<<

. 3
( 16)



>>


Ejemplos
Este carro (M) / coche tiene un dise˜ o( ) > Este carro tiene un dise˜ o muy actual
n n
(up-to-date)
En el momento ( ) hay mucho paro > En el momento actual hay mucho paro (present)
No creo yo en la ( ) de la gente> No creo yo en la ingenuidad de la gente (openness,
sincerity)
a Da gusto tratar con el por su ( )
´
b Ese ni˜ o necesita hacer algunos ejercicios de ( ). No lee bien.
n
c ¿En qu´ ( ) compraste el libro aquel?
e
d Aquellas familias viven en la m´ s absoluta ( ), no tienen nada para comer
a
e En los ( ) se le est´ acumulando mucha grasa
a
f Manuel tiene ( ) de enfermo. Ha perdido mucho peso
g Soy mucho m´ s ( ) al fr´o que al calor
a ±
h Eva es una chamaca (M) muy ( ). Me cae muy bien
i Una ( ) de windsurf no tiene nada que ver con una mesa de cocina
j Esos ( ) inquietantes alarman a todos los ciudadanos
k Me lleg´ la ( ) de que te casaste en Acapulco
o
l El m´ dico / doctor (M) americano se confundi´ cuando le dije que estaba ( ). Me
e o
dio pastillas para el estre˜ imiento
n
m Tuvo la ( ) de perder a su hijo en un accidente
n Creo que est´ ( ) de cinco meses
a
o Finaliz´ sus estudios con ( )
o
vi Actividad a realizar en parejas
Objetivo “ aprender el sentido del nombre seg´ n el g´ nero
u e
M´ todo “ Cada uno elige diez nombres con g´ nero variable. A le hace a B (y viceversa)
e e
preguntas sobre los sentidos del nombre cuando es masculino y cuando es femenino.
Ejemplos
¿Cu´ l es el sentido de cometa cuando es femenino?
P R E G U N TA : a
El sentido es kite
R E S P U E S TA :
¿Cu´ l es el sentido de orden cuando es masculino?
P R E G U N TA : a
El sentido es order como en arrangement
R E S P U E S TA :
Despu´ s, el / la profesor/a re´ ne a toda la clase para comentar el problema de los g´ neros
e u e
variables.

31
Unit 3 (Unidad 3)
Number (El plural)

Level 1
1.1 Plural of nouns (El plural de los sustantivos/nombres)
1.2 Anglicisms (Anglicismos)
´ ´
1.3 More on the formation of plurals (Mas detalles sobre la formacion de nombres
en plural)


1.1 Plural of nouns
i In the plural, the de¬nite article has the following forms, agreeing with the nouns
they accompany:

Masculine Feminine
los the las the
los hombres/chicos/libros las mujeres/chicas/mesas
men/boys/books women/girls/tables

ii The plurals of all Spanish nouns end in s. Nouns ending in an unstressed vowel or
diphthong merely add an s:

la casa / las casas house/houses
el mexicano / los mexicanos Mexican/Mexicans
la tribu / las tribus tribe/tribes
el agua / las aguas water/waters

Monosyllables are treated in the same way:
el pie / los pies (foot/feet), la fe / las fes (faith/faiths)
iii Nouns ending in a consonant insert e as a connecting vowel:

el jard´n / los jardines (yard/yards / garden/gardens), el m´ rtir / los m´ rtires, el autor / los
± a a
autores, el canal / los canales
iv Final z is changed to ces:

el c´ liz / los c´ lices
a a chalice/chalices
la cruz / las cruces cross/crosses
el juez / los jueces judge/judges
el matiz / los matices shade of meaning / nuance / shades of
meaning / nuances
la ra´z / las ra´ces
± ± root/roots


32
3 Number



la voz / las voces voice/voices
el desliz / los deslices error/slip-up / errors/slip-ups

v The nouns ending in a stressed vowel also add es:

el bamb´ / los bamb´ es
u u bamboo/bamboos
el esqu´ / los esqu´es
± ± ski/skis
el rub´ / los rub´es
± ± ruby/rubies
el tab´ / los tab´ es
u u taboo/taboos
el marroqu´ / los marroqu´es (frequently in
± ± Moroccan/Moroccans
speech = los marroqu´s) ±
el magreb´ / los magreb´es
± ± person(s) from the Maghreb (North Africa)
el yemen´ / los yemen´es
± ± Yemeni/Yemenis
*el hind´ / los hind´ es
u u Hindu/Hindus
el israel´ / los israel´es
± ± Israeli/Israelis
* Also, although incorrectly but very common = Indian (from India).
However:
mi pap´ = my pop/dad mis pap´ s (M) = my mom and dad / parents
a a
vi Unstressed endings in is, es and us in words of more than one syllable, pure Latin
terms, and family names ending in z not stressed on the last syllable do not change:

el/los an´ lisis
a analysis/analyses
la/las crisis crisis/crises
el/los lunes Monday, Mondays
el/los d´¬cit
e de¬cit/de¬cits
el/los ultim´ tum
a ultimatum/ultimatums
el/los super´ vit
a surplus
Mart´nez (name) / los Mart´nez
± ± Martinez / (the) Martinez
el virus / los virus virus/viruses

vii Final diphthongs ending in y require es for their plural:

el rey / los reyes king/kings
el convoy / los convoyes convoy/convoys


1.2 Anglicisms
i Some Anglicisms have the English plural form though usage is uncertain here:

el g´ ngster / los g´ ngsters
a a gangster/gangsters
el r´cord / los r´cords
e e record/records
el club / los club(e)s club/clubs
el l´der / los l´ders / los l´deres
± ± ± the leader/leaders
el m´ster / los m´sters
± ± soccer coach (Who would guess m´ster?)/
±
soccer coaches

Understandably, from the point of view of pronunciation, the plural of el lord is los lores.

33
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




ii Some nouns have stress on different syllables in singular and plural:

el car´ cter / los caracteres
a character/characters
el r´gimen / los reg´menes
e ± r´ gime/r´ gimes
e e
el esp´cimen / los espec´menes
e ± specimen/specimens

1.3 More on the formation of plurals
i In the formation of plurals, the place of the stress and the sound of the ¬nal
consonant of the singular remain the same, and the spelling re¬‚ects this:

el almac´n / los almacenes
e warehouse/warehouses
el ca˜ on / los ca˜ ones
n´ n canyon/canyons
la imagen / las im´ genes
a image/images
el jard´n / los jardines
± yard/yards /garden/gardens
el/la joven / los/las j´venes
o youth/youths
el l´ piz / los l´ pices
a a pencil/pencils
el margen / los m´ rgenes
a margin/margins
el origen / los or´genes
± origin/origins
la virgen / las v´rgenes
± virgin/virgins
ii Some plurals in Spanish do not have a concise equivalent in English:

los t´os
± the uncle and aunt
los padres the father and mother / parents
los pap´ s (M)
a the father and mother / parents

Exercises Level 1
i Put the following nouns in the plural with the de¬nite and inde¬nite article:
Example
muchacho > los/unos muchachos, muchacha > las/unas muchachas
padre, madre, libro, estudiante, pared, arbol, ingl´ s, franc´ s, martes, primavera, oto˜ o,
´ e e n
pie, tribu, matiz, voz, atlas, caries, rat´ n, c´ rcel, buey, jersey, alem´ n, reloj
oa a
ii Fill in the nouns in their plural form. Note that esta means “is” and estan means
´ ´
“are.” These two forms are from the verb estar = to be

Example
El vaso est´ en el sal´ n
a o Los vasos est´ n en los salones
a
El jard´n est´ detr´ s (behind) del edi¬cio
El ni˜ o est´ en la casa
n a ± a a
El arbol est´ en el parque
´ a La hoz est´ en la monta˜ a
a n
El gato est´ cerca de (near) la puerta
a La naci´ n est´ contenta
o a
El l´ piz est´ en la mesa
a a La ni˜ a est´ feliz
n a
La ¬‚or est´ en el ¬‚orero
a La tribu est´ en la selva
a
iii Put in the singular. See note on the verb estar immediately above.

Example
Los alumnos est´ n en los jardines “ El alumno est´ en el jard´n
a a ±

Hay arboles en los jardines
´

34
3 Number



Los estudiantes est´ n en las aulas
a
Los cuadros est´ n cerca de las ventanas
a
Los ingleses est´ n en los hoteles
a
Los alemanes est´ n en los salones
a
Los reyes est´ n en los palacios
a
Los convoyes est´ n en las carreteras
a
Las bicicletas est´ n en las banquetas (M = sidewalks/pavements)
a
iv Paired activity
Objective “ learn the plural of nouns
Method “ Two people collect ten nouns each from the various lists above. Each person
asks the other what the plural of a given noun is.

Example
¿Cu´ l es el plural de ingl´s (What is the plural of ingl´s)?
e e
P R E G U N TA : a
El plural de ingl´ s es ingleses
R E S P U E S TA : e

When all twenty nouns have been dealt with, the teacher/instructor will call the class
together to discuss ¬ndings.
Level 2
2.1 Compound nouns (Nombres compuestos)
2.2 Spanish plural = English singular (Plural espanol = singular ingles)
˜ ´
2.3 Spanish singular = English plural (Singular espanol = plural ingles)
˜ ´
2.4 Agreement in number and verb (Concordancia entre plural y verbo)
2.5 Noun + ser + noun (Nombre + ser + nombre)


2.1 Compound nouns
Usually, the ¬rst noun is put in the plural but the second noun may also take a plural s,
although this is less frequent, and would even sound strange if, for example, the last word
of the following expression had an s: un veh´culo todo terreno, veh´culos todo terreno. It should
± ±
be added that, since compound nouns and their pluralization are a comparatively recent
linguistic phenomenon, hard and fast rules are still dif¬cult to come by, and Spanish
speakers hesitate themselves, so we are in good company. The following is just a small
selection of the ever-increasing number of compound nouns as they are used in the plural:

las bocacalles street entrances
las ciudades dormitorio dormitory towns
las ciudades modelo model cities
las fechas tope ¬nal/closing dates
las ideas clave key ideas
los coches bomba car bombs
los coches patrulla patrol cars
los factores sorpresa surprise factors
los sectores clave key sectors
los l´mites tope
± ¬nal/closing dates
las c´lulas madre
e mother cells
los retratos robot photo¬ts


35
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH



las carreras reina main races
las horas punta commute/rush hours
las horas pico (M) commute/rush hours
Note: Clave is certainly one of the nouns often used in the plural.
los elementos claves key elements
las ideas claves key ideas
las actividades claves key activities



2.2 Spanish plural = English singular
There is often a plural noun in Spanish corresponding to an English singular noun:

las agujetas stiffness (in limbs) (but shoelaces in M!)
*por los aires through the air
las andas portable platform (for religious processions)
*los aplausos applause
*las barbas beard
*las bodas wedding
los cascotes/escombros rubble
*los celos jealousy
*los conocimientos knowledge
*(los) Correos Post Of¬ce
las cosquillas tickling
con creces with interest (¬nancially), abundantly
los cubiertos cutlery
los datos information/data
los deberes homework
¡Buenos D´as!
± Good morning!
los efectivos personnel
las enaguas petticoat
a mis expensas at my expense
*las fuerzas strength
*los funerales funeral
*los honorarios fees (professional)
las investigaciones research
las lluvias rain(s)
las municiones ammunition
¡Felices Pascuas/Navidades! Merry Christmas!
*las nieves snow
los pertrechos gear
hacer progresos to make progress
*los remordimientos remorse
las tinieblas darkness
los transportes (p´ blicos)
u public transportation
en v´speras de
± on the eve of


36
3 Number



*It has to be added that this list is only a rough guide, since many of these
nouns (*) may be used in the singular, but in a different way. However, the following three
nouns are also used in the singular with no real change of meaning:

aplauso, funeral, remordimiento:
El aplauso dur´ varios minutos
o The applause lasted for minutes
Al funeral asisti´ mucha gente
o Many people attended the funeral
No siente el menor remordimiento She feels not the slightest remorse

El aire means “the air” as in Necesitamos aire para respirar (We need air to breathe) or
Hay mucho aire hoy (It™s breezy today) while the plural would be used in saltar por los
aires (to explode into the air)
Las bodas is used in las bodas de plata/oro (silver/golden wedding) but in the singular it
means speci¬cally “wedding” as in Ayer asist´ a una boda (Yesterday I attended a
±
wedding)
El celo means zeal (el celo religioso) and heat (of animals = en ´poca de celo)
e
Cosquillas is used in the expressions hacer/tener cosquillas (to tickle / to be ticklish) and
is rarely used in a singular form
Dato may be used in the singular as: a piece of data = datum
Deber means duty
Las lluvias is frequently used in las lluvias abundantes/torrenciales (heavy/torrential rain)
but No me gusta la lluvia (I don™t like rain)
Las nieves has a poetic touch, as in Escasean las nieves este a˜ o (There has not been much
n
snow this year). But Me gusta jugar en la nieve (I like playing in the snow)
Many more examples could be cited but we are now moving into the area of usage,
which is not the intention of the book


2.3 Spanish singular = English plural
This is the reverse of 2.2:

*el alicate pliers
*la braga panties, knickers
*la escalera stairs
la estad´stica
± statistics
*la gente people
*la malla tights
*el pantal´no pants, trousers
el pijama / la piyama (M) pajamas
*la pinza pincers
la t´ ctica
a tactics
*la tropa troops

The words asterisked also have a plural form. In fact, alicates, bragas, escaleras, mallas and
pinzas are used more than their singular counterparts. Los pantalones is used as frequently
as its singular equivalent. The same is true of las tropas.
As with estad´stica and t´ ctica, la f´sica and la pol´tica seem to suggest a plural but are singular.
± a ± ±

37
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




2.4 Agreement in number and verb
Dif¬culties can occur, even for Spanish speakers, when a collective noun is followed by
de + plural noun, just as in English we may hesitate over: “The government states/state
that . . .” or “The police has/have released a statement.” In the following cases, logic
requires a plural, but purists would argue for the singular:
Un n´ mero de profesores se re´ ne esta tarde (A number of teachers meets this afternoon) but
u u
se re´ nen is acceptable
u
Un grupo de chicos jugaba en el patio (A group of boys were playing in the yard) but
jugaban is acceptable
La mayor parte / La mayor´a de los carros fue estropeada (Most of the cars were damaged)
±
but fueron estropeados is acceptable
El noventa por ciento de los estudiantes saca una buena nota (90% of the students get a good
mark). Sacan is acceptable
Similarly: la mitad / un tercio de las chicas . . . (half / a third of the girls . . .), una docena /
un centenar de coches . . . (a dozen/hundred-odd cars . . .), Buena parte de los edi¬cios . . .
(A good part of the buildings . . .), medio mill´n de j´venes . . . (half a million young
o o
people . . .)
Los Estados Unidos is usually followed by a plural verb while Estados Unidos (i.e. no de¬nite
article) is followed by a singular verb:

Los Estados Unidos proponen un pacto The United States propose a pact
Estados Unidos sugiere una mesa redonda The United States suggests a round table


2.5 Noun + ser + noun
Ser agrees in number with the following noun:

El problema son los estudiantes The problem is the students
La manifestaci´n eran unos gamberros que romp´an
o ± The demonstration was hooligans
cristales breaking windows

Exercises Level 2
i Pon en singular donde sea necesario
Ejemplo (las primeras palabras del ejercicio) Los gobiernos pasan . . . > El
gobierno pasa por una crisis econ´ mica, sobre todo el lunes . . .
o
Los gobiernos pasan por crisis econ´ micas, sobre todo los lunes. Yo creo que las crisis tienen sus
o
or´genes en los virus de las computadoras. Es casi cierto que los d´ ¬cits de los gobiernos superan
± e
los diez billones de d´ lares y que rompen todos los r´ cords. Los d´ ¬cits no tienen nada que ver
o e e
con los reg´menes pol´ticos. Esperan que los super´ vits vuelvan en los pr´ ximos meses. Los
± ± a o
elementos claves de esta situaci´ n residen en las fechas l´mite en que los gobiernos, los lores y
o ±
sobre todo los g´ ngsters, tendr´ n que devolver todos los billones prestados o robados. La
a a
alternativa es ingresar a todos los granujas que son culpables en c´ rceles modelo.
a
RB/JPL

ii Pon en plural donde sea necesario
Ejemplo (las primeras palabras del ejercicio) El joven, con un amigo israel´ . . .
±
> Los j´ venes, con amigos israel´es . . .
o ±

38
3 Number



El joven, con un amigo israel´ y una amiga hind´ , entr´ en el almac´ n con papel moneda.
± u o e
Quer´a comprar una luz piloto pero no estaba en la zona euro y no hablaba espa˜ ol. S´ lo sab´a
± n o ±
una palabra clave, nada m´ s, porque su lengua madre era el arabe. El due˜ o le ofreci´ una luz
a ´ n o
piloto de gran calidad. Sali´ del almac´ n y, con su amigo israel´ y su amiga hind´ , entr´ en una
o e ± u o
bocacalle oscura. Se encontr´ en un caf´ donde tom´ un t´ arabe de menta, y regres´ a la
o e o e´ o
estaci´ n para ver a su amigo yemen´.
o ±


iii Rellena los blancos / Llena los espacios (M) en las siguientes frases con palabras en
plural

Ejemplo Avanz´ ( ) en las tinieblas > Avanz´ a ciegas en las tinieblas
o o
a Tengo ( ) por haber hecho demasiado ejercicio
b El coche bomba salt´ por los ( )
o
c Una salva de ( ) acompa˜ aba al l´der de la carrera
n ±
d Los obreros rellenaron el hoyo con los ( ) de la obra
e Dame tus ( ) personales para rellenar la ¬cha
f El estudiante hace muchos ( ) en la universidad
g Me dan miedo las ( ) cuando llega la noche
h Falta poco para que festejemos las ( ) de plata
i Pon los ( ) en la mesa, por favor
j Ganaron el Premio Nobel con sus ( ) sobre el c´ ncer
a
iv Actividad en parejas
Objetivo “ estudiar el plural de nombres compuestos
M´ todo “ dos personas eligen diez nombres compuestos (ver 2.1). A le hace a B preguntas
e
(y viceversa) sobre la formaci´ n del plural de nombres compuestos. Aqu´, se trata de un
o ±
partido
Ejemplo
P R E G U N TA : ¿Cu´ l es el plural de idea clave?
a
R E S P U E S TA : El plural de idea clave es ideas clave(s)
(Hay dos posibilidades)
L´ gicamente, la persona que consiga m´ s respuestas gana el partido.
o a




39
Unit 4 (Unidad 4)
Verbs (Los verbos)

Level 1
1.1 Present indicative of the three model verbs (Indicativo del presente de los tres
verbos modelos)

1.1 Present indicative of the three model verbs
All Spanish verbs in the in¬nitive end in -ar, -er or -ir. They are divided into three
classes or conjugations according to these endings:
comprar
1st conjugation to buy
vender
2nd conjugation to sell
vivir
3rd conjugation to live
The vowels a, e and i are characteristic of these three conjugations. The ¬rst conjuga-
tion includes approximately 90 percent of all the verbs in the language, so we have no
justi¬cation in complaining here. There are about 300 verbs which deviate from these
patterns, but this ¬gure includes some uncommon verbs little used except in quizzes, for
instance.
If we cut off the endings ar, er, ir from the in¬nitive, we have the stem of the verb
to which endings of various moods and tenses are to be added. This excludes the future
and conditional. Spanish verbs therefore re¬‚ect the pattern of Romance languages like
French, Italian and Portuguese. Here, then, is the conjugation of the three model verbs
in the present indicative:
yo compro vendo vivo
1st person
t´ 
u compras vendes vives
2nd person
´l 
e
Sing. 3rd person
compra vende vive
ella

Ud.
nosotros/as compramos vendemos vivimos
1st person
´
vosotros/as comprais vend´ is viv´s
2nd person e ±

ellos 
Plur. 3rd person
compran venden viven
ellas

Uds.
(See Unit 17.1.1. for the use of the vosotros / as forms.)
The present indicative corresponds to three English forms:
yo compro / t´ compras, etc.
u I buy / do buy / am buying / you buy, etc.
yo vendo / t´ vendes, etc.
u I sell / do sell / am selling / you sell, etc.
yo vivo / t´ vives, etc.
u I live / do live / am living / you live, etc.

40
4 Verbs



Since the endings of Spanish verbs, like those of Italian verbs and, to a lesser extent,
´´
French verbs, have a distinctive sound characteristic, the subject pronouns yo, tu, el,
etc. are much less used than in English. They are only used to avoid ambiguity or
to stress the reference to a particular person. If you wanted to say “I am buying a
house,” you would probably say in Spanish “Compro una casa.” However, if you
wanted to highlight the fact that you are buying the house and not someone else, your
brother, a friend, etc., you would probably say “Yo compro la casa (y no ´l).” Furthermore, if
e
´
reference has already been made to, say, el, ella or Ud. and their corresponding plurals,
although the verb ending is the same, it is likely that the subject pronoun would not be
repeated.

Exercises Level 1
i Put in the correct form of the present indicative of the verb shown in parentheses so
that it ¬ts the subject pronoun. You need not put in the pronoun in your sentence:

Example
>
(Yo / estudiar) el italiano Estudio el italiano
´
(Yo/comprar) un carro, (T´ /buscar) una ¬‚or, (El/Ella/Ud./necesitar) dinero,
u
(Ella/tocar) el piano, (Nosotros/as/platicar [M]) con un amigo, (Vosotros/as/hablar)
espa˜ ol, (Ellos/Ellas/Uds./rentar (M) / alquilar) una casa
n
ii Put the in¬nitive into the correct form so that it corresponds to all the subject
pronouns indicated:

yo/t´ /´ l/ella/Ud./nosotros/as/vosotros/as/ellos/ellas/Uds.
ue estudiar el portugu´ s
e
beber vino
comer pan
viajar mucho
correr los cien metros
aprender la nataci´ n
o
limpiar la cocina
escribir una carta
abrir la puerta

iii The following phrases are not in the right order and need to be placed in a logical
sequence, which then produces a small narrative in the present tense. Also, put the
in¬nitives in their corresponding forms. There is not just one ¬xed order of
sentences. So, feel free to use your imagination.
Colocar un sello / timbre (M) en el sobre
Meter la carta en el buz´ n
o
Platicar (M) / hablar con el cartero
Mandar la carta a Estados Unidos
Los amigos recibir la carta al d´a siguiente
±
Caminar (M) / andar hasta Correos
No manejar un carro (M) / conducir un coche
(Yo) entrar en la cocina y abrir la ventana
Regresar a casa
Escribir una carta en la mesa
Los amigos vivir en Estados Unidos

41
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Beber tequila juntos en un caf´
e
Respirar el aire
iv Find the appropriate form of a verb to be placed in the following sentences

Example
Yo ( ) en la Ciudad de M´ xico > Yo vivo en . . .
e
´
Yo ( ) tequila, T´ ( ) tacos (M) / tapas, El ( ) una casa, Nosotros ( ) un carro, Vosotros
u
( ) una carta, Ellas ( ) una tarjeta, Uds. ( ) ma˜ ana
n
v Paired activity
Objective “ To use the present tense
Method “ Ask each other ¬ve questions in the present tense, using the three verbs
comprar, vender and vivir
Example
P R E G U N TA : ¿Qu´ compras?
e
R E S P U E S TA : Compro una casa
P R E G U N TA : ¿En d´ nde vive Juan?
o
R E S P U E S TA : (Juan) vive en Monterrey
Afterwards, the teacher/instructor will bring you together to discuss your ¬ndings.
Level 2
2.1 Rules and agreement of verbs (Reglas y concordancia de verbos)


2.1 Rules and agreement of verbs
i The greater number of verbs which govern an in¬nitive do so directly without any
connecting preposition:

Deseo leer el peri´dico
o I want to read the newspaper
Temo ofenderla I am frightened of offending her
Necesito beber agua I need to drink water
˜
Aprender and ensenar, two basic verbs, require a before an in¬nitive:
Aprendo a hablar chino I am learning to speak Chinese
Ense˜ o a los alumnos a tocar el arpa
n I am teaching the pupils to play the harp
ii A number of phrasal verbs, consisting of tener (to have) followed by a noun, usually
require de before an in¬nitive. The following are among the most usual:

Tener ganas de . . . To be inclined to / keen on . . .
Tener miedo de . . . To be frightened to . . .
Tener medios de/para . . . To have the means to . . .
Tener tiempo de . . . To have the time to . . .
Tener intenci´n de . . . (also with la)
o To intend to . . .
Ejemplos
Tengo ganas de ir a la alberca (M) I feel like going to the swimming pool
Tiene (la) intenci´n de regresar
o She intends to come/go back

42
4 Verbs



iii In some cases the verb is followed by a de¬nite article and then a noun + de +
in¬nitive:

Tener la bondad de . . . To have the kindness to . . .
Tener la costumbre de . . . To be accustomed to . . .
Tener la desgracia de . . . To have the misfortune of/to . . .
Tener el gusto de . . . To have the pleasure of . . .
Tener el honor de . . . To have the honor of . . .
Tener la intenci´n de . . .
o To intend to . . .
Tener la ocasi´n/oportunidad de . . .
o To have the opportunity to . . .
Tener el privilegio de . . . To have the privilege of . . .
Tener la suerte de . . . To be lucky to . . . / to have the good
fortune to . . .
Ejemplos
Ten la bondad de acompa˜ arme
n Kindly accompany me
Tengo el gusto de presentarles . . . I have the pleasure of introducing to you . . .
iv When the verb has two or more joint subjects of either number, it is regularly put in
the plural:

Ejemplos
Mi padre y yo nadamos cada d´a ± My father and I swim each day

T´ y tu hermana jug´ is cada d´a
u a ± You and your sister play each day
La ni˜ a y la madre leen un libro
n The child and the mother read a book
* But juegan in Mexico

v The subject is frequently placed after the verb. It does not affect the meaning, but
gives variety and balance to the sentence:

Ejemplos
Llega mi padre a las tres My father arrives at three
Viajan mis hermanos en primera My brothers (and sisters) travel ¬rst class
Almorzamos nosotros a las dos We have lunch at two
vi Some verbs do not always have a strict equivalent of tense in English. This applies to
their use both in the present tense and in the imperfect. (See also unit 7 on the
imperfect tense.) It can also apply to the preterit but discussing this is not necessary
for our purposes here. Such verbs are: soler, llevar, hacer.

Ejemplos
Suelo ir al cine los viernes I usually go to the movies on Fridays
Suele rentar un carro (M) el domingo He usually rents a car on Sundays
Solemos pasar la Semana Santa en el campo We usually spend Easter week in the
countryside
Llevo m´ s de un mes estudiando mucho
a I™ve been studying a lot for more than a
month
¡Lleva dos a˜ os intentando manejar el carro
n He™s been trying to drive the car for two
(M)/conducir el coche! years!

43
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH



Empec´ a trabajar hace dos semanas
e I began working two weeks ago
Trabajo desde hace dos semanas I have been working for two weeks

Notice the use of the present tense (llevo and trabajo) in these constructions.

Exercises Level 2
i Pon en su orden correcto las siguientes palabras. Al mismo tiempo, pon el in¬nitivo
en la forma correcta del indicativo. No hay obligacion de usar los pronombres
´
personales si el sentido esta claro
´

Ejemplo miedo entrar casa en tener oscura la de >Tengo miedo de entrar en la casa
oscura
piano tocar yo el a aprender, tomar ganas agua tener vaso de de un yo, aprobar suerte
examen tener de el la, tener no cuenta pagar la medios de los ellos, ella intenci´ n o
la castellano tener estudiar de, la boletos (M) de los bondad comprar el tener, costum-
´
bre trabajar ma˜ ana la la por de tener nosotros, el presentar de a novia gusto a tener
n
yo mi te, ¿abrir querer Ud. ventana la?, ¿vino querer t´ copa una de nosotros con
u
tomar?
ii Escribe frases con los siguientes grupos de palabras. Puedes usar cualquier tiempo
(tense)

Ejemplo querer subir > Quiero subir a la cumbre de la monta˜ a n
querer ense˜ ar leer, desear invitar cenar, necesitar leer escribir, mandar llamar al plomero
n
(M) / fontanero, aconsejar escribir, decidir mandar apagar
iii Planeas ir de vacaciones. Escribes una carta sencilla en primera persona y en
indicativo del presente, usando todos los verbos que quieras para mostrar lo que
´
quieres hacer. Intenta usar sobre todo verbos seguidos de una preposicion / o sin una
´
preposicion, y un in¬nitivo. Aprovecha sobre todo las expresiones en 2. 1. i, ii, iii.

Ejemplo Tengo la oportunidad de visitar los Estados Unidos
iv Cambia los verbos soler, llevar y hacer al presente de indicativo

Ejemplo Ella (soler) ir al teatro cada semana > Suele ir al teatro . . .
Yo (soler) acostarme a las once
Ellos (soler) cenar muy tarde
Nosotros (soler) ir al cine cada s´ bado
a
(Ellos) (llevar) un mes en Madrid
Ella (llevar) un mes aprendiendo a manejar (M) / conducir
Llegu´ aqu´ (hacer) cinco minutos
e ±
Estoy aqu´ desde (hacer) diez minutos
±
v Actividad en parejas
Objetivo “ Usar tener + nombre + de
M´ todo “ Cada persona encuentra seis expresiones y le hace preguntas a la persona de
e
enfrente
Ejemplos
P R E G U N TA : ¿Tienes ganas de nadar?
R E S P U E S TA : S´, tengo (ganas de nadar)
±

44
4 Verbs



P R E G U N TA : ¿El chamaco (M) / chico tiene miedo de entrar en aquella casa?
R E S P U E S TA : S´, tiene miedo (de entrar en aquella casa)
±

In these answers, a Spanish speaker would probably not repeat the full sentence. However,
it would be good for you to repeat it for practice.




45
Unit 5 (Unidad 5)
Perfect tense and pluperfect
´
tense (El [preterito] perfecto
y el pluscuamperfecto /
´
antecopreterito [M])


Level 1
´
1.1 Perfect tense (El [preterito] perfecto)


1.1 Perfect tense
Haber and the perfect tense (with some reference to tener)

There are two equivalents in Spanish of the English verb to have: haber and tener. They
are not interchangeable. They are both used for the creation of the perfect tense, but
for the moment, in level 1, we shall concentrate on haber. (See also “Irregular Verbs,”
12.1.1.)
The perfect tense in Spanish is made up of the present tense of haber (to have) and
the past participle of the verb in question. This is similar to the English equivalent
construction. The perfect tense in Spanish for verbs ending in -ar is as follows:
He comprado
1st person I have bought
Has comprado
Sing. 2nd person You have bought
Ha comprado
3rd person (S)He has / You have bought
Hemos comprado
1st person We have bought
Hab´is comprado
e
Plur. 2nd person You have bought
Han comprado
3rd person They/You have bought
-Er and -ir verbs follow a similar, but not identical, pattern:
Comer:
He/has/ha/hemos/hab´is/han comido
e I/you/(s)he/you/we/you/they have/has
eaten
Vivir:
He/has, etc., vivido I/you, etc., have/has eaten
Unfortunately, there are a large number of irregular verbs the past participles of which
do not respect this simple pattern. They will be dealt with in level 2.
To a large extent, the use of the perfect tense in Spanish corresponds to the use of the
perfect tense in English. However, there is one important reservation here. In all Spanish

46
5 Perfect tense and pluperfect tense



America, the perfect tense is used much less frequently than in Iberian Spanish. Three
simple examples will illustrate this feature. When you get up in the morning, you would
say in Spain “¿Has dormido bien? ” (“Have you slept well?”), but in Mexico the question
would almost certainly be “¿Dormiste bien? ” (“Did you sleep well?”). Again, during the
morning, say at eleven o™clock, if a Spaniard asked you what you had done that morning,
(s)he would doubtless say “¿Qu´ has hecho esta ma˜ ana?” but in Mexico that question would
e n
be “¿Qu´ hiciste esta ma˜ ana?” A third and ¬nal example: after having just eaten a meal,
e n
a Spaniard would probably say “¿Has comido bien?” but a Mexican would doubtless ask
“¿Comiste bien?” In other words, in Mexico a different tense is used. This tense is called
the past de¬nite or preterit tense, and will be treated in a later chapter (unit 8), so we shall
not concern ourselves any more with it here. It should be pointed out, in consequence,
that the illustrations in this unit will not involve Mexican Spanish, since it would not be
logical or authentic to provide examples with a Mexican ¬‚avor.
It may be more helpful, and certainly more logical, to call the perfect tense the
past inde¬nite tense for one simple reason, and that is the meaning of inde¬-
nite. Although the perfect tense refers to the past, it is really the recent past which can
often over¬‚ow onto the present moment. In this sense, it is not perfect, or complete,
at all. For instance, it is as though there is business left undone in the sentence: “He
hablado con Juan” (“I have spoken to Juan”). This sentence suggests that there remains
something to add, like “¿Y qu´ ha dicho? ” (“What has he said / did he say?”), hence the
e
appropriateness of inde¬nite. However, the perfect tense in Iberian Spanish stretches
further back in time than in English, which is why you may legitimately and logically
say “He perdido el conocimiento,” but the equivalent English “I have lost consciousness”
has no meaning at all, unless you have a spectacular imagination. Mexican Spanish is
much more like English in this last example, for it too would require a great leap of the
imagination.
The perfect tense is therefore used in the following cases:
i Where an action has begun in the past and continues until the present moment:

˜
He vivido aqu´ varios anos
± I have lived here for a number of years
ii Where an action has been repeated several times and can continue to be repeated:

Lo he le´do cuatro veces
± I have read it four times
iii Where an expected action has still not taken place:

El m´ dico no ha llegado
e The doctor has not arrived
iv Where an action has taken place in the very recent past:

Han adivinado la verdad They have guessed the truth
The following further examples will illustrate the usage of the perfect tense in
Spanish:
He hablado con mi amiga I have spoken with my (female) friend
Han llegado tus hermanos Your brothers (and sisters) have arrived
He terminado la lectura del libro I have ¬nished reading the book
¿Has aprendido italiano? Have you learnt Italian?
Hemos comido unos pasteles muy ricos We have eaten some very nice cakes



47
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Exercises Level 1
i Write in the perfect tense of the verb indicated and use the appropriate form of the
verb haber:
Example
>
Yo/perder mis llaves He perdido mis llaves
a (Yo) aprender espa˜ oln f (Ella) pasar un a˜ o en Nuevo M´ xico
n e
b ¿(T´ ) copiar el informe?
u g No (´ l) llegar todav´a
e ±
c (Ellos) comer una enorme paella h ¿Qu´ (t´ ) comprar hoy?
eu
d (Ellos) jugar al f´ tbol esta tarde
u i (Nosotros) vivir en Puebla
e Llover todo el d´a± j (Vosotros) meter la carta en el buz´ n
o

ii Answer the following questions. If you are adventurous, you could use the negative
(see unit 26):

a ¿Han llegado tus amigos? f ¿Has encontrado tu cartera?
b ¿Qui´ n ha preparado la cena?
e g ¿Mam´ ha planchado las camisas?
a
c ¿Has entendido la pregunta? h ¿Hab´ is comido bien?
e
d ¿Han vivido en Tejas / Texas (M)? i ¿Ha llovido hoy?
e ¿Has seguido todo el curso? j ¿Has podido terminar tu trabajo?

iii Following the example below, write out the full perfect tense conjugation for each
sentence:

Example
He trabajado todo el d´a “ has trabajado todo el d´a, ha trabajado todo el d´a, hemos
± ± ±
trabajado todo el d´a, hab´ is trabajado todo el d´a, han trabajado todo el d´a
± e ± ±

a He empezado el libro hoy d He comido unas tapas
b No he vivido en San Francisco e No he aprendido la lecci´ n
o
c He corrido en la marat´ n
o f He ido al colegio hoy

iv Paired activity but involving the whole class. Bear in mind that this exercise would
not easily apply to Mexico where the perfect tense is not used very much. This
explains why the vosotros, and not Uds. form is used here (see 17.1.1.).
Objective “ To use the perfect tense with different subject pronouns
Method “ Two class members ask each other ten questions, and afterwards the class is
free to ask them both questions
Use words like ¿Cu´ ndo?/When?, ¿A qu´ hora?/At what time?, ¿Por qu´?/Why?,
a e e
¿C´mo?/How? to introduce your questions. Use verbs like comer, correr, comprar, aprender,
o
andar, vender, vivir, preparar, seguir, hablar.
Example
P R E G U N TA : ¿Qu´ has hecho esta ma˜ ana?
e n
R E S P U E S TA : He trabajado dos horas
Pregunta hecha por la clase (Question asked by the class): ¿Qu´ hab´ is hecho
e e
esta ma˜ ana?
n
Respuesta dada por los otros dos (Answer given by the other two): Hemos
trabajado dos horas

48
5 Perfect tense and pluperfect tense


Level 2
´
2.1 Passive perfect tense (El pasivo del preterito perfecto)
´
2.2 Pluperfect tense (Pluscuamperfecto / antecopreterito (M))
´
2.3 Note on the past anterior (Nota sobre el preterito anterior)



2.1 Passive perfect tense
i The perfect tense of the passive is formed, as in English, in the following way:

Haber + past participle of ser + past participle of the verb in question

La venta ha sido aplazada The sale has been postponed
Los coches han sido reparados The cars have been repaired
La comida ha sido preparada The meal has been prepared
El dinero ha sido devuelto The money has been returned

Note that, in these cases, the past participle of the main verb agrees in gender and number
with the subject, as highlighted. If you think about it, the past participle functions like
an adjective which agrees in gender and number. It should be added here that there is a
natural tendency to use the re¬‚exive form of the verb, and not the passive form as above.
(See unit 14 on the re¬‚exive which takes us into deeper water.)

ii The auxiliary verb haber is not separated by another word from the past participle, as
is often the case in French and Italian:

He estudiado muy mal la lecci´n
o I have studied the lesson very badly
Todav´a no han llegado
± They still haven™t arrived
Siempre han sacado buenas notas They have always gotten good marks
Has hecho muy bien tu trabajo You™ve done your work very well

iii When a past participle is used with a verb other than haber, agreement in number
and gender occurs, since it operates like an adjective:

Deja la(s) ventana(s) abierta(s) Leave the window(s) open
He encontrado la caja cerrada I found the box locked
Encontr´ a la chica escondida
e I found the girl hidden
Dej´ la televisi´n rota
e o I left the television broken

iv When conjugated with haber, the past participle never agrees with its object:

He escrito la carta I have written the letter
Han abandonado la casa They have left/abandoned the house
Hemos alquilado dos coches We™ve rented two cars

v However, when the verb tener is used with a participle, agreement does occur since
the meaning is not quite the same. Compare these two sentences with haber and
tener:

He escrito la carta I have written the letter
Tengo escrita la carta I™ve gotten the letter written

49
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Similarly:
Han abandonado la casa Hemos alquilado dos coches
Tienen abandonada la casa Tenemos alquilados dos coches
When tener is used, the past participle operates like an adjective, agreeing with the
noun.
vi Past participle used as a noun. This is a very common practice, not only in Spanish
but also in French and Italian. English has few equivalents to this phenomenon. The
nouns in these cases may often be found in the plural. Below is a short list:

accidentado(s) the injured (in an accident)
acusado(s) the accused
consultado(s) those who were / have been consulted
convocado(s) those who were / have been called
encuestado(s) those questioned (for a survey)
entrevistado(s) those who were / have been interviewed
excluido(s) those excluded
herido(s) the wounded
inscrito(s) those who were / have been registered
jubilado(s) the retired
marginado(s) those who were / have been excluded
privilegiado(s) the privileged
rescatado(s) those rescued
It goes without saying that, if these past participles / nouns were in the singular, the
translation might be “the one who was / had been / has been,” etc. What is certain is
that English cannot very easily accommodate this phenomenon.


2.2 Pluperfect tense
The imperfect of haber with the past participle forms the pluperfect tense. It is equivalent
to the English had done/spoken/walked, etc. It represents an action or event not only past
but occurring before another past event. The usage is thus the same in both languages:
Me dijo que Armando se hab´a ido
± She told me that Armando had gone away
Pens´ bamos que el ni˜ o se hab´a acostado
a n ± We thought the child had gone to bed
Me di cuenta de que hab´an cambiado el dinero
± I realized they had changed the money


2.3 Note on the past anterior
This is a literary tense, little used in current speech and general writing or newspapers, for
instance, although it does appear in narrative writing, novels and so on. You will probably
not need to use it but it is useful to recognize it. It has the same use and meaning as the
pluperfect.
It is preceded by such conjunctions as
apenas hardly no bien no sooner
cuando when tan pronto como as soon as

50
5 Perfect tense and pluperfect tense



despu´s de que after
e al momento que as soon as
en cuanto as soon as luego que as soon as

and is formed with the preterit of haber and a past participle:
Apenas hubo pronunciado estas palabras cuando se oy´ un ruido ensordecedor
o
Hardly had she pronounced these words when we heard a deafening noise
Cuando los catedr´ ticos hubieron otorgado el premio el p´ blico empez´ a aplaudir
a u o
When the professors had bestowed the prize, the audience began to clap

Exercises Level 2
i Escribe un pequeno parrafo conteniendo todos los siguientes verbos. Ponlos en
˜ ´
preterito perfecto como si escribieras (as if you were writing) un diario que se
´
re¬riera (referred) a todo lo que acaba de ocurrir (has just happened). Te ayudamos
con los sustantivos (nouns).
Llegar estaci´ n. Encontrar a (see unit 22 for the personal “a”) un amigo. Hablar pol´tica y
o ±
´ regresar su pueblecito. (Yo) permanecer plaza. Encontrar
f´ tbol. Comer restaurante. (El)
u
a una amiga. Tomar caf´ . Vivir momentos agradables. Despedir (See off ) a mi amiga
e
estaci´ n. Regresar casa.
o
ii Tienes que crear un formulario que contenga (contains) preguntas sobre per¬les
(pro¬les) de personas que hacen solicitudes en lo que a un empleo se re¬ere. Pon
todos los verbos en preterito perfecto y en tercera persona, o sea Ud.:
´

Ejemplo Viajar mucho “ ¿Ha viajado mucho Ud.?
Deportes: Jugar al f´ tbol. Nadar en el mar. Correr los diez mil metros. Estudiar la
u
esgrima. Hacer esqu´. Estar en el Polo Norte. Subir al Himalayo a las Monta˜ as Rocosas.
± n
Ver la Copa del Mundo. Querer batir el r´ cord del mundo de cinco mil metros. Cazar
e
rinocerontes. Meter cinco goles un un partido de f´ tbol
u
Finanzas: Invertir veinte mil d´ lares. Perder una gran cantidad de dinero. Ahorrar el
o
cincuenta por ciento de su sueldo. Preferir una cuenta corriente (checking/current) a las
otras cuentas. Saber distinguir entre varios tipos de acciones
Capacidad imaginativa: Pintar cuadros. Tocar un instrumento de m´ sica. Cocer u
pan al horno. So˜ ar con / realizar haza˜ as heroicas. Remendar camisas
n n
Sensibilidad: O´r mucha m´ sica cl´ sica. Ver pel´culas de Luis Bu˜ uel. Leer Los Her-
± u a ± n
manos Karamazov. Traducir una novela al ingl´ s. Escribir poes´a. Componer sinfon´as
e ± ±
´
Personalidad y sentido practico: Convertirse al budismo. Temer grandes tenta-
ciones. Re˜ ir a sus ni˜ os. Re´rse de un pobre desgraciado (poor unfortunate person). Poner
n n ±
la mesa todos los d´as. Huir de un peligro. Fregar platos. Sufrir problemas psicol´ gicos
± o
iii Un nino / una nina vuelve del colegio y le hace su mama varias preguntas sobre la
˜ ˜ ´
tarde pasada en presencia de su maestra. Imag´nate las preguntas y las
±
contestaciones entre la mama y el nino / la nina.
´ ˜ ˜

iv Acabas de visitar (You have just visited) un rancho. Di lo que has hecho (Say what
you have done), usando el preterito perfecto, y la primera persona singular y plural.
´
Puedes aprovechar las siguientes palabras:

Llegar rancho de un amigo. Abrir barrera. Entrar casa. Platicar ranchero. Presentar
familia. Introducir sal´ n. Visitar corral. Ver los burros, otros animales. Subir a caballo.
o

51
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Recorrer hacienda. Ir pesca. Despedirse. Prometer regresar un d´a a verlos otra vez.
±
Volver a casa muy feliz
v Usa los dos verbos haber y tener en las siguientes frases. Distingue claramente entre
estos verbos empleados en preterito perfecto.
´

Ejemplo
(Yo) Haber/tener copiado todos los documentos “ He copiado todos los documentos /
Tengo copiados todos los documentos
a (Yo) Haber/Tener alquilar / rentar (M) una casa
b (Ella) Haber/Tener escribir cuatro cartas
c (Ellos) Haber/Tener preparar la cena
d (Nosotros/as) Haber/Tener organizar la visita
e ¿(Vosotros/as) Haber/Tener planear la t´ ctica?
a
vi Forma una sola frase con las dos siguientes frases. Se trata de usar el preterito (ver
´
la unidad 8) y el pluscuamperfecto / antecopreterito (M) y en este orden.
´

Ejemplo
Adriana compr´ un huipil (traditional Indian dress). Ella lo dijo.
o
Adriana dijo que hab´a comprado un huipil
±
a El beb´ estuvo enfermo. La mam´ nos cont´ .
e a o
b Ha habido muchos problemas. Adriana lo admiti´ o
c Vinieron unos cient´¬cos franceses. Avisaron en el departamento
±
d Llegaron ayer. Me lo dijo
e El chico comi´ cinco helados. Lo supe esta ma˜ ana
o n
f Las estudiantes se fueron de vacaciones. Me enter´ esta tarde
e
g Las chicas aprobaron todos sus ex´ menes. Me lo dijeron sus madres
a
h El carro se descompuso (M). Me avis´ mi cuate (M)
o
i Subieron ochenta viajeros al cami´ n (M) (= bus). Me lo dijo mi padre
o
j Hubo un accidente. Me inform´ una polic´a
o ±
k El coche se averi´ . Me lo dijo mi padre
o




52
Unit 6 (Unidad 6)
Future tense and future perfect
tense (El tiempo futuro y el futuro
perfecto)


Level 1
1.1 The future tense (El futuro)


1.1 The future
i The future tense, which in English is made up of the use of will and shall, is formed in
Spanish by adding the following endings to the full in¬nitive of the verb:

comprar vender vivir
´
e comprar´ vender´ vivir´
e.g e e e
´ ´ ´
as
´ compraras venderas viviras
Sing.
´ ´ ´
a
´ comprara vendera vivira
emos compraremos venderemos viviremos
´is
e comprar´ is vender´ is vivir´ is
Plur. e e e
´ ´ ´
an
´ compraran venderan viviran
A point of interest: these endings are related to the present tense of the verb haber. Once
the Latin in¬‚exion system had died out, it was replaced by the in¬nitive of the verb and
haber, so that comprar´ originally meant I have/am to buy. These comments also apply
e
to the future tense in French, Italian and Portuguese.
ii In this manner are formed the futures of all regular verbs, and, we must be grateful
for this, nearly all irregular verbs. Rather than deal with the future of irregular verbs
in the section on the latter, it seems helpful to treat them here, since they are so few
in number.

cabr´ e cabr´ s
a cabr´a cabremos cabr´is
e cabr´ n
a
caber
dir´
e dir´ s
a dir´
a diremos dir´is
e dir´ n
a
decir
habr´ e habr´ s
a habr´a habremos habr´is
e habr´ n
a
haber
har´e har´ s
a har´
a haremos har´is
e har´ n
a
hacer
podr´ e podr´ s
a podr´a podremos podr´is
e podr´ n
a
poder
pondr´ e pondr´ sa pondr´ a pondremos pondr´is e pondr´ n
a
poner
querr´ e querr´ s
a querr´a querremos querr´ise querr´ n
a
querer
sabr´ e sabr´ s
a sabr´a sabremos sabr´is
e sabr´ n
a
saber
saldr´ e saldr´ s
a saldr´a saldremos saldr´is
e saldr´ n
a
salir


53
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




tendr´
e tendr´ s
a tendr´
a tendremos tendr´is
e tendr´ n
a
tener
valdr´
e valdr´ s
a valdr´
a valdremos valdr´is
e valdr´
a
valer
vendr´
e vendr´ s
a vendr´
a vendremos vendr´is
e vendr´ n
a
venir

iii The use of the future is practically the same as in English. It refers logically to a
future event that has not taken place.

Examples
Le dir´ a mi madre que . . .
e I™ll tell my mother that . . .
Ser´ necesario ir ma˜ ana
a n It™ll be necessary to go tomorrow
Pasaremos un mes en M´xico
e We™ll spend a month in Mexico
¿Cu´ ndo iremos al parque?
a When will we go to the park?
Saldremos la semana pr´xima
o We™ll leave next week

iv It is interesting to note that the future tense is increasingly less used in Spanish, a
phenomenon re¬‚ected in both French and Italian. It is frequently replaced by the
construction ir + in¬nitive, which is similar to the English:

Voy a tomar el cami´n (M)
o I™m going to / I™ll catch the bus
Vamos a ver la pel´cula ma˜ ana
± n We™re going to / We™ll see the movie
tomorrow
¿Vas a ver a tu hermana ma˜ ana?
n Are you going to / Will you see your sister
tomorrow?

Exercises Level 1
i Change the verbs in the following sentences from the present tense to the future
tense. Change the adverbs of time if necessary. (See unit 25.2.6 for help on adverbs,
if you need it.)

Example
>
Te doy ahora la lecci´ n
o Te dar´ la lecci´ n m´ s tarde
e o a
Les leo el cuentito (M) / cuentecito ahorita
Recogemos las manzanas inmediatamente
El jefe est´ ahora en la o¬cina
a
Busco el video (M) / v´deo dentro de dos minutos
±

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