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Index



a, as a lexical information operator, 467 with multiple subjects, 353--59
ablaut, 85--91 with quanti¬er phrases, 357--59
morphophonemic {o} (ó ∼ © ∼ ι), 86--87 akan e, 45
null vs. full-grade vocalism (¬‚eeting vowels), alphabet. See Cyrillic alphabet
88--91 alternation. See vowel grades; consonant grades;
qualitative, in secondary imperfectives, 86 morpholexical alternations
qualitative, of — e and — o, 85--86 alveo-palatal consonants, 54--55
reductive, 86 soft fricatives, 65--67
accent. See stress anaspectual verbs, 408
accentual paradigms. See stress patterns animacy, 165--71
accusative case animate accusative, morphological status
animate accusative, 165--71 of, 170--71
prepositions governing, 181--82 expressed with numerals, 187--88, 191--93,
temporal use of, 429--30, 438, 443 196
vs. genitive as object, 316--27 expressed with quanti¬ers, 197
vs. genitive as object of negation, 321--26 in adjectives, 166--67
acoustics, of vowels, 30--32 in nouns, 131, 165--66
acronyms, declension and gender of, 150--51 in pronouns, 167
address, 227--33 variation in, 167--70
ty vs. vy forms of, 227--29 apodosis, 376. See also conditional
use of names, 229--33 construction
adjectival clauses. See relative clauses relation to protasis, 378--80
adjectives, 92 apposition, declension and, 151--53
agreement with head nouns, 207--8 argument clauses
comparatives, 127--30, 214--15 tense-aspect in, 388--92
expression of animacy, 166--67 word order in, 457
in¬‚ectional morphology, 92 arguments, 159--269. See also nouns; pronouns
mixed declension, 127 adverbial, 274--75
possessive, 205--7 agentive. See modal argument
predicative, 281--82. See also predicative argument phrases, 159, 270--71
adjectives aspectual. See aspectual argument
short form. See short form adjectives; essential reference of, 159--60
predicative adjectives individuating reference of, 160
soft vs. hard stems, 124 of event nouns, 217--20
superlatives, 130 quanti¬er. See quanti¬ers
universal, 266--69 reference of, 159--61
adverbial clauses, 361 representative. See representative
tense in, 387--88 argument
affricates, 52, 53, 64--65 articulation
agentive argument. See modal argument manner of, in consonants, 53
agreement, 130 paired (mutable), 57
with collective nouns, 352 place of, in consonants, 53
with formal vy, 353 place of, in vowels, 30


493
494 Index


aspect, 371, 398--429. See also imperfective case, 92. See also nominative; accusative;
aspect; perfective aspect genitive; dative; locative; instrumental
anaspectual verbs, 408 secondary case forms, 327--33, 342--44
and contextual occasion, 399--400 with predicatives. See predicatives
aspect pairs, 399, 406--11 with prepositions, 179--82
in description, 400, 416 case government, 271
in discourse, 400--1, 415--16, 420--21 chei
in durative contexts, 420--21 as a relative pronoun, 211
in essentialist contexts, 417--19 declension of, 120
in exemplary potential contexts, 424--25 cherez, temporal use of, 440
in future contexts, 423--24 chto
in imperatives, 374--75 as a relative pronoun, 210
in in¬nitive contexts, 426--28 as an inde¬nite pronoun, 257--58
in iterative contexts, 421--23 declension of, 117
in narrative, 400, 415--16, 420--21 tense, aspect with in subordinate clauses,
in negated past contexts, 418--19 388--92
in progressive contexts, 419--20 use in subordinate clauses, 360--61
in retrospective (“perfect”) contexts, 416--17 chtoby
in subordinate clauses, 385--92 irrealis mood, 373, 380--81
in verbs of motion, 412--15 use with negated predicates, 460--61
lexical, 411--12 vs. in¬nitive, 366--67, 369
modality and, 400 with in¬nitives in ¬nal constructions, 369--70
morphology, 93--94, 115--16, 401--9 comparatives, 127--30, 214--15
morphology -- verbs of motion, 413--14 standard of comparison, 215
of borrowings, 408--9 synthetic vs. analytic, 214
reversal of results, 415, 418 conative verbs, 412
tense and, 401 conditional construction, 373, 376--80
tests to determine, 401 defective, 379--80
with phasal verbs, 401, 426 epistemological conditions, 376--77
with temporal expressions, 429--43 hybrid, 378--79
with verbs of motion, 401 hypothetical conditions, 377
aspectual argument, 272--73 iterative conditions, 377
direct object as, 278 potential conditions, 378
aspectuality, of predicate, 271--74 conjugation of verbs, 93--116
assimilation conjugation classes, 98--115
of palatalization, 61--63, 75--76, 79 conjugation suf¬xes, 93
of voicing, 70, 76 e-conjugation, 99--100, 103--12
augmentatives, and gender, 146--47 i-conjugation, 99, 101--3
authority, and modality, 372--73 irregular conjugation, 113--15
conjunctions, as lexical information operators,
basis and focus, 449--50 465--67
BE-verb constructions, 282--83. See also copular consonant alternation. See consonant grades
contructions consonant grades, 82--84
bi-aspectual verbs. See anaspectual verbs in e-stem verbs, 105--6, 110--11
Bryzgunova™s system of intonation contours. in i-stem verbs, 101
See intonation contours consonant letters. See Cyrillic alphabet
by consonants, 28, 52--74
in irrealis mood, 95, 373, 381--82 classi¬cation of, 52--56
origin of, 397 effect on vowel duration, 41--42
bylo, modal use, 397--98 effect on vowels, 32--39
byt geminate, 67--68, 76, 78--79
existential vs. individuating with subject hard and soft, 28--29
genitive of negation, 302--5 manner of articulation, 53
in copular and predicative constructions, paired (mutable), 18, 57
282--83 palatalization assimilation in, 61--63, 75--76,
byvalo, 398 79
Index 495


palatalization of, 17--18, 28--29. See also declension ia (masculine, º ending), 132--39
palatalization declension ib (neuter), 139--41
place of articulation, 53 declension ii (feminine in -a), 141--43
spelling of, 12, 18--23 declension iii (feminine in -C , neuter in -mia),
voiced vs. voiceless, 52, 68--74 143--45
Constantine (St. Cyril) and Methodius, dental consonants, 53
14--15 palatalization contexts, 58--59
constructions, in linguistic inquiry, 8--9 determinate verbs of motion, 412
contextual occasion. See contextual time-world in iterative contexts, 413
contextual time-world, 274, 371, 384 devoicing, word-¬nal, 70--71
aspect and, 399--400 dictionaries of Russian, 3--6
co-predicate, 283--86 diminutives, 131, 140
aspectual, relation to host predicate, and gender, 145--47
285--86 directionality, in language, 10
modal, relation to host predicate, 284 discourse, modes of, 400--1
copular constructions do, temporal use of, 437, 443
aspectual-modal, 286 dolgo, 441--42
residual est , sut in, 292--93 dolzhen
with BE (byt ), 286--89 as host for in¬nitive construction, 366
corpora, in Russian-language research, personal modal, 383
6--8 domain of a predicate, 272--73
Cyrillic alphabet, 10--27 duration of vowels, consonants, and
¤e(¨)≥, 20--21
e phonological variation, 77--81
etymology of letters, 16--17
history of, 11--16 ekan e, 44
modern letters of, 12 ellipsis, 223--27
operational graphemes ¤m≥, ¤(≥, 22--23 in speech, 224--25
spelling and pronunciation rules, 17--23 in text, 225--27
transliteration of, 11--13, 24--27 of object arguments, 226--27
of subject arguments, 223--26
da embedded clauses. See subordinate clauses
and polarity questions, 463--65 esli, in conditional constructions, 376--77
as conjunction and lexical information essential reference, 159--60
operator, 466 re¬‚exive pronouns and, 241--42
dative case est
prepositions governing, 180 in copular constructions, 292--93
vs. instrumental in predicatives, 295 in existential possessive constructions, 313--16
with in¬nitives, 8--9, 266, 363--64 ethnonyms, declension, 136--38
with sam, odin, 295--96 èto
dative-with-in¬nitive construction. See free headless, 238--39
in¬nitive construction in copular constructions, 293
davai(te), 375--76 ètot
davno, 441--42 declension of, 118
declension use of, 233--37
indeclinable (foreign) nouns, 148--50 event nouns, 206
mixed adjectival/nominal, 127 arguments of, 217--20
of acronyms, 150--51 morphology of, 216
of adjectives, 123--30 semantics of, 217
of appositives, 151--53 existential predicates, 275. See also quantifying
of compound nouns, 151 predicates
of names, 153--58 and genitive subject of negation, 302--7,
of nouns, 130--58 310--11, 313
of numerals (quanti¬ers), 121--23 possessive, with est , 313--16
of pronouns, 116--21 possessive, with imet , 311--12
declension classes, 130--32, 161. See also gender, vs. individuating predicates, 302--5
morphological word order in, 452--53, 455
496 Index


existential quanti¬cation, 159--60 verbs governing, 317--19
explicit style, vs. neutral style in writing, 20--21 vs. accusative as object, 316--27
external speaker, and tense in argument vs. accusative as object of negation, 321--27
clauses, 388, 390--92 vs. nominative as subject of negation, 302--12
vs. possessive adjectives to express possession,
familiar address 206--7
use of names, 229--33 with paucal numbers, 187--89, 200
use of ty, 227--29 with quanti¬ers, 297--98
¬‚eeting vowels, 88--91 genitive object, 316--27
foreign borrowings genitive object of negation, (factors affecting),
declension and gender of, 148--50 321--27
formal address genitive subject, 297--313
use of names, 230--33 genitive subject (quantifying)
use of vy, 227--29 bare genitive, 299--302
formants, of vowels, 30--32 of negation, 302--12
free in¬nitive construction, 8--9, 363--66 of negation, contexts favoring, 311--12
with negative existential pronouns, 266, of negation, predicates favoring, 302--7, 310--11
364--65, 460 of negation and nominal reference, 308--11
fricatives, 52--53 gerunds. See participles, adverbial
soft palatal, 65--67 Glagolitic alphabet, 14--15
fundamental frequency, 30 glide [ j], 53, 55--56, 63--64
and intonation, 444--45. See also intonation grammars of Russian, 3--6
contours
hard consonants, 18, 28--29. See also
geminate consonants, simpli¬cation of in palatalization
pronunciation, 67--68, 76, 78--79 hard sign, 22--23
gender, 130--31, 161--65 hard-vowel letters, 17
agreement patterns with, 163--65 hardness, types of, 84--85. See also palatalization
common gender, 131, 165 morphophonemic, 84--85
morphological (declension classes), 130--31, phonemic, 84
161 phonetic, 84
of acronyms, 150--51 host predicate, 283
of augmentatives, diminutives, 145--47
of compound nouns, 151 i, as a lexical information operator, 465--66
of foreign borrowings, 148--50 idiomaticity, in phonological variation, 75--77
referential, 131, 161--63 ikan e, 44
syntactic, 130--31, 161 ili, as a lexical information operator, 466
genitive case imet
chelovek vs. liudei as genitive plural with genitive of negation with, 324
quanti¬ers, 198--99 in existential possessive constructions,
for expression of possession, 205 311--12
for quanti¬ed objects, 316--27. See also genitive immutable consonants, 18, 57
objects imperative, 94, 373--76
for quanti¬ed subjects, 297--312. See also aspect and, 374--75
genitive subject authority and, 372, 374
genitive plural forms, 132--45 formation of, 94
let as genitive plural with quanti¬ers, 199--200 imperative-like constructions, 375--76
metric genitive, 321 imperfective aspect, 371, 398
negation and, 302--11 (subjects), 321--27 conative sense, 412
(objects), 460 contexts of use, 417--24, 426--28
partitive genitive, 319--21, 328--30. See also essential, 417
secondary genitive secondary imperfectives, 115--16, 402--6
prepositions governing, 180 unpaired pre¬xed imperfectives, 409
secondary genitive, 321, 327, 330 impersonal predicates, 278--79
temporal use of, 432 word order and, 454--55
Index 497


indeterminate verbs of motion, 412 irrealis mood, 373, 378, 380--82
in iterative contexts, 412--13 and negation, 460--61
individuated (independent) reference, 160 formation of, 95
re¬‚exive pronouns and, 241--42
individuating predicates, 275 Jakobson
vs. existential predicates, 302--5 on adverbial participles, 396--97
vs. quanti¬cation in predicates, 281 on the Russian case system, 338--44
in¬nitive, 97--98, 360 on voicing of labio-dentals and sonorants,
aspect in, 426--28 72--74
modal quality of, 363 jers, re¬‚ected as vowel alternations, 88
morphology, 97--98
with modal nouns, 370 k, temporal use of, 435
in¬nitive constructions, 363--70 kak
free in¬nitive (dative-with-in¬nitive), 8--9, as a relative pronoun, 210
266, 363--66 tense, aspect with in subordinate clauses,
host predicates with, 366--69 390--91
in ¬nal constructions, 369--70 kakoi, declension of, 118
with accusative/dative objects as implicit kazhdyi, 266--69
subject, 367--69 koe, in prepositional phrases, 175--76
in¬‚ection, 92--158. See also declension; -koe, pronouns in, 263
conjugation kogda
of adjectives, 92, 123--30 as relative pronouns, 210
of nouns, 92, 130--58 in conditional constructions, 377
of numerals (quanti¬ers), 121--23 tense in adverbial clauses with, 387
of pronouns, 92, 116--21 kotoryi, as a relative pronoun, 209
of verbs, 92--116 kto
instrumental case as a relative pronoun (tot, kto construction),
contexts of use, 334--38 209--10
negation and, 460 as an inde¬nite pronoun, 257--58
plural in {- mi}, 144 declension of, 116--17
prepositions governing, 181
temporal use of, 433 labial consonants, 53
vs. dative in predicatives, 294 palatalization contexts, 59
vs. nominative for predicatives, 284--88 labio-dentals consonants, and voicing, 71--74
internal speech laterals, 53, 56
and aspect, 394 li, in questions, 463
and tense in argument clauses, 388--92 libo, as a lexical information operator, 466
internal speaker, 388, 390 -libo, pronouns in, 263--65
interrogative pronouns, declension of, ligature
{n} with prepositions, 175--77
116--17
{n} with pronouns, 117
intonation, 276, 444--49
{o} with prepositions, 175, 177--79
focal syllable (focus), 445
thematic, {i} vs. {e} in conjugation, 99
utterance type and, 445
intonation contours (IC), 444--49 linking vowel. See ligature
IC 1, 445, 448 liquids, 53, 56
IC 2, 445--46, 448 liuboi, 267--68
IC 3, 446, 448, 462 locative case
IC 4, 446--48 prepositions governing, 180--81
IC 5, 447--48 secondary locative, 327, 330--33
IC 6, 448 temporal use, 430, 432
IC 7, 448 locus, in prepositional phrases, 174--75
relationship among, 448
intransitive predicates, 280 Methodius. See Constantine and Methodius
invariant meaning (Gesamtbedeutung), in case, missile, in prepositional phrases, 174--75
338, 340--41 mnogo, 196--97
498 Index


moch nasal consonants, 53, 56
as host for in¬nitive construction, 366 ne, in prepositional phrases, 175--77
personal modal, 383 ne-, negative pronouns in, 265--66, 364--65, 460
modal argument, 273--74 negation, 459--61
subject as, 277--78 and existential pronouns, 460
modal predicate, 382--84. See also quantifying and genitive case, 302--13 (subject), 321--27
predicates (object), 460
modality, 372--73 and irrealis mood, 460--61
deontic, 372--73 and predicative nouns, 460
in language (de¬nition), 10, 372--73 in questions, 464--65
negation and, 383--84 scope of, 459--60
of epistemology, 372 nekii, 119, 257
of predicates, 272, 274 nel zia
of responsibility, 372--73 impersonal modal, 365--66, 382--83
situational, 373 negation and, 383--84
modi¬ers, agreement with head nouns, 207--8 net, and polarity questions, 463--65
mood, 372--84 ni
imperative. See imperative and genitive objects, 322--23
irrealis. See irrealis mood as (emphatic negative) lexical information
realis, 373, 378 operator, 466
tense-aspect and, 378 in prepositional phrases, 175--77
morpholexical alternations, 82--91 negative pronouns in, 258--60
morphological boundaries, and phonological -nibud
variation, 75--76 contexts of use, 260--63
morphology vs. -libo, 265
of adjectives, 92, 123--30 vs. ni- in negation, 259--60
of nouns, 92, 130--58. See also nouns; gender; vs. -to, 260--63
number; case; animacy nichego, as negated genitive subject, 307--8
of numerals (quanti¬ers), 121--23 nikogo, as negated genitive subject, 307--8
of pronouns, 92, 116--21 no, as a lexical information operator, 466--67
of verbs, 92--116 nominative case
morphophonemic alternations. See prepositions governing, 182
morpholexical alternations vs. genitive as subject of negated predicate,
Moscow, as center of Russian language area, 1 302--12
mozhno vs. instrumental for predicatives, 284--88, 295
impersonal modal, 365--66, 382--83 nouns, 92, 130--74. See also arguments
negation and, 383--84 agreement patterns with, 130
mutable consonants, 18, 57 animacy, 165--66
augmentatives. See augmentatives
na compound nouns, 151
temporal use of, 434--35, 440 declension classes, 130--32, 161. See also
vs. v, 182--84 gender, morphological
nado declension of, 92, 130--58
impersonal modal, 365--66, 382--83 declension Ia (masculine º ending), 132--39
negation and, 383--84 declension Ib (neuter), 139--41
names, 229--33 declension II (feminine in --a), 141--43
declension III (feminine in {-C }, neuter
declension of, 153--58
declension of foreign names, 154--58 in -mia), 143--45
declension of native surnames, 127, 153--54 diminutives. See diminutives
use of given names, diminutives, 229--30, 232 event nouns, 206, 216--20
use of name and patronymic, 230--32 foreign borrowings, 148--50
use of surnames, 231--32 gender, 130--31, 161--65
narrative, 373, 400, 415-16 hard vs. soft stems, 131--33, 139, 141,
aspect in, 400 143--44
vs. description, 416 indeclinable (foreign) nouns, 148--50
Index 499


morphological categories of, 161--74. See also distribution of, 58--61
gender; number; case; animacy; declension effect on vowels, 32--39
names. See names morphophonemic softness, 84--85
neuter nouns in -mia, 144--45 of consonants, 17--18, 28--29, 56--63
number, 171--74 of velars (historical), 82--84
numerative (counting) forms of, 197--200 phonemic softness, 84
plurals. See plural nouns phonetic softness, 84
predicative, 282, 287--88. See also predicative spelling of, 18
nouns palatalization assimilation, 61--63
reference of, 221--22 and morphological boundaries, 75
stress patterns in, 132, 141--44, 147--48 and paradigm uniformity, 76
unpaired stems, 134--35 and vowel stress, 79
number in nouns, 171--74 participles, 95--97, 360--63
¬gurative use of, 171, 174 active, 212--13. See also participles: active
pluralia, singularia tantum, 171 adverbial, 361
numbers. See numerals as attributive modi¬ers, 212
numerals in¬‚ection of, 124--25
and animacy, 188, 192--93, 197 past passive, 349--51
and case, 185--94 present passive, 349
collectives, 121, 123, 195--96 tense-aspect in, 395--97
complex numerals, 185, 191--94 types and formation of, 95--97
decimals, 195 participles: active, 212--13
fractions, 194--95 contrasted with relative clauses, 212--13
general numerals, 185--87 used as nouns, 212
in¬‚ection of, 121--23 partitive sense. See also genitive case partitive
mille numerals (million, milliard, trillion, passive voice, 344--51
tysiacha), 189--91 passive participles, 349--51
odin, 192--93 use of re¬‚exive verbs, 349
ordinal numerals, 185 use of third person plural verbs, 344--45
paucal numerals (dva/dve, tri, chetyre, oba/obe), pered, temporal use of, 436, 443
121--22, 187--89 perfective aspect, 371, 398--401
numerative (counting) forms of nouns, contexts of use, 415--17, 421, 423--28
197--200 qualitative perfective, 413. See verbal pre¬xes,
qualitative
o(b(o)), 179 quantizing perfective. See verbal pre¬xes,
oba/obe, 123, 188 quantizing
object personal pronouns, declension of (ia, ty, sebia,
as aspectual argument, 272, 278 etc.), 116--17
concept of, 278 phenomenological verb, 305
ellipsis of, 226--27 phonological variation, 74--82
genitive vs. accusative for, 316--27 and duration of vowels, consonants,
of negated predicates, 321--27 77--81
obstruents, 28, 53 and morphological boundaries, 75--76
odin, 192--93 paradigm effects and, 76--77
declension of, 121 stylistic value of, 81--82
predicative in non-¬nite clauses, 294--95 phonology and phonetics, 28--91
Old Muscovite pronunciation, 81--82 phrasal modi¬ers, (with quanti¬er phrases),
orthography, irregularities in, 19--23 186--87
orthography, rules of, 17--23 plural nouns
counted nouns, 138--39
palatal consonants. See alveo-palatal declension Ia, 132--39
consonants declension Ib, 139--341
palatalization, 28--29 declension II, 141--42
before {e}, 60 declension III, 143--45
consonants paired (mutable) for, 18, 57 ethnonyms, 136--38
500 Index


plural nouns (cont.) short-form, 125--26, 365--66
irregular plural forms, 135--39 short-form vs. long-form, 124, 286, 288--92,
nominative plurals in {- ia}, 135 296
nominative plurals in -á, 136 predicative nouns, 282, 207--8. See also
with paucal numerals, 200 predicatives
with quanti¬ers, 197--200 nominative vs. instrumental case with,
young animals, 138 284--88, 295
po predicatives, 281--96. See also predicative
distributive, 200--3 adjectives; predicative nouns
temporal use of, 436 accusative case with, 284
pod, temporal use of, 436 autonomy of, 283
poka, tense in adverbial clauses with, dative case with, 295--96
¯to byl construction, 294
387 e
poltora, 195 in non-¬nite constructions, 294--96
poltorasta, 195 nominative vs. instrumental case with,
posle, temporal use of, 436 284--89, 294--96
possession participles and prepositional phrases as,
de¬nition of, 206 282--83
event nouns and, 206 past passive participles in, 350--51
expression of, 205--7 typology of, 283--86
possessive adjectives, 205--7 pre¬xes. See verbal pre¬xes
declension of (moi, tvoi, etc.), 119--20 prepositional case. See locative case
from nouns, 127, 206--7 prepositional phrases, missile and locus in,
svoi, 240--54 174--75
predicates, 270--372. See also co-predicates; prepositions, 174--84
verbs case government by, 179--82
and argument interpretation, 275--76 convert prepositions, 177
ligature {n} with, 175--77
and case government (valence), 271
ligature {o} with, 175, 177--79
and information ranking, 276
and quanti¬cation vs. individuation, 281 morphophonemic properties of, 175--79
aspectuality of, 271--74 pre¬xal, 176--77
classi¬cation of, 278--81 primary, 175, 177
existential. See existential predicate root, 175--77
host, 283 presentational predicates, word order in, 453
impersonal, 278--79 pronouns, 92, 116--21. See also personal
individuating, 275. See also individuating pronouns; interrogative pronouns;
predicates possessive adjectives
in¬nitive constructions. See in¬nitive demonstrative (ètot, èto, to), 118, 233--39
constructions existential (with -to, -nibud , koe-, -libo),
information structuring by, 275--76 260--65
intransitive, 280 expression of animacy, 167
modal. See modal predicate inde¬nite, 256--66
modality of, 272, 274 inde¬nite with ne-, 265
quantifying, 279 in¬‚ectional morphology, 92, 116--21
re¬‚exive, 345--49 negative with ne-, 265--66, 460
re¬‚exive intransitive, 280 negative with ni-, 258--60
semi-transitive, 280 re¬‚exive, 240--56. See also re¬‚exive pronouns
subordinate clauses, 360. See also subordinate second person (ty vs. vy), 227--29
clauses third person, 117--18, 222--23
transitive, 280--81 pronunciation
typology of, 278--81 and orthography, 17--23
predicative adjectives, 281--82. See also phonetics and phonology, 28--91
predicatives; short-form adjectives protasis, 376. See also conditional construction
nominative vs. instrumental case with, relation to apodosis, 378--80
284--87, 293--95 pust (puskai), 376
Index 501


quanti¬cation, vs. individuation in predicates, representative argument, 276
281 subject as, 277--78
quanti¬ers, 185--204, 296--98. See also numerals Rus , 1--2
approximates, 123, 196--97 Russian alphabet. See Cyrillic alphabet
as head vs. dependent in argument phrase, Russian language
203 changes in post-Soviet era, 2--3
expression of approximate quantity, 191 corpora, 6--8
in¬‚ectional morphology, 121--23 dictionaries and grammars of, 3--6
quanti¬ed (genitive objects), 316--27 Moscow as center of, 1
quanti¬er arguments, 297--98 number of speakers, 2
special (numerative) noun forms with, registers of, 2
197--200 writing -- origins of, 11--16
subject quantifying genitive, 297--312
quantifying predicates, 275, 279 s, temporal use of, 437--38
and genitive subjects, 297--312 sam, 254--55
requiring genitive subjects, 299--300 and expression of animacy, 167
questions, 461--65 declension of, 120--21
and negation, 464--65 predicative in non-¬nite clauses, 295--96
content, 461--62 sebia, 240--42
polarity (yes--no), 462--65 contexts of variation in use, 243--52
use of the particle li in, 462--63 declension of, 116--17
with ¬rst-second person reference, 252,
raising construction, 367 254
realis mood, 373, 378 seichas, 442--43
reference, 159--61 semelfactives, 407
and re¬‚exive third-person pronouns, 241--42 morphology of, 104
essential. See essential reference semi-transitive predicates, 280
individuated (independent), 159--60, 275. See sentence stress, 29. See also intonation
also individuated reference and word order, 455
of common nouns, 221--22 short-form adjectives, 124--26. See also
of names, 229--32 predicative adjectives
of nouns and pronouns, 220--32 morphology, 125--26
of second-person pronouns, 227--29 stress in, 126
of third-person pronouns, 222--23 vs. long-form, 124, 286, 289--93, 296
of zero pronouns, 223--27 simplex verbs, 94, 402
quantifying vs. contextual, 159--61 soft consonants, 18, 28--29. See also
referential exponent, of argument phrases, 159, palatalization
220--21 soft sign, 22--23
re¬‚exive intransitive predicates, 280 soft-vowel letters, 17--19
re¬‚exive pronouns, 240--56 softness, types of, 84--85. See also palatalization
contexts of variation in use, 242--52 morphophonemic, 84--85
svoi and sebia, 240--54 phonemic, 84
with ¬rst-second-person antecedents, phonetic, 84
252--54 sonorants, 28, 52--53, 55--56
re¬‚exive verbs, 280, 345--49 context and palatalization of, 59
registers, stylistic, 2 context and voicing of, 71--74
relative clauses, 208--12 spelling. See orthography
tense in, 385--88 St. Cyril. See Constantine
relative pronouns, 208--12 statistics, in linguistic inquiry, 6
chei, koi, 211 stop consonants, 52--53
chto, 210 stress, 29
gde, kuda, kogda, kak, 210--11 and phonological variation, 78--79
kakoi, 211 effect on vowels, 28--29
kotoryi, 209 sentence stress, 29. See also intonation
kto, 209--10 (emphatic), and word order, 455
502 Index


stress patterns, 93 theme and rheme. See basis and focus
in e-conjugation verbs, 103, 105--12 to, headless, 238--39
in i-conjugation verbs, 101--3 -to
in nouns, 132, 141--44, 147--48 contrasted with -nibud , 260--63
in short-form adjectives, 126 vs. koe-, 263
in verbs, 100--1, 112--13 to, chto construction, 210, 238
thematic, antethematic, 101 topic and comment. See basis and focus
subject tot, demonstrative pronoun, 118, 233, 236--38
as modal (agentive) argument, 273--74 tot, kto and te, kto constructions, 209--10
concept of, 276--78 tozhe, as a lexical information operator,
ellipsis of, 223--26 469--71
genitive subject, 297--312. See also genitive transitive predicates, 280--81
subject transliteration, of Russian alphabet, 11--12,
of predicative constructions, 282, 291--92, 24--27
296 trill consonants, 53, 56
subjunctive mood. See irrealis mood tysiacha, 123, 189--91
subordinate clauses, 360
adjectival clauses. See relative clauses v
adverbial clauses and adverbial participles, choice of vs. na, 182--84
361 temporal use of, 431--34
argument clauses. See argument clauses valence, 271. See also case government
¬nite clauses, 360--61 velar consonants, 53, 55
tense and aspect in, 385--92 palatalization of, 59--60, 75
superlatives, 129--30 Vendler s classi¬cation of verbs, 411--12
sut , in copular constructions, 292--93 verbal pre¬xes, 402--7
svoi, 240--42 qualitative, 402--6, 413, 414
contexts of variation in use, 242--52 quantitative or quantizing, 406--7, 413--14
declension of, 119 with verbs of motion, 413--14
with ¬rst-second-person reference, 252--54 verbal stems, 93
syncretism, in cases, 339, 341--42 obstruent stems, 110--12
past-in¬nitive stem, 93, 98--99
takoi, declension of, 118 present stem, 93, 98--99
takzhe, as a lexical information operator, 467, verbs, 92--116. See also predicates
469--71 aspect. See aspect
telic verbs, 406 asuf¬xal, 99, 103
temporal expressions, 429--43 conjugation classes, 98--115
and expression of iteration (frequency), 441 conjugation suf¬xes, 93
dates, 432 e-conjugation, 99--100, 103--12
subordinate clauses as, 443 i-conjugation, 99, 101--3
telling time, 431--32 imperative form. See imperative
tense, 384--98 imperfectivizing suf¬xes, 115--16
de¬nition, 384 in¬nitive form. See in¬nitive; in¬nitive
future, 385 constructions
historical present, 392--95 in¬‚ectional morphology, 92--116
in adjectival clauses, 385--88 irregular conjugation, 113--15
in adverbial clauses, 387--88 mood. See mood
in argument clauses, 388--93 re¬‚exive, 280, 345--49
in embedded indirect questions, 389 stems. See verbal stems
in participles, 95--97, 395--97 stress patterns, 100--13
in subordinate clauses, 385--92 tense. See tense
morphology, 94--95 thematic ligature. See ligature, thematic
past, 385 verbal categories, 93--98
present, 385 verbs of motion, 412--15. See also determinate
resultative, 395 verbs of motion; indeterminate verbs of
teper , 442 motion
Index 503


ves , 266--67, 268 jers, 88
and expression of animacy, 167--68 phonemic status of [i], 40--41
declension of, 120--21 place of articulation, 30
voice, 344--51. See also passive voice stressed, 28--41
voiced consonants. See voicing systems of transcription, 39--40
voiceless consonants. See voicing unstressed, 29, 42--52. See also vowel
voicing reduction
distribution of in speech, 69--70 unstressed, adjacent, 51--52
of consonants, 52, 68--74 unstressed, in foreign words, 52
of labio-dental approximates, 71--74 vozmozhno
of obstruents, 68--69 impersonal modal, 365--66, 383
of sonorants, 69, 71--74 negation and, 383--84
of vowels, 69 vsiakii, 266--69
word-¬nal devoicing, 70--71
voicing assimilation, 70, 76 word order, 276, 449--58
vowel alternations. See vowel grades elided subject, 454
vowel grades, 85--91 emphatic stress and, 455
morphophonemic {o} (ó ∼ © ∼ ι), 86--87 epic, 454
null- vs. full-grade vocalism (¬‚eeting vowels), for existential predicates, 452--53
88--91 freedom of, 449
qualitative ablaut, in secondary hierarchical, 451, 455, 458
imperfectives, 86 impersonal verbs and unspeci¬ed agents,
qualitative ablaut, of — e and — o, 85--86 454--55
reductive ablaut, 86 in argument phrases, 457
vowel letters. See Cyrillic alphabet in questions, 461
vowel reduction, 42--44, 52 in speech vs. written language, 457--58
after [ˇ, ˇ, c], 46--48
sz neutral, 450--51
after post-tonic soft consonants in object--subject--verb, 452, 455
grammatical morphemes, 48--51 object--verb--subject, 451, 455
of {a, e, o} after [ˇ, ˇ], 45--46
sz relational, 452, 455, 458
of {a, e, o} after soft consonants, 44 situational, 454--55
of {a, o} after hard consonants, 45 subject--object--verb, 452, 455, 458
of {i, u}, 44 subject--verb--(object), 450--51, 455
vowel series, 43 subjectless sentences, 454--55
vowel sounds, spelling of, 17--22 verb ¬nal, 452, 455, 458
vowels, 28--52. See also vowel reduction verb initial, 452--55
acoustic classi¬cation of, 30--32 verb--object--subject, 454--55
articulatory classi¬cation of, 30 verb--subject--(object), 452--55
duration of, 41--42 word stress. See stress patterns; stress
effect of consonants (palatalization) on, written Russian, origins of, 11--16
32--39
¬‚eeting, 88--91 za, temporal use of, 438--39
formants of, 30--32 zhe, as a lexical information operator, 471--72

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