<<

. 19
( 19)



hier 402 incin´ rer 176
e
highlighting 223, 463, 469, 474 inciter 283
homonyms 184 incliner 283
honte 290 inclure 176
avoir honte 294 inde¬nite article 247, 248, 249, 250
des ’ de before adjective before noun 259
ˆ
honteux, etre 149
hors de 274, 369 de with negative expressions 260
human agents de with quanti¬ers 259
gender of names of 180, 181 inde¬nite determiners 272
hurler 292 inde¬nite expressions requiring subjunctive 152
inde¬nite pronouns 245, 246
“i 180 indicative mood 6, 124“143, 167“170
ici 400 s™indigner 149, 292, 294
“ie 181 indirect questions 481
“ier 180 treatment of oui “ non questions 481
“i` re 181
e treatment of question word questions 481
il 200 use of si 481
and ce 219 “ine 181
ce or il ? 221 in´ vitable, il est 150
e
to translate English it with adjective + 221, inf´ rer 176
e
288 in¬nitive 1, 4, 11, 180
to translate English it with adjective + clause `
a + in¬nitive 310
de + in¬nitive 344
221
`
to translate English it with another part of linked to adjective by a 279, 280
speech 222 linked to in¬nitive by de 288, 289
to translate English it with in¬nitive + 221 `
linked to noun by a 281, 282
illnesses linked to noun by de 290, 291
names of + zero article 253 `
linked to verb by a 283“285
ils 200 linked to verb by de 292, 293
il y a 140, 142, 164 position of pronouns 213
(s™)imaginer 276 used as alternative to imperative 122
imm´ diatement 402
e with negation 416
immens´ ment 405
e in¬‚iger 176
immerger 176 informer 295
impatient 288 “ing 180
imp´ ratif, il est 150
e innombrable 204
imperative mood 6, 115“123 (s™)inqui´ ter 176, 292, 294
e


416
Index



inscrire 176 joliment 398
insistance 352 jouer 301, 390
insister 149, 283, 301 jouir 27, 176, 294
s™inspirer 294 juger 2176, 294, 301
instruire 176 jurer 292
`
intelligemment 398 jusqu™a 274, 370
`
interc´ der 176
e jusqu™a ce que 148, 465
interdire 150, 176, 292, 298 juste, il est 150
int´ rˆ t 281
ee juste adjective 440
il y a int´ rˆ t 150
ee juste adverb 405
(s™)int´ resser 283
e
int´ rˆ t 281
ee la de¬nite article 248, 249
interf´ rer 176
e la personal pronoun 200
`
interpr´ ter 176
e la 237, 238, 400
interrogatives 470“482 lacer 176
direct questions 470“480 laisser 278
indirect questions 481 lancer 176
interrogative sentences 444, 448, 470 languages
oui “ non questions 470“475 “ see also oui “ non gender of names of 180
names of + zero article 253
questions
questions introduced by question word 470, laquelle 464
476“482 l´ cher 176
e
with negation 416 le de¬nite article 248, 249
+ a / de ’ au / du 249
`
interrompre 176
intervenir 176 l´ ger 203
e
intonation le in comparisons 200
with exclamative sentences 483 le personal pronoun 208, 211
with oui “ non questions 473 referring to previously expressed concept 229
with question word questions 476 le long de 247, 371
intransitive verbs 63 lent 279
introduire 176 lequel
inversion in declarative clauses 469 interrogative pronoun 477
after certain adverbs 469 relative pronoun 464
after initial complement of subject 469 lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles 464
for stylistic purposes 469 les de¬nite article 248, 249
in relative clauses 469 les personal pronoun 208, 211
with oui “ non questions 472 leur personal pronoun 208, 211
with question word questions 476 leur possessive adjective 267, 271
with rester and venir 469 leur possessive pronoun 240, 241
inverted commas 484 se lever 103, 104
inviter 283 lib´ rer 176, 295
e
invraisemblable, il est 150 libre 288
s™irriter 283 librement 398
“ise 181 lieu de, au 247, 325
islands se limiter 283
names of + zero article 252 lire 35, 56, 59, 84, 169, 173, 176
prepositions + names of 393 livre 184
“isme 180 loger 176
it anticipatory English it not translated 230 loin 400
long 202, 204
jaillir 176 long de, le 247, 371
jamais 402, 415, 430 longtemps 402
ne . . . jamais 423 lors de 247, 372
with imperative 423 lorsque 133, 465
with in¬nitive 423 louer 292
without ne 423 lui 208, 211
with sans 423 luire 176
plus jamais 430
jaunir 176 ma 247, 267, 268
je 200 magni¬que 204
jeter 18, 44, 92, 118, 167, 171, 176 maigrir 176
jeune 203 maintenant 402
joindre 83, 176 maintenir 176


417
Index



maire 184 minorit´ 242
e
mais 452 modal verbs 159“163, 276
majeure partie 244 mode 184
majorit´ 242
e modeste 204
major sentences 445, 447“451 moi 208
mal 398, 409 moindre 199
`
malgr´ 274, 373
e moins de, a 274, 316
malgr´ que 148, 457
e moins in comparison 199, 201, 209, 390, 405, 409
malheureusement 413 moins in superlative 151, 409
malmener 176 moins pronoun 242
`
manche 184 moins que, a 148, 458
mani` re, d™une 394
e mollement 298
e`
mani` re a, de 274, 347 mon 247, 267, 271
e`
mani` re a ce que / que, de 148 before feminine noun beginning with vowel 267
manger 20, 44, 56, 75, 76, 92, 118, 167, 171, 176 monter 63, 276
manner clauses 455, 461 months 441
manoeuvre 184 gender of names of 180
manquer 274, 286, 292, 294, 301 mood 1, 6, 115“158, 167“174
marre, en avoir 235, 292 se moquer 294
marrer 294 mordre 176
mass nouns 188 mort 184
maudire 176 mou / mol 195
mauvais, plus 199 mourir 28, 52, 56, 59, 63, 67, 69, 71, 73, 80, 168,
me 208, 211, 228 172, 176
m´ chant 203
e mouvoir 56
m´ connaˆtre 176
e ± moyens, les 290
m´ content 288
e munir 176
ˆ
etre 149
m´ dire 176, 294
e nager 176
m´ diter 292
e naˆtre 60, 63, 176
±
se m´ ¬er 294
e naturel, il est 150
meilleur 199 naturellement 413
m´ langer 176
e n´ anmoins 413
e
se mˆ ler 286, 292, 301
e ne as negative particle 415“426, 429, 430
mˆ me 203, 405
e expletive ne 417
de mˆ me que 461
e ne alone 417
m´ moire 184
e with cesser 417
menacer 176, 292, 295 with n™avoir de cesse 417
mener 19, 48, 56, 92, 167, 171, 176, 276 with n™importe qui / quoi 417
“ment 180 with pouvoir 417
mentir 176 with si ce n™est 417
mer 184 ne . . . pas 416
merci 184, 411 omission of ne 431
m` re 184
e n´ cessaire, il est 150
e
m´ riter 292
e n´ cessit´ 290
e e
mes 247, 267, 271 negation 465“431
`
mesure ou, dans la 458 expletive ne 417
metals multiple negators 430
gender of names of 180 ne alone 417
“m` tre 180
e with cesser 417
(se) mettre 33, 83, 169, 173, 176, 283 with n™avoir de cesse 417
mi 193 with n™importe qui / quoi 417
mien 240, 241 with pouvoir 417
mieux 409 with si ce n™est 417
mille 433 ne . . . aucun 420
millier 437 ne . . . gu` re 422, 430
e
ne . . . jamais 423, 430 “ see also ne . . . jamais
million 433
minerals ne . . . nul 421
gender of names of 180 ne . . . pas 416
minor sentences 445, 446 separated from verb by adverb 416
a phrase 446 with imperative 416
a single word 446 with inde¬nite article 416
a subordinate clause 446 with in¬nitive 416


418
Index



with interrogative 416 non plus, pas 429
with present participle 416 non que 148
with verb 415, 416 normal, il est 150
ne . . . (pas) . . . ni . . . ni 426 nos 247, 267, 271
ne . . . personne 418, 430 notre 247, 267, 271
ˆ
ne . . . plus 424, 430 “ see also ne . . . plus notre 240, 241
ne . . . que 425, 430 noun clauses 455, 462
ne . . . rien 419, 430 “ see also ne . . . rien nouns 177“192
non 428 abstract nouns 188
omission of ne 431 collective nouns 188
compound nouns 187 “ see also compound
pas alone 427
. . . pas non plus 429 nouns
plus jamais 430 count nouns 188
n´ gliger 176, 292
e forming plural of nouns 189
ne . . . gu` re 422
e gender of nouns 178“187
neiger 176 irregular plurals 189
`
ne in comparisons 200 linked to in¬nitive by a 281, 282
`
ne . . . jamais 423 linked to verb by a 286, 287
with imperative 423 mass nouns 188
with in¬nitive 423 noun as complement of subject or object 177
without ne 423 noun as indirect object 177
with sans 423 noun as prepositional expression 177
n™en plus pouvoir 233, 424 noun as subject 177
ne . . . nul 421 nouns and number 188“192
ne . . . pas 416 plural of compound nouns 190
separated from verb by adverb 416 plural of foreign nouns 189
with imperative 416 nous 208, 211, 228
with inde¬nite article 416 nouveau / nouvel 195
with in¬nitive 416 noyer 176
with interrogative 416 nu 193
with present participle 416 nuire 176, 286
with verb 415, 416 nul, ne . . . 421
ne . . . (pas) . . . ni . . . ni 426 number 186“192, 196
adjectives 196 “ see also adjectives
with ne . . . aucun 426
with ne . . . plus 426 contrast between singular and plural usage in
without a verb 426 French 192
ne . . . personne 418 different usages of number in English and French
ne . . . plus 424 191
nouns 188“192 “ see also nouns
with in¬nitive 424
ne . . . que 148, 425 numbers
cardinal numbers 432“438, 442 “ see also cardinal
ne . . . que + pas 425
ne . . . rien 419 numbers
rien as noun 419 approximate numbers 437
rien de 419 fractions and decimals 438
rien que 419 pronunciation of cinq, six, huit, neuf, dix,
n™est-ce pas 472 cent 435
nettoyer 176 use of ¬gures to express cardinal numbers 436
ni 452 with titles 442
nier 150, 276 ordinal numbers 402, 432, 439, 440, 444
n™importe comment 245, 246 with fois 444
n™importe lequel 245, 246 with Parisian districts 444
`
n™importe ou 245, 246 numerals 432“444
n™importe qui 245, 246
ni . . . ni, ne . . . (pas) 426 “o 180
with ne . . . aucun 426 ob´ ir 176, 286
e
with ne . . . plus 426 obligation 290
without a verb 426 obliger 285
noircir 176 s™obstiner 283
nombre 242 obtenir 176
non 411, 428 occasion 290
mais non 428 s™occuper 283, 292, 294, 301
nonchalamment 398 “oeu 189
non pas que 148 oeuvre 185


419
Index



s™offenser 294 part “ d™une part . . . de l™autre part 413
(s™)offrir 176, 283, 292 partager 176
“oi 180 part de, de la 274
“oir 180 parti 184
omettre 176, 292 participer 286
on 200, 224 participles 56“61
its various values 224 past participles 58“61
on and agreement 197, 225 agreement with preceding direct object 214
on and its other forms 226 present participles 56, 57
on and possessive adjective 268 with negation 416
used to avoid passive 114, 224 particuli` rement 405
e
op´ rer 176
e partie 184
opportunit´ , il y a 150
e partir 12, 13, 14, 25, 44, 56, 59, 63, 67, 69, 71, 73,
or 413 78, 90, 168, 172, 176, 276, 294
ordinal numbers 402, 432, 439 partitive article 247, 248
ordonner 149, 292, 298 de with negative expressions 260, 416
s™orner 294 partout 400
oser 276 parvenir 176, 283
ˆ
oter 295 pas, ne . . . 416
ou 197, 452 pas alone 427
“ou 180, 189 passer 63
`
ou 412, 464, 465, 476, 479 se passer 294
`
ou que 152 passer son temps 283
oublier 292 passive voice 106, 110“114
s™oublier 283 avoiding the passive voice 114, 224
oui 411 formation of passive voice 112
mais oui 411 past anterior 88“90, 133
oui “ non questions 470“476 used in time clauses 133
elliptical oui “ non questions 475 past historic 74“87, 130
treatment of oui “ non questions in indirect used in formal circumstances 130
questions 481 used in written French 130
with est-ce que 473 past tenses 128“134
with intonation 473 pauvre 203
with inversion of subject and verb 472 payer 176
with n™est-ce pas 472 peau 184
with “t“ with pronouns 472 p´ cher 176
e
ou¨r 165
± peindre 176
` `
ou que 152 peine, a 405, 469
“our 180 peine, ce n™est pas la 150
ouvertement 298 pendant 274, 379, 390
ouvrir 59, 67, 71, 73, 118, 168, 172, 176 pendant que 465
pendre 176
page 184 pendule 184
paire 184 p´ n´ trer 176
ee
ˆ
palir 176 penser 150, 233, 276, 286, 294, 301
par 274, 275, 374, 390, 391 percer 176
par erreur 398 percevoir 176
parachever 176 perdre 31, 82, 169, 173, 176
paradoxal, il est 150 perdre son temps 283
paraˆt, il 164
± p` re 184
e
paraˆtre 176, 276
± perfect indicative tense 66, 67, 131
parce que 456 used to refer to time in past 131
par cons´ quent 413
e perfect subjunctive tense 101, 102, 146, 147, 158
par contre 413 periods of time 441
parcourir 176 p´ rir 176
e
par-dessous 274, 375, 400 permettre 149, 176, 292, 298
par-dessus 274, 376 permission 290
pardonner 286, 292, 298 perp´ trer 176
e
(se) parer 286, 294 pers´ v´ rer 283
ee
parfois 402 persistence 281
parler 292 persister 283
parmi 274, 377 person 1, 5
par suite de 274, 378 personal pronouns 206“236


420
Index



ce and il 219 plus que, d™autant 459
ˆ
with reference to persons 219 plutot 398, 405, 413
elision 209 poˆ le 184
e
¬rst person 208, 215, 227 poids 184
stressed 231“233 point, ne . . . 416
`
forms 208 point que, a tel 459
objects 227 pois 184
position 210, 211 poix 184
position with imperative 212 polir 176
position with in¬nitive 213 politique 184
`
position with voici, voila 213 porter 14, 16, 44, 47, 56, 59, 67, 69, 71, 73, 76, 90,
second person 208, 216, 227 91, 99, 100, 118, 167, 171
stressed 231“233 possessive adjectives 247, 265, 267“271
stressed pronouns 231“233 with parts of the body 255
third person 208, 217, 227 possessive determiners 267“271
differences between French and English usages forms 217
218 possessive pronouns 240, 241
stressed 231“233 forms 240
personne 415, 430 possible, il est 150, 164
ne . . . personne 418 poste 184
persuader 292, 295, 298 pot 184
peser 176 pour 274, 380, 390
petit, plus 199 pour peu que 148, 458
peu 242, 259, 405, 409 pour que 148, 460
peu, un 259, 405 pourquoi 412, 476, 479
peu importe 150 poursuivre 176
peu probable, il est 150 pourtant 413
peu que, pour 148, 458 pourvoir 176
peur 290 pourvu que 148, 458
avoir 149, 294 pousser 283
peur de, de 274, 346 pouvoir 12, 42, 44, 55, 56, 61, 67, 69, 71, 73, 87,
peur que, de 148, 149 90, 98, 100, 150, 161, 170, 174, 176, 276
peut, il se 150 n™en pouvoir plus 235
peut-ˆ tre 161, 411, 469
e pr´ c´ demment 402
ee
phrase as minor sentence 446 pr´ cipitamment 398
e
physique 184 pr´ cis 440
e
pile 440 pr´ dire 176
e
pincer 176 pr´ f´ rable, il est 150
ee
se piquer 292 pr´ f´ rer 149, 176
ee
pire 199 premier 155
pis 398, 409 premi` rement 402
e
placer 176 (se) prendre 37, 56, 60, 67, 71, 73, 83, 169, 173,
(se) plaindre 103, 104, 149, 176, 292 176, 283, 301
(se) plaire 176, 283, 286 prendre garde 292
plaisir 290 prendre part 286
pleuvoir 42, 55, 56, 61, 87, 170, 174, 176 prendre plaisir 283
se plier 283 pr´ par´ 279
e e
plonger 176 se pr´ parer 283
e
ployer 176 prepositional alternation 391
plupart 242, 244 prepositional expressions 302“393
pluperfect indicative tense 68, 69, 132 prepositions 273“393
used to express event of period which has taken effect of varying prepositions 390
place before another in the past 132 interlocking of English and French prepositions
pluperfect subjunctive tense 101, 102 392
plus, ne . . . 424, 430 prepositions and place names 393
plus jamais 430 prepositions which link 275“301
with in¬nitive 424 verbs with variable prepositional usage 300,
plus, . . . pas non 429 301
plus grande partie 244 zero preposition 276“278
plus in comparisons 199, 201, 259, 390, 405, pr` s 400
e
409 prescrire 176
plus in superlative 151, 199, 409 pr` s de 274, 381
e
plus pronoun 242 pr´ sent 203
e


421
Index



present indicative tense 15“42, 125“128, 142 colons and commas 484
of “er verbs 16“21 inverted commas / guillemets 484
to express continuous time 126 punir 176
to express future time 127, 136 pur 203
to express habitual time 125
to express past time 127 quand 133, 412, 453, 465, 476, 479
to express universal time 125 quand mˆ me 413
e
`
used to describe events happening at the present quant a 274, 382
moment 125 quanti¬ers 259
present subjunctive tense 91“98, 146, 147 quantifying pronouns 242, 243
presque 405, 406 quantit´ 242
e
(se) presser 292 quart 438
prˆ t 279
e que in exclamative sentences 483
pr´ tendre 176, 276
e que interrogative pronoun 476, 477, 481
prˆ ter 298
e que relative pronoun 464
que = which 464
pr´ venir 176, 295
e
que = whom 464
prier 292
principal 204 que subordinating conjunction 462
probable, il est 164 introducing clause requiring subjunctive 152
probable, il est peu 150, 164 replacing si 458
probablement 411 que, ce 464, 482
prochain 200, 253 que, ne . . ., 425, 430
prochainement 402 que de 483
products, names of + zero article 253 quel 254, 476, 478
produire 176 in exclamative sentences 483
pro¬ter 294 quel . . . que 153, 457
projeter 176, 292 quelque 153
prolonger 176 quelquefois 402
promener 176 quelque que 153
promettre 176, 292 que . . . ou 148, 458
prompt 279 qu™est-ce que 477, 481
pronominal verbs 55, 103“109 exclamative sentences with qu™est-ce que 463
agreement of past participles 105, 108 qu™est-ce qui 477
compound tenses 104“106, 108 question, il est 164
forming the imperative 120 questions 470“482
used to avoid passive voice 114 direct questions 470“480
variable values 106 elliptical questions without question word but
prononcer 176 suggesting one 480
pronouns 206“246 indirect questions 481
demonstrative pronouns 237“239 “ see also oui “ non questions 470“475
demonstrative pronouns questions introduced by question word 470,
impersonal pronoun on 114 “ see also on 476“482
inde¬nite pronouns 242, 245, 246 treatment of question word in indirect
object pronouns and imperative 123 questions 481
personal pronouns 207“236 “ see also personal with ellipsis 476
pronouns with est-ce que 476
possessive pronouns 240, 241 “ see also possessive with intonation 476
pronouns with inversion 476
quantifying pronouns 242 rhetorical questions 482
re¬‚exive pronoun 106“108, 228 question words 476“479
(se) proposer 292 qui, ce 464, 481
propre 203, 279 qui interrogative pronoun 476, 477
proscrire 176 qui after preposition 477
prot´ ger 176
e qui object 477
puis 413 qui subject 477
puisque 456 quinzaine 437
punctuation 484 qui que 152, 245
capital letters 484 qui relative pronoun 464
with book titles 484 qui after preposition 464
qui subject = which 464
with names of countries 484
qui subject = who 464
with names of nationality 484
with names of organisations 484 quoi, de 464
with professional names and of¬cial titles 484 quoi interrogative pronoun 477


422
Index



quoi que 152, 457 r´ pugnance 281
e
quoique 148, 457 r´ pugner 283, 286
e
quoi qui 152, 457 requ´ rir 176
e
r´ serve que, sous 148
e
racheter 176 se r´ signer 283
e
rafraˆchir 176
± r´ sister 286
e
rage 290 r´ solu 279
e
rager 176 (se) r´ soudre 176, 283, 292
e
raison 290 responsable 288
rajeunir 176 ressembler 286
rallonger 176 ressentir 176
ramener 176 rester 63, 469
ranger 176 retard 281
rapide 204 en retard 402, 403
(se) rappeler 176, 276 (se) retenir 176, 292
rare, il est 150 retourner 54, 276
ravi 288 r´ unir 176
e
ravir 176 r´ ussir 176, 283
e
rayer 176 (se) r´ v´ ler 176, 276
ee
r´ cemment 402
e revenir 176, 276
recevoir 40, 44, 55, 56, 61, 67, 69, 71, 73, 87, 90, rˆ ver 233, 292
e
97, 99, 100, 102, 118, 170, 174, 176 rhetorical questions 482
recommander 292 richement 398
reconnaissant 288 rien, ne . . . 419, 430
reconnaˆtre 176, 276
± rien as noun 419
recours, avoir 233 rien de 419
recouvrir 176 rien que 419
recueillir 176 rire 32, 83, 169, 173, 176, 294
r´ diger 176
e risqu´ 290
e
redouter 149, 292 (se) risquer 150, 283, 292
r´ duire 176
e rompre 32, 56, 59, 82, 95, 169, 173, 176
r´ f´ rer 176
ee rougir 176, 292
r´ ¬‚´ chir 176
ee
re¬‚´ ter 176
e sa 267
re¬‚exive pronouns 106“108 saillir 176
(se) refuser 149, 283, 292 saisir 176, 294
regarder 278 sale 203
regions salir 176
prepositions + names of 393 sans 274, 383
regret 281 sans attendre 398
regretter 149, 292 sans aucun doute 411
r´ it´ rer 176
ee sans doute 410
rejeter 176 sans que 148
se r´ jouir 149, 176, 283, 292
e satisfaire 176
relative clauses 453, 464, 468 satisfait 288
ˆ
following superlative requiring subjunctive 151 etre 149
reluire 176 sauf 274, 384
rem´ dier 286
e savoir 42, 55, 57, 61, 87, 98, 119, 162, 170, 174,
remercier 292, 295 176, 276
remplacer 176 savoir gr´ 298
e
remplir 176 “scope 180
renoncer 176, 283, 286 se 208, 211, 228
renouveler 176 seasons
rentrer 63, 276 gender of names of 180
names of + zero article 253
renvoyer 176
r´ pandre 176
e s´ cher 176
e
r´ partir 176
e secourir 176
se repentir 176, 292 s´ duire 176
e
r´ p´ ter 176
ee sel 184
r´ pondre 31, 82, 169, 173, 176, 286, 294, 301
e selle 184
reprendre 176 selon 274, 385
reprocher 298 semble, il 150, 164
reproduire 176 indicative vs subjunctive 150


423
Index



sembler 276 souhaiter 149, 276
semer 176 soulager 176
sensible 279 soulever 176
sentences 443“452 soumettre 176
normal structure of a sentence 443 soupconner 292
¸
sentences in speech 443 soupeser 176
sentences in writing 443 sourire 176
sentence structure 445“451 sous 256, 274, 386, 391
major sentences 447: simple sentences 448; souscrire 176
declarative 448; exclamative 448; imperative sous r´ serve que 148
e
448; interrogative 448; complex sentences soutenir 176
450; compound sentences 449; se souvenir 103, 104, 176, 292, 294
compound-complex sentences 451 souvent 402
minor sentences 445, 446 stem 14
sentence types 444 stylistic effect 257, 468
declarative sentences 444 subir 176
exclamative sentences 444 subjunctive mood 6, 91“102, 124, 144“158,
imperative sentences 444 171“174
interrogative sentences 444 circumstances requiring subjunctive 148“153
sentir 176, 278 circumstances that may require subjunctive
sequence of tenses 140, 141 154“158
(se) servir 176, 283, 286, 294, 301 uses 144“158
ses 267 subordinate clauses 454“466
seul 155, 203 subordinate clause as minor sentence 446
seulement 413 types of subordinate clauses 455
shrubs causal clauses 455, 456
gender of names of 180 concessive clauses 455, 457
si adverb of af¬rmation 410 conditional clauses 455, 458
si adverb of degree 405 consecutive clauses 455, 459
si conjunction 453, 458 declarative clauses 466“468
replaced by que 458 ¬nal clauses 455, 460
si . . . que 459 manner clauses 455, 461
use of si in indirect questions 481 noun clauses 455, 462
sien 240, 241 relative clauses 464
similes as adverbs of manner 398 time clauses 465
simple 203 subvenir 176, 286
simple sentence 447, 448 succ´ der 176, 286
e
declarative 448 suf¬re 176, 286, 292
exclamative 448 sugg´ rer 176, 292, 298
e
imperative 448 suite de, par 274, 378
interrogative 448 suivant 274, 387
simple tenses 14 suivre 60, 176
simuler 292 superlative of adjectives 199
“sion 181 superlative of adverbs 409
si . . . que 409 superlative without plus or moins perhaps
soi 208 requiring subjunctive 155
soit 487 superlative with plus or moins requiring
soit que . . . ou / soit que 148 subjunctive 151
solde 184 supplier 292
solidement 398 supporter 292
somme 184 supposant que 148
son 247, 267 suppos´ que 148, 481
e
`
before feminine noun beginning with vowel 267 suppos´ que, a 148
e
possible ambiguity 269 sur 274, 388, 390, 391
ˆ
the son series “ its values 268 sur 288
ˆ
songer 176, 233, 283, 286 il n™est pas sur 150
sonnant 440 surgir 176
sorte que, de 148, 460 sur-le-champ 402
sortir 63, 176, 276, 294 surprendre 176, 283
ˆ
se soucier 292 surpris, etre 149
soudain 402 survivre 286
souffrir 176 surprendre 176



424
Index



“t“ past historic 74“87, 130
use of “t“ with pronouns 472 used in formal circumstances 130
ta 267, 271 used in written French 130
ˆ
tacher 292 past tenses 128“134
taire 59, 176 perfect indicative tense 66, 67, 131
tandis que 465 used to refer to time in past 131
tant 259, 405, 408 perfect subjunctive tense 101, 102, 146, 147,
tant que 465 158
tant . . . que 459 pluperfect indicative tense 68, 69, 132
taon 184 used to express event or period which has taken
tard 402, 403 place before another in the past 132
tarder 283, 298, pluperfect subjunctive tense 101, 102
il me tarde 298, 301 present indicative tense 15“42, 125“128, 142
te 208, 211, 228 of “er verbs 16“21
“t´ 181
e of “ir verbs 22“28
tel 459 of “oir verbs 38“42
t´ l´ phoner 286, 292
ee of “re verbs 29“37
tellement 405, 408 to express continuous time 126
tellement . . . que 459 to express future time 127, 134
`
tel point que, a 459 to express habitual time 125
tel . . . que 459 to express past time 127
t´ moigner 294
e to express universal time 125
temps 290 used to describe events happening at the
il est 150, 164 present moment 125
tendance 281 present subjunctive tense 91“98, 146, 147
tendre 176, 283 sequence of tenses in subjunctive mood 145“147
tenir 27, 52, 56, 59, 79, 176, 233, 283, 301 simple tenses 14
s™en tenir 283 tense formation 14
tenses 1, 7“176 tenter 292
compound tenses of pronominal verbs 104“106, terminer 301
108 terrible 204
compound tenses of simple verbs 62“73 terriblement 405
conditional perfect tense 72, 73, 139, 141, 158 tes 267, 271
in reported speech 139 tien 240, 241
to refer to events that might have taken place tiers 438
139 time 440
used to express uncertainty 139 telling the time 440
conditional tense 45“55, 138, 141 approximately 440
in main clause of sentence with conditional half past the hour 440
clause 138 other times 440
in reported speech 138 precisely 440
used to express uncertainty 138 quarter past and quarter to the hour 440
differences between French and English usages the hour 440
140 time clauses 453, 465
sequence of tenses 140, 141 “tion 181
`
with depuis, il y a, voici, voila 140, titles 442
142 with an article 256
with venir de 143 toi 216
double compound past tense 134 tomber 63
future perfect tense 70, 71, 137, 141 ton 267
future tense 45“55, 135, 136, 141 ton noun 184
to refer to future events 135 ton possessive adjective 267, 271
used as alternative to imperative 122, 135 before feminine noun beginning with vowel 267
imperfect indicative tense 43, 44, 129, 142 tordre 176
to express duration of time 129 tort 290
`
to express period of time 129 tort, a 298
ˆ
to express repeated or habitual action 129 tot 402
used to describe set of circumstances totalement 405
129 toujours 402, 403
imperfect subjunctive tense 99, 100 tour 184
past anterior 88“90, 133 tout 250, 272, 405, 406
used in time clauses 133 tout droit 398



425
Index



`
tout a coup 402 Group 1 “er verbs 13, 15“21, 44, 47“49, 56, 59,
`
tout a l™heure 402 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 76, 90, 91“93, 99, 100,
tout de suite 402 102, 167, 168, 171
toutefois 413 conditional tense 47: radical stem variation in
tracer 176 conditional 49
traduire 176 conditional perfect 73
trahir 176 future tense 47: radical stem variation in future
traire 165 49
traiter 295 future perfect 71
tranquillement 398 imperfect indicative tense 44
transcrire 176 imperfect subjunctive tense 99, 100
transf´ rer 176
e past anterior 90
transitive verbs 65 past historic 75, 76
travailler 283 past participles 59
`
travers de, a 274, 319 perfect indicative tense 69
travers de, au 274 perfect subjunctive tense 102
trees pluperfect indicative tense 69
gender of names of 180 pluperfect subjunctive tense 102
trentaine 437 present participles 56
tr` s 405
e present indicative tense 15“21
tressaillir 176 present subjunctive tense 91“93
triompher 294 Subgroup 1 18
triste 203 verbs in “eler 18, 48
ˆ
triste, etre 149 verbs in “eter 18, 48
se tromper 294 Subgroup 2 19, 48
´
trop 259, 406, 406, 409 verbs with e or e in stem 19
trouver 150 Subgroup 3 20
tu 208, 216, 267 commencer / manger 20
“tude 181 subgroup 4 21
tutoyer 176 aller 21, 49
Group 2 “ir verbs 13, 22“28, 44, 50“52, 56, 59,
-ueil 180 67, 69, 79, 73, 77“80, 90, 91, 94, 99, 100,
un/une 248, 249 102, 168, 171
unanime 279 conditional tense 50“52
unanimement 398 conditional perfect 73
unir 176 future tense 50“52
un peu 259, 405 future perfect 71
“ure 181 imperfect indicative tense 44
s™user 283 imperfect subjunctive tense 99,100
utile 279 past anterior 90
utilisant toutes ses forces, en 398 past historic 77“80
utiliser 283 past participles 59
perfect indicative tense 67
vague 184 perfect subjunctive tense 102
vaillamment 398 pluperfect indicative tense 69
vaincre 59, 176 pluperfect subjunctive tense 102
valoir 42, 55, 56, 61, 87, 170, 174, 176 present participles 56
valoir mieux 276 present indicative tense 22“28
se vanter 292, 294 present subjunctive tense 91, 94
vapeur 184 Subgroup 1 24, 51, 77
vase 184 ¬nir 24
vegetables Subgroup 2 25, 52, 80
gender of names of 181 courir / partir / dormir 25
veiller 149, 283 Subgroup 3 26, 77
vendre 14, 31, 44, 53, 56, 59, 67, 69, 71, 73, 82, cueillir 26
90, 95, 99, 100, 102, 118, 169, 173, Subgroup 4 27, 79
176 tenir / venir 27
venger 176 Group 3 “re verbs 13, 29“37, 44, 53“54, 56, 59,
venir 27, 52, 59, 63, 79, 94, 118, 168, 172, 176, 60, 67, 69, 71, 73, 81“84, 90, 91, 95, 96, 99,
301, 469 100, 169, 173
venir de 143, 292 conditional tense 53, 54
verbs 1“176 conditional perfect 73



426
Index



future tense 53, 54 linked to in¬nitive by de 292, 293
`
future perfect 71 linked to noun by a 286, 287
imperfect indicative tense 44 linked to noun by de 295, 296
imperfect subjunctive tense 99, 100 modal verbs 159“163
past anterior 90 participles 56“61
ˆ
past historic 81“84 agreement of past participles with etre 64
past participles 59, 60 past participles 58, 59
perfect indicative tense 67 present participles 56, 57
perfect subjunctive tense 00 pronominal verbs 63, 103“109
pluperfect indicative tense 69 agreement of past participles 105, 108
pluperfect subjunctive tense 00 forming the imperative 120
present participles 56 used to avoid passive voice 114
present indicative tense 29“37 variable values 106
present subjunctive tense 91, 95, 96 verbs and negation 415“417
verbs with a + noun and de + in¬nitive 298,
`
Subgroup 1 31
vendre / perdre / r´ pondre 31
e 299
Subgroup 2 32 verbs with variable prepositional usage 300, 301
rompre / rire / conclure 32 verbs with zero preposition 276“278
Subgroup 3 33 verb stem 14
battre / mettre 22 verb subgroups 26
Subgroup 4 34 vers 274, 389, 440
croire 34 vˆ tir 59, 176
e
Subgroup 5 35 vieillir 176
lire / conduire 35 vieux / vieil 195
Subgroup 6 36 vingtaine 437
´
ecrire 36 viser 283
Subgroup 7 37 vite 398
`
boire / craindre / dire / faire / prendre vitesse, a grande 398
ˆ
/ vivre / etre 37 vivre 37, 56, 84, 169, 173, 176, 294
Group 4 “oir verbs 13, 38“42, 44, 55, 56, 61, 67, voice 106, 110“114
69, 71, 73, 85“87, 90, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, avoiding the passive voice 114
170, 174 formation of passive voice 112
conditional tense 55 voici 140, 142, 213
`
conditional perfect 73 voila 140, 142, 213
future tense 55 voile 184
future perfect 71 voir 41, 44, 56, 61, 86, 97, 156, 170, 174, 176,
imperfect indicative tense 44 278
imperfect subjunctive tense 99, 100 volont´ 290
e
past anterior 90 volontiers 398
past historic 85“87 vomir 176
past participles 61 vos 267, 270
perfect indicative tense 67 votre 247, 267, 270
ˆ
perfect subjunctive tense 102 votre 240, 241
pluperfect indicative tense 69 vouloir 42, 55, 56, 61, 87, 98, 119, 149, 163, 170,
pluperfect subjunctive tense 102 174, 176, 276
present participles 56 en vouloir 235, 298
present indicative tense 38“42 used as alternative to imperative 122, 163
present subjunctive tense 97, 98 vous 208, 211, 216, 228, 267
Subgroup 1 40 vouvoyer 176
“ecevoir 40 voyager 176
Subgroup 2 41 vrai 203
voir 41 vrai, il est 164
Subgroup 3 42 il n™est pas 150
asseoir / avoir / devoir / falloir / vraiment 405
pleuvoir / pouvoir / savoir / valoir / vraisemblablement 409
vouloir 42 vu que 456
defective verbs 165
followed by two nouns, second with de 296, weather 164
297 weights and measures
impersonal verbs 164 gender of names of 180
intransitive verbs 63 wines
`
linked to in¬nitive by a 283“285 gender of names of 180



427
Index



word years 441
as clause 453
as minor sentence 446 zero article 248, 258
word order in declarative clause 467, 468 with adverbial expressions 256
with past participles 256
y 211, 234, 236 with prepositions 256
equivalent of a + noun 236
` with set phrases 256
= there 236 zero preposition 275“278




428

<<

. 19
( 19)