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i Es casi seguro que terminar´ mi tarea ( ) enero
e
j Les dimos la casa ( ) dos meses
k Perdieron ( ) cinco goles a uno
l Pasamos por Oaxaca ( ) ir a Palenque
m Se compr´ un apartamento ( ) ciento cincuenta mil euros
o
n Ve ( ) la izquierda al llegar a la esquina
o Todo el mundo es loco ( ) el ´
p Este edi¬cio fue derribado ( ) la empresa
q Con tanto bulto no pasas ( ) la puerta
r Lo supe ( ) tu padre



222
24 Prepositions por and para



ii Paired activity
Objective “ To understand the differences between por and para
Method “ Engage in a discussion to work out why por and para are used in the following
¬ve pairs of sentences. Try to distinguish their use and meaning.
a (1) Quieren ir por el museo (2) Quieren ir para el museo
b (1) Estoy limpiando la casa por la ¬esta (2) Estoy limpiando la casa para la ¬esta
c (1) Dale el dinero por el regalo (2) Dale el dinero para el regalo
d (1) El hombre est´ por confesar la verdad
a (2) El hombre est´ para confesar la verdad
a
e (1) Hace la tarea por m´± (2) Hace la tarea para m´±

Now, each pair ¬nds two more pairs of sentences like these above to present
to the class.
Level 2
´
2.1 More information on para (Mas datos sobre para)
´
2.2 More information on por (Mas datos sobre por)



2.1 More information on para
i Indicating “as” or “with the status of ”

Nuestra candidata no sali´ para alcaldesa
o Our candidate did not get the mayor™s post

ii Suggesting some undisclosed thought

Aquel lugar es ideal, pens´ el conde para s´
o ± That™s an ideal spot, the count thought to
himself
“No me atrevo,” dije para m´
± “I dare not,” I said to myself

iii Suggesting comparison or contrast

No hace demasiado calor para ser agosto It™s not hot enough to be August

iv Corresponding to “in order to”

Trabaja mucho para ascender a jefa She works a lot to become the boss
Estudio bastante para ir a la universidad I work quite a lot to go to university

v Suggesting suf¬ciency or necessity

El agua es necesaria para la vida Water is necessary for life

vi Used with verbs like quedar, faltar, and restar indicating time left to do something
or distance to be covered

Faltan dos horas / diez kil´metros para llegar al
o There are two hours / six miles left to reach
pueblo the town
*Quedan/restan dos semanas para las vacaciones There are two weeks before the vacation


*Quedar is used much more than restar in this context


223
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




vii Indicating mood or opportunity to do something (usually this has a negative idea)

No estoy para bromas I™m not in the mood for joking
La o¬cina est´ para pocos gastos
a The of¬ce is not keen on spending money
viii Used in conjunction with demasiado and su¬ciente

Esta casa es demasiado grande para m´ ± This house is too big for me
No tengo su¬ciente dinero (como) para compr´ rtelo
a I haven™t enough money to buy it for you
ix Other uses

Es para volverse loco It™s enough to send you mad
No es para creerlo You really can™t believe it
x Para is also used in conjunction with con = towards

Es muy simp´ tico para con todo el mundo
a He™s very nice with everyone



2.2 More information on por
i Indicating cause

Detuvieron al alcalde por el asesinato de su mujer They arrested the mayor for the murder of
his wife
ii Used frequently before an abstract noun

Lo hice por placer I did it for pleasure
Le dio todo su dinero por amor He gave her all his money out of love
Les pagu´ las vacaciones por cari˜ o
e n I paid for their vacation out of affection
Lo hizo por inadvertencia She did it by mistake
No escrib´ la carta por descuido
± I didn™t write the letter by an oversight
No contest´ por dignidad
o She didn™t answer out of dignity
Visitaba al enfermo por compasi´no I would visit the sick person out of
compassion
Lo acompa˜ ´ por amistad
ne I accompanied him out of friendship
No felicit´ al ganador por despecho
o He didn™t congratulate the winner out of
spite
iii Indicating intensi¬cation and followed by an in¬nitive

Gritaba por gritar He shouted for shouting™s sake
iv Indicating rate

Se vende por docenas It™s sold by the dozen
La tasa es del ocho por ciento The rate is eight percent
v Indicating manner and means

Es mexicano por adopci´no He™s Mexican by adoption
por aire/carretera/ferrocarril/mar/tierra by air/road/railroad/sea/land
La informaron por carta They informed her by letter

224
24 Prepositions por and para



Les mand´ el dinero por correo
e I sent them the money by mail
Lo o´mos por la radio/televisi´n
± o We heard it on the radio/television
La conoc´ por su sombrero
± I recognized her by her hat
Lo inform´ por escrito
o She informed him in writing
vi Used in adverbial idioms of manner

por cierto por un lado / una parte
certainly on the one hand
por consiguiente por otro lado / otra parte
in consequence on the other hand
por el contrario por lo tanto
on the contrary therefore
por desgracia por ultimo
´
unfortunately at last
por fortuna por ¬n
fortunately at last
por lo general / regla general por lo visto
generally apparently
por supuesto por separado
of course separately

Ejemplos
Por desgracia muri´ antes de acabar la novela
o Unfortunately she died before ¬nishing the
novel
El jefe nos fue entrevistando a todos por separado The boss went on interviewing us all
separately
¡Por ¬n/´ ltimo ha llegado!
u She has ¬nally arrived!
Por un lado no tengo el dinero y ¡por otro no quiero On the one hand I haven™t the money and
d´ rtelo!
a on the other I don™t want to give it to you!
vii Por with other prepositions, usually suggesting movement

Corrieron por entre los arboles
´ They ran among trees
Pas´ por detr´ s de la silla
o a He went round the back of the chair
El avi´n vol´ por debajo del puente
o o The airplane ¬‚ew under the bridge
Salt´ por encima del muro
o She jumped over the wall
Me pregunt´ por mediaci´n de su amigo
o o She asked me via a friend
Sal´ a por el peri´dico
± o I went out to get the newspaper
The last example in this list is colloquial, but the construction is very common. The
´
alternative, perhaps more acceptable, is Sal´ por el periodico which is what a Mexican
±
would say.
viii Used with a variety of verbs

Tengo una novela por terminar I have a novel to ¬nish
Me quedan varias cosas por comprar I™ve got a few things to buy
Empezar´ por exponer el nuevo plan
e I™ll begin by developing the new plan
Acabar´ n por despedirte
a They™ll end up dismissing you
Votaron por los dem´cratas
o They voted for the democrats
Me he decidido por el coche blanco I™ve decided on the white car

Exercise Level 2
i Inserta para o por en el blanco. En algunos casos, cabe tanto para como por. Indica
donde existen las dos posibilidades
a Me pongo nerviosa al leer en voz alta, pre¬ero leer ( ) m´
±
b Pasaron ( ) entre las columnas

225
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




c Lo dije ( ) gestos
d Gloria tiene muy buen aspecto ( ) lo enferma que est´ a
e El autocar choc´ ( ) ir demasiado r´ pidamente
o a
f El cient´¬co recibi´ dinero ( ) sus investigaciones
± o
g Pas´ todo el d´a en casa ( ) preparar la cena
e ±
h ¡( ) Dios!
i Sus pap´ s lo castigaron ( ) llegar demasiado tarde
a
j La comida era su¬ciente ( ) diez personas
k Tan s´ lo quedan dos meses ( ) las vacaciones
o
l ( ) la cara que traes yo dir´a que est´ s enfadada
± a
m No ( ) mucho hablar te vas a ganar su con¬anza
n Restaban dos semanas ( ) el ¬n de las clases
o Se puso un mandil ( ) no mancharse
p ( ) Ant´ n esta ciudad es todo lo que puede so˜ ar cualquier persona
o n
q Los bene¬cios se multiplican ( ) diez
r ¿( ) qui´ n es la misa?
e
s ( ) Navidades ya estar´ s completamente curado
a
t ( ) ser profesionales juegan bastante mal
u La chica sali´ de casa ( ) propia iniciativa
o
v No me encuentro bastante bien ( ) ir al trabajo
w ¿Qui´ n eres t´ ( ) darme ordenes?
e u ´
x Los socios preguntan ( ) el supuesto
y ( ) una vez que me invitas pod´a haber sido en un restaurante mejor
±
z Me agarr´ ( ) los hombros
o
aa Sujet´ la olla ( ) el asa
o
bb Te doy mi carro ( ) tu moto
´
cc Este no es motivo ( ) despedirla
dd Pregunt´ ( ) Juana
e
ee Pongo a Dios ( ) testigo
ff El futuro est´ ( ) llegar
a




226
Unit 25 (Unidad 25)
Adverbs (Los adverbios)


Level 1
´
1.1 Formation of adverbs (Formacion de adverbios)
1.2 Adverbial expressions (Expresiones adverbiales)
1.3 Other adverbs (Otros adverbios)


1.1 Formation of adverbs
i Adverbs in Spanish, as in English, are formed in different ways. However, the most
common way for creating an adverb in Spanish is by adding -mente to the feminine
form of the adjective:

r´ pidamente
a perfectamente
quickly perfectly
lentamente p´ blicamente
u
slowly publicly
solamente only

Examples
Corre r´ pidamente/lentamente
a She runs quickly/slowly
Habla perfectamente el alem´ n
a He speaks German perfectly
Come solamente verduras She only eats vegetables
Anuncia p´ blicamente que . . .
u He announces publicly that . . .
It is obvious from these examples that, in Spanish, there are almost as many adverbs as
there are adjectives. It should be added that Spanish adverbs are invariable, that they
modify verbs, and are frequently placed next to them.
ii Adjectives which have no distinctive feminine form add -mente in the usual way:

felizmente constantemente
happily constantly
utilmente
´ amablemente
usefully pleasantly

Examples
Regresa felizmente a casa She returns home happily
Hay que trabajar constantemente You have to work constantly
iii Adverbs formed with -mente are pronounced as two words, each part retaining its
accent, both written and spoken:

s´lidamente
o cort´smente
e
solidly courteously
po´ticamente
e originalmente
poetically originally

227
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




iv When two or more of these adverbs occur in immediate succession, only the last
receives the ending -mente, the others assuming the form they would have if -mente
were to be added. This takes place when more than one adverb of the -mente type
modify the same verb:

Escribe clara, concisa y elegantemente She writes clearly, concisely and elegantly
gradual pero insensiblemente gradually but imperceptibly


v The adverb recientemente is shortened to recien before past participles used
´
adjectivally:

Lleg´ recientemente
o She arrived recently but
los reci´n casados
e the newly weds
un reci´n nacido
e a newborn child
pan reci´n cocido
e freshly baked bread
con la cara lavada y reci´n peinada
e with a face freshly washed and recently
combed hair


vi Often Spanish adverbs can be clumsy with the ending -mente, unlike the lighter
English -ly, and there is always the possibility of avoiding this clumsiness. For
instance, a noun preceded by con is often a suitable alternative:

industriosamente> con industria industriously
orgullosamente> con orgullo proudly
prudentemente> con prudencia prudently
El chico anuncia con orgullo que The boy proudly announces that he has
ha ganado el premio won the prize
Es importante manejar con prudencia It™s important to drive carefully



1.2 Adverbial expressions
i A further variety may be obtained by a phrase composed of de (una) manera, de (una)
forma or de (un) modo:

de (una) manera uniforme in a uniform manner
de (una) manera amistosa in a friendly manner
de (un) modo elegante in an elegant way
de (una) forma brusca in a rough way

The inclusion of the inde¬nite article before these nouns makes the expression more
formal.

ii Some adjectives which do not end in o or have a distinct feminine form cannot take
the suf¬x -mente:

de (una) manera preguntona inquisitively
de (una) forma holgazana in an idle way

228
25 Adverbs



1.3 Other adverbs
There is of course a whole range of Spanish adverbs which do not derive from adjectives
and which are adverbs in their own right. These include:
bien mucho muy
well much very
mal poco pronto
badly little soon
mejor m´ s
a a tiempo
better more in time
peor menos tarde
worse less late
temprano siempre nunca
early always never
s´lo
o casi luego
only almost then

Pocos hablan bien dos idiomas Few people speak two languages well
El ni˜ o come mal
n The child eats badly
Con estos lentes (M) veo mejor With these glasses I can see better
Veo peor que antes I see worse than before
Me levanto temprano I get up early
Me quedan s´lo tres
o I™ve only got three left (Only three remain to
me)
Como s´lo legumbres
o I only eat vegetables
Toca mucho el piano She plays the piano a lot
Siempre salgo de casa a las ocho I always leave home at eight
Es importante llegar a tiempo It™s important to arrive on time


Exercises Level 1
i Complete the sentences with adverbs based on the following adjectives. There can
be an alternative:
directo, inmediato, paciente, posible, r´ pido, f´ cil, puntual, tranquilo, total, constante,
a a
unico, cari˜ oso, afectuoso, amable, respetuoso, cruel, sumo, alto, dulce, largo, ciego,
´ n
independiente, nuevo, feliz, cort´ s
e

Example
lento
¿Puedes hablar un poco m´ s ( ) ? > ¿Puedes hablar un poco m´ s lentamente?
a a
a Viven ( ) con sus tres ni˜ os
n
b Su padre ( ) lee peri´ dicos
o
c Los novios se despidieron ( )
d Nos acogieron ( )
e Deber´ s sonre´rle ( )
a ±
f Su padre le peg´ ( )
o
g Hay que saludarlos ( )
h El problema es ( ) dif´cil
±
i Subir por all´ es ( ) peligroso
±
j La madre le dijo ( ) que le ten´a mucho cari˜ o
± n
k La cuesti´ n ha sido ( ) debatida
o
l Conf´a ( ) en su padre
±
m Le contest´ ( ) que era muy amable
e
n La familia est´ esperando ( ) en la cola
a

229
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




o Hay examen ma˜ ana y tengo que empezar a estudiar ( )
n
p Se vive ( ) en aquel pueblo en la sierra
q ¿Las enchiladas? Se preparan ( )
r “¿El hombre va a vivir en la luna alg´ n d´a?” “( )”

s ¿Qu´ pasa? Estoy ( ) confundido
e
t Un vuelo que hace escalas no va ( ) a su destino
u Cuando ve la televisi´ n, mi hermano cambia de canal ( )
o
v Es necesario que las clases empiecen ( )
w ¡H´jole! (M) ( ) se producen disturbios en la ciudad
±
x Salen ( ) para tomar (M) / coger el autob´ s
u
y ( ) de lo que digas, lo har´
e
ii Put the correct form of the adverb in the following sentences:

Examples
Es una casa ( ) pintada > Es una casa reci´ n pintada
e
Se puede hacer individual o colectivo > Se puede hacer individual o colectivamente
a Los ( ) venidos son muy amables
b Voy a ver la obra de teatro ( ) estrenada
c Me contesta correcto y cort´ s e
d Duerme como un ( ) nacido
e ( ) iniciada la charla, sonaron los aplausos
f Estudiaba constante y lento
g ( ) llegado del servicio militar, se cas´
o
h Se expresaba ¬rme e insistente
i ( ) salidos del aeropuerto, empez´ a relampaguear
o
j El ( ) galardonado don´ su premio a una obra de caridad
o
k ( ) construida la torre, hubo que reforzarla

iii Complete the sentence with a suitable adverb. There can be more than one adverb.

Example
Habla ( ) el chino > Habla bien el chino
a Habla ( ) el japon´ s
e
b Pedro maneja muy ( ) y tendr´ un accidente
a
c ¿Por qu´ te levantas tan ( )? Son ( ) las cinco
e
d ¿Por qu´ te levantas tan ( )? ¡Es la hora del almuerzo!
e
e Si no llegas ( ) no podr´ s ver la pel´cula
a ±
f Te echo de menos ( )
iv Paired activity
Objective “ To ¬nd adverbs corresponding to adjectives
Method “ A says ten adjectives and B provides ten corresponding adverbs. It™s as simple
as that.
Examples
A: buen B: bien
A: alegre B: alegremente
A: claro B: claramente

230
25 Adverbs



The class then comes together, and uses the adverbs in sentences. A mem-
ber of the class writes the sentences on the board. Remember that the
adverb, particularly if it is short, frequently follows the verb as in the sen-
tence below:
Canta bien esa canci´ n
o
Level 2
2.1 Adverbs of time, place and degree (Adverbios de tiempo, de lugar y
adverbios restrictivos)
2.2 Preposition + de¬nite article + word (Preposicion + art´culo de¬nido +
´ ±
palabra)
2.3 Without the article and in the singular (Sin art´culo y en singular)
±
2.4 Without the article and in the plural (Sin art´culo y en plural)
±
2.5 Some adverbial phrases (Algunas expresiones adverbiales)
2.6 More adverbs of time (Otros adverbios de tiempo)
2.7 Adverbs of place (Adverbios de lugar)
2.8 Adverbs of manner (Adverbios de modo)
2.9 Adverbs of degree (Adverbios restrictivos)
2.10 Adverbs involving doubt (Adverbios expresando duda)
2.11 Adverbs involving af¬rmation and negation (Adverbios expresando
´ ´
a¬rmacion y negacion)
2.12 Further adverbs expressing time and movement (Otros adverbios expresando
el tiempo y movimiento)

There is a further range of adverbs which express time, place, degree, doubt, af¬rmation
and negation. These may be subdivided into the following categories.



2.1 Adverbs of time, place and degree
Those that may be regarded as simple and original:
as´
± hoy
thus today
a´ n
u ma˜ ana
n
yet, still tomorrow

Other words used adverbially without change. This includes several adjectives used with
verbs, examples of which may be found in the unit on adjectives (see unit 21, level 2.2).
It also includes the following:
algo nada
somewhat not at all

Preposition a joined to a following word:
abajo apenas
down scarcely
acaso arriba
perhaps up
adelante atr´ s
a
forwards backwards
ahora anoche
now last night



231
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Ejemplos
Esp´rame abajo
e Wait for me downstairs
Acaso hayan muerto ya Perhaps they have already died
El batall´n sigui´ adelante
o o The batallion went forward
Apenas se le oye You can hardly hear him/her
Tus pap´ s (M) est´ n arriba
a a Your parents are upstairs
Anoche la (M) / lo pasamos muy bien We had a good time last night



2.2 Preposition + de¬nite article + word

a la ligera en el acto
lightly instantly
al contado por lo pronto
in cash for the time being
al momento por lo regular
instantly usually
al raso por lo tanto
in the open air consequently

Ejemplos
Te tomas las cosas demasiado a la ligera You take things too lightly
¿Quieres pagar al contado? Do you want to pay cash?
Llamamos al mesero (M) / camarero y vino al We called the waiter and he came
momento straightaway
Tuvimos que pasar la noche al raso We had to spend the night in the open
air
El conductor del veh´culo falleci´ en el acto
± o The vehicle™s driver died at the wheel



2.3 Without the article and in the singular

de balde de inmediato
gratis, free immediately
de mala gana en resumen
unwillingly in short
de buena gana en seguida
willingly at once
de buen grado por consiguiente
willingly consequently
de nuevo por supuesto
again of course
por ¬n por ultimo
´
¬nally at last

Ejemplos
Yo no hago ese trabajo de balde I won™t do that work for nothing
De mala gana ir´a all´
± ± I won™t go there willingly
De buena gana me ir´a de vacaciones
± I™d willingly go on vacation
Cuando lo veas de nuevo, dile que llame When you see him again tell him to give me
a call
“¿Puedo sentarme?” “Por supuesto” “May I sit down?” “Of course”
Y ya, por ultimo les hablar´ de . . .
´ e And then, ¬nally, I™ll speak to them
about . . .


232
25 Adverbs



2.4 Without the article and in the plural

a ciegas de o´das
±
blindly by hearsay
a escondidas de rodillas
secretly on your knees
a gatas de pie
on all fours standing
a medias en ayunas
by halves fasting
a solas en cueros
alone, privately naked

Ejemplos
No hab´a luz y fui a ciegas a mi rec´ mara (M )/
± a There was no light so I couldn™t see when I
habitaci´n
o went to my room
Me dijo a escondidas que . . . She told me in secret that . . .
Los ni˜ os aprenden a andar a gatas muy pronto
n Children learn to crawl on all fours very
quickly
Todo lo arregla a medias He only does things by halves
Marta pas´ toda la noche a solas
o Martha spent all night alone



2.5 Some adverbial phrases
i

a m´ s no poder
a de par en par
with all your might wide open (door)
a m´ s tardar
a de vez en cuando
at the latest occasionally
a sus anchas gota a gota
at your ease drop by drop
cuanto antes poco a poco
as soon as possible little by little

Ejemplos
Disfrutamos a m´ s no poder
a We enjoyed ourselves enormously
Regresaremos el lunes a m´ s tardar
a We™ll be back by Monday at the latest
En tu casa me siento a mis anchas I feel really at home in your house
M´ ndamelo cuanto antes
a Send it to me as soon as possible
La puerta estaba abierta de par en par The door was wide open
Voy al teatro de vez en cuando I go to the theater on occasions

ii Many of these adverbial phrases are restricted to certain verbs:

Lo mir´ de hito en hito
o She stared at him
Le hizo la pregunta a quemarropa He suddenly shot the question at her

iii Many of these adverbial expressions may be further extended by the addition of
other adverbs:

Entr´ muy de golpe
o He suddenly came in
Lo toma demasiado a la ligera She takes it too lightly


233
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




2.6 More adverbs of time

ahora / ahorita (M) jam´ s
a
now never
a menudo nunca
often never
de d´a
± luego
by day soon
de noche pronto
by/at night soon
despu´se raras veces
afterwards seldom
entonces siempre
then always
ultimamente
´ luego luego (M)
lately straightaway
justo cuando just when

Ejemplos
No est´ lloviendo ahorita
a It™s not raining now
Nos visitan a menudo They often visit us
Llegu´ pronto a la cita
e I arrived early at the rendez-vous
Luego luego me contest´ que . . .
o He immediately answered that . . .


2.7 Adverbs of place

ac´
a a la derecha
here (vague) to the right
aqu´ ± a la izquierda
here (precise) to the left
all´
a en otra parte
there (vague) elsewhere
all´
± lejos
there (precise) faraway
m´ s ac´
aa cerca
more this way near
m´ s all´
aa por aqu´±
more that way near here
por todas partes everywhere

Ejemplos
Ven ac´ /aqu´
a ± Come here
Fue hacia all´ hace un rato
a He went over there some time ago
Est´ m´ s ac´ /all´
aa a a It™s more this way / that way
Hay polvo por todas partes There™s dust everywhere


2.8 Adverbs of manner
The adverbs of manner are much more numerous than all the others. The greater part
of them are adverbial phrases, or adverbs formed from adjectives by the addition of
-mente:
al por mayor bien
wholesale well
al por menor de antemano
retail beforehand
a sabiendas de improviso
wittingly unexpectedly
as´
± de prop´sito
o
thus on purpose
a tientas adrede
groping, tentatively on purpose


234
25 Adverbs



Ejemplos
vender al por mayor/menor to sell wholesale/retail
Yo sab´a de antemano que . . .
± I knew beforehand that . . .



2.9 Adverbs of degree

algo harto
somewhat enough
apenas m´ s bien
a
hardly rather
bastante menos
enough less
casi muy
almost very
demasiado sobradamente
too, too much excessively

Ejemplos
Es algo dif´cil
± It™s somewhat dif¬cult
Apenas duerme She hardly sleeps
Est´ casi terminado
a It™s almost ¬nished
Lo conozco sobradamente I know him only too well



2.10 Adverbs involving doubt

acaso / quiz´ (s) / tal vez
a dif´cilmente
±
perhaps hardly, improbably
apenas scarcely

Ejemplos
Acaso / quiz´ (s) / tal vez venga hoy
a Perhaps she™ll come today
Los distingo dif´cilmente
± I can hardly make them out



2.11 Adverbs involving af¬rmation and negation

¡As´ es!
± ni . . . ni
That™s it! neither . . . nor
¡Claro! por cierto
That™s right! certainly
¡Eso no! por supuesto
Not that! of course
¡Eso s´!
± sin duda
That™s it! undoubtedly
jam´ s/nunca
a tampoco
never neither
nada not at all

Ejemplos
“¿Puedes venir?” “Por supuesto” “Can you come?” “Of course”
No conozco a su madre. A su padre tampoco I don™t know her mother, or her father


235
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




2.12 Further adverbs expressing time and movement
Adverbs expressing time or direction of a movement may be placed after nouns, thus
forming adverbial expressions of time and place:
a˜ os antes
n meses despu´s e
years before months afterwards
calle adelante r´o abajo
±
up the street downriver
calle abajo siglos atr´ s
a
down the street centuries ago
calle arriba tierra adentro
up the street inland
cuesta arriba campo a trav´s e
up the hill across country
a lo largo de along

Ejemplos
Anduvieron calle abajo They walked down the street
Fueron cuesta arriba They went up the hill
Caminaron campo a trav´se They walked across country
Mucha gente esper´ a lo largo de la avenida
o Many people waited along the avenue
English and Spanish differ greatly in the ways in which they convey manner and direction
of movement. English tends to use a verb to express manner, and a preposition to express
direction; in Spanish, the verb normally expresses direction while a gerund or other
adverbial phrase expresses manner:

Ejemplos
Avanz´ a gatas hacia la pared
o She crawled towards the wall
Cruz´ el r´o a nado
o± She swam across the river
Baj´ de puntillas la escalera
e I tip-toed down the stairs
Pasaron por encima del muro They climbed over the wall
Avanz´ a ciegas
o He went blindly forward


Exercises Level 2
i Forma frases completas con las siguientes palabras y usa un adverbio o una
expresion adverbial que no aparece en el conjunto de palabras. Hace falta tambien
´ ´
cambiar el in¬nitivo al indicativo o al subjuntivo

Ejemplo
Irse calle > Se fue calle abajo
a estar nevando
b sentir miedo
c si nos dejar dormir
d mira hacia
e echate para, hay una culebra all´
´ ±
f pagarme o con cheque, es igual
g nos sorprender noche en monta˜ a y tener que pasarla
n
h pasearse por el r´o
±
i Siempre hacer deberes, no le gusta estudiar
j Saltar la tapia

236
25 Adverbs



ii Completa las siguientes frases con un verbo adecuado

Ejemplo
Tuvo que ( ) a gatas para no ser visto > Tuvo que andar a gatas para no ser visto
a ( ) a nado el estrecho de Gibraltar
b No se le oy´ porque ( ) de puntillas
o
c Vivir solo ( ) por encima de sus posibilidades
d ( ) de o´das el documento pero no lo he podido leer
±
e Tengo que ( ) un an´ lisis de sangre en ayunas
a
f Le gusta ( ) en la playa en cueros
g ( ) a las cinco, o a m´ s tardar, a las seis
a
h ¡Oye! ¡( ) las ventanas de par en par!
i Le ( ) a quemarropa y ( ) en el acto
j La cartera no la ( ) por all´ , est´ m´ s ac´
a aa a

iii (a) Actividad en parejas
Objetivo “ Practicar adverbios de tiempo (time). Ver 25.2.6.
M´ todo “ A le hace a B diez preguntas relacionadas con el tiempo (time). La respuesta
e
contiene un adverbio de tiempo
Ejemplos
A: ¿Cu´ ndo vas al cine?
a
B: Voy al cine a menudo
A: ¿Cu´ ndo vas a hacer tu tarea?
a
B: La har´ despu´ s
e e
(b) Hacer igual con adverbios de lugar. Ver 25.2.7.

Ejemplos
A: ¿D´ nde vives?
o
B: Vivo cerca
A: ¿D´ nde est´ la pelota?
o a
B: Est´ aqu´
a ±




237
Unit 26 (Unidad 26)
Interrogative and negative sentences
(Las frases interrogativas y negativas)


Level 1
1.1 Interrogative sentences (Frases interrogativas)
1.2 Use of ¿Verdad? (Uso de ¿Verdad?)
´
1.3 Negation (Negacion)


1.1 Interrogative sentences
i A question is regularly formed in Spanish by placing the verb before its subject:

singular plural
¿Hablo yo? ¿Hablamos nosotros/as?
Do I speak? Do we speak?
¿Hablas t´ ?
u ¿Habl´ is vosotros/as?
a
Do you speak? Do you speak?
¿Habla ´l/ella/Ud. Does (s)he / do you
e ¿Hablan ellos/ellas/Uds.? Do they/you
speak? speak?

Examples
¿Habla Ud. espa˜ ol?
n Do you speak Spanish?
¿Vas al cine? Do you go to the movies?
ii Notice that Spanish speakers have the clever idea of warning you of a question in the
making by requiring an upside-down question mark at the beginning of the
sentence, as well as at the end. This also holds for exclamation points/marks: ¡H´jole!
±
(M) / ¡Jol´n! / ¡Jolines! (only in Spain) = Jees! / Heavens above!, ¡Dios m´o! = Jees /
± ±
Heavens above! (My God! is stronger in English than ¡Dios m´o! The same goes for
±
the English Jesus! which is much stronger than ¡Jesus!, commonly used when
´
someone sneezes = Bless you!)

iii As a point of interest, this practice of having a question mark at the beginning of a
question corresponds to the English of a few centuries ago, while the introduction of
do as part of a question, a veritable headache for foreign learners of English, is
comparatively modern. No construction like do exists in Spanish. The same goes for
the other Romance languages.
When an interrogative word is used, it begins the sentence, just as in English:
¿Qui´n quiere cenar ahora?
e Who wants to eat now?
¿Qu´ dices?
e What do you say?
¿Por qu´ canta ahora?
e Why™s she singing now?

238
26 Interrogative and negative sentences



iv In the absence of an interrogative word, the verb may come ¬rst, although in speech
the subject could very easily precede the verb. When the subject comes before the
verb, there is a rise in the intonation at the end of the sentence:

¿Viene la chica ahora? Is the girl coming now?
¿La chica viene ahora? Is the girl coming now?
¿Arregla el carro el mec´ nico?
a Does the mechanic repair the car?
¿El mec´ nico arregla el carro?
a Does the mechanic repair the car?
¿Corrige los deberes la profesora? Does the teacher correct the homework?
¿La profesora corrige los deberes? Does the teacher correct the homework?
Notice the word order in the second and third examples. In ¿Arregla el carro el
´ ´
mecanico?, it is very unlikely that mecanico would precede carro, any more than
profesora would precede deberes. However, if carro or deberes is quali¬ed in any
way, and that part of the sentence lengthened, these two words could come after the
subject (see unit 29 on word order).


1.2 Use of ¿Verdad?
Fortunately for English speakers, and unfortunately for Spanish speakers learning
English, the all-purpose ¿verdad? covers approximately 200 English possibilities. So
have sympathy with Spanish speakers of English. Or any foreigner tackling English for
that matter.
Examples
Vas al teatro ¿verdad? You™re going to the theater, aren™t you?
Es tarde ¿verdad? It™s late, isn™t it?
Son colombianos ¿verdad? They™re Colombians, aren™t they?


1.3 Negation
i The Spanish verb is negated by placing no in front of it:

No veo la luna I can™t see the moon
No va al partido He™s not going to the game
No entienden el italiano They don™t understand Italian
ii Other words which form a negative sentence are nadie (no one), nada (nothing),
ninguno (none), nunca (never) and jamas (never).
´
When these words follow the verb no precedes the verb:
No ve a nadie She doesn™t see anyone
No encontramos a nadie We don™t meet anyone
No esperan nada de ti They don™t expect anything from you
No veo nada aqu´ ± I can™t see anything here
No pasa nada It™s O.K., Don™t worry
No muestra ning´ n inter´s
u e She shows no interest
No voy nunca a Argentina I never go to Argentina
No nos visita jam´ s
a She never visits us


239
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




iii However, if nadie, nada, ninguno, nunca and jamas precede the verb, no is not
´
used:

Nadie lo sabe Nobody knows it
Nadie sale a encontrarnos No one comes out to meet us
Nada le satisface Nothing satis¬es him
Nada me falta I need nothing (i.e. nothing is lacking to me)
Ninguna persona quiere ayudarnos No one wants to help us
Nunca viene He never comes
Nunca me llama He never calls me
Jam´ s trabajo de noche
a I never work at night


Exercises Level 1
i Find a question that ¬ts the following replies

Example
Tengo veinte a˜ os > ¿Cu´ ntos a˜ os tienes / tiene Ud.?
n a n
a Voy a M´ xico este verano
e
b Vamos al cine a las siete
c Comen m´ s tarde
a
Van a jugar (al) f´ tbol esta ma˜ ana (al in Spain, not in M)
d u n
e Escribo con la computadora
f Pre¬eren estas ¬‚ores
g Este libro cuesta cien pesos
h Porque estoy cansado
i Este chico es el alumno m´ s listo
a
j Estoy leyendo

ii Change the following sentences into the negative. There may be more than one
possibility.

Example
Anda por la calle > No/nunca anda por la calle
a Veo a alguien
b Trabajan toda la semana
c Estoy leyendo un libro
d Entienden todo lo que digo
e Vamos siempre a la alberca (M) / piscina el viernes
f Todo el mundo cena aqu´ esta noche
±

iii Change the position of the second negative word so that all the negative
expressions precede the verb.

Example
No he querido nunca visitar aquel museo > Nunca he querido visitar aquel museo
a No ha venido nadie
b No he visto nunca Las Barrancas del Cobre

240
26 Interrogative and negative sentences



c No hemos estudiado nunca el japon´ s
e
d No me interesa nada
e No me ha escrito ning´ n banco
u

iv Create questions with ¿verdad? to precede the following sentences.

Example
S´, es tarde > Es tarde, ¿verdad?
±
a S´, vamos al teatro esta noche
±
b S´, sale con toda la familia
±
c No, no compramos verduras hoy
d S´, me duele la espalda
±
e S´, fuimos a Albuquerque / Nuevo M´ xico el a˜ o pasado
± e n
f No, mi mam´ vive en San Francisco
a

v Paired activity (a and b)
(a) Objective “ To practice use of the negative in sentences
Method “ A makes a statement and B puts it in the negative
Examples
A: Voy al parque
B: No voy al parque
A: Veo a alguien
B: No veo a nadie
A: Tengo un libro
B: No tengo ning´ n libro
u

(b) Objective “ To practice the use of the interrogative. (In fact, we have been practicing
this all along with these paired activities, so it will be easy.)
Method “ A makes ten statements and B converts them into questions
Example
A: Preparo la comida
B: ¿Preparas la comida?
A: Voy al estadio
B: ¿Ad´ nde vas?
o


Level 2
2.1 Uses of no . . . ni . . . (ni) (Usos de no . . . ni . . . [ni] )
2.2 Uses of sino, no solo . . . , and tampoco (Usos de . . .)
´
2.3 Uses of ni siquiera (Usos de . . .)
2.4 Order with no (Orden con no)
´ ´
2.5 No with negation and repetition (No con negacion y repeticion)
2.6 Miscellaneous features (Varios detalles)
2.7 Negative pre¬xes (Pre¬jos negativos)
´ ´
2.8 Order with no and compound verbal forms (Posicion / Ubicacion [M] de no con
formas verbales compuestas)


241
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




2.1 Uses of no . . . ni . . . (ni)
i Ni . . . ni . . . is the equivalent of neither . . . nor . . . (or not . . . either . . . or):

No tengo ni pasteles ni caramelos I haven™t got cakes or candies
No lo encontr´ ni en el departamento (M) / piso
e I couldn™t ¬nd it either in the apartment
ni en el jard´n
± or in the yard/garden
No bebo ni fumo I neither drink nor smoke
Nunca ri˜ es ni protestas
n You never quarrel or protest
No lo saben ni Celia ni Pablo Neither Celia nor Pablo know it

ii No is also followed by ni in the following way when used with tener:

No tengo ni idea I have no idea / I haven™t a clue

It also occurs in the idiomatic ¡ni hablar! used to reject a suggestion:
“¿Vienes al cine?” “Ni hablar” “Are you coming to the movies?” “Nothing
doing”

iii Ni takes the place of o = or, after all negatives or clauses embodying a negative or
restrictive idea:

Apenas pod´a respirar ni moverse
± He could hardly breathe or move
Sali´ sin decirme nada ni cerrar la puerta
o She went out without saying anything to me
or closing the door


´
2.2 Uses of sino, no solo . . . and tampoco
i Notice how sino combines with no = not . . . but, and no solo = not only . . . but also:
´

Hoy no es mi cumplea˜ os sino mi santo
n Today is not my birthday but my saint™s day
No s´lo era buen cocinero sino tambi´n un fant´ stico He wasn™t only a good cook but also a
o e a
an¬tri´n
o fantastic host
ii Use of tampoco which is often the equivalent of either. Tampoco negates something
in addition to a previous negation:

Pepa no ha comido, Juan tampoco Pepa hasn™t eaten, Juan hasn™t either
“No he visto ninguna pel´cula.” “Y la ultima de
± ´ “I haven™t seen a single movie.” “And the last
Cantin¬‚as?” “Tampoco” one of Cantin¬‚as?” “Not that one either”


2.3 Uses of ni siquiera
Uses of ni siquiera = not even. It strengthens the negation of ni:
No lo/le conozco (ni) siquiera de vista I don™t know him, not even by sight
Se lo entregu´ y (ni) siquiera me dio las gracias
e I gave it to him and he didn™t even thank me
La ni˜ a no sabe (ni) siquiera sumar
n The child doesn™t even know how to add up

242
26 Interrogative and negative sentences



2.4 Order with no
With the exception of object personal pronouns, no word intervenes between the verb
and the negative:
Su proyecto no me parece rentable Her plan doesn™t seem viable to me
No se lo he conseguido todav´a± I haven™t obtained it for him/her yet
Parecen distintos pero no lo son They look different but they aren™t


2.5 No with negation and repetition
i No neutralizes any adjectives, adverbs or proposition of negative value, and is itself
neutralized by repetition:

detalles no importantes (see lower down) unimportant details
No le fue permitido no asistir He was not allowed not to go
No podemos no admitir su razonamiento We cannot but admit his reasoning
ii There can be more than one set of negatives in a Spanish sentence. In the second
example below there are four, and three in the ¬rst:

Ella no me ha dicho nunca nada She has never told me anything
No toleraba nunca ninguna He never tolerated any intervention from
intervenci´n de nadie
o anyone
The positive forms anything (algo) and anyone (alguien) in English are not possible in
these Spanish sentences.
iii Note also the use of alguno which, when it occurs after the noun, has a negative
connotation:

No he visto a persona alguna en la calle I haven™t seen anyone in the street
No tengo idea alguna sobre el asunto I have no idea on the affair
No le interesa sugerencia alguna He™s not interested in any suggestion


2.6 Miscellaneous features
In verbal expressions at least, no does not give an exactly opposite meaning:
Acabo de entender por qu´ lo hizo
e I have just understood why he did it
No acabo de entender por qu´ lo hizo
e I fail to understand why he did it
Dej´ de fumar
e I stopped smoking
No dej´ de seguir estudiando
e I didn™t fail to go on studying


2.7 Negative pre¬xes
i Often an adjective or noun can be negated by using a negative pre¬x in- or des-:

c´modo“inc´modo suitable“unsuitable
o o conocido“desconocido known“unknown

243
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH



If such a ready-made word does not exist, a variety of negatives, no, nada and poco
can be used. Sometimes, in the case of no, this can have a euphemistic effect:
los no creyentes (los in¬eles) the unbelievers (non-believers)
los no violentos (partidarios de la paz) those who are non-violent (peace
supporters)
fuerzas no identi¬cadas unidenti¬ed forces
ciudadanos no votantes non-voting citizens
una costumbre nada frecuente a rare custom
un empleo nada lucrativo a poorly paid job
una idea nada convincente an unconvincing idea
un profesor poco divertido a dull teacher
un coche poco r´ pido
a a slow car
ii Note also the use of sin + in¬nitive:

una cuesti´n sin resolver
o an unresolved question
misterios sin aclarar unclari¬ed mysteries
La cena est´ sin hacer
a The evening meal remains to be prepared
iii Spanish has a number of other expressions which have the value of a negative and
sometimes, but not always, require no before the verb:

No dijo palabra She didn™t say a word
sin decir nada a nadie without saying anything to anyone
antes de hacer ning´ n gesto
u before making a single gesture
Es imposible contestar nada It™s impossible to answer anything
En mi vida he visto tantas ara˜ as
n I haven™t seen so many spiders in my life
En toda la noche he podido dormir I haven™t slept all night
En todo el a˜ o ha hecho tanto fr´o como hoy
n ± In the whole year it has not been so cold
as today
No veo ni gota I can™t see a thing
No entiende ni gota de ingl´s
e He doesn™t understand any English at all

2.8 Order with no and compound verbal forms
In the case of compound verbal forms with ser, estar and haber, no precedes the
auxiliary:
No he querido ir I haven™t wanted to go
No est´ n dispuestos a aceptar la oferta
a They aren™t ready to accept the offer
El regalo no fue aceptado The present was not accepted
Finally, for any philosophers among you, the inde¬nite negative pronoun nada may
also be construed as a noun = nothing(ness). Carmen Laforet™s novel Nada and Sartre™s
ˆ
monumental treatise (if you can face it) called in Spanish El ser y la nada (L™Etre et le n´ant /
e
Being and Nothingness) illustrate this point.
Exercises Level 2
i Pon las palabras de las siguientes frases en un orden adecuado. Dichas frases siguen
una secuencia logica y conducen naturalmente al segundo ejercicio
´


244
26 Interrogative and negative sentences



Ejemplo
siquiera de lavarse sin sali´ casa > Sali´ de casa sin siquiera lavarse
o o
toalla playa a * playeras/playera sin ni lleg´ la
a o
b aletas gafas / visor (M) a ni sin nadar empez´ o
c tabla la guantes sin ni subi´ windsurf a de se arn´ s
o e
d del sin ba˜ o zapatillas de traje agua ni sali´
n o
e padre / pap´ (M) madre / mam´ (M) ni no su su protest´ ni
a a o
f ponerse quiso ba˜ o de no traje pantal´ n ni corto ni
n o
g convencer dif´cil mal sino s´ lo educado tambi´ n era no de
± o e
Playeras = sneakers/trainers in Spain. Playera = T-shirt in M.
*


ii Dadas las circunstancias referidas en las frases de arriba, y a la luz de ellas, llena los
espacios (M) / rellena los blancos con una expresion negativa.
´

Ejemplo
( ) he visto tal espect´ culo > En mi vida / Nunca he visto tal espect´ culo
a a

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