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tive clauses/pronouns) definitions 8
indefinite marker (nunation) 42“43 pronunciation styles 34
indicative mood 606“608 mood 53, 444“45 (see also verbs: moods)
inflection (overview) 51“55 mundh-u 385“86, 447“48
inflectional classes 55“56 muTaabaqa (see agreement)
√inna and her sisters 177“78, 422“28 muTaawi¬ 530, 555, 565, 657, 669
√anna ˜that™ 425“26
buffer pronoun (Damiir al-sha√n) 424 nafs 226, 236“37, 312
√inna ˜indeed,™ ˜truly,™ ˜verily™ 425 naHt 50, 99“100
la¬alla ˜perhaps,™ ˜maybe™ 428 names 97“99
laakinna ˜but™ 427 apposition 224
li-√anna ˜because™ 427“28 days of the week 159
overt noun subject 423 demonstratives with proper names 318
reduplicated pronoun subject 423“24 female proper 122, 138, 196
separated subject 423 masculine proper 120“21, 164, 197
intransitive verbs 64 months 139
iyyaa- 308 non“Arabic proper 196, 204
place names (with definite article) 158
jamii¬ 229“30 professions 143
jussive mood 53, 444“45, 616“22 nawaasix (converters to accusative) 176“79,
422“28 (see also √inna and her sisters)
kaan-a and her sisters 176“77, 446“49 (compound negation 641“56
verbs), 634“40 ¬adam 217“18, 650
kam ˜how much/how many™ 180, 296, 402“403 exceptive expressions 181, 650“56
kasra 30“31 ghayr 648“50
as genitive case marker 183“84 laa 644“647, of absolute negation 179“80,
as helping vowel 32 645“46 (see also accusative case)
kilaa 230, 334 lam 622, 647
kull 228“29 lan 648
lays-a 641“44
laa of absolute negation 179“80, 645“46 maa 647
laakinna (see √inna and hers sisters) 427 neither . . . nor 646
la¬alla (see √inna and hers sisters) 428 nominal sentence 58“59
lays-a 637, 641“644 equational sentence 58“63
law-laa 655“56 nominative case 169“171
letters (of the alphabet) 10“12 nouns
moon letters 40“41, 157 abstract with /“iyya/90“92, 121, 126
names and shapes 11“12 biliteral 92
sun letters 40“41, 157 borrowed 95“96 (see also borrowed words)
transliteration 42 cases 165“204
li-√anna (see √inna and hers sisters) 427“28 collective 94, 121
loanwords 51, 95“96, 123, 204 (see also borrowed common noun (ism) 121
words) complex 90“101
compound, complex 99“101, 218“19, 268,
maa 227, 325“28 (relative pronoun), 374“75, 274“75, 647
403“404, 647 (negative) diminutive 90
man 325“26 (relative pronoun) “five nouns,” the 92“93, 186“87, 305 (with -ii)
maSdar (see also verbal noun) 75“83; for maSdars generic (ism al-jins) 85, 89“90
of specific verb forms (I“X, XI“XV, geographical names 96
quadriliterals) see verbs: Forms not derived from verb roots 92
maziid min 234 of instance 89“90, 121
mediopassive 530, 669 of instrument 87“88, 151, 154
mimmaa 328, 380 of intensity, repetition, profession 88, 143
Modern Standard Arabic 7 of place 86“87
Index 705


participles as nouns 103“105 “second” through “tenth” in pattern of
active and passive 83“86 active participle 356
personal names 97“99 passive 85“86, 113“18
plurals 128, 132“56 passive voice 657“70
primitive 92 derivational 668“70
proper 96“99 internal/inflectional passive 658“68
quadriliteral 93“94, 154“55, participles from mention of agent 659, 668
111“12, 604“605 with potential meaning 668
quinquiliteral 94, 152 verb-preposition idioms 666“67
unit nouns 94“95 pattern
verbal noun 75“83 (see also maSdar and verbs: definition 48“49
verbal noun) root“pattern system 45“57
number (inflectional category) 53, 129“56 verb derivation (√awzaan al-fi¬l) 433“37
numbers and numerals 329“65 ten-form template 434
cardinal 329“53 perfect/ perfective aspect 439“40 (see also verbs)
1 330“31 person 52
2 (see also dual) 332“34; kilaa and kiltaa ˜both™ in pronouns, personal 298
230, 334 in verbs 438“39
3“10 334“39 pluperfect 448, 637
11“12 339“41 plurals 132“56
13“19 180, 341“43 broken plural 144“55, 193“95
20“99 343“46 plural declensions 189“92
hundred(s) 346“49 plural of paucity 148
thousands 350“51 sound feminine plural 132“40
millions and billions 353 adjectives 243“44
fractions 360“61 declension 191“92
number adjectives 363“64 and two-way inflection 187“88
ordinals 354“60 sound masculine plural 128, 140“44
first 354“55 adjectives 242
2nd“10th 356“58 declension 189“91
11th“19th 358“59 pronoun suffixes 303“304, -ii ˜my™ 304
20th“99th 359“60 and two-way inflection 187“88, 191“92
100th 360 possession 61
˜last™/final 364“65 through √iDaafa 206
percent 347 ¬ind-a 399“400
telling time 361“62 laam al-milk 371“72 (li-)
years/dates 351“53 ladaa 392“93
nunation 42“43 (see also indefiniteness), 161“65 ma¬-a 394
and √iDaafa 211“12 pronoun suffixes 301
nuun-deletion 130“31, 141, 189, 191, 310, 333 predicate 59
adjective √iDaafa as 223, 254
object complex 446“54
of a locative adverb 172 of equational sentence 59“63
of a preposition 171 of kaan-a 635“36
of a verb 172“73 of lays-a 637, 643“44
“operative” particles 409 predicate adjective 240
optative expressions 636, 676 prepositions 287, 290, 297, 366“400
objects of 171, 301, 305, 308
participles 83“86, 102“18 true prepositions (Huruuf al-jarr) 366“86
active 84“85, 103“13 one-letter prepositions (bi-, li-, and ka-)
as first term of i√Daafa 209 367“75
circumstantial accusative in 112“13, 174“75 two-letter prepositions (fii, min, ¬an)
(see also accusative, circumstatial Haal) 375“81
from verb Forms 1“X, XI“XV, and quadriliter- three-letter prepositions (¬alaa, √ilaa, Hattaa,
als, see verbs: Forms: participles mundh“u) 381“87
706 Index


prepositions (Continued) participles active 111“12, 604“605; passive 117,
Zuruuf makaan wa-Zuruuf zamaan (derived 142“43, 605
prepositions - locative adverbs - semi- roots 599“601
prepositions) 366, 386“400: √amaam-a verbs 429, 432, 599“605
386“87; bayn-a 387“88; ba¬d-a 388“89; denominals 433, 602
daaxil-a 390; Didd-a 390; Dimn-a 390; imperative 631“32
duun-a 390“91; fawq-a 391; fawr-a 391; verbal nouns 135“36, 604
Hasab-a 391; Hawl-a 391“92: Hawaalii 392; quantifiers 228“38
√ibaan-a 392; √ithr-a 392; √izaa√-a 392; agreement features 235“36
ladaa 392“93; ma¬-a 393“94; mithl-a all, every, each (kull) 228“30
394“95; naHw-a 395; q-b-l roots 395“96. ba¬D ˜some™ 231
qabl-a 395; qubayl-a 396; qubaalat-a 396; biD¬ 232
muqaabil-a 396; min qibal-i 396; both (kilaa and kiltaa) 334
q-r-b roots 396; quraabat-a 396; qurb-a 396; ¬idda 226, 232
siwaa 397; taHt-a 397; Tiwaal-a 397; tujaah-a mu¬Zam, akthar 234“35
397; waraa√-a 397; wasT-a 398; xalf-a 398; shattaa, muxtalif, ¬adad min, kathiir min 233
xaarij-a 398; xilaal-a 398; ¬abr-a 398; question words 401“406
¬aqib-a 398; ¬ind-a 399“400 √ayn-a (where) 401“402
present tense 285, 439“42 √ayy-un (which, what) 402
negation of 644 hal, √a- (interrogative markers) 405“406
passive 663, 665“66 kam (how many, how much) 402“403
pronouns kayf-a (how) 403
buffer 424 li-maadhaa (why, what for) 403
demonstrative 281“82, 315“21, 333 (see also maa, maadhaa (what) 403“404
demonstrative) mataa (when) 405
dhaak-a 319 quinquiliteral
dhaat-a 320 adjectives 266
of distance (“that”/“those”) 316 nouns 94, 152
functions 316“19
haa ˜this™ 320 raghm 654“655
in √iDaafa 212, 214“15, 317“18 reflexive expressions 312 (nafs pronoun)
with possessed nouns 318 relative adjectives (nisbas) 261“69
with proper names 318 functioning as nouns 143“44
of proximity (“this”/“these”) 315 relative clause 322“28
locative 288, 320“21 definite 323
personal pronouns 298“314 indefinite 324
object pronouns (suffixed) 305“12 resumptive pronoun in 324“25
possessive (suffixed) 301“305: vowel relative pronouns 322“28
shift 302; with noun and adjective definite 322
303 indefinite 325 (maa and man)
subject (independent) 298“301: dhuu noun maa (in apposition) 227
312“14 resultative 657
relative 322“28 root, lexical 429, 434
pro-drop 438 definition 47“48
pronunciation (see also consonants and root-pattern system 45“47
vowels) root types 430“433
case endings 166“67
full form 34 semi-consonant 29“30
pause form 34“35 semi-prepositions (Zuruuf makaan wa-Zuruuf
styles 34“35 zamaan) or locative adverbs 289, 366“67,
386“400 (see also prepositions: Zuruuf )
qad 448“51 Semitic languages 1
quadriliteral 364 semivowel/semi-consonant 29, 429
adjectives 258 waaw 30
nouns 152, 154“55 yaa√ 30
Index 707


sentence derivation 433“34
basic structures 57“73 Forms 434, 437
complex, components 72“73 I 455“90, participles 470“74, roots 456“65,
conditional sentence (see conditional) verbal nouns in 465“70
equational (see also nominal sentence) 58“63 II basic characteristics 491“92, root types
verbal (see also verbal sentence) 58, 63“65 492“94, verbal nouns 494“96, participles
shadda 24“25 496“98, conjugation tables 498“502
“sisters” (see √inna and her sisters 422“28) III basic characteristics 503, root types
of √inna 177“78, 422“28 503“506, verbal nouns 506“508, partici-
of kaan-a 176“77, 634“40 ples 508“509, conjugation tables 510“14
siwaa 653“54 IV basic characteristics 515“16, root types
solid stems 50“51 516“18, exclamatory 518“19, verbal nouns
specifiers 228“38 519“21, participles 521“23, conjugation
√ayy ˜any™ 237“38 tables 524“29
nafs ˜same; self™ 236“37, 312 V basic characteristics 530“31, root types
stress (word stress) 36“39, 307 531“33, verbal nouns 533“34, participles
subject 534“39, conjugation tables 536“42
of equational sentence 59“63 VI basic characteristics 543, root types
overt noun subject 422 (√inna and her sisters) 543“45, verbal nouns 546“47, participles
separated subject 423 (√inna and her sisters) 547“49, conjugation tables 550“54
of verbal sentence 63“64 VII basic characteristics 555“58, participles
subjunctive mood 444“45 (see verbs), 606, 608“15 558“60, conjugation tables 561“64
and auxiliary verb 636 VIII basic characteristics 565“70, verbal
and negation 644“45, 648 noun 570“71, participles 571“73, conjuga-
subordinating conjunctions (see √inna and her sis- tion tables 574“78
ters 422“28) IX basic characteristics 584“86; verbal noun
buffer pronoun (Damiir al-sha√n) 424“25 586“87; participles 587“89; conjugation
√inna and her sisters (see √inna) 425“28 tables 590“95
reduplicated pronoun subject 423“24 X basic characteristics 579“80; verbal noun
with √an 611“15 580“81; participles 581; conjugation tables
sukuun 31“32, 277 582“83
superlative adjectives 244“45, 250“53 XI“XV 596“98
syllables 35“36 gender marking 438
inceptive verbs 453
taa√ marbuuTa 21“24 inflection 438“46
pronunciation in √iDaafa 24, 212 inflectional categories 51“52, 438“46
tashdiid 24“25 intransitive verbs 64
tense (see also verbs) 51“52, 439“44 model root: faa√ - ¬ayn - laam 435“36
thammat-a 289 moods 53, 444“45
transitive verbs 64“64 imperative 445, 622“33
doubly transitive 69“72 indicative (see indicative mood) 445, 606“608
triliteral jussive (see jussive mood) 445, 616“22
root 429“32 subjunctive (see subjunctive mood) 445, 608“15
triptote 183“87 number marking 439
person marking 439
verbal noun (maSdar) 75“83, sound feminine quadriliteral 432, 599“605
plural 135, in cognative accusative 174, root types 430“33
285“86 (see also under verbs: Forms) strong(sound) 430
verbal sentence 58, 63“70 weak430; assimilated 431
verbs 429“640 defective 432; doubly weak 432;
agreement markers 438“39 geminate 430; hamzated 431; hollow 431
of appropinquation 452 of ˜seeming™ 640
citation form 435, 437 stem vowel 437, 455“57 (Form I)
compound verbs 446“49 tenses/aspects 52“53, 439“40
of continuation 453“54 future tense 442, 608: future perfect 449
708 Index


verbs (continued) vocative 170“71
past perfect/pluperfect 448“49, 637: voice 52“53, 445“46
past progressive 446“47, 637 vowels 25“34
past tense 285, 442“44: in conditional helping 32“33
clauses 673 long 25“30
present tense 441“42 phonemic chart 25
transitive verbs 64“64 short 30“34
doubly transitive verbs 69“72
verb strings 285, 451“54 waaw al-ma¬iyya 308
voice 52“53, 445“46, 658“59 waHd-a pronoun 286“87
passive 445“46, 657“70 word order 66“69
vernacular Arabic 5“6 writing system 10“34

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