<<

. 8
( 16)



>>

more unpleasant
iii However, certain conjunctions of time are followed by the subjunctive whatever the
time, and however certain the events are.
Antes de que, despu´ s de que and desde que are such conjunctions.
e
Ejemplos
Antes de que viniera/venga hice/har´ las camas Before he came/comes I made / I™ll make the
e
beds
Desde que aprendiera a escribir compuso cuentecitos / cuentitos (M) As soon as he learnt to write
he made up stories
Despu´s de que llegaran fuimos al teatro After they came we went to the movies
e

iv Notwithstanding the certainty implied in desde que and despues de que (after all,
´
the events have actually taken place), the subjunctive is the norm these days. Such a
practice is condemned by purists. They would prefer llegaron in the last sentence,
for example. The same goes for Mexican speakers of Spanish for whom the
subjunctive is aberrant in these cases. However, nearly all Spanish newspapers,
including El Pa´s, have adopted the subjunctive in these circumstances.
±

v Remarks
If the subject is the same for the main and subordinate clause the verb in the subordinate
clause is in the in¬nitive.
Ejemplos
Escribe la carta antes de / despu´ s de desayunar / desayunarte (M) Write the
e
letter before/after having your breakfast
Tendr´ s que crecer mucho hasta ser como yo You™ll have to grow a lot until you™re like me
a
a Hasta que is frequently followed, and not only in speech, by no, but this is
condemned by purists. However, it is perfectly acceptable in Mexico
b Hasta que is usually followed by an indicative in the past. Compare the example
with hasta que in (i) above, and the following one in which there is no uncertainty

´
Me qued´ en casa hasta que llego mi amigo / cuate (M)
e
but
Le dije que me quedar´a en casa hasta que regresara I told her/him that I would remain till
±
(s)he came back ([S]he hasn™t come back yet)


2.10 Use of the subjunctive or in¬nitive after the
main clause
In the following examples, the verbs after the main clause may be used in their subjunctive
form or as an in¬nitive. However, Spanish speakers do have preferences, but these may

149
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




vary from person to person. The examples below indicate these preferences although
there is no clear-cut rule to help you. Factors such as whether the language is written, as
opposed to spoken, may affect the choice, or even the tense of the main clause. To try to
compare Peninsular and Mexican usage here would be going too far.
Me aconseja que vaya al cine Me aconseja ir al cine
aconsejar
No difference
Los animo a que trabajen Los animo a trabajar
animar
No difference
Lo dejo que termine su trabajo Lo dejo terminar su trabajo
dejar
In¬nitive preferred
El carro mal estacionado me impidi´ que
o El carro mal estacionado me impidi´
o
impedir
saliera salir
No difference
Nos invitaron a que cen´ ramos con ellos
a Nos invitaron a cenar con ellos
invitar
In¬nitive preferred
El maestro nos mand´ que sali´ramos al
o e El maestro nos mand´ salir al patio
o
mandar
patio
Subjunctive preferred
El capit´ n nos orden´ que regres´ ramos al
a o a El capit´ n nos orden´ regresar al
a o
ordenar
campamento campamento
Subjunctive preferred
El m´dico le permiti´ que fumara
e o El m´dico le permiti´ fumar
e o
permitir
In¬nitive preferred
Mi mam´ me ha prohibido que beba vino
a Mi mam´ me ha prohibido beber vino
a
prohibir
No difference
Su amiga nos propuso que fu´ramos al cine
e Su amiga nos propuso ir al cine
proponer
No difference
recomendar El doctor (M) me recomend´ que
o El doctor me recomend´ descansar
o
descansara
No difference
La psic´loga le ha sugerido que cambie de
o La psic´loga le ha sugerido cambiar de
o
sugerir
trabajo trabajo
No difference

Exercises Level 2
i Encuentra la forma correcta del subjuntivo en las siguientes expresiones. Elije tu
verbo con un signi¬cado que convenga:

Ejemplo
la duda de que ( ) > la duda de que apruebe el examen
a el peligro de que ( )
b el riesgo de que ( )
c ¡Qu´ ganas tengo de que ( )!
e
d Tengo el temor de que ( )
e Tengo miedo de que ( )
f Existe la probabilidad de que ( )


150
16 Subjunctive



g Me extra˜ a el hecho de que ( )
n
h Es peligroso que ( )
ii Encuentra la forma subjuntiva que convenga, usando los verbos o expresiones de
abajo, y completando la frase de un modo logico:
´
tener que, perder, acabar, cerrar, ser, pagar, aprobar, cobrar
Ejemplo
No me parece probable que ( ) > No me parece probable que apruebe el examen
a Importa que ( )
b Es dudoso que ( )
c Es inevitable que ( )
d Es l´ stima que ( )
a
e Es de esperar que ( )
f Es de temer que ( )
g Es previsible que ( )
h No est´ bien que ( )
a
iii Escribe las catorce frases de abajo, y acaba por un subjuntivo que elijas, o por una
expresion alternativa:
´

Ejemplo
No encuentro ning´ n alumno que ( ) > No encuentro ning´ n alumno que sepa
u u
resolver este problema
a Me hace falta un carro (M) que ( )
b ¿Conoces un electricista que ( )?
c Prometo una recompensa ( )
d No hay ning´ n mec´ nico que ( )
u a
e Nunca he encontrado ninguna planta que ( )
f No encuentro ning´ n men´ que ( )
u u
g Ven a vernos cuando ( )
h Seguir´ leyendo ( )
e
i Tendr´ que acostarme ( )
e
j Se lo agradec´ con un e-mail ( )
±
k Te prometo ayudar a tu hermano ( )
l Iremos al parque ( )
m El precio del viaje depende del ( )
n No hay mucha gente que ( )
iv Traduce al espanol las siguientes expresiones:
˜
a Whoever you are
b Wherever they are
c Whatever they do
d However you repair it
e Whatever the weather
f Whatever your opinion
g Whatever happens
h Whoever wants it


151
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




i Whatever interest you show
j Whether she goes or not
k Whatever she thinks
l Wherever you come from
m However strong she is
n However much you ask me to do it
o However much food you buy
v Las siguientes palabras estan mezcladas y no tienen sentido as´. Encuentra su orden
´ ±
logico:
´

Ejemplo
que iremos al teatro luego acabado hayas la comida > Luego que hayas acabado la
comida iremos al teatro
a arreglado hayan cami´ n (M) Cuernavaca a iremos el cuando
o
b hayas dep´ sito cuando vuelve casa a llenado el (use tanque and regresar for Mexico)
o
c telefoneado cuanto saldremos en Juan a hayas
vi Traduce al espanol. Ten en cuenta que las formas hubiese/hubieses, etc., no se usan
˜
en Mexico
´

a If I had known that you were there I would have come
b If you had told me that the movie/¬lm was so good I would have seen it
c If I had a car I would visit Spain
d If you were a millionaire, what would you buy?
e I promised her that, when I returned, we would go to the theater
f If my mom/mum made cookies/biscuits I would always invite friends home
g We agreed that, when the weather improved, we would all go to the beach
h I was frightened she would wake up when I arrived home late
iWe let the children play all day so that they would be very tired and would want to go
to bed early
j We advised them to use traveler™s checks because the local currency was uncertain
k I denied that the bus driver had caused the accident
l In case we didn™t have enough money I cashed a traveler™s check
vii Hablas / Platicas (M) con un agente inmobiliario porque quieres comprar una casa,
o en la Ciudad de Mexico, o en Madrid. Tienes una cantidad de dinero astronomica
´ ´
pero te interesa sobre todo una propiedad con buena relacion calidad precio (value
´
for money). El agente te ensena una lista de propiedades en la Ciudad de Mexico,
˜ ´
entre cinco estrellas (***** = excelente) y cero estrellas (poco atractivo). He aqu´ la
´ ±
lista, bajando de cinco a cero: Las Lomas (de Chapultepec), Santa Fe, Polanco,
Jardines de la Montana, Tlatelolcol. Escribe un dialogo que consista en cinco
˜ ´
preguntas y cinco respuestas y que contenga (contains) una serie de hipotesis
´
relacionadas con la compra de una casa. Las hipotesis deben incluir cada vez la
´
conjuncion condicional si
´

Por ejemplo

´
TU: ¿Si yo comprara esta casa en Las Lomas hace diez a˜ os, cu´ nto valdr´a
n a ±
ahora?

152
16 Subjunctive



AG E N T E : Bueno, vamos a ver, habr´a ganado Ud. unos quinientos mil pesos si la
±
hubiera comprado en aquel entonces, y hubiera hecho una buena
inversi´ n (investment)
o
´
Podr´as, si quieres, basar tu dialogo sobre las siguientes zonas de Madrid,
±
bajando de cinco a cero estrellas:
Plaza de la Cibeles, Parque del Retiro, Puerta del Sol, Villaverde Bajo, Carabanchel
viii Traduce al espanol:
˜

a I™ll cook lunch before you start the housework
b We™ll have a game of chess after Pedro goes to bed
c While you™re in the kitchen, I™ll read the newspaper
d As soon as you have had a shower we™ll go to the soccer match
e Call us as soon as you get home
f Wait until they call us
g I™ll wait here until they come
h We™ll wash the car before we set off for the mountains
i We™ll go on vacation/holiday a few days after you ¬nish work
ix Juego de rol
Elige a un compa˜ ero / una compa˜ era. Preparad / Preparen (M) para la semana
n n
pr´ xima un di´ logo que presentar´ is / presentar´ n (M) a la clase. Se trata de un(a)
o a e a
comprador(a) que quiere adquirir una casa o en Madrid o en la Ciudad de M´ xico y
e
que se cita con un(a) agente inmobiliario(a). Puede ser el mismo tema que el anterior
(vii). Sin embargo, podr´ais / podr´an (M) incluir referencias a casas en todas las
± ±
zonas. H´ g´ is lo que hag´ is / Hagan lo que hagan (M), se trata de una conversaci´ n
aa a o
presentada en clase.




153
Unit 17 (Unidad 17)
Personal pronouns (Los pronombres
personales)


Level 1
1.1 Personal pronoun as subject (Pronombre personal como sujeto)
1.2 Personal pronoun as direct object (Pronombre personal como
objeto/complemento directo)
1.3 Personal pronoun as indirect object (Pronombre personal como
objeto/complemento indirecto)
1.4 Pronouns with prepositions / (disjunctive pronouns) (Pronombres con
preposiciones / [pronombres disyuntivos] )


1.1 Personal pronoun as subject
i The following personal pronouns are regularly used as the subject of a sentence:
Yo compro una casa I buy a house
´
Tu compras una casa You buy a house
´
El/Ella/Ud. compra una casa He/She/You buy(s) a house
Nosotros/as compramos una casa We (males) / We (females) buy a house
Vosotros/as compr´ is una casa
a You (males) / You (females) buy a house
Ellos/Ellas/Uds. compran una casa They (males) / They (females) / You buy a
house
ii A number of comments are to be made here. The ¬rst is that the yo / tu / nosotros/as /
´
vosotros/as forms are not used very frequently since the verb endings make it clear
who is being referred to. Secondly, if there is a mixture of males and females the
masculine forms are used, i.e. nosotros, vosotros, ellos. The female forms nosotras,
vosotras, ellas would only be used if females alone were referred to. The vosotros/as
forms are not used in Spanish America and are replaced entirely by Uds. This is also
true of Spanish spoken in the United States. This feature could be disconcerting for a
Spanish speaker from Spain who would normally use the more friendly, intimate form
vosotros/as. The present author who has experienced innumerable years of Iberian
and Mexican Spanish still has some problems accommodating the Uds. form within an
intimate or family situation. Conversely, Mexican speakers of Spanish ¬nd the
vosotros/as forms antiquated and quaint. The younger Mexican generation would
doubtless have dif¬culty using the corresponding verb form “ platicais (hablais) (you
´ ´
speak), correis (you run), ped´s (you ask for), etc. “ while forms of the preterit or
´ ±


154
17 Personal pronouns



imperfect subjunctive would doubtless be a mystery to them: hablasteis (you spoke),
hablarais/hablaseis (you should speak). Needless to say, therefore, you are in good
company if you have initial problems conquering some forms of the Spanish
imperfect subjunctive. Finally, the tu form is the familiar mode of address when you
´
are speaking to someone you know (well), while the passage from the Ud./Uds. forms
to this familiar tu, and vosotros/as forms is much easier in Spain and Mexico than in
´
France, for example, where the vous form, instead of tu, still holds considerable sway.
In this sense, Spain and Mexico are similar to Italy (Lei to tu). (See level 2 for further
treatment of the tu and Ud. forms.)
´


1.2 Personal pronoun as direct object
i The following personal pronouns are all in common use as direct objects. Note that
these direct objects (and indirect ones), precede the verb, apart from with the
in¬nitive, the positive imperative, and the gerund (see level 2.1).

Ella me ve She sees me
Ella te ve . . . you (one person)
Ella lo/le ve . . . him/you/it (m.)
Ella la ve . . . her/it (f.)
Ella nos ve . . . us
Ella os ve . . . you (more than one person) (not in M)
Ella los/les ve . . . them/you (m., or m. and f.)
Ella las ve . . . them/you (f.)
ii The following comments are to be borne in mind. You cannot separate the direct
object pronoun from the verb. In other words, you cannot put me/te, etc., in any
other part of the sentence. Furthermore, as with the subject pronoun tu, te refers to
´
a person whom you are addressing and you know (well). Lo and le are both used for
him and male you (whom you do not know well) but the use of lo is much more
extensive, and is used over the whole of Spanish America and therefore includes
Mexico, and many parts of Spain. Castilla La Vieja and northern Spain generally,
together with the traditional literature of much of Spain, still adhere to the use of le
for him as direct object, and you as direct object for a person you are addressing but
do not know well. If you read much Spanish literature of the traditional kind you will
¬nd le comes more readily than lo.
In a recent survey recorded by Manuel Seco (Dudas y di¬cultades de la lengua espa˜ ola), by
n
far the higher percentage of Spanish authors use the le form as opposed to the lo form.
However, this problem should not be exaggerated for both are acceptable, although you
will rarely, if at all, hear le for him / male you as direct object in Mexico or anywhere
else in Spanish America. Lo is used for objects, i.e. things which are masculine. Le is not
possible here.
The remarks on le and lo also apply to the plurals les and los, although los is more
common, even in Spain, than les with the meaning of you/them as plural direct object.
La refers to a female person = her, and to objects which are feminine. It is also used
when addressing a female you do not know well.
Nos covers both males and females. There is no distinctive female form. The same
may be said for os. Os is not used in Spanish America and is replaced by los, or

155
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




las, the corresponding object pronoun forms of the subject pronouns ellos/ellas/
Uds.
Los and las are used for masculine and feminine objects, respectively.
Further examples with all the combinations:
Ellos me esperan They are waiting for me
Ellos te esperan They are waiting for you (one person whom
you know well)
Ellos le esperan They are waiting for you (one male person
whom the speaker does not know well) /
They are waiting for him (only in certain
northern and central parts of Spain)
Ellos lo esperan They are waiting for him (in all Spanish
America and much of southern Spain)
Ellos la esperan They are waiting for her
Ellos la esperan They are waiting for you (one female person
whom the speaker does not know well)
Ellos lo esperan They are waiting for you (one male person
whom the speaker does not know well,
over much of southern Spain and all
Spanish America)
Ellos lo esperan They are waiting for it (masculine noun)
(e.g. un tren = train)
Ellos la esperan They are waiting for it (feminine noun) (e.g.
una comida = meal)
Ellos nos esperan They are waiting for us
Ellos os esperan They are waiting for you (more than one
person whom the speaker knows well,
and in Spain, not Spanish America)
Ellos les esperan They are waiting for them (male persons, or
male(s) and female(s), in central and
northern Spain)
Ellos los esperan They are waiting for them (male persons
which can include female persons and
used in southern Spain and all Spanish
America) (also used everywhere for
masculine objects, e.g. trenes = trains)
Ellos los esperan They are waiting for you (male persons,
which can include female persons, whom
the speaker may or may not know well, in
all Spanish America)
Ellos las esperan They are waiting for them (female persons
or feminine objects)
Ellos las esperan They are waiting for you (female persons
whom the speaker does not know well in
southern Spain, and knows or does not
know well in all Spanish America)

156
17 Personal pronouns



1.3 Personal pronoun as indirect object
The following personal pronouns as indirect objects are all in common use:
Ella me ense˜ a el libro
n She shows the book to me
Ella te ense˜ a el libro
n She shows the book to you (singular)
Ella le ense˜ a el libro
n She shows the book to him/her/you
(singular)
Ella nos ense˜ a el libro
n She shows the book to us
Ella os ense˜ a el libro
n She shows the book to you (plural)
Ella les ense˜ a el libro
n She shows the book to them/you (plural)
You will notice that le, as an indirect object, covers (to / for) him, her and the non-familiar
form for you. Os is used as the familiar plural form for you. It is not used in Spanish
America. It is replaced by les. The one felicitous result in these indirect forms is that
they are much simpler than the direct forms. At least, no room for complaint here,
compared to 1.2 immediately above.


1.4 Pronouns with prepositions (disjunctive pronouns)
i Pronouns used after prepositions are as follows:
para m´, para ti, para ´l, para ella, para ello, para Ud., para s´, para nosotros/as, para vosotros/as,
± e ±
para Uds., para ellos, para ellas (but see level 2.3).

ii These pronouns are used after a range of prepositions such as a, ante, contra, de,
dentro, hacia, por, sin, tras (see unit 23 on prepositions for the full range)

Examples
Hablan de m´ ± They speak of me
Lo hago por ti I do it for you
Voy por ´l
e I am going (to get) him
Se dirige hacia ella He makes his way towards her
Puedes ir sin m´± You can go without me
El detective va tras ella The detective goes behind her
When used with con (with), the pronoun is modi¬ed and is attached to con in the
following three cases:
¿Quieres ir conmigo? Do you want to go with me?
Voy contigo I am going with you
Mi hermana est´ enfadada consigo
a My sister is angry with herself

Exercises Level 1
i Replace the noun by a pronoun as in the example
Compro el peri´ dico > Lo compro
o
a Hago el ejercicio d Cierro el libro
b Limpio el coche e Compro el boleto (M) / el billete
c Barren el patio f Venden el sill´ n
o


157
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




g Oyen el ruido i Rompo el vaso
h Tocamos el piano j Bebo el caf´
e
ii Replace the noun by a pronoun as in the example
Canto una canci´ n > La canto
o
a Toco la guitarra f Estudiamos la lecci´ n
o
b Pongo la mesa g Aplico la regla
c Doy una charla h Queman la salsa
d Abren la puerta i Tomas la carne
e Hacen la faena j Com´ is el pan (not in M)
e
iii Replace the noun by a pronoun as in the example
Ella barre las habitaciones > Las barre
a Nosotros abrimos las ventanas f ¿Comes t´ chocolates?
u
b Uds. lavan (M) los platos g Yo pre¬ero los caballos
c Ellos friegan los cacharros h Ellas traen las llaves
d Ellas arreglan las rec´ maras (M)
a i Nosotras necesitamos los platos
e T´ aprendes las lecciones
u j Uds. compran los sarapes (M)
iv Answer the questions as in the example
¿Por qu´ no compras un peri´ dico? > Lo compro
e o
a ¿Por qu´ no vendes la casa?
e
b ¿Por qu´ no pagas las facturas?
e
c ¿Por qu´ no preparas las arvejas (M) / los guisantes? (peas)
e
d ¿Por qu´ no comes la cena?
e
e ¿Por qu´ no estudias las novelas?
e
f ¿Por qu´ no visitas la ciudad?
e
g ¿Por qu´ no gastas el dinero?
e
h ¿Por qu´ no escribes el ejercicio?
e
i ¿Por qu´ no aceptan los regalos?
e
j ¿Por qu´ no aprenden los idiomas?
e

v Replace the indirect object (noun) by a pronoun, as in the example
(Bear in mind that, in this exercise, a Spanish speaker prefers to repeat the indirect object
as a pronoun before the verb, as in the example. See Level 2.2. In this sense, you have a
very arti¬cial exercise here.)
(Le) doy el libro al chico > Le doy el libro
a Ense˜ o el carro (M) al amigo
n
b Da el regalo a la madre
c Llevan el paquete a los estudiantes
d Muestra la p´ gina a la compa˜ era
a n
e Trae los platos al padre
f Compran las tazas a las madres
vi Answer the questions as in the example
¿Lo haces para m´? > Lo hago para ti
±
a ¿Lo compras para el?
´ c ¿Las arreglan sin ti?
b ¿Lo venden por m´?
± d ¿La terminas conmigo?

158
17 Personal pronouns



e ¿Los acaba con ellos? i ¿Las venden por nosotras?
f ¿ Lo haces sin m´?
± j ¿Va por m´?±
g ¿Hablan de m´?± k ¿Est´ enfrente de ellos?
a
h ¿Los compran por ellas? l ¿Se sienta encima de vosotros?
(Wow! That™s painful! )

vii Paired activity
Objective “ To use the pronouns lo/le/la and los/les/las before the verb
Method “ A makes up a simple sentence with a subject, a verb and a noun, or nouns, as
object. B converts the noun into a pronoun and puts it before the verb. If you are smart,
you can change the verb ending as well


Examples
A: (Yo) Abro la puerta
B: (T´ ) La abres
u
A: Cierras el libro
B: Lo cierro
A: Borro el pizarr´ n
o
B: Lo borras
A: Hacemos las tareas
B: Las hacen

Use verbs like: leer, hacer, cerrar, abrir, barrer (to sweep), coser (to sew), dar, preferir,
tocar, limpiar, ver, aprender, llevar, querer, comprar, vender

Level 2
2.1 Order of pronouns (when there are more than one) (Orden de los pronombres
´
[cuando hay mas de uno])
2.2 Redundant pronouns (Pronombres redundantes)
´
2.3 Further remarks on disjunctive pronouns (Mas comentarios a pronombres
disyuntivos)
´
2.4 Further remarks on second person pronouns (singular and plural) (Mas
comentarios a los pronombres de segunda persona “ singular y plural )


2.1 Order of pronouns (when there are more than one)
i The most common order is as follows:

le
les
se te me lo
os nos la
los
las

The most important feature in this list is that le and les become se when combined with
another pronoun in this group.

159
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Ejemplos
Te lo dije ayer I told you yesterday
Nos los mandaron el a˜ o pasado
n They sent them to us last year
Me lo comunic´ en seguida
o She communicated it to me immediately
Se lo dije ayer I told her/him/them/you yesterday
Se la dimos We gave it to her/him/them/you
Se las dieron They gave them to you/her/him/them
Se me escapa la fecha The date escapes me

Note that in the ¬rst example the pronoun lo is necessary, as also in, for example: Se lo
pregunt´ ayer = I asked him/her/you/them yesterday (about it)
e

ii Pronouns precede all ¬nite verbs except the af¬rmative imperative where the
pronoun is attached to the end of the verb. Note that in the examples of pronouns
attached to the verb a written accent is placed over the appropriate vowel to retain
the stress:

¿Me entiendes? Do you understand me?
Lo har´ ma˜ ana
en I™ll do it tomorrow
La escribir´ esta tarde
e I™ll write it this afternoon
¡No me digas! You don™t say!
¡No la escribas! Don™t write it!

But:

¡Escr´bela!
± Write it!
¡Escr´besela!
± Write it to her!
´
¡Mandasela! Send it to him/her!
´
¡Damelos! Give them to me!

iii Pronouns are attached to the in¬nitive and the present participle, but never to the
past participle, as happens in Italian:

vi´ndolo/la
e seeing it/him/her/you
d´ ndolo
a giving it
al abrirla on opening it
para entenderlo/le to understand him/it

iv Pronouns may also precede an auxiliary verb, as well as being attached to the
in¬nitive. Notice the written accent in the second example of all the ¬ve cases. Why
is this?

´
Te lo voy a explicar / Voy a explicartelo I am going to explain it to you
Lo sigui´ leyendo / Sigui´ ley´ ndolo
o oe She continued to read it
Los suelen traer / Suelen traerlos por la tarde They usually bring them in the
afternoon
´
No te las puedo dar / No puedo dartelas I can™t give them to you
´
Se los quiero mandar / Quiero mandarselos hoy I want to send them to him/her/them/
you today

160
17 Personal pronouns



2.2 Redundant pronouns
i Even when an object is expressed by a noun or a disjunctive pronoun, a pronoun is
needed in Spanish in the following cases

a When a direct or indirect object is placed before the verb:
A Juan no le gust´ la comida
o John didn™t like the meal
A m´ me encanta la opera
± ´ I love opera
A ella le interesa el Siglo de Oro She is interested in the Golden Age

ii Very often, when an indirect object is a person or animal. As in the above cases, the
repetitious nature of the pronoun may seem strange, and even unnecessary, but it is
a strong feature of the Spanish language:

Le di el collar a la chica I gave the necklace to the girl
Le rob´ el coche al hombre
o He stole the car from the man
Se lo vendi´ a mi amigo
o She sold it to my friend
Se lo ense˜ o al alumno
n´ He showed it to the pupil
Le dio el hueso al perrito She gave the bone to the dog
Se lo envi´ al banco
e I sent it to the bank

iii When emphasis is needed, repetition also occurs:

´
Se lo di a ella, no a el I gave it to her, not to him
Te llamaron a ti (y no a tu hermano) They called you (and not your brother)
D´ sela a ella
a Give it to her


2.3 Further remarks on disjunctive pronouns
i After a preposition, choice between yo (subject), m´ (object), tu (subject) and ti
± ´
(object) varies. As we have seen, the object form is used in most cases (para mi, detras
´
de ti) but the subject form occurs after como (as, like), salvo (save), excepto (except)
and segun (according to) (como yo/tu, segun yo/tu).
´ ´ ´ ´

ii There is a choice when two pronouns follow a preposition. The subject form tends to
be used in these cases although the preposition may be repeated.

seg´ n t´ y yo
uu according to you and me
para ella y yo for her and me
delante de ti y yo before you and me
seg´ n t´ y seg´ n yo
uu u according to you and me
detr´ s de ella y detr´ s de m´
a a ± behind her and (behind) me


2.4 Further remarks on second person pronouns
(singular and plural)
The traditional labels ˜familiar™ and ˜polite™ do not adequately capture the political and
social circumstances in which pronouns are used today. Since the death of Franco and

161
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




´
the beginning of the democratization process, tu and vosotros/as have ousted Ud.
and Uds. to a very large extent, except in very formal circumstances. It is unthinkable to
´
use anything but tu and vosotros (not vosotros in M) in the following circumstances:
a addressing children and animals, God
b among relatives, friends of whatever age, workmates, soldiers of the same rank (but
not across the ranks), colleagues in the same profession.
However, you may come across in some country areas and small towns of Mexico the
use of Ud(s). by children when addressing their parents. This usage is fading and need
not trouble you. Just recognize it, and let the author know if you ever hear it!
´
Tu is always used in the sense of one, or you (general).
´
It is normal to use tu and vosotros (vosotros not in M) in the following
circumstances:
a among young people (i.e. students), whatever the circumstances
b among people of different ages in almost any informal situation, as at a party
c addressing priests
d wherever it is desirable to establish a friendly atmosphere, even in semi-formal
situations as in a bank, restaurant, shop
e in public speeches, especially politicians (and particularly on the left) to their
audiences
f in advertisements where someone is trying to sell you something (this is standard
procedure now, and a cunning psychological device?)
g when a person addresses a stranger who is indulging in an activity the person
disapproves of. If someone touches a car, for example, possibly with some evil
intention, you could certainly hear the owner call out: ¡Oye! T´ de la chaqueta /
u
chamarra (M), ¿Qu´ haces all´? (You with that jacket, what are you doing?) or ¡Qu´tate de
e ± ±
all´! (Clear off! / Beat it!). This is a practice you should not imitate in your early
±
incursions into Spanish-speaking countries.
It is not going too far to say that Ud. and (in Spain) Uds. are used only:
a in very formal, public situations (a ceremony, for example)
b when writing to strangers (booking a hotel room for example)
c to old people not known to the speaker
d wherever it is desired to show respect
Compared to usage of tu and vous in France where there was a temporary ¬‚owering of
the tu form following the social upheavals of 1968, which has now withered away, the
´
tu and vosotros/as forms have taken on a new vigor.
Most of the foregoing comments on Uds. as used in Spain do not of course apply to
the Spanish American countries where vosotros/as no longer obtains.

A word of caution
When visiting a Spanish-speaking country in your early days, you should not automati-
´ ´
cally embark on the tu form, when a person uses tu to you and is much older. Just wait
and see how the conversation or relationship unfolds.

´
Examples with tu and vosotros/as
El pueblo espa˜ ol os recibe satisfecho y consciente de la alta signi¬caci´n que este acto encierra
n o
(Speech of King Juan Carlos to visiting diplomats)
¿Has probado el nuevo turbo? ¡C´mprate un Chevrolet! (Have you tried the new turbo? Buy a
o
Chevrolet!)

162
17 Personal pronouns



Cuando pases por la biblioteca ¿me recoges los libros? When you go to the library, could you
collect my books?
O Dios, ay´ dame a aprobar todos mis ex´ menes O Lord, help me to get through all my
u a
exams
Oiga, Se˜ or, ¿sabe d´nde est´ el Paseo de la Castellana? Excuse me, do you know where the . . .
n o a
is?
A note on vos
In a large part of South America “ Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and the area which
goes from Chiapas in southern Mexico to Colombia “ although here it is sporadic, vos
´ ´
is used instead of tu. It can exist side by side with tu in Colombia (in and around Cali
´
for instance), Ecuador and Chile. The corresponding verb forms are: tomas (you take),
com´ s (you eat), viv´s (you live), hac´ s (you do). In some parts of Central America,
e ± e
Mexico and elsewhere, it is considered uncultured. Some Mexicans, for example, have
the obscure idea that vos is some deformed version of vosotros. Such an attitude is not
the case in Argentina. You will certainly come across it if you study Argentinian literature
and civilization, so you should be aware of its existence.
In this context should be mentioned another colorful lingering feature of Spanish of
bygone eras. Vuestra Merced + verb in the third person (Your grace) is still used in
parts of Colombia. Interestingly enough, Vuestra merced derives from Old Castilian
which ¬nally leads to Usted/Ud.


Exercises Level 2
i Cambia el orden de las palabras, reemplazando el nombre por un pronombre como
en el ejemplo
Me da un libro > Me lo da
a Te regalo un coche f Te llevar´ los guantes
e
b Le dio una m´ quina fotogr´ ¬ca
a a g Le he dado el regalo
c Me ense˜ aron su nuevo auto (M)
n h Le ped´ un favor
±
d Le devolv´ el dinero
± i Me mandaron las tarjetas
e Te regres´ (M) el libro ayer
e j Les sugiri´ un paseo
o

ii Cambia la posicion / ubicacion (M) del pronombre como en el ejemplo
´ ´
Me van a visitar > Van a visitarme
a Te voy a ayudar f Se la iba a recomendar
b Les/los van a castigar g Se lo quer´a proponer
±
c Se lo van a decir h Me lo evit´ prometer
o
d Me lo van a prohibir i Se lo impidieron hacer
e Te lo voy a garantizar j Me lo logr´ mandar
o

iii Cambia en a¬rmativo el orden negativo como en el ejemplo
¡No lo hagas! > Hazlo
a ¡No lo mandes!
b ¡No lo escribas!
c ¡No se las escriban!
d ¡No me lo des!
e ¡No se los devuelvas!

163
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




iv Cambia en negativo el orden a¬rmativo como en el ejemplo
¡Inv´talos! > No los invites
±
a ¡Preg´ ntales!
u f ¡Ll´ venselo!
e
b ¡Ay´ denme!
u g ¡V´ monos!
a
c ¡Ll´ melos!
a h ¡Sal´ denlos!
u
d ¡D´ selos!
a i ¡Arr´ glalo!
e
e ¡Esp´ renme!
e j ¡C´ ntalo!
a
´
v Aqu´ tienes una anecdota graciosa en la cual se trata del uso constante de los
±
pronombres personales, sobre todo tu, Ud., vosotros, y Uds. (en negrilla (M) /
´
negrita = bold). Explica el problema de estos pronombres en lo que se re¬ere a una
´ ´
situacion que va evolucionando hacia circunstancias familiares. Es un texto mas bien
´ ˜ ´ ´
mexicano, lo que explica la confusion del Senor Perez. ¿Por que se confunde este
˜ ´
senor? (Este ejercicio no ofrece un modelo por que, hasta cierto punto, la explicacion
´ ´
se encuentra facilmente en el texto.) Ver tambien ejercicio (vi).

(Yo) me paseaba tranquilamente por la calle cuando, de repente, y sin darme cuenta, una se˜ ora n
clav´ su mirada en m´ como si fuera yo un bicho raro (odd ¬sh / strange person), y (ella) me pregunt´ :
o ± o
“¿Disculpe se˜ or, es usted el se˜ or P´ rez?”
n n e
(Yo) le dije que s´, pero me qued´ “anonadado” (stunned ). Cuando reaccion´ , le pregunt´ :
± e e e
“Oiga, se˜ ora, pero ¿C´ mo es que usted sabe quien soy yo?”, a lo que me contest´ :
n o o
“Se parece (usted) mucho, por no decir que es usted igualito, a un se˜ or que conozco muy
n
bien, con quien vivo, y que tiene un hermano gemelo que desapareci´ cuando era ni˜ o.”
o n
Luego luego, le coment´ : e
“¡Se˜ ora m´a, me ha ca´do Ud. como del cielo! Soy un gorrioncillo (little sparrow) que no
n ± ±
encuentra su hogar (home) y, como (Ud.) se habr´ dado cuenta (will have realized), estoy algo
a
perdido. ¿Podr´a llevarme (Ud.) ante ese se˜ or que se parece tanto a m´?”
± n ±
La se˜ ora y yo llegamos a la casa del mencionado se˜ or. Ah´, ella me present´ con el:
n n ± o ´
´
“Oye, Juan, ¿Conoces (tu) al se˜ or?” n
Juan, sin vacilar, respondi´ : o
“A usted, yo no lo conozco.”
Pero, yo me di cuenta que la semblanza era curiosa, as´ que volv´ a la carga:
± ±
“Seg´ n la se˜ ora, usted y yo somos gemelos.”
u n
El se˜ or, algo extra˜ ado y con cara de no creer lo que sus ojos ve´an, me dijo:
n n ±
´
“¿Ah, s´? S´, es cierto lo que dice, entonces tu eres mi hermano que desapareci´ hace unos veinte
±± o
a˜ os . . . ¡Perd´ n hermanito, pero parece que me fall´ la memoria!”
n o o
La se˜ ora interviene:
n
“Si es as´, entonces ¿Me permite Ud. tutearte?”
±
Yo le contest´ , aunque con cierto malestar con Ud. y te en la misma frase.
e
“¡Claro que s´! Pero, ¿qui´ n es usted?”
± e
“¿No me reconoces? S´, salta a la vista, ¡soy tu madre! Y ustedes dos son mis hijos.”
±
Ahora, m´ s que anonadado, estaba yo impactado. ¡Una mam´ que nos habla de ustedes a sus
a a
propios hijos! No es posible. Cuando mi mente (mind) medio digiri´ (digested) lo que estaba
o
pasando, me dirij´ a los dos:
±
´
“Es imposible que usted sea mi mam´ , y tu mi hermano si ella nos sigue hablando de ustedes
a
a ti y a m´.”±
´
El se levant´ , y dijo:
o
“¿Realmente est´ s tan perdido que no sabes que estamos en M´ xico y no en Espa˜ a?”
a e n
Pero, al ¬nal, lo que me preocupaba no era donde est´ bamos sino la pregunta: “¿Me permite
a
Ud. tutearte?” Una pregunta de gran profundidad psicol´ gica que me atorment´ por mucho
o o



164
17 Personal pronouns



tiempo. ¿No s´ lo decirnos a los dos Uds., en lugar de vosotros, sino tambi´ n decirme a m´ Ud.
o e ±
´
y tu dentro de la misma frase? Como cualquier extranjero, no acabo de entenderlo.
RB/JPL
vi Actividad para la semana que viene.
Objetivo “ Aclarar en espa˜ ol el problema de t´ , Ud., vosotros/as and Uds.
u
n
M´ todo “ Estudiar el texto de arriba. Preparar una explicaci´ n del paso de t´ /Ud.
u
e o
a vosotros/Uds. Se les elige a tres miembros de la clase para que se dirijan a la clase y
expliquen en voz alta el desarrollo y el tema de todo el texto y la confusi´ n del Se˜ or
o n
P´ rez. ¡Es de esperar que los tres miembros no se confundan tanto como este se˜ or!
e n




165
Unit 18 (Unidad 18)
Possessive adjectives and pronouns,
relative and interrogative pronouns
(Los adjetivos y pronombres
posesivos, los pronombres relativos e
interrogativos)


Level 1
1.1 Possessive adjectives (Adjetivos posesivos)
1.2 Possessive pronouns (Pronombres posesivos)
´
1.3 Variation on possessive pronouns (Variacion sobre pronombres posesivos)
1.4 Relative pronouns (Pronombres relativos)
1.5 Interrogative pronouns (Pronombres interrogativos)


1.1 Possessive adjectives
i Possessive adjectives describe nouns and indicate possession, as in the following cases:
mi tu su
Sing:
my your her/his/your/their/its
mis tus sus
Plur:
nuestro/a vuestro/a
Sing:
our your
nuestros/as vuestros/as
Plur:
ii Mi, tu and su distinguish number only but nuestro and vuestro distinguish both
number and gender. Vuestro and its variants are not used in Spanish America. Su and
sus replace them. These possessive adjectives agree with the thing possessed, not the
possessor. This can be confusing at the beginning.

Examples
mi libro tu cuaderno
my book your exercise book
mis libros tus cuadernos
my books your exercise books
mi casa tu silla
my house your chair
mis casas tus sillas
my houses your chairs
su peso your/his/her/its/their weight
sus pesos your/his/her/its/their weights
nuestro hijo vuestro hijo
our son your son
nuestros hijos vuestros hijos
our sons/children your sons/children

166
18 Possessive/relative/interrogative pronouns



nuestra hija vuestra hija
our daughter your daughter
nuestras hijas vuestras hijas
our daughters your daughters


1.2 Possessive pronouns
i Possessive pronouns take the place of a noun. They vary like adjectives ending in o
(see unit 21). They correspond to the English mine, yours, etc. Here is the complete list:

Singular Plural
m´o
± m´os
±
m.
mine
m´a
± m´as
±
f.
tuyo tuyos
m.
yours
tuya tuyas
f.
suyo suyos
m.
hers / his / its / yours (for Ud. and Uds.) / theirs
suya suyas
f.
nuestro nuestros
m.
ours
nuestra nuestras
f.
vuestro vuestros
m.
yours (for vosotros/as)
vuestra vuestras
f.
ii Vuestro and its variants are not used in Spanish America. They are all replaced by
suyo, etc., which correspond to Uds.

Examples
El carro (M) es m´o ± The car is mine
La casa es m´a± The house is mine
Los bol´grafos son m´os
± ± The (ball-point) pens are mine
Las computadoras (M) son m´as
± The computers are mine
El libro es tuyo The book is yours
La silla es tuya The chair is yours
Los cepillos son tuyos The brushes are yours
Las pelotas son tuyas The balls are yours
iii Suyo, etc. / nuestro and vuestro are used in the same way. Examples for use of suyo
corresponding to Uds., etc., in Mexico
Este changarro es suyo This store/shop is yours (i.e. speaking to
more than one person)
Los boletos (M) son suyos The tickets are yours
Estas chamarras (M) son suyas These jackets are yours


1.3 Variation on possessive pronouns
i There are a number of variations on this pattern. The possessive pronoun acts
commonly as an adjective when it follows the noun. It has the value of a ( ) of mine /
of yours, etc.

un amigo m´o± una casa m´a
±
a friend of mine a house of mine
una tarjeta suya un ordenador nuestro
a card of his/hers/yours/ a computer of ours
theirs


167
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




ii The de¬nite article is used when the verb is either other than ser, or if the possessive
pronoun is preceded by a preposition:

Hay tres casas aqu´. Me gusta m´ s la m´a
± a ± There are three houses here. I like mine
most
Aqu´ tienes mi corbata. ¿D´nde est´ la tuya?
± o a Here™s my tie. Where™s yours?
“¿Vamos en mi coche?” “Podemos ir en el m´o” ± “We™ll go in my car?” “We can go in mine”
Este l´ piz est´ estropeado. ¿Puedo escribir la carta
a a This pencil won™t work. Can I write the
con el tuyo? letter with yours?
iii Where ambiguity could arise, suyo is often replaced by de and the appropriate
personal pronoun:

Los zapatos son de ´l y los calcetines son de ella
e The shoes are his and the socks are hers
La culpa no es m´a, sino de ti/Ud.
± The blame is not mine, but yours
Los abanicos son de ellas, no de Uds. The fans are theirs, not yours
If suyo alone were used in all these cases, shoes and socks could lose their owners, guilt
would be dif¬cult to apportion, and you could cool down (wrongly) at others™ expense.


1.4 Relative pronouns
i A relative pronoun connects two parts of a sentence which have something in
common. It belongs logically to the second of the two and relates back to a person or
thing mentioned in the ¬rst, which is called the antecedent, i.e. the thing that comes
before.

ii The most commonly used relative in Spanish is que which is a splendidly all-purpose
pronoun, applicable alike as subject or object to persons or things of either gender or
number. Que follows close after its antecedent, so that, although it is invariable in
form, we are never at a loss to see what it refers to. Here are some typical examples:

La mujer que plant´ aquel arbol es . . .
o ´ The woman who planted that tree is . . .
El arbol que plantaron los hombres es . . .
´ The tree that the men planted is . . .
Los trabajadores que hemos contratado son . . . The workers whom we have taken on are . . .
El pasto (M) que corta el hombre es largo The grass that the man cuts is long
In the ¬rst case, que relates to the subject of the clause, while in the second, it relates to
the object. Do not be deceived by the position of los hombres in the second clause, for
it is still the subject of the clause. This inversion of subject and object is very commonly
associated with the use of que and is a characteristic of Spanish, and French and Italian
for that matter. Whereas, in English, the relative pronouns that, which, who and whom are
frequently omitted (The man I saw), this is not the case in Spanish.
iii Cuyo, and its variants, are used with the meaning of whose or of whom.
The agreement in number and gender is with the person or thing possessed:
Examples
la chica aquella cuyo padre nos invit´ a cenar
o that girl whose father invited us to have an
evening meal
el libro cuyas p´ ginas est´ n rotas
a a the book the pages of which are torn


168
18 Possessive/relative/interrogative pronouns



el culpable cuya direcci´n no ha sido revelada
o the guilty person whose address has not
been revealed


1.5 Interrogative pronouns
Spanish interrogative pronouns are as follows:
¿Qui´n? Who(m)?
e ¿Cu´ l? Which?
a ¿Qu´? What?
e ¿Cu´ nto? How much?
a
(Notice the written accent for the interrogative form.)
They do vary in form for number and gender according to their endings.
Examples
¿Qui´n llama?
e Who calls?
¿Con qui´n vas al cine?
e With whom do you go to the movies? /
Who are you going to the movies with?
¿A qui´nes contratas?
e Who(m) (more than one person) are you
taking on?
¿Cu´ l de los/las dos pre¬eres?
a Which of the two do you prefer?
¿Cu´ les son los/las mejores?
a Which are the best?
¿Qu´ planta(s) hay en el jard´n?
e ± Which plant(s) is/are there in the yard/
garden?
¡Cu´ nto cambia tu hermana!
a How much your sister changes!
¡Cu´ nto sabe!
a How much she knows!

Exercises Level 1
i Complete the following sentences with the correct possessive adjective as in the
example
Leo ( ) libro (yo = mi) > Leo mi libro
a Compro ( ) peri´ dico (yo)
o
b Uso ( ) tel´ fono (t´ )
e u
c Escribe ( ) novela (´ l)
e
d Estudian ( ) lecciones (ellas)
e Tocamos ( ) piano (vosotros)
f Buscan ( ) llave (yo)
g Comes ( ) cena (t´ )
u
h Beben ( ) coca cola (yo)
i Comen ( ) helados (nosotros)
j No fum´ is ( ) cigarrillos (ellos)
a
k Reciben ( ) regalo (yo)
l Manda ( ) carta (nosotros)
ii Answer the questions as in the example
¿De qui´ n es el libro? > Es m´o
e ±
a ¿De qui´ n es el peri´ dico?
e o d ¿De qui´ n son las tarjetas?
e
b ¿De qui´ n son las plumas (M)?
e e ¿De qui´ n son los carros (M)?
e
c ¿De qui´ n es la cartera?
e f ¿De qui´ n son las casas?
e

169
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




iii Complete the sentences as in the example (there may be various possibilities):
Pon tu maleta en el armario y ( ) sobre la cama > . . . y la m´a/suya sobre la cama
±
a Mi trabajo es dif´cil y ( ) es f´ cil
± a
b Tus deberes son complicados y ( ) son complicados tambi´ n
e
c Nuestras ¬‚ores son bonitas y ( ) est´ n marchitas
a
d Nuestra casa es chica (M) pero ( ) es grande
e Vuestros coches son caros pero ( ) son baratos
f Sus sillas son pesadas pero ( ) son ligeras

iv Complete as in the example
Leo mi libro ahora y ( ) m´ s tarde > Leo mi libro ahora y el tuyo m´ s tarde
a a
a Escribo mi carta ahora y ( ) esta tarde
b Conduzco mi coche ahora y ( ) esta noche
c Hago mi trabajo ahora y ( ) cuanto antes

v Make a sentence from the two sentences, joining them with the relative pronoun
que. See the example
Leo el libro. Me das el libro. > Leo el libro que me das
a Hago el trabajo. Me dejas el trabajo
b Veo los programas. Ves los programas
c Preparo la cena. Comes la cena
d Comen la cena. Preparas la cena
e Pintas las casas. Compro las casas

vi The following words are all muddled. Place them in their correct order. The
important word is the relative pronoun que
a guapa la es que mujer canta
b listo que chico alto es el es
c es la blanca mesa que vieja es
d tienes jard´n es que el grande
±
e que peque˜ a es ciudad la est´ cerca
n a
f concurrida calle grande la es que est´
a
g viejas son gafas que las uso
vii Fill in the blank spaces as in the examples

¿( ) es Ud.? > ¿Qui´ n es Ud.?
e
¿( ) pre¬eres? > ¿Qu´ pre¬eres?
e
a ¿( ) haces? e ¿( ) llama?
b ¿( ) de los dos pre¬eres? f ¿( ) son las ¬‚ores que compras?
c ¿( ) viene esta tarde? g ¿( ) escribes?
d ¿( ) cuesta?

viii Class activity
Objective “ to use the full range of possessive adjectives
Method “ two class members address each other. This is then followed by the whole
class repeating the appropriate possessive adjective for them (nuestro), and then addressing

170
18 Possessive/relative/interrogative pronouns



the ¬rst two. Member A says “It™s my hat.” Member B says “It™s your hat.” The class then
says: “It™s our hat.” The class also says: “It™s your/his/her/their hat.”
Examples
A: Es mi carro
B: Es tu carro
La clase: Es nuestro carro
La clase: Es su carro (his/her/their/your)
A: Es mi casa
B: Es tu casa
La clase: Es nuestra casa
La clase: Es su casa
A: Es mi canci´ n
o
B: Es tu canci´ n
o
La clase: Es nuestra canci´ n
o
La clase: Es su canci´ n
o

You can put all the above nouns in the plural:
Son mis carros / son tus carros / son vuestros carros / son sus carros
Son mis sillas / son tus sillas / son vuestras sillas / son sus sillas
Use the following nouns: computadora (M), ordenador, mesa, bicicleta, peri´ dico, o
guitarra, piano, ¬‚auta, plato, taza, vestido, chamarra (M), chaqueta, zapato, corbata
The smart ones among you can clarify what is meant by su. So you could
add, for example: su casa de ellos / de Uds. / de ella / de el
´
Level 2
´
2.1 Further treatment of possessive pronouns (Mas detalles sobre los pronombres
posesivos)
´
2.2 Further treatment of relative pronouns (Mas detalles sobre los pronombres
relativos)
2.3 Use of lo que (Uso de lo que)
2.4 Use of Que in exclamations (Uso de Que con exclamaciones)
´ ´



2.1 Further treatment of possessive pronouns
i The possessive pronoun is placed after the noun for sake of emphasis, in spirited
language, in contrast, or for rhetorical effect. The noun is regularly accompanied by
the de¬nite article.

Ejemplos
el derecho m´o
± la in¬‚uencia suya
my right his/her/their in¬‚uence
la pasi´n nuestra
o seg´ n el parecer
u
our passion according to our opinion
por la patria nuestro
for our country
nuestra

ii The possessives of the ¬rst person singular and plural are often employed in direct
address.


171
A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH




Ejemplos
¡Hijos m´os!
± ¡Amigos/oyentes m´os!
±
My sons! My friends/hearers!
¡Madre m´a!
± ¡Dios m´o!
±
Heavens above! Heavens above!
¡S´, madre m´a!
± ± ¡Adi´s, amor m´o!
o ±
Yes, mother! Goodbye, my love!
iii Similarly, the formal epistolary address:
Muy se˜ or m´o
n ± Dear sir
iv The absolute forms of possessive pronouns are used where, in English, of or from,
for example, would be required:
a pesar m´o
± in spite of me
Salieron en busca suya They set out in search of him/her/them/
you
No recib´ carta suya
± I didn™t receive a letter from you/them/

<<

. 8
( 16)



>>