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e
original ¬‚aw will not have been removed by the 2004 election
Cette femme ne veut pas tant attraper que s™arranger (astucieusement)
pour se faire attraper = that [such a] woman doesn™t so much want to catch [a man] as
organise herself (cunningly) to have herself caught

cette . . . ci
Cette ligne-ci vous propose des solutions astucieuses = this line proposes some
amusing solutions
Cette photo-ci rappelle celles que j™avais vues dans l™autre collection = this
photo reminds me of those I had seen in the other collection

`
cette . . . la
´
Un monde parfait, avec des gens jeunes et beaux eternellement, cette
`
image-la je ne la reconnais pas “ a perfect world full of the eternally young and beautiful, I
don™t recognise that picture
Je ne peux pas supporter cette emission-la “ c™est trop d´ bile = I can™t stomach
´ ` e
that programme “ it™s too pathetic

ces . . . ci
´
Les chercheurs emettent l™hypoth` se que ces personnes-ci d´ pourvues de
e e
toute oreille attentive r´ agissent au stress de mani` re plus prononc´ e =
e e e
researchers propose the hypothesis that these people who do not have someone to listen to them react to
stress in a more obvious way

`
ces . . . la
`
Si vous trouvez que ce r´ gime-ci vous convient, n™h´ sitez pas a abandonner
e e
toutes ces m´ thodes-la = if you ¬nd that this diet suits you, don™t hesitate to abandon all those
`
e
other methods



Possessive determiners

267 Possessive determiners “ possessive adjectives
These consist of the set of possessive adjectives. The adjectives are the equivalent of
English my, your, his, her, its, our, their.


212
268 The son series




singular plural
my
¬rst person masculine mon
our
notre
my
feminine ma
my our
plural mes nos
your
second person masculine ton
your
votre
your
feminine ta
your your
plural tes vos
his, her, its
third person masculine son
their
leur
his, her, its
feminine sa
his, her, its their
plural ses leurs



The masculine singular form mon, ton, son is used before a feminine word beginning
with a vowel or mute h “
Ma r´ ussite extraordinaire = my extraordinary success
e
Mon extraordinaire r´ ussite = my extraordinary success
e
Mon amie = my girlfriend
Ton odeur puissante = your strong smell
Son equipe de di´ t´ ticiens = his / her team of dieticians
´ ee
It is vital to remember that the form of the possessive adjective is determined by the
gender of the noun it precedes, not the sex of the person involved “ hence mon, ton,
son are used before masculine nouns regardless of whether they refer to a male or female;
similarly ma, ta, sa are used before feminine nouns regardless of the sex of the person
involved.
The distinction between the two sets of forms for the second person singular, ton, ta,
tes and votre, vos corresponds to that between tu and vous discussed in 216.
The use of a possessive adjective and its ˜rivalry™ with the de¬nite article with parts of
the body is discussed in 255.
For discussion of the possessive pronouns, see 240“241.


268 The son series
The matter of agreement is particularly acute with the son series of possessive adjectives
because each form has a number of potential meanings. For example, son does not
necessarily always = his; it may, but it also = her, its; likewise, sa does not necessarily
always = her; it may, but it also = his, its. Remember that the form used is determined
by the number and gender of the noun quali¬ed not by the gender of the possessor.
The third person adjective is also used as the possessive adjective corresponding to the
inde¬nite pronoun on “ see 224 for the values of on “ this complicates the situation still
further. The following examples illustrate the different values that the son series may
have “


213
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR



= her
Je suis consciente qu™une jeune femme musulmane n™est pas cens´ e e
concr´ tiser toutes ses pulsions = I™m aware that a young Muslim girl is not supposed to
e
ful¬l all her impulses
` ´
Quand on lui demande ou elle puise son imagination, elle evoque son
enfance et le peu de plaisir que lui procurait le mobilier de sa chambre =
when she™s asked where her imagination came from, she mentions her childhood and the small amount of
pleasure that she got from her bedroom furniture
Son nouvel album n™est peut-ˆ tre pas son meilleur = her latest album is perhaps not
e
her best
Elle pourra pro¬ter de son talent exceptionnel = she™ll be able to bene¬t from her
exceptional talent
Elle m` ne une vie d™enfer a ses parents = she leads her parents a terrible dance
`
e

= his
´e
Un Italien a et´ assassin´ d™une balle dans la nuque “ ses ravisseurs
e
menacent de tuer trois de ses compatriots = an Italian has been put to death by a shot
in the neck “ his kidnappers are threatening to kill three of his compatriots
`
Apr` s 48 jours de mer dans sa tentative de record du tour du monde a la
e
´ `
voile, Olivier Kersauson et son equipage progressaient a un peu plus de 10
noeuds = after 48 days at sea in his attempt to break the round-the-world record, Olivier Kersauson
and his crew made progress at just over ten knots

= its
On aime aussi la version hyper-puissante “ son secret? = its hyper-powerful
version is also popular “ its secret?
France Loisirs vous fait d´ couvrir des plumes originales “ ses auteurs vous
e
transportent dans des univers d´ cal´ s = France Loisirs helps you discover some original
ee
writers “ its authors transport you to unfamiliar worlds

= one™s / your / their
Deux mois pour sculpter son corps = two months to shape your (one™s) body
pour ressusciter sa peau = to give new life to your (one™s) skin
Freud appelle « transfert » le mouvement par lequel le patient revit, dans
sa relation avec son psychanalyste, un fragment de son pass´ affectif = e
Freud uses the term ˜transfer™ to describe the process whereby the patient relives, in his relationship with
his psychoanalyst, a fragment of his affective past history

269 Possible ambiguity of meaning of son series
Because, as mentioned above, the son series = his, her, its, one™s, it sometimes happens
that it is not clear who the possessor referred to by the adjective actually is. In order to
disambiguate any problems, it is necessary to add a prepositional phrase to the noun “
a + personal pronoun “
`

214
271 Other persons of possessive adjectives



` `
Je pr´ f` re les couleurs de sa chambre a elle que celles de sa chambre a lui
ee
= I prefer the colours in her bedroom to those in his
Son parfum a elle est d´ licieusement sophistiqu´ = her perfume is delightfully
` e e
sophisticated
Elle portait son pull a lui = she was wearing his jumper
`


270 votre / vos
Whereas the series ton, ta, tes always refers to a single person, the series votre, vos
can refer to either a single person or a group of people. The context is likely to be more
formal when it refers to a single person “ for more details see discussion of vous / tu,
216.

singular
Je regrette de dire que votre progr` s n™est pas satisfaisant, jeune homme =
e
I™m sorry to say that your progress is not satisfactory, young man
Mademoiselle, voulez-vous laisser votre manteau dans le vestiaire? = do you
want to leave your coat in the cloakroom, Miss?
Votre nouvel album est plus rock et moins funk = your latest album is more rock and
less funk

singular or plural
´
Ecrivez votre nom en majuscules = write your name in capital letters
`
Mettez vos affaires dans la chambre a coucher = put your things in the bedroom
Comment r´ agirez-vous quand un mec vient chercher votre ¬lle pour une
e
soir´ e? = how will you react when a guy comes round to take your daughter out for the evening?
e
Vos cheveux sont d´ sormais raides = now your hair is straight
e
Impossible de boutonner votre jean f´ tiche, alors que samedi dernier il
e
vous allait encore comme un gant? Si vous attendez vos r` gles, ca n™a rien
e ¸
de surprenant = impossible to do up your lucky jeans, whereas last Saturday they still ¬tted you
like a glove? If your period™s due, it™s not at all surprising

plural
´e `´
Vous avez et´ nombreux a ecrire “ n™oubliez pas de pr´ ciser vos e
coordonn´ es = many of you have written “ don™t forget to supply your details
e
Tout le monde est arriv´ “ il est temps de faire le point sur vos projets =
e
everyone™s arrived “ it™s time to give an up-date on your plans


271 Examples of the other persons of the possessive adjectives
mon, ma, mes
J™ai fait croire a mes proches que j™´ tais mort = I made my nearest and dearest believe
` e
I was dead

215
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR



`
Quand la chambre de ma ¬lle vire a la porcherie, je suis aussi gon¬‚ant que
l™´ taient mes parents = when my daughter™s bedroom turns into a pigsty, I™m as annoying as
e
ever my parents were
´
Je voudrais changer mon nez, mes cheveux, mes ongles, mes epaules et
mes orteils = I™d like to change my nose, my hair, my nails, my shoulders and my toes

ton, ta, tes
Mˆ me si tu connais ta taille, rien ne vaut un bon essayage en boutique =
e
even if you know your size, there™s nothing better than trying it on in the shop
Ta femme y voit probablement une forme de soumission = your wife probably
sees it as a form of submission
Je me serais fach´ e tout rouge a ta place = in your place I would have become absolutely
ˆe `
incandescent

notre, nos
Un truc pour aider nos lecteurs a s´ duire un top mod` le = a wheeze to help our
`e e
readers seduce a top model
Au bout d™une semaine nos discussions se sont orient´ es vers le sexe = after
e
a week our discussions turned to sex
On ne doit pas brader ce que nos ancˆ tres nous ont laiss´ = we must not
e e
undervalue what our ancestors left us
Depuis toujours leurs odeurs ont impr´ gn´ nos corps = their perfumes have
ee
always impregnated our bodies

leur, leurs
´ `
Leurs joueurs ont si souvent echou´ lors des grands rendez-vous a cause de
e
leurs querelles intestines interminables = their players have so often collapsed during
major events because of their interminable internal feuds
De tr` s nombreux supporters anglais sont rest´ s dans le pays en d´ pit de
e e e
l™´ limination de leur equipe en quart de ¬nale = a good many English supporters
´
e
have stayed on in the country despite the fact that their team was eliminated in the quarter ¬nals
Les lecteurs voteront pour leurs candidates pr´ f´ r´ es = readers will vote for their
ee e
favourite candidates
Leur objectif porte sur la d´ fense d™int´ rˆ ts corporatistes = their aim focuses on
e ee
the defence of corporatist interests
`
Les relations a distance, ca n™a pas que des inconv´ nients “ leur mauvaise
¸ e
humeur, leur match de foot, leurs copains qui s™incrustent, vous, vous y
echappez = relationships at a distance don™t only have disadvantages “ their bad moods, their
´
football match, their mates always hanging around, you avoid all that
The following instances in French illustrate a difference between French and English
usage. In English the equivalent of maillot = trunks, peau = skin would be in the
plural “ belonging to the group “ but it is in the singular in French “ belonging to each
individual “

216
272 Inde¬nite determiners “ chaque, tout



Quoiqu™il ait essay´ de nous faire nous quitter notre maillot, nous avons
e
d´ cid´ de le garder = although he tried to make us take our trunks off, we decided to keep
ee
them on
Trois potes mal dans leur peau = three mates uneasy within themselves


Inde¬nite determiners

272 Inde¬nite determiners “ chaque, tout
The most frequently encountered inde¬nite determiners are chaque, tout.

chaque = each, every
`
Chaque ¬lle aime donner l™impression qu™elle est r´ serv´ e et que c™est a
e e
vous de lui r´ v´ ler sa f´ minit´ = every girl likes to give the impression she™s reserved and
ee e e
that it™s up to you to bring out her feminine side
Votre frustration va monter chaque jour d™un cran = every day your frustration goes
up a notch
Chaque lecteur permet de stocker de 20 a 100 heures de vid´ o = each reader
` e
allows you to store between 20 ands 100 hours of videos
For chacun see 242“243.

tout
Tout acts as a determiner in two ways “
1 tout in the singular and directly preceding the noun it determines = any;
2 tout in singular or plural and preceding the de¬nite article or another determiner =
all, every.
The forms of tout are “
masculine singular tout masculine plural tous
feminine singular toute feminine plural toutes

examples of 1
Toute personne qui prendrait cette hormone risque d™encourir un cancer =
any person taking this hormone risks getting cancer
Ou mettre le parfum? “ toute zone qui n™est pas expos´ e a l™air = the best place
` e`
to put perfume? “ any spot not exposed to the air
Tout homme devrait faire aussi attention a leur odeur qu™a leur look = any
` `
man should pay as much attention to their smell as to their appearance
examples of 2
Toutes les femmes aiment vous raconter ce qu™elles ont v´ cu, comment e
elles ont percu les autres = all women love to tell you how they™ve been, how they view others
¸
Tous les Francais consomment plus de 20 kilos de fromage par an = all
¸
French people consume more than 20 kilos of cheese a year

217
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR



Maintenant tous les salari´ s sentent qu™ils ont et´ entendus = now all those on
´e
e
the payroll feel that they™ve had a hearing
Toute l™´ quipe a bien jou´ = the whole team played well
e e
On y a cru malgr´ tous ces petits signes du destin = we believed it in spite of all
e
those little signs of destiny
Tous mes amis ont echang´ un clin d™oeil = all my friends winked at each other
´ e
See 250.



Exercises


1 R´ ecrivez les passages suivants en ajoutant les articles qui conviennent
“ d´ ¬ni, ind´ ¬ni, partitif ou z´ ro “
e e e
a Pour savoir si on a . . . jambes de . . . rˆ ve, rep´ rez dans . . . glace . . .
e e
creux entre . . . cuisses, . . . autre au-dessus de . . . genou et . . .
`
dernier a . . . niveau de . . . chevilles. S™il en manque un ou deux, il
faut d´ clencher . . . plan Orsec! (equivalent of AA/RAC)
e
b Chez . . . homme . . . cerveau est responsable de toutes . . . facult´ s e
ˆ ´
cognitives et de . . . controle de . . . emotions et de . . . instincts.
Toutes . . . informations provenant de . . . monde ext´ rieur y sont
e
recues et trait´ es, . . . comportements organis´ s, . . . raisonnements
¸ e e
´
elabor´ s et . . . actions d´ cid´ es. Sa fonction essentielle est de nous
e ee
`
permettre d™apporter . . . r´ ponses originales a . . . probl` mes pos´ s
e e e
par notre environnement. C™est avec lui que nous sommes capables
de faire . . . choix, bons ou mauvais.
c Apr` s . . . vˆ tements jetables, maintenant . . . frasques
e e
mangeables. . . . id´ e arrive de . . . royaume de . . . pommes chips. . . .
e
`
styliste anglaise a pr´ par´ . . . premi` re robe a . . . frites, avec . . .
e e e
ˆ
chapeau assorti. C™est de . . . gout exquis!
ˆ
d . . . mirabelles “ elles doivent etre dor´ es avec . . . taches de rousseur,
e
et exhaler . . . parfum l´ ger. Leur peau, souple sous . . . doigt, est
e
recouverte de . . . ¬ne pellicule qui les prot` ge de . . . dess` chement.
e e
e Lorsque . . . crise se produit ou . . . scandale est d´ voil´ , . . . premi` re
e e e
r´ action de nombreux personnages publics de nos jours est de jaillir
e
en . . . torrent . . . remords.
f . . . nouvelle Peugeot 407 int` gre . . . produits innovants qui r´ pondent
e e
`
a . . . exigences de . . . s´ curit´ , . . . confort et . . . environnement. En
e e
particulier . . . nouveau syst` me de . . . essuie-glace qui permet
e
d™optimiser . . . surface et . . . qualit´ de . . . essuyage.
e
e` `
g Quatorze patients hospitalis´ s a . . . CHU ont trouv´ . . . mort a . . .
e
terme de . . . pratiques de . . . euthanasie directe ou indirecte. Telle
est . . . conclusion de . . . expertise m´ dicale cit´ e dans . . . presse
e e
r´ gionale.
e
h . . . gouvernement espagnol a d´ cid´ de rapporter d™au moins un
ee
`
an . . . entr´ e en vigueur, pr´ vue pour . . . 25 mai, de . . . loi visant a
e e

218
Exercises



` ´e
ouvrir . . . transport ferroviaire a . . . concurrence. Cette loi avait et´
condamn´ e par plusieurs r´ gions autonomes de . . . pays et par . . .
e e
cheminots de . . . chemins de . . . fer espagnols.
i . . . nuit, pendant que . . . bonne partie de . . . population ron¬‚e
ˆ
tranquillement, un demi-million de . . . auditeurs, de tous . . . ages et
e`
tous . . . milieux sociaux, restent coll´ s a leur poste de . . . radio.
j . . . rosiers sont de plus en plus souvent propos´ s en . . . pot. Tentant,
e
mais est-ce bien raisonnable? Non, s™il s™agit de . . . rosiers malingres
`
mis en . . . pot a . . . dernier moment ou encore de . . . rosiers
produits industriellement dans . . . tourbe pure. Mais s™il s™agit de . . .
rosiers mis en . . . pot depuis . . . hiver, dans . . . conteneurs profonds
remplis de . . . terreau contenant . . . argile, pas . . . h´ sitation.
e
k Votre point faible: . . . manque de . . . pers´ v´ rance. Vous ne prenez
ee
ˆ
pas . . . d´ cision, ou alors pas de . . . facon durable; vous etes
e ¸
incapable de . . . effort, pas plus motiv´ e par . . . succ` s que par . . .
e e
´
echec. Il n™y a que . . . nouveaut´ , . . . id´ e de . . . plaisir pour vous
e e
stimuler.
ˆ
l . . . bonne alimentation “ . . . sucres lents ( . . . pates, . . . pommes
´ `
de . . . terre) qui apportent . . . energie tout a . . . long de . . . dure
ˆ
journ´ e, et non . . . sucres rapides “ . . . patisseries, . . . bonbons “ qui
e
donnent . . . coup de . . . fouet imm´ diat, mais induisent . . . coup
e
de . . . pompe dans . . . heures qui suivent.
m Yacco propose . . . nouvelle gamme de 14 lubri¬ants moteurs. . . .
conduite urbaine, . . . trajet autoroutier, . . . comp´ tition: tous . . .
e
`
besoins sont pris en compte par ces huiles qui r´ pondent a . . .
e
´
nouvelles exigences “ . . . r´ duction des emissions polluantes, . . .
e
r´ duction de . . . consommation de . . . carburant, . . . espacement
e
de . . . vidanges, . . . lutte contre . . . usure, etc.
ee `
n Si l™on se r´ f` re a . . . langage de . . . couleurs, . . . jaune stimule . . .
m´ moire et . . . attention, . . . bleu calme . . . esprits, . . . vert
e
´
apporte . . . equilibre et . . . rouge stimule . . . sens.

2 R´ ecrivez les passages suivants en ajoutant le d´ terminant possessif ou
e
l™article qui convient “
a Pompe (= press-up) avec lev´ de . . . jambe. En position de pompe
e
´
classique, . . . mains sont dans l™alignement de . . . epaules, mais un
peu plus espac´ es que la largeur de ces derni` res. Descendez . . . corps
e e
en ¬‚´ chissant . . . bras et en levant . . . jambe aussi haut que possible
e
sans plier . . . genou. Quand . . . torse est pr` s du sol, gardez la pose
e
`
quelques secondes, puis tendez . . . bras pour revenir a la position de
d´ part. Changez de . . . jambe.
e
b . . . corps est couvert de taches blanches “ j™ai des taches blanches
´
sur . . . corps, . . . visage, . . . cheveux, et . . . poils sont egalement
affect´ s. Je suis obs´ d´ e par . . . corps et surtout . . . visage.
e ee
c Pour utiliser le ¬‚exi-ball, un gros ballon en plastique souple,
posez . . . ventre sur le ¬‚exi-ball, . . . mains au sol, . . . bras
tendus. . . . jambes sont jointes et tendues. En faisant pression
avec . . . hanches, levez . . . jambes le plus haut possible. Gardez la
position 5 secondes.

219
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR




3 R´ ecrivez les passages suivants en ajoutant le d´ terminant
e
d´ monstratif qui convient “
e
`
a . . . mois, on examine la machine a laver le linge.
`
b Il s™agit de faire plaisir a toute la famille. Celui-ci se nourrirait
ˆ `
exclusivement de pates et de riz, . . . autre rechigne face a une assiette
de courgettes, et . . . dernier ne tol` re pas les l´ gumes.
e e
c Une circulaire minist´ rielle pr´ cisait que le poids d™un cartable
e e
d™´ colier ne devrait pas exc´ der de 10% celui de l™enfant. . . . norme
e e
n™est toujours pas respect´ e. e
d Disposez de l™herbe tondue en l™´ parpillant autour des l´ gumes. En 15
e e
jours, . . . paillis (= mulch) disparaˆt.±
`
e Sans l™aide de . . . cr` me, j™aurais certainement mis plus de temps a
e
me d´ barrasser de tous . . . kilos.
e
f Seul point commun entre . . . enfants psychiquement atteints: . . .
`
cocktails hormonaux pris par les m` res! D™ou l™id´ e d™un lien possible
e e
entre . . . psychoses et l™empreinte hormonale au stade foetal.

4 R´ ecrivez les passages suivants en ajoutant le d´ terminant possessif
e
qui convient “
`
a Les huiles diff` rent par . . . teneur en vitamine E, . . . r´ sistance a la
e e
ˆ ˆ
chaleur et, bien sur, . . . gout.
` ˆ
b Il est urgent que nous redonnions a . . . enfants le gout de l™eau.
`
c Dire que Golovin joua a . . . meilleur niveau serait exag´ r´ . ee
d Entre ces deux comp´ titions, j™aurai le temps de changer . . . patins et
e
de corriger . . . programmes.
e Comment quali¬eriez-vous . . . sexualit´ actuelle?
e
f L™apparence est fondamentale pour une femme qui veut r´ ussir e
`
dans . . . soci´ t´ . Je suis donc tr` s attentive a maintenir . . . image
ee e
sur . . . lieu de travail.
`
g On tient a te f´ liciter de . . . bon sens et . . . r´ ponses toujours
e e
percutantes.
ˆ
h Ce qui peut etre int´ ressant pour nous, c™est qu™il apporte plus de
e
`
profondeur a . . . jeu.




220
Chapter 8 Prepositions


273 Prepositions
Small but highly signi¬cant, prepositions enable sentences to be expanded and more and
more complex ideas to be expressed.
Prepositions perform two major syntactic functions “

1 linking verbs to adjectives, nouns and other verbs
2 preceding nouns to form prepositional expressions

274 French prepositions
The following is a list of French prepositions. Some consist of a single word, others consist
of more than one word.

1 Single-word prepositions
`
a, apr` s, avant, avec, chez, compris, contre, dans, de, depuis, derri` re, d` s,
e e e
devant, durant, en, entre, envers, environ, except´ , malgr´ , par, parmi,
e e
pendant, pour, sans, sauf, selon, sous, suivant, sur, vers

2 Multi-word prepositions
` ` ` ˆe ` ` `
a cause de, a condition de, a cot´ de, a¬n de, a force de, a moins de, a
` `
partir de, a travers de, au bout de, au cours de, au-dela de, au-dessous de,
au-dessus de, au lieu de, aupr` s de, autour de, au travers de, d™apr` s, de
e e
e` ˆe
crainte / peur de, de facon / mani` re a, de la part de, du cot´ de, du haut
¸
` ˆ` `
de, en dehors de, en d´ pit de, en face de, face a, grace a, hors de, jusqu™a, le
e
`
long de, lors de, par-dessous, par-dessus, par suite de, pr` s de, quant a
e


Prepositions which link

275 Prepositions which link
Prepositions are like hooks which link together elements of language, speci¬cally adjec-
tives, nouns and verbs to verbs.
`
The number of linking prepositions is small. The prepositions in question are a, de,
par.
It should be noted that sometimes the French preposition is an exact equivalent of the
one used in English, sometimes it is different, and on yet other occasions no preposition
is used in French where one is used in English and vice versa.
This last possibility is known as a zero preposition and describes those cases where
a preposition might be used but is in fact not. We will deal with the zero preposition
¬rst.


221
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR



276 Zero preposition
The zero preposition is used to link certain verbs with a following in¬nitive. The most
common verbs involved are “
adorer = to adore, aimer = to like, to love, aimer mieux = to prefer, aller = to go,
amener = to bring, arriver = to arrive, avoir beau = to do in vain, compter = to count
on, con¬rmer = to con¬rm, courir = to run, croire = to believe, to think, daigner = to
deign, d´ clarer = to declare, descendre = to go down, d´ sirer = to desire, devoir = to
e e
have to, dire = to say, ecouter = to listen, emmener = to take away, entrer = to go in,
´
esp´ rer = to hope, estimer = to reckon, faillir = to fail, falloir = to be necessary
e
(il faut = it is necessary), (s™)imaginer = to imagine, manquer = to miss, mener =
to lead, monter = to go up, nier = to deny, oser = to dare, paraˆtre = to appear,
±
partir = to leave, penser = to think, pouvoir = to be able, pr´ f´ rer = to prefer,
ee
pr´ tendre = to claim, se rappeler = to remember, reconnaˆtre = to recognise, rentrer =
e ±
to return home, retourner = to return, se r´ v´ ler = to turn out, revenir = to come back,
ee
savoir = to know, sembler = to seem, sortir = to go out, souhaiter = to wish, valoir
mieux = to be better, vouloir = to wish, to want
It is perhaps worth pointing out that all the modal verbs act in this way; see 159“163.

277 Examples of verb + zero preposition
J™adorerais cr´ er des parfums en labo = I™d adore creating perfumes in a lab
e
J™aime entreprendre des choses et je sais ce que je veux = I love doing things and I
know what I want
Il a su que j™allais etre la femme de sa vie = he knew I was going to be the woman in
ˆ
his life
Tout va bien se passer = everything™s going to work out well
Vous avez la sensation d™ˆ tre mieux ras´ quand vous n™utilisez pas de
e e
produit avant-rasage “ ca ne devrait pas arriver! = you feel as if you™ve had a better
¸
shave when you don™t use a pre-shaving product “ that shouldn™t happen!
`
Il faut marcher au moins 3 a 5 km par jour “ ca augmente de sept ans
¸
l™esp´ rance de vie = you should walk 3 to 5 km a day “ that increases your life expectancy by
e
seven years
Pourquoi cours-tu? “ A quel autre moment un homme peut-il porter du
lycra moulant rose? = why do you go running? “ When else can a man wear pink, tight-¬tting
lycra?
``
De la a choisir une femme d´ pressive en croyant pouvoir lui redonner
e
ˆ
le gout de vivre, il y a un pas que mˆ me un psychologue ne sait pas
e
franchir = from there to choosing a depressive woman believing that you can give her back a
taste for living, there™s a step that not even a psychoanalyst knows how to take
En classe, je pr´ f` re porter des pantalons baggy et des baskets pour ne pas
ee
me faire remarquer = at school I prefer wearing baggy trousers and trainers so as not to make
myself noticed
Le document se r´ v` le etre d™un int´ rˆ t primordial = the document turns out to be
ee ˆ ee
of the greatest interest

222
278 faire, entendre, envoyer, laisser, etc.



Ne sachant pas cuisiner, je me demande si une femme appr´ cierait une e
pizza surgel´ e pour dˆner = since I don™t know how to cook, I wonder if a woman would
e ±
appreciate a frozen pizza for dinner
´e´
Les itin´ raires des jeunes ¬lles ont et´ etudi´ s par les enquˆ teurs, ce qui a
e e e
sembl´ rassurer leur p` re = the routes the young girls took have been studied by the
e e
investigators, which seemed to reassure their father
Bon moment pour sortir s™entraˆner a marcher, grimper, sauter = it™s a good
`
±
moment to go outside to practise walking, climbing, jumping
Pour bien d´ marrer, mieux vaut pr´ voir un temps d™apprentissage = in order
e e
to make a good start, it™s better to allow time to learn the ropes
`
J™aurais voulu ressembler a Marilyn Monroe, mais c™est rat´ != I™d have liked
e
to look like Marilyn Monroe, but no luck!

278 faire, entendre, envoyer, laisser, regarder, sentir, voir
These verbs are also linked to a following in¬nitive by a zero preposition “
faire
La drogue a fait naˆtre une narcoculture = drugs have produced a drug culture
±
Faites durer le plaisir = make the pleasure last
Le tabac fait chuter le taux de vitamine C = tobacco reduces the level of vitamin C
Faites monter la temp´ rature en lui donnant des frissons = make her temperature
e
rise by giving her the shivers
Les risques de se faire attraper vont etre de plus en plus grands = the risks of
ˆ
getting caught are going to get bigger and bigger

laisser
Opter pour un masque r´ parateur “ laisse poser dix minutes puis rincer
e
ou faire p´ n´ trer en massant = opt for a rejuvenating face pack “ leave it on for ten minutes,
ee
then rinse it off or massage it in to make it penetrate
Laisser la peau se reposer en oubliant le maquillage pour un jour = allow
your skin to rest by not putting on any make-up for one day

voir
`
Rien ne destinait Elisabeth et Claire a voir leurs destins se croiser et encore
moins s™unir = nothing destined Elisabeth and Claire to see their destinies cross let alone unite
However, if two objects are involved, one of the ¬nite verb and the other of the in¬nitive,
different constructions occur.
1 If the ¬nite verb is faire, the former appears as an indirect object “
C™est ce qui lui faisait s´ lectionner des symptomes sinon les inventer =
ˆ
e
that™s what made him select symptoms if not invent them
Il a fait dessiner sa nouvelle maison a un architecte = he had his new house
`
designed by an architect

223
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR



Si ton mec n™est pas trop grand, fais-lui porter une veste de la couleur de
son pantalon, a¬n d™allonger la silhouette = if your guy isn™t very tall, make him
wear a jacket the colour of his trousers in order to lengthen his silhouette
2 If the ¬nite verb is one of the others, a choice of constructions is available, if
pronouns are involved “
she let her rabbit on without
Elle les lui laisse raconter sans interruption
=
interrupting her
Elle la laisse les raconter sans interruption
If a noun or nouns is involved, the construction is as follows “
Restez au moins une heure dans l™eau pour laisser aux muscles le temps
de se d´ nouer = stay in the water for at least one hour to allow your muscles time to relax
e
Restez au moins une heure dans l™eau pour les laisser le temps de se
d´ nouer = stay in the water for at least one hour to allow them time to relax
e
Elle a entendu son amie dire des imb´ cillit´ s = she heard her friend talk nonsense
e e
Elle l™a entendue dire des imb´ cillit´ s = she heard her talk nonsense
e e


`
a

279 a linking an adjective to a following in¬nitive
`
Amongst the most common adjectives are “
apte = capable, assis = sitting, bon = good, couch´ = lying, debout = standing,
e
d´ cid´ = determined , d´ termin´ = determined, dispos´ = disposed, du = due, enclin =
ˆ
ee e e e
inclined, facile = easy, ferm´ = closed, fond´ = justi¬able, habile = skilful, good, lent =
e e
slow, long = long, ouvert = open, pr´ par´ = prepared, prˆ t = ready, prompt = prompt,
e e e
propre = appropriate, r´ solu = determined, sensible = sensitive, unanime = unanimous,
e
utile = useful
`
C™est . . . a is dealt with in 221.

280 Examples of a linking an adjective to a following in¬nitive
`
e`
Vous allez toujours au bout de vos projets, d´ termin´ a supporter ou
e
encaisser beaucoup = you always carry through your projects determined to put up with or take
on a lot
ˆ e`
Il faut etre dispos´ a prendre le temps d™observer les courants et les
habitudes locales = you have to be willing to take time to observe the trends and local
habits
Le manque de tonus peut s™expliquer par des erreurs faciles a corriger =
`
lack of energy can be explained by mistakes that are easy to correct
Elle n™est pas tr` s ouverte a accepter les opinions des autres = she™s not very
`
e
open to accepting other people™s opinions
` ´
Les compagnies a´ riennes sont prˆ tes a tout faire pour eviter d™encombrer
e e
les tapis des a´ roports = airlines are prepared to do anything to avoid clogging up the airport
e
departure lounges
ˆ e` `
Vous etes toujours prˆ te a dramatiser les situations r´ elles ou a imaginer
e

224
283 a linking verb to following in¬nitive
`



d™hypoth` ques pour ne rien faire = you™re always ready to dramatise real situations or
e
imagine hypothetical ones so as not to do anything
Je suis r´ solu a ouvrir une boˆte de nuit “ que faut-il faire pour r´ ussir? =
`
e ± e
I™m determined to open a night club “ what must I do to succeed?
Dilu´ , cet el´ ment est utile a fabriquer les engrais = in its dilute state, it™s useful for
´e `
e
making fertilisers

281 a linking a noun to a following in¬nitive
`
Common nouns involved are “
acharnement (m) = tenacity, aisance (f ) = ease, aptitude (f ) = competence, ardeur
(f ) = enthusiasm, avidit´ (f ) = eagerness, d´ termination (f ) = determination, dif¬cult´
e e e
(f ) = dif¬culty, facilit´ (f ) = ease, habilet´ (f ) = skill, h´ sitation (f ) = hesitation, impuis-
e e e
sance (f ) = powerlessness, insistance (f ) = insistence, int´ rˆ t (m) = interest, persistance
ee
(f ) = persistence, regret (m) = regret, r´ pugnance (f ) = repugnance, retard (m) = delay,
e
tendance (f ) = tendency

282 Examples of a linking a noun to a following in¬nitive
`
Elle a montr´ son acharnement a d´ fendre les r´ fugi´ s = she showed her
`e
e e e
determination to defend refugees
`
Ton aisance a t™accommoder de la solitude te rend peu vuln´ rable aux e
ev´ nements ext´ rieurs = the ease with which you adapt yourself to solitude stops you being
´e e
vulnerable to outside events
Il a montr´ sa d´ termination a tenir ses promesses = he showed his determination
`
e e
to keep his promises
`
Vous ne faites pas preuve d™h´ sitation a prendre des risques, parce que
e
vous ne savez pas etre prudente = you don™t show any hesitation about taking risks,
ˆ
because you don™t know how to be cautious
` ´
Son insistance a disputer le match malgr´ ses blessures lui a valu un eloge
e
g´ n´ ral = his insistence on playing the match in spite of his injuries won him universal praise
ee
`
Le retard du club a le nommer comme membre permanent de l™´ quipe lui e
a cout´ cher “ il est parti pour Toulouse = the club™s delay in appointing him as a
ˆe
permanent team member cost it dear “ he™s left for Toulouse
Vous avez tendance a faire un blocage quand vous devez improviser = you
`
tend to have a block when you should improvise

283 a linking a verb to a following in¬nitive
`
The following are the main verbs involved “
s™abaisser = to stoop, s™abˆ tir = to act stupidly, s™abrutir = to become stupe¬ed,
e
s™accoutumer = to get used, s™acharner = to be very keen, s™adonner = to devote one-
self, s™affoler = to panic, aider = to help, amener = to bring, s™amuser = to amuse
oneself, appeler = to call, s™appliquer = to apply oneself, apprendre = to learn,
s™apprˆ ter = to get ready, arriver = to manage, aspirer = to aspire, s™attacher = to attach
e
oneself, s™attarder = to take one™s time, s™attendre = to expect, autoriser = to authorise,

225
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR



avoir = to have, se borner = to limit oneself, chercher = to search, commencer = to begin,
condamner = to condemn, conduire = to lead, se consacrer = to devote oneself, con-
sentir = to consent, consister = to consist, conspirer = to conspire, se consumer = to
waste away, continuer = to continue, contraindre = to constrain, contribuer = to con-
tribute, convier= to invite, se d´ cider = to decide, demander = to ask, d´ penser de
e e
l™argent = to spend, (se) d´ terminer = to determine, se d´ vouer = to be devoted,
e e
se disposer = to be disposed, se divertir = to amuse oneself, s™employer = to be
used, encourager = to encourage, s™´ nerver = to get worked up, (s™)engager = to get
e
involved, s™enhardir = to become bold, s™ennuyer = to be bored, enseigner = to teach,
s™entˆ ter = to be stubborn, (s™)entraˆner = to train (oneself ), s™´ puiser = to get exhausted,
e ± e
equivaloir = to be equal, s™essayer = to try, s™essouf¬‚er = to run out of breath,
´
exhorter = to exhort, se fatiguer = to get tired, (s™)habituer = to get used, se hasarder =
to risk, h´ siter = to hesitate, inciter = to incite, incliner = to be inclined, insister = to
e
insist, (s™)int´ resser = to be interested, inviter = to invite, s™irriter = to get angry, se
e
limiter = to limit oneself, (se) mettre = to put (oneself ), s™obstiner = to be obstinate,
(s™)occuper = to be busy, s™offrir = to offer oneself, s™oublier = to forget oneself, parvenir =
to succeed, passer son temps = to spend time, perdre son temps = to waste time,
pers´ v´ rer = to persevere, persister = to persist, se plaire = to please oneself, enjoy, se
ee
plier = to submit, pousser = to push, (se) prendre = to set about, prendre plaisir = to
take pleasure, (se) pr´ parer = to prepare (oneself ), se refuser = to refuse, se r´ jouir = to
e e
rejoice, renoncer = to renounce, r´ pugner = to be reluctant, se r´ signer = to resign oneself,
e e
se r´ soudre = to decide, r´ ussir = to succeed, se risquer = to take a risk, servir = to
e e
serve, songer = to dream, surprendre = to surprise, tarder = to delay, tendre = to tend,
tenir = to hold, s™en tenir = to keep, travailler = to work, s™user = to wear oneself out,
utiliser = to use, veiller = to take care, viser = to aim

284 Examples of a linking a verb to a following
`
in¬nitive
` `
Le nouveau produit aide a stimuler la formation osseuse et a ralentir
l™ost´ oporose = the new product helps stimulate bone growth and slow down osteoporosis
e
Je m™apprˆ te a lui donner des explications mais il refuse d™´ couter = I™m
e` e
prepared to explain things to him, but he refuses to listen
`
Il y a des ¬lles qui savent jouer les sceptiques, pour qu™on cherche a les
convaincre, a les s´ duire = there are some girls who know how to play the sceptic to make you
` e
try to persuade them and seduce them
On se lave trop, avec trop de produits trop souvent agressifs, n™h´ site pas e
a dire le Pr Lorette = we wash ourselves too much with too many products that are too harsh,
`
Professor Lorette does not hesitate to say [is quick to say]
e` ± `
Surmontant l™aversion qu™il avait envers lui, il l™a invit´ a dˆner a la
maison une semaine plus tard = overcoming the aversion he felt for him, he invited him
home to dinner a week later
Il faut se limiter a prendre une douche par jour, et de pr´ f´ rence le matin =
` ee
you should limit yourself to having one shower a day, preferably in the morning
Je me suis mise a fumer, a boire, mais je ne l™ai pas tromp´ = I began to smoke
` ` e
and drink, but I didn™t cheat on him

226
286 a linking verb to noun
`



ˆ ` `
Sur certains matchs, sans etre bien, on parvenait a gagner ou du moins a
ne pas perdre = for certain matches, without being good, we managed to win or at least not lose
` `
Si vous persistez a vous rendre en cours nu(e) ou a porter des accessoires
susceptibles de heurter les sensibilit´ s, vous avez peu de chances de
e
terminer l™ann´ e = if you persist in coming to class naked or wearing accessories that might well
e
offend other people™s sensitivities, there™s little hope that you™ll complete the year
` `
On n™a qu™a s™en prendre a nous-mˆ mes pour ne pas s™ˆ tre montr´ s
e e e
suf¬samment malins = all we can do is blame ourselves for not having shown ourselves to be
suf¬ciently crafty
Monaco a r´ ussi a atteindre les quarts de ¬nale = Monaco succeeded in reaching the
`
e
quarter ¬nals
Il faut veiller a ne pas trop utiliser les soins d´ graissants = you need to be careful
` e
not to use too many skin cleansing products

285 contraindre, forcer, obliger
For this group of verbs, practice varies according to whether the verb occurs in the active
or passive voice.

`
1 If the active voice is concerned, the preposition a is used “
` `
Qu™est-ce qui nous contraint a fumer une cigarette ou a boire un caf´ ? “ e
Le stress et l™envie de prolonger un moment de d´ tente = what induces us to
e
smoke a cigarette or have a coffee? “ Stress and the desire to prolong a relaxing moment
`
En vacances il faut forcer le corps a faire quelques entorses au r´ gime e
habituel pour eviter les frustrations = on holiday you have to force your body to vary
´
your usual regime in order to avoid becoming frustrated
2 On the other hand, if the passive voice is concerned, it is the preposition de which is
used “
Pour certains, en cas de forte chaleur, on se sent forc´ de r´ duire son
e e
alimentation = for some of us, when it™s particularly hot, we feel forced to reduce our food intake
ˆ ˆ
Mieux vaut etre oblig´ de faire l™amour tous les jours plutot que de
e
traˆner au lit a longueur de grasses matin´ es = it™s better to be forced to make love
`
± e
every day rather than laze in bed for hours on end

286 a linking a verb to a noun
`
The major verbs involved are “
assister = to attend, s™attaquer = to attack, s™attendre = to expect, se con¬er = to
con¬de, consentir = to consent, croire = to believe, d´ plaire = to displease, d´ sob´ ir =
e e e
to disobey, echapper = to escape, faillir = to almost, se ¬er = to trust, manquer =
´
to fail, se mˆ ler = to mix, nuire = to harm, ob´ ir = to obey, pardonner = to for-
e e
give, parer = to ward off, participer = to participate, penser = to think, plaire =
to please, prendre part = to take part, rem´ dier = to cure, renoncer = to renounce,
e
r´ pondre = to reply, r´ pugner = to be averse, r´ sister = to resist, ressembler = to
e e e
resemble, r´ ussir = to succeed, servir = to serve, songer = to think, subvenir = to meet,
e

227
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR



succ´ der = to succeed (inheritance), suf¬re = to suf¬ce, survivre = to survive, t´ l´ phoner
e ee
= to telephone

287 Examples of a linking a verb to a noun
`
Une fois par semaine un musicien donne un concert “ tous y assistent =
once a week a musician gives a concert “ everyone attends
Les h´ ros s™attaquent aux jeux vid´ o “ les h´ ros de BD font le grand saut “
e e e
les voila d´ sormais en jeux vid´ o = the heroes are attacking video games “ comic strip
`e e
heroes are making a great leap “ and here they are now in video games
Mon copain a des furoncles “ est-ce qu™ils sont dus a la crasse? = my mate™s
ˆ`
got boils “ are they due to the fact he™s a dirty slob?
`
On n™est pas la pour leur faire plaisir “ parfois on leur dit des choses qu™ils
n™ont pas envie d™entendre = we™re not there for their pleasure “ sometimes we tell them
things they don™t want to hear
`
Au travail, vous r´ pondez favorablement a une offre, certaine de ne pas
e
commettre d™erreur = at work you reply favourably to an offer, convinced you™re not making a
mistake
` ˆ
Pensez a toutes les astuces qui permettent de varier les gouters, surtout
s™ils sont pris a l™ext´ rieur = think of all the tricks that allow you to vary their snacks,
` e
especially if they™re eaten outdoors
`
Le fromage blanc, doux et frais, r´ pond a toutes nos envies de simplicit´ et
e e
se prˆ te a des recettes vari´ s = soft and fresh white cheese is the answer to all our desires for
e` e
simplicity and lends itself to a variety of recipes
Avec une protection anti-UVA et UVB, voici le duo id´ al pour r´ sister aux
e e
effets nocifs d™un soleil trop brutal = with its anti-UVA and UVB protection, here™s the
ideal two-piece to resist the harmful effects of an over-cruel sun
`
Songez a votre partenaire pour qui vos demandes peuvent parfois sonner
comme des ordres = spare a thought for your partner for whom your requests may sometimes
sound like orders
`
La r´ mun´ ration annuelle doit suf¬re a vos besoins de d´ penses
e e e
normales = your annual income must be suf¬cient for the needs of your normal expenditure


de

288 de linking an adjective to a following in¬nitive
The most common adjectives involved are “
avide = greedy, capable = capable, certain = certain, confus = embarrassed, content =
happy, curieux = curious, d´ sireux = desirous, d´ sol´ = sad, etonn´ = astonished, ¬er
´
e ee e
= proud, heureux = happy, impatient = impatient, incapable = incapable, libre = free,
m´ content = discontent, ravi = delighted, reconnaissant = grateful, responsable =
e
responsible, satisfait = satis¬ed, sur = sure
ˆ
Usage with impersonal il est is dealt with in 164.

228
291 Examples: de + noun + in¬nitive



289 Examples of de linking an adjective to
a following in¬nitive
Rien ne sert d™essayer de se retenir d™´ ternuer, mˆ me si cela vous paraˆt
e e ±
´e
bruyant et peu el´ gant “ nous ne sommes pas capables d™y r´ sister “ there™s no e
point trying to stop yourself sneezing, even if it seems noisy and inelegant “ we™re incapable of resisting
ˆ
Vous pouvez etre certaine d™avoir des jambes impeccables “ en une minute
sous la douche avec ce rasoir a tˆ te pivotale = you can be sure of having perfect legs “
`e
in a minute under the shower with this razor with a revolving head
ˆ ´
Je suis sur que vous serez content de savoir que les rˆ ves erotiques sont un
e
signe de bonne sant´ psychique = you™ll be pleased to know that erotic dreams are a sign of
e
good mental health
ˆ
Si vous etes curieux de d´ couvrir plus sur les postes commerciaux que
e
nous offrons, contactez-nous au plus vite = if you™re curious to discover more about the
commercial posts we™re offering, contact us as soon as possible
ˆ
Si vous etes d´ sireux de savoir vos droits de salari´ et les bonnes attitudes
e e
`
a adopter pour discuter ef¬cacement avec votre patron, ce guide pratique
vous aidera = if you™re keen to know your rights as a wage-earner and the right attitude to adopt to
have a useful discussion with your boss, this practical guide will help you
Je suis tr` s ¬` re d™avoir travaill´ avec Jane Birkin = I™m very proud to have worked
ee e
with Jane Birkin
`
Le printemps est la! je suis impatiente de d´ couvrir mon corps et de
e
pro¬ter des beaux jours = spring has arrived! I™m impatient to uncover my body and make the
most of the ¬ne days

290 de linking a noun to a following in¬nitive
Some of the most common nouns involved are “
air (m) = air, appearance, autorisation (f) = authorisation, besoin (m) = need, capacit´ e
(f) = ability, chance (f)= chance, d´ sir (m) = desire, droit (m) = right, envie (f) =
e
desire, honte (f) = shame, impossibilit´ (f) = impossibility, incapacit´ (f) = inability, les
e e
moyens (mpl) = the means, n´ cessit´ (f) = necessity, obligation (f) = obligation, occa-
e e
sion (f) = opportunity, permission (f) = permission, peur (f) = fear, plaisir (m) = pleasure,
rage (f) = anger, raison (f) = reason, right, risque (m) = risk, temps (m) = time, tort
(m) = wrong, volont´ (f) = wish
e

291 Examples of de linking a noun to a following in¬nitive
Avoir un trou sur ses dates de stage en entreprise ou h´ siter sur ses e
ˆ
quali¬cations fait plutot mauvais genre. Au mieux vous aurez l™air de
souffrir d™un Alzheimer pr´ coce et au pire d™avoir bidonn´ votre CV = having
e e
a gap in your dates for work experience or hesitating over your quali¬cations makes a rather bad
impression. At best it will look as if you™re suffering from the early onset of Alzheimer™s, at worst as if
you™ve cheated with your cv
´ `
Tous mes patients eprouvent le besoin de se con¬er d` s que je commence a
e
manipuler leurs pieds = all my patients feel the need to con¬de in me as soon as I start
manipulating their feet

229
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR



Des mauvaises langues rapportent que les ¬lles adeptes du gon¬‚age des
l` vres ont un d´ sir, conscient ou inconscient, d™´ veiller des envies chez le
e e e
male = gossip-mongers say that girls who go for lip enhancement have the desire, conscious or
ˆ
subconscious, to arouse the male of the species
J™ai tr` s envie de remonter sur sc` ne, de refaire du cin´ ma = I™m very keen to
e e e
return to the stage, to take up the cinema again
` `
A ce moment-la, j™ai eu la sensation que le temps s™arrˆ tait, je n™avais pas
e
les moyens de r´ agir = at that moment, I had the feeling that time stood still, I didn™t have the
e
means to react
Pour se d´ fendre contre les pr´ dateurs, portez un grand sac plastique. Pour
e e
l™honnˆ te garcon, c™est la ¬lle qui fait les courses et n™a pas peur d™aller lui
e ¸
chercher une bi` re quand il est fatigu´ = to protect yourself against predators, carry a
e e
large plastic bag. To the honest guy, it™s the sign of a girl who does the shopping and isn™t afraid to fetch
him a beer when he™s tired
Si vous n™ouvrez pas la porte, il n™ira pas plus loin, ou alors il fera preuve
de violence, avec le risque de rameuter les ¬‚ics = il you don™t open the door, he won™t
go any further, or he may become violent, with the risk of alerting the cops
e`
Ce rapport est menac´ a cause de la volont´ de l™Etat de voir les femmes se
e
tourner de pr´ f´ rence vers un g´ n´ raliste au lieu d™un sp´ cialiste = this report
ee ee e
is under threat because of the State™s wish to see women preferably consult a GP rather than a specialist


292 de linking a verb to a following in¬nitive
The main verbs involved are “
s™abstenir = to abstain from, accepter = to accept, accuser = to accuse, achever = to
complete, s™af¬‚iger = to be distressed, (s™)arrˆ ter = to stop, attendre = to wait, s™aviser =
e
to realise, blamer = to blame, bruler = to burn, cesser = to cease, charger = to make respon-
ˆ ˆ
sible, choisir = to choose, comploter = to plot, consoler = to console, se contenter =
to be satis¬ed, continuer = to continue, convaincre = to convince, craindre = to fear,
d´ cider = to decide, d´ daigner = to disdain, demander = to ask, se d´ pˆ cher = to
e e ee
hurry, d´ sesp´ rer = to despair, d´ tester = to detest, dire = to say, dispenser = to dispense,
e e e
dissuader = to dissuade, douter = to doubt, s™efforcer = to exert oneself, s™empˆ cher =
e
to prevent oneself, s™empresser = to hurry, enrager = to be enraged, entreprendre = to
undertake, envier = to envy, envisager = to envisage, essayer = to try, s™´ tonner = to
e
be astonished, eviter = to avoid, s™excuser = to apologise, bien faire = to do well, faire
´
semblant = to pretend, feindre = to feign, (se) f´ liciter = to congratulate, ¬nir = to ¬nish,
e
se ¬‚atter = to ¬‚atter, se garder = to take care not, gronder = to scold, se hater = toˆ
hurry, hurler = to howl, implorer = to beg, s™indigner = to be indignant, s™inqui´ ter = e
to worry, interdire = to forbid, jurer = to swear, louer = to praise, manquer = to fail, en
avoir marre = to be fed up, m´ diter = to meditate, se mˆ ler = to mix, menacer = to
e e
threaten, m´ riter = to deserve, n´ gliger = to neglect, s™occuper = to be busy, offrir =
e e
to offer, omettre = to omit, ordonner = to order, oublier = to forget, pardonner = to
forgive, parler = to speak, permettre = to allow, persuader = to persuade, se piquer =
to like to make out, plaindre = to pity, prendre garde = to take care, (se) presser = to
hurry, prier = to beg, projeter = to propose, promettre = to promise, (se) proposer =
to propose, recommander = to recommend, redouter = to fear, refuser = to refuse,

230
294 de linking a verb to a noun



regretter = to regret, se r´ jouir = to rejoice, remercier = to thank, se repentir =
e
to repent, r´ soudre = to resolve, se retenir = to restrain oneself, rˆ ver = to dream, risquer
e e
= to risk, rougir = to blush, simuler = to simulate, se soucier = to worry, soupconner =
¸
to suspect, se souvenir = to remember, suf¬re = to suf¬ce, sugg´ rer = to suggest, supplier =
e
to beg, supporter = to tolerate, tacher = to attempt, t´ l´ phoner = to telephone, tenter =
ˆ ee
to attempt, se vanter = to boast, venir = just “ see 143.

293 Examples of de linking a verb to a following in¬nitive
`
La premi` re chose a faire, pour trouver son poids initial, est d™arrˆ ter de
e e
boire des calories = the ¬rst thing to do to recover your original weight is to stop drinking calories
J™essayais de mettre tous les atouts de mon cot´ = I tried to keep all the tricks up my
ˆe
sleeve
Ne jamais ressentir de la haine est suspect “ cela veut dire que l™on
s™interdit d™´ prouver un sentiment tout a fait normal = never to feel hatred is
`
e
suspect “ that means that you forbid yourself experiencing a perfectly normal feeling
Mon exemple peut permettre d™alerter des millions de gens = my example can
put millions of people on their guard
Je refuse toujours de juger individuellement = I refuse to judge individual cases
C™est comme a la Bourse “ plus on investit, plus on risque de perdre gros =
`
it™s like the Stock Exchange “ the more you invest, the more you risk losing big time
`
A ce niveau il ne suf¬t pas de r´ aliser un bon match = at this level it™s not enough to
e
pull off a good match
e`
Un de vos petits amis vous a d´ ja sugg´ r´ de changer quelque chose dans
ee
votre tˆ te “ le nez, le maquillage, la coiffure = one of your boyfriends has already
e
suggested changing something on your face “ your nose, your make-up, your hairstyle

294 de linking a verb to a noun
The major verbs involved are “
abuser = to abuse, s™accommoder = to make the best, s™accompagner = to be accom-
panied, accoucher = to give birth, s™agir = to be a question (il s™agit de = it™s a question of ),
s™aider = to use, s™alimenter = to live on, s™alourdir = to increase, s™apercevoir = to
notice, (s™)approcher = to approach, s™armer = to arm oneself, avoir besoin / envie /
honte / peur = to need / want / be ashamed / be afraid, changer = to change, se charger =
to take responsibility, convenir = to admit, to agree, se d´ ¬er = to distrust, d´ missionner =
e e
to resign, d´ pendre = to depend, disposer = to have at one™s disposal, se douter = to suspect,
e
s™´ chapper = to escape, s™embellir = to grow more attractive, s™´ merveiller = to wonder,
e e
s™emparer = to seize, s™ennuyer = to be bored, s™enrichir = to get rich, s™entourer = to
surround oneself, s™envelopper = to wrap oneself up, s™´ vader = to escape, s™excuser = to
e
apologise, s™indigner = to be indignant, s™inqui´ ter = to worry, s™inspirer = to be inspired,
e
jouir = to enjoy, juger = to judge, manquer = to lack, se marrer = to have a good laugh,
m´ dire = to malign, se m´ ¬er = to distrust, se moquer = to make fun, s™occuper = to
e e
be dealing with, s™offenser = to take offence, s™orner = to adorn oneself, se parer = to array
oneself, partir = to start, se passer = to do without, penser = to think, pro¬ter = to bene¬t,
r´ pondre = to be responsible, rire = to laugh, se saisir = to grab hold, se servir = to use,
e

231
A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR



sortir = to leave, se souvenir = to remember, t´ moigner = to bear witness, triompher =
e
to triumph, se tromper = to be mistaken, se vanter = to boast, vivre = to live


295 Examples of de linking a verb to a noun
´
De fait, il ne s™agit pas d™une evolution brutale mais d™une accumulation
de petites frustrations = in fact it™s not a question of a painful evolution but of an
accumulation of minor frustrations
Encore faut-il disposer d™outils p´ dagogiques ef¬caces = but you have to have
e
effective pedagogical tools at your disposal
´
La vraie star intelligente epouse un industriel, elle sait que les acteurs sont
des idiots “ ne vous en riez pas! = the really intelligent star marries an industrialist, she
knows that actors are idiots “ don™t laugh!
ˆ
Beaucoup de scienti¬ques ont du se marrer de cet article sur l™exercice des
abdominaux = a lot of scientists must have had a good laugh at this article on exercising
abdominal muscles
On peut jouir de la vie et du jour pr´ sent mais il faut aussi avoir de la
e
chance = you can enjoy life and the present time but you also need luck
On peut juger de l™int´ rˆ t de ce sujet par la correspondance que nous avons
ee
recue = you can judge the interest this subject has aroused by the mail we™ve received
¸
`
En tant qu™´ crivain c™est du drame que je m™occupe, du drame ou les
e
personnages principaux sont des femmes = as a writer, it™s drama that interests me,
drama in which the main characters are women
ˆ`
Grace a ceci on peut pro¬ter des indicateurs pr´ coces de l™apparition de la
e
fatigue = thanks to this we can bene¬t from the early indicators of the on-set of fatigue
Que pensez-vous de l™imagerie ultraviolente du Gangsta Rap? = what do you
think of the ultraviolent imagery of Gangsta Rap?
Il vit de ses livres et de ses ¬lms sur le crime, qui rapportent bien plus
d™argent aux honnˆ tes gens que le crime aux malfrats = he lives from his books
e
and ¬lms on crime, which bring in much more money for honest guys than crime does for villains


296 Verbs with direct object and de with a second noun
The main verbs involved are “
absoudre = to absolve, accabler = to overwhelm, accuser = to accuse, approcher = to
draw near, arracher = to snatch, assurer = to assure, avertir = to warn, aviser = to
notify, charger = to entrust, complimenter = to compliment, d´ barrasser = to get rid
e
of, d´ gouter = to disgust, d´ livrer = to deliver, d´ tourner = to divert, dispenser =
eˆ e e
to exempt, ecarter = to move aside, eloigner = to move away, enlever = to take away,
´ ´
excuser = to excuse, exempter = to exempt, f´ liciter = to congratulate, frapper = to
e
strike, informer = to inform, lib´ rer = to free, menacer = to threaten, oter = to remove,
ˆ
e
persuader = to persuade, pr´ venir = to warn, remercier = to thank, traiter = to call
e
(somebody something)


232
298 Verbs with a with noun, de with in¬nitive
`



297 Examples of verbs with direct object and de with
a second noun
C™est une r´ volution dans ma vie et je n™excuserai jamais mes parents de
e
leur manque de compr´ hension = it™s been a revolution in my life and I™ll never forgive my
e
parents for their lack of understanding
J™ai la surprise de d´ couvrir que je ne connais personne dont le nom de
e
famille commence par F “ je t™informe de cette nouvelle parce que ca ¸

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