<<

˝˛­. 4
(Ô˝ňŃţ 16)

Đ╬─┼đĂ└═╚┼

>>

La chica viene en seguida
Te llamo despu┬┤ s
e
Pago la factura en este banco
Hago el trabajo hoy

ii Change to the future the verbs in italics

Example
>
Le doy el libro al chico Le dar┬┤ el libro al chico
e
Me dan una botella de vino Sale con sus amigos
┬┐Dice la verdad? ┬┐Vienes con tu pap┬┤ ?
a
Hace sus deberes Compramos un carro
Pone las ´¬‚ores en la mesa Vendemos la casa



54
6 Future tense and future perfect tense



Viven en Venezuela Abro la puerta
El programa dura cinco minutos Reciben los regalos

iii Change the subject and verb according to the new subject indicated

Example
Saldremos a las diez (Yo) > Saldr┬┤ a las diez
e
En M┬┤ xico cenaremos a las diez (T┬┤ )
e u
┬┐Llegar┬┤ is ma╦ť ana? (Ella)
e n
Iremos de vacaciones a Acapulco (Ellos)
Mandar┬┤ la carta esta tarde (Nosotros)
e
Aprender┬┤ a manejar el carro (M) (Ellas)
e
Sabr┬┤ pronto leer el ruso (Ud.)
e
Pondremos los huevos en el frigor┬┤´¬üco (Yo)
─±
┬┤
Abrir┬┤ n la puerta del cine a las diez (El)
a

iv Paired activity but with class participation
Objective ÔÇ“ To use the future tense
Method ÔÇ“ Two members of the class ask each other ten questions and give the
answers. These questions and answers are followed by class participation which involves
other pronouns which are not necessarily used since the verb endings are usually
suf´¬ücient

Example
P R E G U N TA : ┬┐Qu┬┤ har┬┤ s ma╦ť ana?
e a n
R E S P U E S TA : Ir┬┤ al cine
e
Class intervention P R E G U N TA : ┬┐Qu┬┤ har┬┤ n Uds. (M) / har┬┤ is ma╦ť ana?
e a e n
R E S P U E S TA : Iremos al cine
Use questions involving words like: ┬┐Cu┬┤ ndo? (When?) / ┬┐A qu┬┤ hora? (At what time?) /
a e
┬┐D┬┤nde? (Where?), as well as ┬┐Qu┬┤?
o e
Use verbs like comprar, vender, vivir, hacer, salir, venir, ir, ser, estar, poner

Level 2
2.1 Future perfect tense (El futuro perfecto)
┬┤
2.2 Further remarks on the future (Mas comentarios al futuro)



2.1 Future perfect tense
i The future perfect suggests a degree of conjecture or possibility. This is a relatively
easy concept since it corresponds well to the English equivalent. It refers to an action
regarded as completed at the time of speaking:

Habr┬┤ n llegado a la estaci┬┤n
a o They will have arrived at the station
Habr┬┤ perdido mi cartera en la calle
e I probably lost / will have lost my wallet
in the street



55
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Antes de la semana pr┬┤xima habr┬┤ s terminado la
o a Before next week you will have ´¬ünished
faena the job
┬┐Qu┬┤ habr┬┤ pasado?
e a What has / could have happened?

2.2 Further remarks on the future
The future is frequently used to replace the present tense to convey the idea of conjecture
or probability:
Tendr┬┤ treinta a╦ť os
a n Shes probably thirty years old
Estar┬┤ n dormidos los ni╦ť os
a n The children are probably / must be asleep
Conocer┬┤is este cuento
e You may know this story
i In short, emphatic declarations, and in brief requests for instructions, the present
indicative often replaces the future in colloquial language. This is a very common
practice and corresponds to what is happening in French and Italian. Are we
becoming lazy? Certainly, it is easier to use the present tense than the future. Here
are some examples:

Voy a su casa luego Ill go to her house later
Salen ma╦ť ana
n They(ll) leave tomorrow
No pago la cuenta Ill not pay the bill
Si insistes, te parto la cara If you insist, Ill punch you
Pero ┬┐qu┬┤ hago?
e But, what will I do?

Exercises Level 2
i Cambia al futuro perfecto las siguientes frases:

Ejemplo Trabajar┬┤ n todo el d┬┤a > Habr┬┤ n trabajado todo el d┬┤a
a ─± a ─±
a Llegar┬┤ n a las tres
a e ┬┐Qu┬┤ har┬┤ la chica?
e a
b Ser┬┤ n estudiantes ejemplares
a f ┬┐Cu┬┤ ntos a╦ť os tendr┬┤ ?
a n a
c ┬┐Cu┬┤ nto ganar┬┤ ?
a a g Sabr┬┤ al menos tres idiomas
a
d Tendr┬┤ n un tren de vida fant┬┤ stico
a a h La gallina pondr┬┤ dos huevos al d┬┤a
a ─±
ii Imag┬┤nate que seas (you are) un adivino / una adivina (fortune teller). Usando el
─±
futuro de probabilidad, te encuentras a una persona (mujer u hombre) en un lugar
publico y especulas sobre su vida, sus actividades, su profesion, su familia, su
┬┤ ┬┤
capacidad intelectual, su a´¬ücion a los deportes, su ropa, su casa. Aprovecha los
┬┤
vocablos de abajo como gu┬┤a:─±

ser, tocar m┬┤ sica, ejercer abogado(a)/contable, trabajar con una empresa internacional,
u
viajar mucho piloto, tener mujer/hombre y dos hijos, tener mucho cari╦ť o, estar casado(a),
n
estar dotado(a) de inteligencia, disponer de mucho dinero, estar capaz de correr, comprar
una casona / un departamento (M), crear una vida
iii La semana proxima, la clase se divide en parejas. Un/a participante desempena el
┬┤ ╦ť
papel (carries out the role) de adivino/a, y el otro / la otra desempena el papel de la
╦ť
persona cuyo futuro esta en manos del adivino / de la adivina. Imaginen la
┬┤
conversacion que habran preparado durante esta semana. Aqu┬┤ tienen el inicio de la
┬┤ ┬┤ ─±
conversacion:
┬┤



56
6 Future tense and future perfect tense



A D I V I N O (estudiando su bola de cristal): Ser┬┤ Ud. un hombre muy rico
a
CLIENTE: Pero soy muy pobre
A.: Le tocar┬┤ la loter┬┤a
a ─±
Cl: ┬┐Cu┬┤ nto ganar┬┤ ?
a e
A.: Ganar┬┤ millones de pesos
a




57
Unit 7 (Unidad 7)
Imperfect tense (El tiempo
┬┤
imperfecto/copreterito [M])


Level 1
┬┤
1.1 The imperfect tense (El tiempo imperfecto/copreterito [M])


1.1 The imperfect tense
The imperfect tense is to be studied in conjunction with the preterit or past de´¬ünite in
the next unit (unit 8), since they are frequently linked to each other.
In addition to the perfect tense (a compound tense) treated in Unit 5, Spanish has two
past tenses of simple form: the imperfect (pret┬┤ rito imperfecto or copret┬┤ rito as it is
e e
known in Mexico) and the preterit. In regular verbs, the imperfect tense is obtained by
adding the following endings to the stem:
1st conjugation 2nd and 3rd conjugation
-aba -┬┤a
─±
-abas -┬┤as
─±
ÔÇ“aba -┬┤a
─±
ÔÇ“┬┤ bamos
a -┬┤amos
─±
ÔÇ“abais -┬┤ais
─±
ÔÇ“aban -┬┤an
─±
Imperfect tense of the model verbs:
compraba vend┬┤a viv┬┤a
─± ─±
comprabas vend┬┤as viv┬┤as
Sing. ─± ─±
compraba vend┬┤a viv┬┤a
─± ─±
┬┤
comprabamos vend┬┤amos viv┬┤amos
─± ─±
comprabais vend┬┤ais viv┬┤ais
Plur. ─± ─±
compraban vend┬┤an viv┬┤an
─± ─±
NB You will note that the ´¬ürst and third person singular of these conjugations are the
same so sometimes, to avoid ambiguity, it may be necessary to use the pronouns yo, Ud.,
┬┤
el and ella, although context would usually make this clear.
The formation of the imperfect tense is different in only three irregular verbs. This
makes the learning of the imperfect quite easy. The three awkward verbs are:
ser: era eras era ┬┤ramos
e erais eran
ir: iba ibas iba ┬┤bamos
─± ibais iban
ver: ve┬┤a
─± ve┬┤as
─± ve┬┤a
─± ve┬┤amos
─± ve┬┤ais
─± ve┬┤an
─±

58
7 Imperfect tense



The fundamental value of the imperfect tense is to express continuance, as of an action
prolonged either in itself or by successive repetition. It conveys what was habitual, cus-
tomary, and describes qualities of persons or things, and the place or condition in which
they were, in the past. Yo compraba corresponds to the English I was buying, used to buy,
would buy and bought. In this sense, it is much simpler than the several English equivalents,
which makes life dif´¬ücult for Spanish speakers learning English: and for English speakers
this compensates for the subjunctive, for instance, to be studied in unit 16.
Various ways in which the imperfect is used:

i To convey repeated and habitual past actions:

Yo iba siempre al mismo supermercado I always went to the same superstore
Los cuates (M) se divert┬┤an cada d┬┤a en la
─± ─± The friends had fun every day in the
alberca (M) swimming pool
Fumaba una cajetilla diaria She smoked a packet a day

ii To describe an action that was in progress:

Le┬┤a el peri┬┤dico
─± o She was reading the newspaper . . .
Sal┬┤a del colegio cuando . . .
─± I was coming out of school when . . .
Est┬┤ bamos en la playa cuando . . .
a We were on the beach when . . .
Planeaban visitar Espa╦ť a
n They planned (were planning) to visit Spain

iii To describe physical, mental or emotional states in the past:

Estaba agotada She was exhausted
Los mellizos ten┬┤an once a╦ť os
─± n The twins were eleven years old
Ador┬┤ bamos la opera
a ┬┤ We adored opera
Hac┬┤a sol todos los d┬┤as
─± ─± It was sunny every day
Sab┬┤an resolver todos los problemas
─± They could solve all the problems

iv To refer to the time in the past:

Era la una It was one oclock
Eran las cuatro y media It was half-past four

Exercises Level 1
i Change the subject of the verb to the subject in brackets:
Example
┬┤ ┬┤
Yo com┬┤a carne una vez a la semana (El) > El com┬┤a carne una vez a la semana
─± ─±
a Yo guardaba el dinero en una bolsa (Nosotras)
b Hablaban todos los d┬┤as en el patio (Nosotras)
─±
c Sal┬┤amos muy temprano por la ma╦ť ana (Yo)
─± n
d Ve┬┤a la televisi┬┤ n todas las noches (Ellos)
─± o
┬┤
e Ibamos de compras el viernes (Ella)
f Yo correg┬┤a los ejercicios por la tarde (Nosotros)
─±
g Com┬┤amos a la una (Yo)
─±
h Ten┬┤a que tomar el tren en Guanajuato (Ellas)
─±
i Lavaban los platos despu┬┤ s de la cena (Yo)
e


59
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




ii Fill out the spaces with the imperfect tense of the verb indicated. Choose your own
subject.

Example
( ) comer el pescado (preferir) > Prefer┬┤an comer el pescado
─±
a ( ) comprar el libro (querer)
b ( ) leer este libro (pensar)
c ( ) que salir (tener)
d ( ) a ver la tele (ir)
e ( ) invitar a todo el mundo (querer)
f ( ) ganas de nadar (tener)
g ( ) ir al mercado (necesitar)
) jugar golf (M) (pensar) (not jugar al golf as in Spain)
h (

iii Paired activity
Objective ÔÇ“ Use of the imperfect tense
Method ÔÇ“ The two participants ask each other ten questions in the imperfect tense.
Answers are also given in the imperfect tense.

Examples
P R E G U N TA : ┬┐En d┬┤ nde viv┬┤as en M┬┤ xico?
o ─± e
R E S P U E S TA : (Yo) Viv┬┤a en Monterrey
─±
P R E G U N TA : ┬┐Qu┬┤ vend┬┤a el comerciante en el mercado?
e ─±
R E S P U E S TA : Vend┬┤a fruta y verduras
─±
The teacher will then bring the whole class together to discuss the ´¬ündings
Level 2
2.1 Certain verbs with no English equivalent (Ciertos verbos sin equivalente
┬┤
ingles)



2.1 Certain verbs with no English equivalent
There are a number of verbs which are used in the imperfect tense, and in the present
tense (see relevant section on the present tense in unit 4), and do not have a proper
English equivalent. Among these are: acostumbrar, soler, llevar, hacer. They are used in the
following way:
acostumbrar hacer algo to be accustomed to doing something
soler hacer algo (less used in M) to be accustomed to doing something
llevar tanto tiempo haciendo algo/hacer tanto tiempo (to) have been doing something for so much
time/to take so much time to do . . . / so
much time ago
Ejemplos
Acostumbraba desayunar huevos con jam┬┤n o I usually had ham and eggs for breakfast
Sol┬┤a estudiar sobre todo por la ma╦ť ana
─± n I usually studied mainly in the morning
Estos melones sol┬┤an ser muy ricos
─± These melons used to be very good



60
7 Imperfect tense



Sol┬┤an venir aqu┬┤ los martes
─± ─± They used to / would come on Tuesdays
Yo llevaba diez a╦ť os en Veracruz cuando . . .
n I had been in Veracruz for ten years
when . . .
Llevaban tres d┬┤as trabajando cuando . . .
─± They had been working for three days
when . . .
Llevaba dos d┬┤as sin fumar
─± I had not smoked for two days
Hac┬┤a seis meses que hab┬┤a llegado
─± ─± He had arrived six months before
Hab┬┤an salido para Brasil hac┬┤a un mes
─± ─± They had left for Brazil a month before
Hac┬┤a seis meses que hab┬┤an sido capturados
─± ─± They had been captured six months
before
Exercises Level 2
i Elije un verbo adecuado despues de pero y ponlo (put it) en preterito imperfecto
┬┤ ┬┤

Ejemplo
Yo quer┬┤a ir al teatro pero ( ) > Yo quer┬┤a ir al teatro pero no ten┬┤a tiempo
─± ─± ─±
a Intentaba hallar (M) / encontrar trabajo pero ( )
b Procuraban resolver el enigma pero ( )
c Parec┬┤an ingleses pero ( )
─±
d Siempre lograban programar el viaje pero ( )
e Cada d┬┤a evit┬┤ bamos las faenas de la casa pero ( )
─± a
f Siempre promet┬┤as recogerme en tu carro pero ( )
─±
g Preve┬┤amos salir cada ´¬ün de semana pero ( )
─±
h De vez en cuando insist┬┤a en devolver el dinero pero ( )
─±
ii Ibas a la sierra con frecuencia (solo o con amigos/as). Usando los verbos de abajo,
escribe una pequena redaccion que relata las actividades que realizabas. Huelga
╦ť ┬┤
anadir que el preterito imperfecto es el tiempo dominante
╦ť ┬┤
ir, llamar, tener rentado/alquilado, salir, estar, ser, llegar, conducir, bajar, subir, aumentar,
sudar, hacer, cultivar, poder, querer, advertir, planear, prohibir.
iii Llena los espacios (M) / Rellena los blancos con soler, llevar o (desde) hacer, segun el
┬┤
sentido. Se trata de usar el preterito imperfecto.
┬┤

Ejemplo
Yo ( ) diez a╦ť os trabajando en la empresa cuando gan┬┤ la loter┬┤a > Yo llevaba . . .
n e ─±
a Nosotros ( ) dos a╦ť os en la casa cuando decidimos comprarla
n
b Ella ( ) escritas dos cartas cuando tuvo que salir
c Ellos ( ) mucho rato esperando en la estaci┬┤ n
o
d Yo ( ) media hora en el hospital
e Yo ( ) leer toda la tarde
f Estos melones ( ) ser muy ricos pero ahora no son tan buenos
g T┬┤ ( ) venir aqu┬┤ cada ´¬ün de semana pero no vienes nunca ahora
u ─±
┬┤
h El ( ) manejar un carro (M) pero despu┬┤ s del accidente lo vendi┬┤
e o
i Yo le┬┤a un libro ( ) mucho tiempo cuando son┬┤ el tel┬┤ fono
─± o e
┬┤ estudiaba ( ) tres a╦ť os cuando se licenci┬┤
j El n o
iv Actividad en parejas
Objetivo ÔÇ“ El uso de los verbos acostumbrar, soler, llevar and hacer in the imper-
fect tense, y seg┬┤ n su uso en 2.1.
u

61
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




M┬┤ todo ÔÇ“ Cada uno de la pareja le hace al otro cinco preguntas en imperfecto. El otro
e
contesta y hace cinco preguntas a su vez
Ejemplos
P R E G U N TA : ┬┐Qu┬┤ sol┬┤as hacer en Santa M┬┤ nica?
e─± o
R E S P U E S TA : Sol┬┤a nadar todos los d┬┤as
─± ─±
P R E G U N TA : ┬┐Ad┬┤ nde acostumbrabas ir de vacaciones?
o
R E S P U E S TA : Acostumbraba ir a Acapulco
Despu┬┤ s, el profesor re┬┤ ne a todo el mundo para recabar (collect together) todas las preguntas
e u
y respuestas.




62
Unit 8 (Unidad 8)
Preterit tense or past de´¬ünite
┬┤ ┬┤
(El preterito inde´¬ünido / preterito
perfecto simple)


Level 1
┬┤
1.1 Preterit tense (El preterito)



1.1 Preterit tense
The preterit tense, or past de´¬ünite, in Spanish, as in English, is used to described single,
completed actions in the past. These actions may be single or multiple. It corresponds
therefore to the English I spoke/ran/did/went, etc. = habl┬┤, corr┬┤, hice, fui. It needs to be
e ─±
distinguished from the imperfect and perfect tenses, a distinction which will be dealt with
in level 2.
Formation: to the stem are added the following

1st conjugation 2nd and 3rd conjugations (2 and 3 are the
same)
-┬┤
e -┬┤
─±
-aste -iste
-┬┤
o -i┬┤
o
-amos -imos
-asteis -isteis
-aron -ieron

Preterit tense of the three model verbs

compr┬┤
e vend┬┤
─± viv┬┤
─±
compraste vendiste viviste
Sing.
compr┬┤
o vendi┬┤o vivi┬┤o
compramos vendimos vivimos
comprasteis vendisteis vivisteis
Plur.
compraron vendieron vivieron

This has been easy up to now. However, there are a number of irregular verbs the stems
of which are entirely different from the stems of the in´¬ünitive. The one compensation is
that the preterits of ser and ir are the same, so you save a few minutes here. Now, lets
look at the main irregular verbs:

63
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




dar (d) di diste dio dimos disteis dieron
decir (dij) dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijisteis dijeron
estar (estuv) estuve estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvisteis estuvieron
haber (hub) hube hubiste hubo hubimos hubisteis hubieron
hacer (hic) hice hiciste *hizo hicimos hicisteis hicieron
ir (fu) fui fuiste fue fuinos fuisteis fueron
ser (fu) fui fuiste fue fuinos fuisteis fueron
poder (pud) pude pudiste pudo pudimos pudisteis pudieron
querer (quis) quise quisiste quiso quisimos quisisteis quisieron
saber (sup) supe supiste supo supimos supisteis supieron
tener (tuv) tuve tuviste tuvo tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron
venir (vin) vine viniste **vino vinimos vinisteis vinieron
Note *hizo where the c is logically changed into a z to preserve the sound. Otherwise a
retained c would produce a k sound. And dont become inebriated with **vino! (Whats
the joke here?)
As stated above, the preterit refers to completed actions, no matter how long these
actions last. They could have lasted for hundreds of years, but if they have ended, the
preterit is used.
Examples
Fui a Nueva York la semana pasada I went to New York last week
Regresaron de Inglaterra en junio They came back from England in June
┬┐Cu┬┤ ndo aprendiste a nadar?
a When did you learn to swim?
Julio C┬┤sar vivi┬┤ cincuenta y siete a╦ť os y muri┬┤ en el
e o n o Julius Caesar lived for ´¬üfty-seven years and
a╦ť o 44 antes de Cristo
n died in 44 BC
Cervantes, como Shakespeare, naci┬┤ en el siglo
o Cervantes, like Shakespeare, was born in
diecis┬┤is, y murieron el mismo a╦ť o
e n the sixteenth century, and they died in
the same year
A series of sequential actions is also conveyed by the preterit:
Regres┬┤ a las diez, me acost┬┤ en seguida y me levant┬┤
e e e I returned at ten oclock, went to bed
muy temprano straight away and got up very early

Exercises Level 1
i In the following sentences, change the subject for the new one in brackets

Example
Met┬┤ el dinero en el bolsillo (Ella) >
─± (Ella) meti┬┤ el dinero en el bolsillo
o
a Sal┬┤ despu┬┤ s de desayunar
─± e (nosotros)
b Abri┬┤ la puerta
o (la chica)
c Cerraron la ventana (yo)
d ┬┐Qu┬┤ comisteis en el restaurante?
e (t┬┤ )
u
e Perdi┬┤ su bolso en la playa
o (yo)
f Fui a Madrid la semana pasada (ellas)
g ┬┐A qu┬┤ hora volvieron anoche?
e (t┬┤ )
u
h Los turistas pasaron un mes en el hotel (mi hermano)
i ┬┐Por qu┬┤ bebiste tanta coca cola?
e (ellos)


64
8 Preterit tense or past de´¬ünite



j Estuve en M┬┤ laga ayer
a (nosotras)
k ┬┐Por qu┬┤ hiciste tus deberes anoche?
e (el chico)
l No viniste a verme el domingo pasado (┬┤ l)
e

ii In the following sentences change the verb in italics into the preterit:

Example
Jos┬┤ bebe mucha agua > Antonio bebi┬┤ mucha agua
e o
Juan compra dos panecillos
a
Voy al colegio
b
Cumplo dos a╦ť os
c n
Los chicos regresan tarde
d
Los pol┬┤ticos no est┬┤ n de acuerdo
a
e ─±
Las mujeres preparan una comida rica
f
A las diez salen a pasearse por el parque
g
┬┐Por qu┬┤ no me invit┬┤ is a cenar?
a
h e
┬┤
i ┬┐Vives lejos de Los Angeles?
Hace un poco de nataci┬┤ n
j o
iii Answer the following questions, using the preterit

Example
¿D´ nde dormiste anoche? > Dorm´ en mi cama, ¡claro!
o ─±
a ┬┐A d┬┤ nde fuiste ayer?
o
b ┬┐Cu┬┤ nto tiempo pasaste all┬┤?
a ─±
c ┬┐Estuviste con amigos?
d ┬┐Disfrut┬┤ mucho todo el mundo?
o
e ┬┐Se quedaron contigo todos tus amigos?
f ┬┐Comisteis / comieron (M) en un caf┬┤ ?
e
g ┬┐Qu┬┤ comieron (M) / comisteis?
e
h ┬┐Qu┬┤ bebisteis / bebieron (M)?
e
i ┬┐Volvisteis / Regresaron (M) muy tarde?
j ┬┐Dormiste bien?

iv Paired activity
Objective ÔÇ“ To use the preterit or past de´¬ünite tense
Method ÔÇ“ Ask each other ten questions. After all the pairs have completed their question
and answer session, you all come together. You choose one pair and ask them questions
in the plural, using Uds. If you were in Spain you would use the vosotros form. You should
end up practicing the yo, t┬┤ , nosotros/as, vosotros/as and Uds. forms of the verb
u

Examples

P R E G U N TA : ┬┐D┬┤ nde fuiste ayer?
o
R E S P U E S TA : Fui a la alberca (M)/piscina
P R E G U N TA : ┬┐D┬┤ nde encontraste tu libro?
o
Encontr┬┤ mi libro en mi casa or preferably Lo encontr┬┤ en mi casa
R E S P U E S TA : e e


65
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Examples with whole class

P R E G U N TA : ┬┐Por qu┬┤ fueron/fuisteis a la alberca (M) / piscina ayer?
e
R E S P U E S TA : Fuimos a la alberca (M) / piscina por que hac┬┤a calor
─±
P R E G U N TA : ┬┐D┬┤ nde vivieron/vivisteis el a╦ť o pasado?
o n
R E S P U E S TA : Vivimos en Veracruz
You need to be smart here because you could need the imperfect tense at times. See
unit 7.
Here are some verbs you could use:
encontrar, caminar, correr, llegar, recibir, venir, comprar, dar, decir, estudiar, trabajar,
arreglar, esperar, perder
Level 2
2.1 Differences between the preterit and the imperfect (Diferencias entre el
┬┤
preterito y el imperfecto)
2.2 Differences between the preterit and the perfect (Diferencias entre el
┬┤ ┬┤
preterito y el preterito perfecto)
┬┤ ┬┤
2.3 The preterit and perfect in Mexico (El preterito y el preterito perfecto en
┬┤
Mexico)


2.1 Differences between the preterit and the imperfect
i Whereas the imperfect tense relates to events that have no clear ending, or take
place over an unspeci´¬üed period of time, the preterit refers to a very sharply de´¬üned
action or event. The Spanish equivalent of the English I was reading the paper when
┬┤ ┬┤
my sister walked in is: Le┬┤a el periodico cuando entro mi hermana. The imperfect is
─±
continuous time while the preterit cuts across this continuum. Put another way, when
we express two past actions, occurring at the same time, the shorter action is
conveyed by the preterit while the longer one is in the imperfect. This explanation is
better understood by a simple diagram:
Past Present
Le┬┤a el peri┬┤dico (longer action)
─± o
Ôç‘
cuando entr┬┤ mi hermana (shorter or single action)
o
Otros ejemplos

Mientras escrib┬┤a la carta dieron las once
─± While I was writing the letter, it struck
eleven oclock
Mientras se abr┬┤a la puerta dej┬┤ caer / se me cay┬┤ la
─± e o While the door was opening I dropped the
pluma (M) / el bol┬┤grafo
─± pen

╦ť
ii Words associated with the preterit: ayer, la semana pasada, el ano pasado, anoche,
┬┤ ┬┤
una vez, de repente, de subito, subitamente (in other words, speci´¬üc points in time).
╦ť
Words associated with the imperfect: mientras, todos los d┬┤as, cada ano, con
─±
╦ť
frecuencia, frecuentemente, a menudo, de nino, de joven (in other words, habitual
or general features in the past).


66
8 Preterit tense or past de´¬ünite



iii Of course, these words do not automatically trigger the imperfect or the preterit;
witness the following cases:

Ayer jugu┬┤ b┬┤isbol (M) / al b┬┤isbol
ee e Yesterday I played baseball
Ayer jugaba f┬┤ tbol cuando llovi┬┤
u o Yesterday I was playing football when it
rained
De ni╦ť o tocaba la guitarra
n As a child I used to play the guitar
De ni╦ť o empec┬┤ a tocar la guitarra
n e As a child I began to play the guitar

iv In historical narration, the distinction is not always so clear. The preterit can apply to
actions or events of some duration, but it still evokes something accidental or
temporary.

Ejemplos
C┬┤sar escribi┬┤ la historia de sus conquistas
e o Caesar wrote the history of his conquests
Los aztecas conquistaron toda Mesoam┬┤ricae The Aztecs conquered all Meso-America

If the preterit tenses in the above were changed to the imperfect, their sentences and
meaning would be incomplete without some complementary clause such as:
C┬┤sar escrib┬┤a . . . cuando estall┬┤ una guerra
e ─± o Caesar was writing . . . when a war broke
out
Los aztecas conquistaban . . . cuando llegaron los The Aztecs were conquering . . . when the
espa╦ť oles
n Spaniards arrived

v In narrations the preterit tells the occurrences which provide the thread of the story
while the imperfect describes the scenes in which they occurred; witness the
following narrative:

El sol brillaba en un cielo sin nubes. Soplaba una brisa muy agradable y las olas
chapoteaban dulcemente sobre el agua. El barco deslizaba silenciosamente por entre las
┬┤
rocas, el gorjeo de las gaviotas nos embelesaba y disfrutabamos de la tranquilidad del
┬┤ ┬┤
ambiente. De s┬┤ bito, se oyo una explosi┬┤ n ensordecedora, y aparecio en el cielo un cohete
u o
┬┤ ┬┤
que creo un destello azul. Nos quedamos at┬┤ nitas. Nos entro una sensaci┬┤ n de
o o
asombro. RB

(There is quite a lot of new vocabulary here. But you can guess the meaning in most
cases.)


2.2 Differences between the preterit and the perfect
The following comments are complicated by different usage in Spanish America and
Iberian Spanish. Remarks are limited initially to Spain but Spanish American and,
notably, Mexican usage will subsequently be treated. If the occurrence took place within
a space of time not yet expired, as this day, month, year, etc., or if it is in any way connected
with the present, the perfect tense is employed. But if distance in time intervenes, the
preterit may well be used. Compare the two examples:
He escrito dos cartas esta ma╦ť ana
n I wrote two letters this morning
Escrib┬┤ dos cartas ayer
─± I wrote two letters yesterday

67
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




He escrito could not be easily be used in the second case. However, escrib┬┤ could be
─±
used in the ´¬ürst case if the point at which the person speaks is the evening, and not, say,
mid-day or two oclock in the afternoon. It is all a question of relation between the time
of speech and the time referred to.
Compare two further examples related to getting up in the morning.
┬┐Has dormido bien? Have you slept well? / Did you sleep well?

would be used ´¬ürst thing in the morning but in the evening one would probably ask:
┬┐Dormiste bien anoche? Did you sleep well last night?

Further examples illustrating the differences
No he ido a Espa╦ť a este a╦ť o
n n I havent been to Spain this year
(includes the present time)
No fui a Espa╦ť a este a╦ť o
n n I didnt go to Spain this year
(excludes the present time)
Le escrib┬┤ a mi padre el Martes
─± I wrote to my father on Tuesday
(excludes the present time)
Le he escrito a mi padre varias veces Ive written to my father a few times
(includes the present time)
M┬┤xico ha producido muchos autores eminentes
e Mexico has produced many eminent writers
(includes the present time)
M┬┤xico no produjo muchos autores eminentes en el
e Mexico did not produce many eminent
siglo dieciocho writers in the eighteenth century
(excludes the present time)

The perfect and the preterit are used with no distinction in such statements as:
Lo hice / lo he hecho hace cinco minutos I did it ´¬üve minutes ago

Interestingly enough, the English perfect could not be used here.


2.3 The preterit and perfect in Mexico
(See also the perfect, unit 5, level 1.)
As in most other South American countries, in Mexico the perfect is used much less
than in Spain. For instance, in two examples quoted above, only the preterit would be
used:
┬┐Dormiste bien? (after just getting up) Did you sleep well?
Lo hice hace cinco minutos I did it ´¬üve minutes ago

Further examples
Me lav┬┤ los dientes (just now)
e Ive cleaned my teeth
┬┐Viste la pel┬┤cula?
─± Have you seen / Did you see the movie?
Votaron al presidente (today) Theyve voted for the president
Subi┬┤ el precio
o The price has gone up

Of course the last example could mean: the price went up (i.e weeks ago)

68
8 Preterit tense or past de´¬ünite



Exercises Level 2
i Completa:

Ejemplo
Admiraba la bah┬┤a cuando ( ) > o┬┤ un ruido ensordecedor
─± ─±
a Beb┬┤a tranquilamente mi tequila cuando ( )
─±
b Carlos tocaba el piano cuando ( )
c Regresaban de la playa cuando ( )
d Pens┬┤ bamos en ti cuando ( )
a
e Com┬┤amos mariscos cuando ( )
─±
f Ve┬┤amos la televisi┬┤ n cuando ( )
─± o
g Jug┬┤ bamos al b┬┤ isbol cuando ( ) (Jug┬┤ bamos b┬┤ isbol . . . in M)
a e a e
h Dorm┬┤amos cuando ( )
─±
i Manejaba el carro (M) cuando ( )
j Planchaba los pantalones cuando ( )
k Hablaba por tel┬┤ fono cuando ( )
e

ii Cambia el in´¬ünitivo entre parentesis al preterito simple o al preterito imperfecto,
┬┤ ┬┤ ┬┤
segun el sentido
┬┤
El verano pasado (ir) de campamento a la sierra. Me (acompa╦ť ar) varios amigos que
n
(estudiar) en la misma universidad. Cada uno (llevar) una mochila, y (tener) bastante
dinero para una semana. (Tener) un carro que (ser) muy viejo pero que (funcionar) muy
bien. Antes de llegar al campamento, (llenar) el tanque de gasolina. Cuando (estar) en
el campamento (montar) las dos tiendas. Los chicos (preparar) la cena y las chicas, ┬┐por
qu┬┤ no? (dar) un paseo. Al d┬┤a siguiente, (subir) a la alta sierra. (Haber) muchas plantas
e ─±
y animales y el sol (verse) resplandeciente. (Asolearse [M] / (Tomar) el sol. (Disfrutar)
mucho de la naturaleza. Nos (gustar) mucho estar en contacto con el mundo natural. Es
porque (estar) all┬┤. (Regresar / Volver) a casa despu┬┤ s de una semana que (estar) llena de
─± e
recuerdos agradables.

iii Contesta las preguntas, usando el preterito perfecto, indicando ÔÇťvarias vecesÔÇŁ
┬┤

Ejemplo
┬┐Fuiste a Cuernavaca? > S┬┤, he ido tres veces
─±
a ┬┐O┬┤ste el ruido en la calle?
─±
b ┬┐Le┬┤ste la novela que te hab┬┤a prestado?
─± ─±
c ┬┐Vio Ud. esa pel┬┤cula?
─±
d ┬┐Perdiste tus llaves?
e ┬┐Fueron Uds. al Museo de Antropolog┬┤a? ─±
f ┬┐Visitaron Uds. Palenque?
g ┬┐Te ca┬┤ste en el colegio?
─±

iv Actividad en parejas
Objetivo ÔÇ“ Empezar una frase con el imperfecto / copret┬┤ rito (M) y terminarla con el
e
pret┬┤ rito
e
M┬┤ todo ÔÇ“ La primera persona (A) de la pareja empieza una frase con el imperfecto y
e
la segunda (B) la termina con el pret┬┤ rito. Intenten crear seis frases
e

69
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Ejemplos
A: (Yo) cantaba en el sal┬┤ n cuando ( )
o
B: entr┬┤ mi hermana
o
A: Mi padre andaba en bicicleta cuando ( )
B: vi┬┤ al cartero
o
Despu┬┤ s, el profesor recoge varias frases de la clase entera y las escribe en el pizarr┬┤ n
e o
(M) / la pizarra




70
Unit 9 (Unidad 9)
Conditional tense (El tiempo
condicional)

Level 1
1.1 The conditional (El condicional)


1.1 The conditional
i This tense corresponds to the English would, so it has a future idea, both in form and
usage. Its endings are added to the full in´¬ünitive, just as with the future tense. You
should not ´¬ünd the formation of the conditional dif´¬ücult if you have no trouble with
the future. Here are the forms of the conditional:

comprar┬┤a vender┬┤a vivir┬┤a
-┬┤a
─± ─± ─± ─±
comprar┬┤as vender┬┤as vivir┬┤as
Sing. -┬┤as
─± ─± ─± ─±
comprar┬┤a vender┬┤a vivir┬┤a
-┬┤a
─± ─± ─± ─±
comprar┬┤amos vender┬┤amos vivir┬┤amos
-┬┤amos
─± ─± ─± ─±
comprar┬┤ais vender┬┤ais vivir┬┤ais
Plur. -┬┤ais
─± ─± ─± ─±
comprar┬┤an vender┬┤an vivir┬┤an
-┬┤an
─± ─± ─± ─±
ii Here are the conditionals of twelve irregular verbs. These follow the pattern of the
future of these irregular verbs:

Future Conditional
caber: cabr┬┤ e cabr┬┤a>
─± cabr┬┤as, etc.
─±
decir: dir┬┤
e dir┬┤a>
─± dir┬┤as, etc.
─±
haber: habr┬┤ e habr┬┤a>
─± habr┬┤as, etc.
─±
hacer: har┬┤e har┬┤a>
─± har┬┤as, etc.
─±
poder: podr┬┤ e podr┬┤a>
─± podr┬┤as, etc.
─±
poner: pondr┬┤ e pondr┬┤a> ─± pondr┬┤as, etc.
─±
querer: querr┬┤ e querr┬┤a>─± querr┬┤as, etc.
─±
saber: sabr┬┤ e sabr┬┤a>
─± sabr┬┤as, etc.
─±
salir: saldr┬┤ e saldr┬┤a>
─± saldr┬┤as, etc.
─±
tener: tendr┬┤ e tendr┬┤a>
─± tendr┬┤as, etc.
─±
valer: valdr┬┤ e valdr┬┤a>─± valdr┬┤as, etc.
─±
venir: vendr┬┤ e vendr┬┤a>─± vendr┬┤as, etc.
─±
The conditional always depends upon a past tense, expressed or understood. Its primary
value is to convey a future idea or event from a past time. It bears the same relationship to
a past tense as the future does to the present tense. It is helpful to see the future alongside
the conditional. Compare the sentences in the sets below:

71
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH



Te aseguro que lo har┬┤e I assure you that IÔÇ™ll do it
Te aseguraba que lo har┬┤a─± I assured you that I would do it
Voy a preguntarle si llegar┬┤ pronto
a Ill ask her if shell arrive soon
Iba a preguntarle si llegar┬┤a pronto
─± I was going to ask her if she would arrive
soon
Te digo que regresar┬┤ ma╦ť ana
en I tell you Ill return tomorrow
Te dije que regresar┬┤a ma╦ť ana
─± n I told you I would return tomorrow
iii In this manner the conditional is extended to apply as a future after any past
tense, whether indicative or subjunctive (see unit 16, level 2 on the subjunctive, for
examples).
Era seguro que tendr┬┤a raz┬┤n
─± o It was certain that he would be right
Pens┬┤ que tal vez la encontrar┬┤a por aqu┬┤
e ─± ─± I thought that perhaps IÔÇ™d ´¬ünd her here

Exercises Level 1
i Change the in´¬ünitive to the conditional in the following sentences:
Example
Le dije que (venir) ma╦ť ana > Le dije que vendr┬┤a ma╦ť ana
n ─± n
a Te expliqu┬┤ que (llegar) mis parientes antes
e
b Nos avisaron que la boda (ser) a las doce
c Luisa dijo que (ir) a la modista
d Me coment┬┤ que (aprender) a conducir
o
e Pensamos que era tarde y que no (servir) comidas
f Le platiqu┬┤ que no (poder) regresar mis hermanos
e
g Contestamos que el precio de la casa (ser) demasiado alto
h Le promet┬┤ que mis abuelos (cuidar) a los ni╦ť os
─± n
i Les dije que nosotros (coincidir) en Barcelona
j Supuse que t┬┤ (comprar) las ´¬‚ores
u
ii Change as in the example, i.e. present + future > preterit/imperfect + conditional
Example
Creo que (┬┤ l) tendr┬┤ bastante dinero > Cre┬┤a que tendr┬┤a bastante dinero
e a ─± ─±
a Dice que saldr┬┤ a las nueve
a
b Opinamos que no vendr┬┤ n sus pap┬┤ s
a a
c Dicen que no habr┬┤ luz ma╦ť ana
a n
d Luis cree que Ana no har┬┤ nada
a
e Pedro me avisa que el cartero no vendr┬┤ m┬┤ s tarde
aa
f ┬┐Por qu┬┤ me comentas que rentar┬┤ s un carro (M)?
e a
g Supongo que har┬┤ fr┬┤o ma╦ť ana
a─± n
h Creo que aprobar┬┤ el examen
a
Piensa que pondr┬┤ n la pel┬┤cula Casablanca esta noche
i a ─±
j Estoy seguro de que nevar┬┤ esta tarde
a
iii Paired activity
Objective ÔÇ“ To practice the conditional used after the imperfect or preterit
Method ÔÇ“ The ´¬ürst person (A) starts a sentence with either the imperfect tense (see
unit 7 for a reminder) or the preterit (see unit 8 for a reminder). The second person (B)
completes the sentence with a conditional. Try to complete six sentences

72
9 Conditional tense



Examples
A: Le dije que ( )
B: (yo) ir┬┤a esta tarde
─±
A: Les promet┬┤a cada d┬┤a que ( )
─± ─±
B: regresar┬┤amos el a╦ť o que viene
─± n
See further examples in 9.1.1. ii and iii
iv Activity for one brave person to face the whole class and explain how the Spanish
conditional is formed and how it is used in Spanish. Is the formation of the Spanish
conditional easier than in English? Is it useful to know the formation of the future
in Spanish in this context? The adventurous person could obtain cooperation and
her/his answers from the class. This could be an activity to be prepared for next
week.
Level 2
┬┤
2.1 Conditional perfect (Preterito condicional)


2.1 Conditional perfect
This tense conveys an idea or an event related to the future in the past. It corresponds
to the English would have done/spoken/walked, etc. = habr┬┤a hecho / hablado / caminado (M) /
─±
andado. It has a complication in that it often involves the use of the subjunctive, and you
are referred to the subjunctive (see unit 16, especially level 2). As in the example above,
the conditional perfect is formed by the conditional of the verb haber followed by the
past participle of the main verb. In other words, its formation is the auxiliary or helping
verb haber + past participle.
Ejemplos
habr┬┤a/habr┬┤as/habr┬┤a/habr┬┤amos/habr┬┤ais/habr┬┤an comprado = I would have bought, etc.
─± ─± ─± ─± ─± ─±
habr┬┤a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vendido = I would have sold, etc.
─±
habr┬┤a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vivido = I would have lived, etc.
─±
Besides this temporal function, the conditional perfect is also used to suggest supposition
and hypothesis, with the idea of must have or probably*
Examples
Ya habr┬┤a llegado cuando salimos
─± She must have arrived when we left
Habr┬┤a escrito la carta antes
─± He must have written the letter before
Seg┬┤ n la polic┬┤a cuatro pandilleros (M) habr┬┤an
u ─± ─± According to the police, four delinquents
cometido el delito must have committed the offense

*The conditional perfect corresponds to the preterite use of deber de as in:
Debi┬┤ de acabar el trabajo ayer
o She must have ´¬ünished the work yesterday
Deb┬┤ de perder el conocimiento
─± I must have lost consciousness
Debi┬┤ de hacer fr┬┤o
o ─± It must have been cold

There is some uncertainty among many Spanish speakers whether deber should be
followed by de in this construction. However, the consensus among grammarians is that
the construction should be deber de.

73
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Exercises Level 2
i Cambia como en el ejemplo ÔÇ“ presente + futuro > preterito/imperfecto +
┬┤
condicional:
Creo que los plomeros (M) / fontaneros habr┬┤ n terminado el trabajo para las seis >
a
Cre┬┤/Cre┬┤a que los plomeros/fontaneros habr┬┤an terminado . . .
─± ─± ─±
a Su padre dice que habr┬┤ acabado el examen
a
b Estamos seguras de que habr┬┤ n arreglado el carro (M)
a
c Es casi cierto que se habr┬┤ descompuesto (M) / averiado la lavadora
a
d Nos advierte que habr┬┤ llovido antes de la noche
a
e Nos promete que habr┬┤ n cargado los camiones a las seis
a
f Sugiere que el con´¬‚icto se habr┬┤ resuelto a ´¬ünales de mes
a
g Contesta que habr┬┤ n construido el edi´¬ücio dentro de un a╦ť o
a n
h Me informa que habr┬┤ n corregido en breve los errores del horario
a
i Te garantizo que el abogado nos habr┬┤ entregado el documento a las dos
a
j El comandante insiste en que la guerra habr┬┤ terminado en enero
a
k Estoy convencida de que los polic┬┤as habr┬┤ n hallado (M) / encontrado al chico
─± a
perdido

ii Actividad en parejas
Objetivo ÔÇ“ estudiar la concordancia entre el pret┬┤ rito y el condicional
e
M┬┤ todo ÔÇ“ la pareja colabora para crear seis frases que incluyan un verbo en pret┬┤ rito y
e e
un verbo en condicional. Despu┬┤ s, varias parejas le presentan sus frases a la clase entera.
e
Abajo, encuentran una serie de verbos en pret┬┤ rito que pueden ayudarlos a empezar la
e
frase:
Estuve, fue, sugerimos, advert┬┤, contestaron, dijimos, avisamos, coment┬┤ , aseguraron,
─± o
pregunt┬┤o
Ejemplos
La polic┬┤a nos advirti┬┤ que los ladrones regresar┬┤an
─± o ─±
Supuse que nos dar┬┤an el dinero
─±




74
Unit 10 (Unidad 10)
Progressive tense or gerund
(El tiempo progresivo o el gerundio)


Level 1
1.1 The present participle of the verb (El participio activo del verbo)


1.1 The present participle of the verb
i The place of the present participle, as part of the verb, has been taken by a form
adopted almost unchanged from the Latin and called the gerund. In regular -ar verbs
this is formed by adding -ando to the stem; in regular -er and -ir verbs by the addition
of -iendo:

comprar > comprando to buy > buying
vender > vendiendo to sell > selling
vivir > viviendo to live > living

This is also the case in most of the irregular verbs:
dar > dando hacer > haciendo ser > siendo
estar > estando querer > queriendo tener > teniendo
haber > habiendo salir > saliendo ver > viendo

Some irregular verbs are slightly different:
caer > cayendo construir > construyendo dormir > durmiendo
ir > yendo o┬┤r > oyendo traer > trayendo
─±

ii The distinctive feature of the gerund is that it can be combined with different tenses,
as in the examples below:

┬┐Qu┬┤ est┬┤ haciendo Pap┬┤ ? Est┬┤ leyendo el peri┬┤dico
ea a a o Whats Pa/dad doing? Hes reading the
newspaper
Est┬┤ tocando el viol┬┤n
a ─± SheÔÇ™s playing the violin
┬┐De qu┬┤ est┬┤ n/est┬┤ is hablando?
ea a What are you talking about?
┬┐Qu┬┤ has estado haciendo hoy?
e What have you been doing today?
Estaba yo escribiendo cuando entr┬┤
o I was writing when she came in
Ma╦ť ana a estas horas estaremos viajando
n At this time tomorrow well be traveling

The preterit of estar (estuve, etc.) is also used in the same way but this will be treated
in level 2.


75
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




iii There is also a perfect of the gerund made up of the past participle and the gerund
of the auxiliary verb haber:
habiendo comprado habiendo ido
having bought having gone
habiendo vivido habiendo visto
having lived having seen

Examples
Habiendo comprado la fruta, regres┬┤ a casa
e Having bought the fruit, I returned home
Habiendo vivido en Phoenix diez a╦ť os,
n Having lived in Phoenix ten years, we
decidimos . . . decided . . .
Habiendo ido al mercadillo cuatro veces, estaba Having been to the market four times, I was
cansado tired
iv When the gerund governs one or more personal pronouns (see unit 17) they are
added to it to form one word. This entails the placing of a written accent over the
correct vowel to keep the stress in the same place.

Examples
┬┤
encontrandola meeting her
┬┤
dandomelo giving it to me
┬┤
encontrandose fuera sin llave being outside without a key
volvi┬┤ ndome para ver mejor
e turning round to see better
pidi┬┤ ndome libros que . . .
e asking me for books that . . .
v However, if the gerund is governed by estar, ir, andar or venir, the pronouns may
either precede the verb or be joined to the gerund. Compare the sentences in the
pairs:

Le estoy escribiendo ahorita (M)
Im writing to him/her now
Estoy escribi┬┤ndole ahorita
e
Me estaba rasurando (M) cuando . . .
I was shaving when . . .
Estaba rasur┬┤ ndome cuando . . .
a
Ella se va americanizando
Shes becoming Americanized
Ella va americaniz┬┤ ndose
a

vi But with haber, the pronoun is always attached to haber:

Habi┬┤ndome dado cuenta de que . . .
e Having realized that . . .

Exercises Level 1
i Put the written accent in the correct place

Examples
viendolos > vi┬┤ ndolos pidiendomelas > pidi┬┤ ndomelas
e e
a encontrandolos d prestandolas g dandoselos j entendiendome
b afeitandose e rasurandome (M) h describiendomelo k llenandose
c apoyandolos f vaciandolo i trayendolo l reconociendome

ii Answer as in the examples:
┬┐Qu┬┤ est┬┤ s haciendo? > Estoy viendo televisi┬┤ n
ea o
┬┐Por qu┬┤ est┬┤ n limpiando la rec┬┤ mara (M)? > Est┬┤ n limpiando la rec┬┤ mara por que
ea a a a
est┬┤ sucia
a

76
10 Progressive tense or gerund



a ┬┐Qu┬┤ est┬┤ s mirando?
ea
b ┬┐Qu┬┤ est┬┤ n pintando? (M)
ea
c ┬┐Por qu┬┤ est┬┤ n lavando los platos? (M)
ea
d ┬┐Por qu┬┤ est┬┤ is fregando los platos?
ea
e ┬┐D┬┤ nde est┬┤ s comiendo en este momento?
o a
┬┐D┬┤ nde est┬┤ s durmiendo? (Does this sentence makes sense?)
f o a
g ┬┐Qui┬┤ n est┬┤ contestando al tel┬┤ fono?
e a e
h ┬┐Qui┬┤ n est┬┤ preparando la comida?
e a
i ┬┐D┬┤ nde est┬┤ is recogiendo los papeles?
o a
j ┬┐Qu┬┤ est┬┤ s pidiendo?
ea

iii Change as in the example, i.e. simple present > progressive + ahorita:
Cocino de vez en cuando / a veces > Estoy cocinando ahorita
a Trabajo de vez en cuando / a veces
b Leo de vez en cuando / a veces
c Ve la televisi┬┤ n de vez en cuando / . . .
o
d Pide dinero de vez en cuando / . . .
e Vendo fruta de vez en cuando / . . .
f Ense╦ť o la f┬┤sica de vez en cuando / . . .
n ─±
g Oye el radio (M) / la radio de vez en cuando / . . .
h Trae cartas de vez en cuando / . . .
i Escriben tarjetas de vez en cuando / . . .
j Corremos de vez en cuando / . . .
k Abren (M) botellas de vino de vez en cuando / . . .
l Abr┬┤s la ventana de vez en cuando / . . .
─±

iv Change as in the example (two ways):
>
Est┬┤ s arreglando el carro
a Lo est┬┤ s arreglando / Est┬┤ s arregl┬┤ ndolo
a a a
a Estoy comprando sardinas
b Est┬┤ vendiendo peri┬┤ dicos
a o
c Estamos corrigiendo ex┬┤ menes
a
d Est┬┤ n tirando piedras
a
e ┬┐Por qu┬┤ est┬┤ s pidiendo ayuda?
ea
f ┬┐Por qu┬┤ est┬┤ s pidiendo dinero?
ea
g ┬┐D┬┤ nde est┬┤ s sirviendo la cena?
o a
h Est┬┤ trayendo los libros
a
i Est┬┤ n escribiendo los ejercicios
a
j Estoy aprendiendo el vocabulario

v Paired activity
Objective ÔÇ“ to practice the progressive tense
Method ÔÇ“ the ´¬ürst person (A) asks the second person (B) (and vice versa) what (s)he is
doing, and what every one else is doing/writing/saying, etc.
This involves the whole range of pronouns, except vosotros, if you are in Mexico
Examples
A: ┬┐Qu┬┤ est┬┤ s haciendo?
ea
B: Estoy escribiendo una carta

77
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




A: ┬┐Qu┬┤ est┬┤ n haciendo?
ea
B: Estamos viendo la televisi┬┤ n
o
A: Pero, ┬┐qu┬┤ est┬┤ n haciendo ellos, no Uds.?
ea
B: Perd┬┤ n, est┬┤ n jugando al ajedrez
o a
Feel free to use your imagination. I/You/he/she/we/they (Yo/t┬┤ /┬┤l/ella/nosotros/as/
ue
ellos/as) could be swimming (nadando), running (corriendo), speaking (platicando (M)/
hablando), walking (caminando/andando), smashing bottles (¡rompiendo botellas! ), climbing a
mountain (escalando una monta╦ť a), getting drunk (emborrach┬┤ ndome/te/se/nos ÔÇ“ hope not),
n a
robbing a bank (robando un banco ÔÇ“ hope not), or sleeping (durmiendo ÔÇ“ could you answer
here?)

<<

˝˛­. 4
(Ô˝ňŃţ 16)

Đ╬─┼đĂ└═╚┼

>>