãnàr°ùnf pørãnàr°ùnf ɦ«¦rãoàr°SoG ≈¦rãnàr°ùof

ºoàrfnCG rºoàr«n¦rãnàr°SpG ¿’¦rãnàr°ùnJ G’¦rãnàr°ùnJ G’¦rãnàr°ùnJ G’o¦rãnàr°SpG rºo૦rãoàr°SoG n¿r’n¦rãnàr°ùoJ
søoàrfnCG søoàr«n¦rãnàr°SpG nÚ¦rãnàr°ùnJ nÚ¦rãnàr°ùnJ nÚ¦rãnàr°ùnJ nÚp¦rãnàr°SpG søo૦rãoàr°SoG nør«n¦rãnàr°ùoJs

ºog Gr’n¦rãnàr°SpG n¿’¦rãnàr°ùnj G’¦rãnàr°ùnj G’¦rãnàr°ùnj G’¦rãoàr°SoG n¿r’n¦rãnàr°ùoj

søog nør«n¦rãnàr°SpG nÚ¦rãnàr°ùnj nÚ¦rãnàr°ùnj nÚ¦rãnàr°ùnj nø«¦rãoàr°SoG nør«n¦rãnàr°ùoj
32
Forms XI“XV triliteral verb


These forms of the triliteral verb are chiefly archaic and/or poetic in use. For the
sake of completeness, they are described briefly here, but few examples occurred
in the corpus, and even in Classical Arabic, they are rare. Examples are taken from
Wright 1967, I:43“47 or Fleisch 1979, II: 330“40.1

1 Form XI: if¬aall-a s«É©apG /ya-f¬aall-u t«É©r˜nj
This form is related to Form IX and usually denotes a similar concept: the acqui-
sition or existence of a color or physical trait.2 It is prefixed with hamzat al-waSl
and is distinguished by the lengthening of the stem vowel from fatHa to √alif, and
the doubling of the final consonant, giving the pattern iC1C2aaC3C3-a/ya-
C1C2aaC3C3-u. It is intransitive.

to become temporarily red iHmaarr-a/ya-Hmaarr-u tQɪr«nj / sQɪrMpG
to become temporarily yellow iSfaarr-a/ya-Sfaarr-u tQɘr°ünj / sQɘr°UpG
to be dark brown ismaarr-a/ya-smaarr-u tQɪr°ùnj / sQɪr°SpG

1.1 Verbal noun: if¬iilaal «“«©rapG
turning temporarily red iHmiiraar QG’ªrMpG

2 Form XII: if¬aw¬al-a nπnYr’n©rapG / ya-f¬aw¬il-u oπpYr’n©r˜nj
Form XII has the pattern iC1C2awC2C3 -a/ya-C1C2awC2iC3 -u, with doubling of the
medial radical and insertion of a waaw between the two doubled radicals. It is


1
Fleisch (1979, II:330“35) provides examples and discussion of the etymology of these forms.
Haywood and Nahmad (1962, 152“53) have a comprehensive verb form chart that includes Forms
XI“XV. Although some grammars include the verbal nouns of these forms, most do not include
the participles, so I have omitted these, except where they are found in Wehr 1979.
2
See Haywood and Nahmad 1962, 185. Wright (1967, I:43“44) states: “According to some grammarians,
the distinction between the ninth and the eleventh forms is, that the ninth indicates permanent
colours or qualities, the eleventh those that are transitory or mutable . . . Others hold that Form XI
indicates a higher degree of the quality than IX.”


596
Forms XI“XV triliteral verb 597


prefixed with hamzat al-waSl. In meaning it, like Form IX, usually indicates color
or physical quality.

to be convex; be humpbacked iHdawdab-a/ya-Hdawdib-u oÜpOrhnór«nj / nÜnOrhnórMpG

2.1 Verbal noun: if¬ii¬aal
becoming humpbacked iHdiidaab ÜGójórMpG

2.2 Active participle: muf¬aw¬il
mounded; humpbacked muHdawdib ÜpOrhnór«oe

3 Form XIII: if¬awwal-a n«s’n©rapG / ya-f¬awwil-u o« u’n©r˜nj
Form XIII inserts a doubled waaw between the second and third root consonants,
yielding the pattern iC1C2awwaC3 -a/ya-C1C2awwiC3 -u. It, too, usually denotes color
or quality but may also denote an action.

to last long ixrawwaT-a/ya-xrawwiT-u •hô®j / n•shnôrNpG
o unr n
to mount a camel without i¬lawwaT-a/ ya-¬lawwiT-u o•u’n∏r©nj / n•s’n∏rYpG
a saddle

3.1 Verbal noun: if¬iwwaal «Gq’p©rapG
lasting long ixriwwaaT •GqhpôrNpG
4 Form XIV: if¬anlal-a nπn∏r¦n©rapG / ya-f¬anlil-u oπp∏r¦n©r˜nj
Form XIV has the pattern iC1C2anC3aC3 -a/ya-C1C2anC3iC3-u, with doubling of the
third radical and insertion of a nuun3 between the second and third radicals. It is
prefixed with hamzat al-waSl. In meaning it, like Form IX, usually indicates color
or physical quality.

to be dark isHankak-a n‚nµr¦n«r°SpG

4.1 Verbal noun: if¬inlaal «“r¦p©rapG
being dark isHinkaak ‘ɵr¦p«r°SpG

5 Form XV: if¬anlaa ¤r¦n©rapG /ya-f¬anlii ‹r¦n©ran«
Form XV resembles Form XIV in that there is an inserted nuun between the second
and third radicals of the root. However, there is an added suffix /-aa/ which turns

3
Note that this form with its inserted nuun correlates closely with Form III of quadriliteral verbs
(also very rare): e.g., ibranshaq-a ≥°»fôHG / ya-branshiq-u ≥°»¦ô‘j ˜to bloom.™ The difference is that in the
quadriliteral, the third and fourth root consonants are different. See Chapter 33, section 4.
598 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


the verb into a defective of the -aa/-ii type. It has the pattern iC1C2anC3aa/ya-
C1C2anC3ii.

to be stout and strong i¬landaa/ya-¬landii ¦ór¦n∏r©nj / iór¦n∏rYpG
to conquer, vanquish israndaa/ya-srandii ¦órfô°ùnj / iórfnôr°SpG
nr

5.1 Verbal noun: if¬inlaa√ A“r¦©rapG
conquering isrindaa√ AGórfpôr°SpG
33
Quadriliteral verbs


1 Basic characteristics of quadriliteral verb roots (√af¬aal rubaa¬iyya áq«YÉHQ «É©aCG)
Quadriliteral verb roots contain four consonants instead of three (e.g., zaxraf-a
n±nôrNnR / yu-zaxrif-u o±pôrNnµoj ˜to embellish, adorn™ or fahras-a ¢Snô¡a / yu-fahris-u o¢Spôr¡n˜oj
n rn
˜to compile an index, to index™). Sometimes the four consonants are all different
and sometimes they are reduplicated.

1.1 Reduplicated quadriliteral verbs
In reduplicated quadriliteral verbs the first two consonants repeat themselves
(somewhat like English words such as chitchat, zigzag, or mishmash). These verbs
usually refer to repeated motion or sound. When referring to a sound, they are
onomatopoeic; that is, they reflect or mimic the sound itself (e.g., rafraf-a n±nôranQ /
yu-rafrif-u o±pôranôoj ˜to flutter,™ waswas-a ¢Sn’°Snh / yu-waswis-u o¢Sp’°Sn’oj ˜to whisper™).
nr r
1.2 Complex roots
Complex roots combine elements from more than one root into a quadriliteral verb
(e.g., basmala) πª°ùnH / yu-basmil-u πª°ùn‘j ˜to say bi-sm-i llaah-i ¬q∏dG º°ùH ˜in the name of God.™
nnr opr o
1.3 Borrowed roots
Quadriliteral verb patterns are sometimes used to borrow verbal concepts from
another language (e.g., talfan-a nøn˜r∏nJ /yu-talfin-u oøp˜r∏nàoj ˜to telephone™).

1.4 Forms
Quadriliteral roots occur in four different forms or stem classes, labeled with
roman numerals I-IV, along the same lines as the labeling system for the ten forms
of the triliteral verb. Forms I and II of the quadriliterals are by far the most com-
mon in MSA.

2 Form I: fa¬lal-a nπn∏r©na /yu-fa¬lil-u oπp∏r©n˜oj

2.1 Pattern
The consonant-vowel distribution pattern for Form I of the quadriliteral verb mir-
rors Form II of the triliteral: C1aC2C3aC4-/yu-C1aC2C3iC4-. This is possible because

599
600 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


the triliteral Form II is increased by one consonant by virtue of the doubling of its
second radical. The difference between them is that in a quadriliteral verb Form I,
the two middle consonants are different, whereas in a Form II triliteral, they are
the same.

2.2 Transitivity
Form I quadriliterals may be transitive or intransitive.

2.3 Regular quadriliterals
In regular or sound quadriliteral roots, all the consonants are different. Most
quadriliterals of this type contain a “liquid” consonant: /r/, /l/, /n/.1

to obstruct oπpbrôn©oj / nπnbrônY
¬arqal-a/yu-¬arqil-u
to translate tarjam-a/yu-tarjim-u oºpLrônàoj / nºnLrônJ
to dominate sayTar-a/yu-sayTir-u ô£«°ùoj / nôn£r«n°S
op rn
to prove barhan-a/yu-barhin-u oøpgrôn‘oj / nøngrônH
2.4 Reduplicated quadriliterals
In these roots the first two consonants are repeated, either in imitation of a sound
or to refer to a movement, especially a repeated movement.2
to gargle gharghar-a/yu-gharghir-u oôpZrôn¨oj / nônZrônZ
to flutter rafraf-a/yu-rafrif-u o±pôranôoj / n±nôranQ
to move, to budge zaHzaH-a/yu-zaHziH-u o¬pµrMnµoj / n¬nµrMnR
to ruin, demolish Da¬Da¬-a/yu-Da¬Di¬-u o„p°†r©n°†oj / n„n°†r©n°V
to shake zalzal-a/yu-zalzil-u o«pµrdnµoj / n«nµrdnR
to chatter tharthar-a/yu-tharthir-u oôpKrônãoj / nônKrônK

2.5 Complex roots

2.5.1 Acronymic roots
This involves taking the initial letters of a string of words in a traditional, formu-
laic saying, or an often-repeated phrase, and turning them into a lexical root. It is
1
Certain quadriliteral verbs appear to be expanded triliterals, with liquid or continuant phonemes
/r/, /n/, /m/, /l/, or /w/ added to the root. They are called mulHaqaat bi-l-rubaa¬iyy ,»YÉHôdÉH ¤É¤«∏e,
o
for example: zaHlaf-a n∞n∏rMnR /yu-zaHlif-u ∞p∏rMnµoj ˜to roll along™ from z-H-f ± - ¬-R ˜advance slowly.™
See Roochnik, n.d:, Sterling 1904, 26“27; Wright 1967, I:47“48.
2
For a semantic analysis of reduplicated quadriliteral verbs see Procházka 1993.
Quadriliteral verbs 601


somewhat like creating an acronym, but in Arabic this particular usage creates
verbs that denote saying a set phrase.

basmal-a/yu-basiml-u oπpªr°ùn‘oj / nπnªr°ùnH
to say: bi-ism-i llaah-i ¬q∏dG º°ùH (˜in the name of God™)
Hawqal-a/yu-Hawqil-u oπpbr’n«oj / nπnbr’nM
to say: p¬qddÉH q™EG nIq’ob ™nh n« r’nM ™
laa Hawl-a wa laa quwwat-a √illaa bi-llaah-i
(˜There is no power and no strength save in God™)

fadhlak-a/yu-fadhlik-u o‚pdròn˜oj / n‚ndròna
to say Gòncnh Gònc n‚pdòna
fa-dhaalika kadhaa wa-kadhaa . . .
(˜And that is thus and so . . .™)

2.5.2 Compound roots
These verbs combine consonants from two roots. They are mostly of older usage.

to worship the sun oºp°»r‘n©oj / nºn°»r‘nY
¬absham-a/yu-¬abshim-u

(from roots: O - Ü - ´ ¬-b-d ˜to serve, to worship™ and ¢S - „¦ -¢T sh-m-s ˜sun™)

to be petrified jalmad-a/yu-jalmid-u oópªr∏n©oj / nónªr∏nL
(from roots: O - « ` ê j-l-d ˜freeze™ and O - „¦ - ê j-m-d ˜harden™)

2.6 Borrowed quadriliterals
Verbal concepts from foreign languages can sometimes be transferred into Arabic
through use of the quadriliteral verb pattern.
to telephone talfan-a/yu-talfin-u oøp˜r∏nàoj / nøn˜r∏nJ
to televise talfaz-a/yu-talfiz-u oôp˜r∏nàoj / nµn˜r∏nJ
to philosophize falsaf-a/yu-falsif-u o∞p°ùr∏n˜oj / n∞n°ùr∏na

3 Form II quadriliterals: tafa¬lal-a nπn∏r©n˜nJ / ya-tafa¬lal-u oπn∏r©n˜nànj

3.1 Pattern
The consonant-vowel distribution pattern for Form II quadriliterals mirrors Form
V of the triliteral verb: taCaCCaC-a /ya-taCaCCaC-u.
602 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


3.2 Meaning
In meaning, this form is often the reflexive, resultative, or passive of the Form I
quadriliteral.

become electrified takahrab-a/ya-takahrab-u oÜnôr¡nµnànj / nÜnôr¡nµnJ
to decline, go down tadahwar-a/ya-tadahwar-u oQn’rgnónànj / nQn’rgnónJ
to be crystallized tabalwar-a/ya-tabalwar-u Qn’r∏n‘nànj / nQn’r∏n‘nJ
o
to adorn one™s self, dress up tabahraj-a/ya-tabahraj-u oênôr¡n‘nànj / nênôr¡n‘nJ
to acclimatize (o.s.) ta√aqlam-a/ya-ta√aqlam-u ºn∏rbnCÉnànj / nºn∏rbnCÉnJ
o
to become dilapidated taDa¬Da¬-a/ya-taDa¬Da¬-u „°†r©°†nàj / „°†r©°†nJ
on n n nn n
3.3 Denominals
Form II quadriliterals may be denominalizations, as in the following verb:
to concentrate, be centered, tamarkaz-a/ya-tamarkaz-u oµncrônªnànj / nµncrônªnJ
concentrated

(from the noun of place, markaz µncrône ˜center™ from the root R - ‘ -Q r-k-z )
3.4 Verbs of comportment
Form II quadriliterals may also have a meaning of acting or behaving in a certain
way, e.g.,

to play the philosopher, tafalsaf-a/ya-tafalsaf-u o∞n°ùr∏n˜nànj / n∞n°ùr∏n˜nJ
act like a philosopher
to act American ta√amrak-a/ya-ta√amrak-u o‘nôrenCÉnànj / n‘nôrenCÉnJ
4 Form III: if¬anlal-a nπn∏r¦n©rapG / ya-f¬anlil-u 3 oπp∏r¦n©r˜nj
This form of the quadriliteral verb is rare in MSA. It has an infixed /-n-/ inserted
between the second and third radicals of the root and corresponds in meaning to
form VII of the triliteral roots. It is normally intransitive. No occurrences of this
form of the verb occurred in the data covered for this book. Examples include:

to bloom, to flourish ibranshaq-a/ya-branshiq-u o≥p°»rfnôr‘nj / n≥n°»rfnôrHpG
(Wright 1967, I:49)
to be proud, raise the nose ixranTam-a/ya-xranTim-u oºp£rfnôr®nj / nºn£rfnôrNpG
(Haywood and Nahmad
1962, 263)
3
Whereas Wright (1967) as well as Haywood and Nahmad (1962) give this Form as III, other authors,
including the MECAS grammar (1965, 225) and Sterling (1904, 26) give it as Form IV of the
quadriliteral, and Form IV as Form III.
Quadriliteral verbs 603


5 Form IV: if¬alall-a sπn∏n©rapG / ya-f¬alill-u tπp∏n©r˜nj
Form IV of the quadriliteral corresponds in meaning to Form IX of the triliteral
verb. The final radical is doubled, giving the pattern iCCaCaCC-a, ya-CCaCiCC-u. It
denotes an intensity of quality or degree and is intransitive.

to be calm, serene, reassured iTma√ann-a/ya-Tma√inn-u tøp„nªr£nj / s¿nCÉnªrWpG
to vanish away, disappear iDmaHall-a/ya-DmaHill-u tπp«nªr°†nj / sπn«nªr°VpG
to shudder iqsha¬arr-a/ya-qsha¬irr-u tôp©n°»r¤nj / sôn©n°»rbpG
to stretch ishra√abb-a/ya-shra√ibb-u t–pFnôr°»nj / sÜnCGnôr°TpG
to shrink, shudder, recoil ishma√azz-a/ya-shma√izz-u tµp„nªr°»nj / sRnCÉnªr°TpG
to become dark, gloomy ikfaharr-a/ya-kfahirr-u tôp¡n˜rµnj / sôn¡n˜rcpG

6 Examples of quadriliteral verbs in context

Form I:

.É¡«¦«Y ˜ ≥∏«H ¢Snôr¡n˜oJ „ »àqdG –àµdG
baHlaq-a fii ¬ayn-ay-haa. al-kutub-u llatii lam tu-fahras
He stared into her eyes. the books which have not been indexed

.¬à¨d ¤EG ºLÎj .kÉ£N ¬f’ªLÎjh
q
yu-tarjim-u √ilaa lughat-i-hi. wa-yu-tarjim-uuna-hu xaTT-an.
He translates into his language. And they translate it literally.

Form II:

.Iô®°üdG âMµMµJ
tazaHzaH-at-i l-Saxrat-u.
The rock moved.
.êôMóàj ¿CG øµÁ kÉ„«°»a kÉ„«°T
shay√-an fa-shay√-an yu-mkin-u √an ya-tadaHraj-a.
It can deteriorate (˜it is possible that it deteriorate™) bit by bit.

Form IV:

Ú¦WG’ŸG „«ªL ¬«a qø„ª£j „°Vh ≥jô£dG q–Fô°»J å«M
waD¬-un ya-Tma√inn-u fii-hi jamii¬-u Hayth-u ta-shra√ibb-u l-Tariiq-u
l-muwaaTin-iina where the road stretches
a situation in which all citizens can
be reassured
604 A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic


7 Quadriliteral verbal nouns

7.1 Form I quadriliteral verbal nouns

7.1.1 fa¬lala án∏n∏r©na ¬¬lila án∏p∏r©pa
translation tarjama obstacle;
ánªnLrônJ án∏nbrônY
¬arqala
obstruction

chattering tharthara link, chain silsila
InônKrônK án∏p°ùr∏p°S
7.1.2 fu¬laal «“r©oa fa¬laal «“r©na ¬¬laal «“r©pa
proof, burhaan earthquake zilzaal
¿ÉgrôoH «GµrdpR
evidence

7.2 Form II quadriliteral verbal nouns: tafa¬lul πo∏r©n˜nJ
deterioration tadahwur sequence; tasalsul
Q o’rgnónJ πo°ùr∏n°ùnJ
continuity

7.3 Form III quadriliteral verbal nouns: if¬inlaal «“r¦p©rapG
flourishing ibrinshaaq ¥É°»rfpôrHpG
7.4 Form IV quadriliteral verbal nouns: if¬illaal «q“p©rapG
serenity iTmi√naan vanishing iDmiHlaal
¿É¦r„pªrWpG «“r«pªr°VpG
7.5 Quadriliteral verbal nouns in context
QɦjódG Q’góJ ∞b’d «É‘L á∏°ù∏°S
li-waqf-i tadahwur-i l-diinaar silsilat-u jibaal-in
to stop the decline of the dinar a chain of mountains

8 Form I quadriliteral participles
Quadriliteral verb participles are formed on the same basis as participles of
triliteral verb roots. There are active and passive participles, all prefixed with /mu-/
and differentiated by a stem vowel /-i-/ for the active participle and stem vowel /-a-/
for the passive participle. They occur both as nouns and as adjectives.

8.1 Quadriliteral active participle (QAP)

8.1.1 Form I QAP: mufa¬lil πp∏r©n˜oe

engineer muhandis explosive mufarqi¬
¢Spór¦n¡oe „pbrôn˜oe
Quadriliteral verbs 605


8.1.2 Form II QAP: mutafa¬lil πp∏r©n˜nàoe

deteriorating mutadahwir crystalline mutabalwir Qp’r∏n‘nàoe
Qp’rgnónàoe
8.1.3 Form III QAP: rare

<<

. 19
( 23)



>>