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enda urged on them by the governing elites, or approve them in the
face of politicians™ determined opposition; they elect men or women
of the people or throw the bums out of of¬ce, upsetting the table at
which the cloistered politicians were working out delicate bargains.
When this happens, of course, the pooh-poohers of popular rule
then suggest that it simply demonstrates that the people have too
much power, are too undisciplined, dangerously unconstrained in
their political wills “ that whimsy and outrage rule the day; that after
all what we need is less democratic governance, or less ˜˜direct™™
governance (which comes by and large to the same thing), and more

1. For more see Vanstone 1983.
311
Conclusion: The republic of grace


mediation by elites, tempered in the brutal forge of academia. Such
is the strategy of much liberal political theory. Still others will say
that such experiences demonstrate not that democracy is dangerous
but that all power is exercised this way, that ˜˜democracy™™ so
understood is really the brute exercise of power, with nothing to do
with fairness. From Thrasymachus to Machiavelli to Carl Schmitt,
such nihilistic approaches have always been with us.
So it was said 200 years ago; so it is said today; so shall it be said a
hundred, a thousand years hence. The very variousness of the
charges tells against their veracity. And the antiquity of the accu-
´
sations suggest that they embody cliched reactions, running down
well-worn rhetorical grooves, rather than actual new thinking on
the part of their enunciators.
There are secular critics who recognize this, such as Jeffrey Isaac,
William Connolly, and Benjamin Barber. Augustinian Christians
share these criticisms, but they also look with sympathetic under-
standing and even pity upon such secularist animosities at the saecu-
lum, and the escapism that these animosities re¬‚ect. They understand
why public life might make secularists so disturbed at its revolutions.
They appreciate the concerns such secularists have about how its
vicissitudes can manhandle our plans and break apart our best hopes.
They too see how dangerous can be the power of the crowd. But they
see these tendencies as dangers and temptations, not inevitabilities,
so they think that secularists who ¬xate on them are thereby blinded
to the goods that public life enables, and they diagnose this blindness
as expressive of a sort of escapism, the illusion that such engagement
can somehow be avoided. Behind and beyond these temptations they
see engagement in public life as a re¬ning ¬re whereby our lives and
our communities are hammered into something greater than they
would otherwise become. In this way, Augustinians understand the
debate about the viability of public life as just one more version of the
struggle against escapism, albeit camou¬‚aged in a secular vocabulary,
and they respond appropriately thereto.


Apocalyptic escapism
Escapism is neither a temptation only in public life, nor a
temptation only for ingrown secularists. It is at least as palpable,
and yet more vigorous, in contemporary religion, particularly in its
312 A Theology of Public Life


apocalyptic varieties. In the West, many Christians especially ¬nd it
tempting. Indeed, a great deal of Christian religiosity today, perhaps
especially in America, is possessed by such apocalypticism.
This is presented quite vividly, for example, in the ˜˜Left Behind™™
novels. The ˜˜Left Behind™™ series is the most popular ˜˜religious ¬c-
tion™™ in America since World War II; indeed, they are among the
bestselling novels of any sort in America since World War II. The
series has been criticized for its problematic political, cultural,
ethical, and religious attitudes.2 But few recognize how its cultural
philistinism, political isolationism and xenophobia, and overall
consumerist parochialism are underpinned by what, from this
book™s perspective, is the most fundamental, and properly theo-
logical, problem: a profound and abiding escapism, a confusion or
despair about the nature of creation itself and its role in God™s
salvi¬c providence.
This escapism is manifest in the series title, and is latent in the
hostility towards anyone even slightly different than the white,
upper-middle-class mentality of its authors. But it appears most
profoundly in the Manicheanism beneath the series as a whole “ the
idea that the world itself is wrong, fundamentally bad, and that our
condition as ˜˜worldly™™ is a mark of our fallenness “ a Manichean
attitude that reveals an animus at ineliminable aspects of human
life: temporality and materiality. In the series, time is not itself a
positive gift to be received; it can only be tolerated, or bulled
through, for it is simply a waiting around for something to happen.
(One might say that, without the divertissement of the ominous antics
of the anti-Christ, and the theatricalized hysterics of the Last Days,
the series™ characters would simply drop dead of boredom.) But the
animus is still more palpable in the series™ account of damnation, in
which hell is wholly a matter of material suffering. Consider the
following, from the (almost) climactic encounter of the armies of
the anti-Christ with the returned Jesus:
Tens of thousands of foot soldiers dropped their weapons, grabbed
their heads or their chests, fell to their knees, and writhed as they
were invisibly sliced asunder. Their innards and entrails gushed to


2. For critiques of the apocalypticism expressed therein, see Boyer 1992 and 2005,
and Cook 2004. For a different view, see Frykholm 2004. Frykholm argues that
readers use the books in ways opposed to what their authors seem to intend; but
that simply bespeaks the bankruptcy of the series™ worldview.
313
Conclusion: The republic of grace


the desert ¬‚oor, and as those around them turned to run, they too
were slain, their blood pooling and rising in the unforgiving
brightness of the glory of Christ. (LaHaye and Jenkins 2004: 226)
Here, ¬‚esh itself seems to have been congealed suffering all along “
frozen pain, waiting to thaw into its natural liquid state of agony at
the name of Jesus.
The novels™ deep animus toward our worldly condition re¬‚ects a
disappointed recoil from the world, a presumptuous disappoint-
ment that the world has let us down, has not met the desires we
brought to it. ˜˜Left Behind™™ is not unique in expressing this: phar-
macology, our favorite TV shows, all are forms of the oldest tech-
nology humans have, the technology of avoidance, divertissement,
ways of convincing ourselves that we are in control of creation, in
charge of time. It may be that apocalyptic temptations are so
available to us today just because we are so comfortable in this life,
just because we have a hard time appreciating our proper
estrangement from it. The root cause of our problem may be, then, a
comfort-provoked failure of imagination, re¬‚ected in insuf¬cient
attention to the otherness of God, and hence to the contingency of
our given order. Perhaps we simply cannot imagine a destiny radi-
cally better than anything the world, as we ¬nd it, can offer.
This failure of imagination lies at the root of our susceptibility to
the various escapisms, secular and religious, that confront us, today
and every day. But can we offer an alternative?


Augustinian eschatology against apocalyptic
escapism
From the outside, this book™s proposal may seem sympathetic
to the worldview of ˜˜Left Behind.™™ After all, it suggests that we should
understand ourselves as existing during the world, and see this life as
a training in suffering and endurance for the next. Is this not just
another, albeit more sophisticated, species of apocalyptic escapism?
No. Quite the contrary: this book™s Augustinian eschatology and
that of ˜˜Left Behind™™ are exact opposites, revealing radically differ-
ent estimations of worldly life. In the books it is the saints who
escape the world, who get to heaven. But for Augustine, it is
the sinful who get ˜˜raptured™™ from the church, not the church that
is raptured from the sinful; on this view the sinful are the truly
314 A Theology of Public Life


escapist.3 Augustine™s own eschatological re¬‚ections developed in
crucial respects as a critique of the Christian churches™ apocalyptic
temptations, and the struggle against the human proclivity towards
escapism and avoidance “ manifest in believers and non-believers
alike “ has always been one of the fundamental tasks of theology.
We can see this difference displayed in the contrast between the
picture of hell in ˜˜Left Behind™™ and Augustine™s in Book 21 of the
City of God. There Augustine argues that while hell is material, it is
not hell because it is material, but because the damned are attached
to their materiality in the wrong way; they make it their absolute,
their god. After all, materiality is not a fundamental ontological
category, as if the world were fundamentally composed of ˜˜matter™™
and ˜˜spirit™™; it is simply one stage of the gradual continuum
between God™s absolute Being and the nihil that lies ˜˜outside™™ what
God ordains to be. Hence it is not the damned™s ¬‚esh that is the
proper locus of suffering, but their souls (DCD 21.3); it is not the
world that is the problem but our expectations of it (and by exten-
sion of ourselves) “ what we demand that it (and we) be.
On an Augustinian reading, then, the eschatology of ˜˜Left
Behind,™™ and its picture of the world as the locus of sin, simply
reveal one more strategy of the sinful soul, longing for evasion. But
escapism cannot simply be condemned; it must be replaced, and so
this book™s strategy has been an indirect one, coming to grips with
the disappointment that motivates escapism rather than simply
assaulting it. We should not look to have our desires satis¬ed, but
look instead to see what prompts them “ to look ¬rst not at the
world, but at God, and at what God wants for us, proclaimed in and
through Christ and the churches he inaugurated. When we have
understood God™s purposes for us, we can see the world anew, and
see it as not ultimately what we think of as ˜˜the world™™ at all, but as
part of God™s ongoing gratuitous gift of Creation, in and through
which (but not from which) we have our being. Our redemption is
not found in an escape from our created condition, but a ¬nal, full,
and endless reception of the gift of Creation itself. Today, during the
world, we live east not only of Eden, but of Creation itself “ oblique,


3. See DCD 20.19: ˜˜until the mystery of iniquity, which is now hidden inside the
church, departs from the church.™™ I thank Kevin Hughes for bringing this to my
attention; see K. Hughes 2005a: 104 n. 52.
315
Conclusion: The republic of grace


off-center, eccentric. We must come to see our world as the old
world, waiting to be transformed into the new, and ourselves “ the
aged and withered, the tired and cynical “ as those who are always
being reborn as little children, infants in God™s graceful tutelage. As
Miroslav Volf puts it, ˜˜Unlike the present world, the world to come
will not be created ex nihilo but ex vetere,™™ out of ˜˜the old™™ (Volf 2000:
92). As in the Incarnation and the Eucharist, there is a continuity, a
mystical continuity between old and new “ a transubstantiation of
creation, if you will, a union of two natures, in which life takes in
and redeems death. The resolution of our story comes not most
fundamentally by renunciation “ the renunciation of escapism or
the renunciation of our very temptations toward escapism “ but by
trans¬guration and reception.4
This theological claim lies at the base of Augustine™s disagreement
with both thoroughgoing secularists and thoroughgoing apoc-
alypticism. Against the former, Augustinians af¬rm the real con-
tinuity (and hence relevance) of putatively ˜˜otherworldly™™ concerns
with this-worldly ones, and insist that we not suppress or ignore
humans™ transcendental longings. Against the latter, Augustinians
af¬rm the real continuity (and hence value) of ˜˜worldly™™ matters
with otherworldly realities, and insist that we not indulge in our
(already too powerful) temptations toward escapism. For Augusti-
nians, this world is pregnant with redemption, groaning in labor,
bearing the weight of glory.
This theological vision entails not only a metaphysics of con-
tinuity, but more precisely an ontology of natality, wherein begin-
nings are more fundamental to being than endings. The new, and
beginning, is real, yet it implies no rupture with our life before; it has
a continuity with our present condition. We have everything back-
wards “ we are moving not towards conclusion but towards truly
beginning. As Franz Rosenzweig puts it, the Christian is the ˜˜eternal
beginner™™ (1985: 359); and for Christians, the fundamental ontology
of the world is describable as ˜˜being born again™™ “ a form of existence
oriented toward an ever deeper beginning. We are saved from some-
thing, but what we are saved from is fundamentally a bad version of
ourselves, our solitude, our isolation. And what we are given is life
abundant “ life that has properly, at last, begun.

4. See Schmemann 1973 and P. Miller 2000, esp. 163“4.
316 A Theology of Public Life



Called to the feast of the kingdom of God
The church is that structure wherein we try to live out this
habitus of natality. While our inhabitation of it is provisional, we do
see in it (or in our understanding of it) some intimations of this
most proper mode of our being. The church, as Augustine says,
seeks the end without end (DCD 22.30). And it does so fundamentally
musically, embodying a musical form of being “ in the sense that
music is the fundamental experience of receiving the gift of time.5
The church is the singing society of the redeemed, in pilgrimage
during this life, towards that time when it will join in the full choir
of the saints, its song ¬nally and fully underway, unrestrained.
How is this habitus of natality inhabited today? David Ford gives an
important clue when he says that the ˜˜Christian vocation can be
summed up as being called to the feast of the Kingdom of God. The
salvation of selves is in responding to that invitation,™™ so that we
have ˜˜a responsibility to respond to an invitation into joy™™ (1999:
272). The metaphor of ˜˜feast™™ signals three dimensions of that
calling “ how we are to relate to ourselves, to our neighbors and
creation, and to God.
As regards oneself, here the struggle is to become what Ford calls
a ˜˜singing self,™™ one capable of ˜˜being loved and delighted in™™ (99).
This is a struggle to come to see ourselves as fundamentally public:
we are not fundamentally private, isolated, and disconnected
monads, but part of a larger harmony, seen and loved by another,
God, who in this love wishes us nothing more fundamentally than
to be. And this is a struggle, for we fear being seen. To be seen is to
be exposed. Too often the gaze is a gaze of judgment or con-
demnation. But what we do not see is that our ˜˜exposure™™ before
God is not fundamentally an exposure to harsh condemnation, but
an ennabling love. God™s love and judgment are inseparable; God™s
judgment is rooted in nothing but God™s love for us, and so when we
seize this judgment without seizing this love, we do not imitate
but perversely parody God.6 We separate them by presum-
ptuously usurping God™s right to judge, while dismissing the love


5. See Ford 1999: 123.
6. For more see P. Miller 2000, esp. 165: ˜˜the encompassing rhetoric for the end [is]
consummation rather than judgment.™™
317
Conclusion: The republic of grace


that energizes and directs that judgment. And this is our despair. At
heart we are self-condemned; we see ourselves, and judge ourselves
thereby to have fallen woefully short of where we should be, and so
we fear God™s judgment as a simple extension of our own. But we
must be shriven of this, our most fundamental prejudice, our pre-
judice against ourselves “ a prejudice built on the enormous pre-
sumption to be able to see sicut Deus, ˜˜like God™™ “ and renounce our
attempt to seize our inheritance before it is due to us. When we are
so shriven, we see that the gaze that we fear is not (as we think it is)
the condemning gaze of the judge, but the merciful gaze of God. We
see that our panicked activity consists fundamentally in our trying
to be God, which means trying to judge ourselves. Instead, we
should submit to God™s judgment and hence to God™s love. We must
accept our publicity, our being seen, and through that discern our
being loved. Because being loved is an af¬rmation of our being at
all, accepting God™s love for us as unmerited by us means accepting
our ˜˜being begun.™™
The ˜˜singing self™™ is not alone; we sing with each other, and to
each other, as well as to God.7 The self is part of a choir, so that its
being is simultaneously individual and communal. Once our fear of
being judged has been named and cruci¬ed, living with the neigh-
bor, in the church, we seek genuinely to see and to be seen. This is a
phenomenological truth; in loving someone we want to see them
exposed to us, we want to see them entire. As with our experiences
of love here and now, so paradise will be all of us, with nothing
hidden, involving the full disclosure of who we are and how God
saved us from ourselves. In this disclosure the practice of confession
will turn out to have been all along a practice of presence, of our
presence for and before each other. Confession will turn out to be,
in part, our proleptic participation in God™s kingdom. In our
recognition that we will be judged, and the activity of confession
that that recognition provokes, we seek to be seen in our desire
genuinely to be present. More than that, we seek to see one another,
to stand in the warm glow of our neighbors™ presences. We shall
seek to see by trying, properly speaking, to recognize the neighbor,


7. See Ford 1999: 122 and P. Miller 2000: 169; for an analogous secular project, see
Allen 2004: 88“9 on the symbolic expression through singing of a community™s
˜˜aspiration to wholeness (not oneness).™™
318 A Theology of Public Life


an act that requires mutual reciprocation. Love and vision regard
our relations with others as well; to love someone is to want to see
them, to see all of them, to adore them. Indeed, ultimately to see
just is to adore; apprehension and adoration ¬nally draw together.
Yet we will not see each other directly but in the refracted and
re¬‚ected illuminating gaze of God. We will see, that is, through God.
To see the neighbor, properly to see them, is to see them as in¬n-
itely valuable. As C. S. Lewis said, ˜˜There are no ordinary people. You
have never talked to a mere mortal™™ (Lewis 1980: 39). This recog-
nition is the basis of the ethical language of ˜˜dignity.™™ It is also one
crucial, but under-appreciated, source for the political language of
democracy. To see our neighbors is the core of democracy;
to recognize their value, not their ˜˜worthiness,™™ but their value
in God.
Naturally the respect for the other™s dignity that is endorsed by
this adoration is deeper, more profound, than democracy, and
hence has a place in other political orders. But democracy can at
times be a reinforcing form of Christian witness, because democ-
racy itself can be a partial form of seeing the neighbor, an awesome
vision of realizing our ultimate magnitude; it has the advantage of
suggesting more distance between a person™s position or ˜˜station™™
(in democracy, no one is stationary) and their proper signi¬cance. In
recognizing the other as a genuine, living other “ by seeing the
other as the neighbor “ we seek truly to see them. This core
recognition of the other is what we call ˜˜respect,™™ which in German
is the far more revelatory word Achtung “ attention “ the way we
elicit from one another, if we can hear the call, real looking at who
we are. And this recognition both warrants our statements about
human dignity and generates the political energies of democracy.
This is not an easy task, and it is certainly not what we do in
everyday social life; in fact that life may seem to run better if we
actually evade it. We so rarely see one another, seeing instead only
the masks we place upon one another “ stranger, neighbor, friend;
child, parent, spouse; colleague, enemy, ally. All these are nothing
but forms of cognitive avoidance, ways we negotiate the world in
proximity to one another without ever actually asking, ˜˜But who,
really, are you?™™ So much of our ˜˜knowledge™™ of one another is in
this way little more than a technique for avoiding facing each other,
confronting the plenum that each of us, in our molten quiddity,
319
Conclusion: The republic of grace


¬nally is. So social life can be strangely dissatisfying, even as it
grows more ef¬cient; and the dissatisfaction consists fundamentally
in this, our tacit recognition that we actually want to see one
another “ or better, that each of us is worth seeing in ourselves for
who we truly are.
Our solicitousness for our neighbor does not rest content in her or
his bare there-ness. To see the neighbor is to see a mystery that
transcends itself and iconically refers to the divine reality beyond it.
The dignity of the neighbor is the glow of a divine purpose im-
manent within her or him, yet also not exhaustively immanent
therein. To see the neighbor is to love the neighbor, and to love the
neighbor is to be awed by and drawn to the other whose love for the
neighbor anchors our own “ namely, God. God loves each of us and
knows us by name. In light of this, we seek the neighbor out as
coparticipant in our proper task of adoring God.
What we are doing, understood as community and as individuals
begun by God, is adoring God. But what is that heavenly adoration
like What, that is, is this beginning? We have only the slimmest
glimpses of it in Scripture and tradition; but what we can say is that
our worshipful adoration of God will be endless and in¬nite “ not
the bad in¬nite of ceaselessness, which is really merely temporally
extended stasis, but the truly in¬nite dynamism of everdeepening,
ever widening, and ever heightening seeking into (not seeking ˜˜out
for™™) God™s in¬nite being. Here, ˜˜consummation™™ entails both
achievement and dynamism. Aquinas captured this, in part, in his
metaphysics of God as actus purus: the idea of God as wholly
dynamic, without reserve, willing God™s Trinity as love and Creation
as the bene¬ciary of that superabundant love. Yet this dynamism, so
complete, is also not a dynamism provoked by some need of
something outside of it; in that way the activity is simultaneously a
peacefulness, a restful exertion, an exposition of pure gratuity. Such
restful dynamism is God™s gift to us of self-presence, in the eschaton;
as W. H. Vanstone puts it, the glory of God is an activity that leads to
passivity, that ˜˜destines itself to waiting™™ in love (1983: 99). God™s
˜˜completion™™ is not the cessation of temporal sequence, but its
consummation, the fullness of life, of being and time itself.
And a form of this perfection is what God has destined for us as
well; as God is, so shall we be when we live fully in God, in God™s
gratuitous gift to us of Creation. To see Creation for what it truly is,
320 A Theology of Public Life


God™s Sabbath gift “ a restfulness and peace which are not exhaus-
tion but fullness of life and primacy of being “ is to begin to live our
true lives, to begin the process of living into a beginning without an
ending.


At last, the rst things
In the fusion of stability and dynamism of God as actus purus is
the core idea of our experience of heaven “ both rest and joy,
resolution and commencement, the ˜˜Sabbath morning without an
evening™™ “ and also, unsurprisingly, the core idea of our experience
of the presence of God. But the site of this sabbathing is none other
than Creation “ a new creation, to be sure, but again one born of the
old, not a renunciation but a completion, not an annihilation but a
resolution. We will see God walk, not in the cool of the day, but in
the morning of the new creation.
What will that day, that eschatological morning, look like? What
will we feel? What will feeling be, or for that matter understanding?
We cannot know here, during the world. The best words we have for
it are paradoxical, attempts to communicate the vexation of our
comprehension, such as Augustine™s claim that ˜˜busy idleness
(otioso negotio) will be our beatitude™™ (ennar. 86.9).8 But we can af¬rm
now, in faith and hope, that such a beatitude exists; and we can,
partially and proleptically, participate in it “ in love “ even today.
C. S. Lewis well describes this faithful, hopeful, and charitable
agnosticism:
At present we are on the outside of the world, the wrong side of the
door. We discern the freshness and purity of morning, but they do
not make us fresh and pure. We cannot mingle with the splendors
we see. But all the leaves of the New Testament are rustling with the
rumor that it will not always be so. Some day, God willing, we shall
get in. (Lewis 1980: 37)
And we shall get in; and then we will, at last, see God as all in all “
see the Father, in Christ, through the Holy Spirit, and our neighbor;
and through the Father, in Christ, our neighbor, our friend, our
other self. Then, at last, shall we be fully joyful; then, at last, shall
we be blessed; then, at last, shall we be we; and then, and only then,

8. See Grif¬ths 2001 for illuminating work on this.
321
Conclusion: The republic of grace


shall our lives as beginners be fully given to us “ not given over,
handed over as Jesus was by Judas to the authorities, but truly given,
with the giver in the gift, as Jesus gave himself to his disciples, even
unto Judas, and through them the world “ and our true lives ¬nally
begun.
But in the meantime, during the world, our task is to quicken to
that longing, to sharpen our waiting on this advent: to be brave, be
strong, stay ¬rm in the faith, do all our work in love, and in so doing
to long for the day when “ and, best as we can in the here and the
now, during the world, to accept the presence of the promise of that
day as “ we turn to one another, face to face, before the Father,
through the Son, in the Spirit, and say: Venite adoremus.
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