. 10
( 12)


enda urged on them by the governing elites, or approve them in the
face of politicians™ determined opposition; they elect men or women
of the people or throw the bums out of of¬ce, upsetting the table at
which the cloistered politicians were working out delicate bargains.
When this happens, of course, the pooh-poohers of popular rule
then suggest that it simply demonstrates that the people have too
much power, are too undisciplined, dangerously unconstrained in
their political wills “ that whimsy and outrage rule the day; that after
all what we need is less democratic governance, or less ˜˜direct™™
governance (which comes by and large to the same thing), and more

1. For more see Vanstone 1983.
Conclusion: The republic of grace

mediation by elites, tempered in the brutal forge of academia. Such
is the strategy of much liberal political theory. Still others will say
that such experiences demonstrate not that democracy is dangerous
but that all power is exercised this way, that ˜˜democracy™™ so
understood is really the brute exercise of power, with nothing to do
with fairness. From Thrasymachus to Machiavelli to Carl Schmitt,
such nihilistic approaches have always been with us.
So it was said 200 years ago; so it is said today; so shall it be said a
hundred, a thousand years hence. The very variousness of the
charges tells against their veracity. And the antiquity of the accu-
sations suggest that they embody cliched reactions, running down
well-worn rhetorical grooves, rather than actual new thinking on
the part of their enunciators.
There are secular critics who recognize this, such as Jeffrey Isaac,
William Connolly, and Benjamin Barber. Augustinian Christians
share these criticisms, but they also look with sympathetic under-
standing and even pity upon such secularist animosities at the saecu-
lum, and the escapism that these animosities re¬‚ect. They understand
why public life might make secularists so disturbed at its revolutions.
They appreciate the concerns such secularists have about how its
vicissitudes can manhandle our plans and break apart our best hopes.
They too see how dangerous can be the power of the crowd. But they
see these tendencies as dangers and temptations, not inevitabilities,
so they think that secularists who ¬xate on them are thereby blinded
to the goods that public life enables, and they diagnose this blindness
as expressive of a sort of escapism, the illusion that such engagement
can somehow be avoided. Behind and beyond these temptations they
see engagement in public life as a re¬ning ¬re whereby our lives and
our communities are hammered into something greater than they
would otherwise become. In this way, Augustinians understand the
debate about the viability of public life as just one more version of the
struggle against escapism, albeit camou¬‚aged in a secular vocabulary,
and they respond appropriately thereto.

Apocalyptic escapism
Escapism is neither a temptation only in public life, nor a
temptation only for ingrown secularists. It is at least as palpable,
and yet more vigorous, in contemporary religion, particularly in its
312 A Theology of Public Life

apocalyptic varieties. In the West, many Christians especially ¬nd it
tempting. Indeed, a great deal of Christian religiosity today, perhaps
especially in America, is possessed by such apocalypticism.
This is presented quite vividly, for example, in the ˜˜Left Behind™™
novels. The ˜˜Left Behind™™ series is the most popular ˜˜religious ¬c-
tion™™ in America since World War II; indeed, they are among the
bestselling novels of any sort in America since World War II. The
series has been criticized for its problematic political, cultural,
ethical, and religious attitudes.2 But few recognize how its cultural
philistinism, political isolationism and xenophobia, and overall
consumerist parochialism are underpinned by what, from this
book™s perspective, is the most fundamental, and properly theo-
logical, problem: a profound and abiding escapism, a confusion or
despair about the nature of creation itself and its role in God™s
salvi¬c providence.
This escapism is manifest in the series title, and is latent in the
hostility towards anyone even slightly different than the white,
upper-middle-class mentality of its authors. But it appears most
profoundly in the Manicheanism beneath the series as a whole “ the
idea that the world itself is wrong, fundamentally bad, and that our
condition as ˜˜worldly™™ is a mark of our fallenness “ a Manichean
attitude that reveals an animus at ineliminable aspects of human
life: temporality and materiality. In the series, time is not itself a
positive gift to be received; it can only be tolerated, or bulled
through, for it is simply a waiting around for something to happen.
(One might say that, without the divertissement of the ominous antics
of the anti-Christ, and the theatricalized hysterics of the Last Days,
the series™ characters would simply drop dead of boredom.) But the
animus is still more palpable in the series™ account of damnation, in
which hell is wholly a matter of material suffering. Consider the
following, from the (almost) climactic encounter of the armies of
the anti-Christ with the returned Jesus:
Tens of thousands of foot soldiers dropped their weapons, grabbed
their heads or their chests, fell to their knees, and writhed as they
were invisibly sliced asunder. Their innards and entrails gushed to

2. For critiques of the apocalypticism expressed therein, see Boyer 1992 and 2005,
and Cook 2004. For a different view, see Frykholm 2004. Frykholm argues that
readers use the books in ways opposed to what their authors seem to intend; but
that simply bespeaks the bankruptcy of the series™ worldview.
Conclusion: The republic of grace

the desert ¬‚oor, and as those around them turned to run, they too
were slain, their blood pooling and rising in the unforgiving
brightness of the glory of Christ. (LaHaye and Jenkins 2004: 226)
Here, ¬‚esh itself seems to have been congealed suffering all along “
frozen pain, waiting to thaw into its natural liquid state of agony at
the name of Jesus.
The novels™ deep animus toward our worldly condition re¬‚ects a
disappointed recoil from the world, a presumptuous disappoint-
ment that the world has let us down, has not met the desires we
brought to it. ˜˜Left Behind™™ is not unique in expressing this: phar-
macology, our favorite TV shows, all are forms of the oldest tech-
nology humans have, the technology of avoidance, divertissement,
ways of convincing ourselves that we are in control of creation, in
charge of time. It may be that apocalyptic temptations are so
available to us today just because we are so comfortable in this life,
just because we have a hard time appreciating our proper
estrangement from it. The root cause of our problem may be, then, a
comfort-provoked failure of imagination, re¬‚ected in insuf¬cient
attention to the otherness of God, and hence to the contingency of
our given order. Perhaps we simply cannot imagine a destiny radi-
cally better than anything the world, as we ¬nd it, can offer.
This failure of imagination lies at the root of our susceptibility to
the various escapisms, secular and religious, that confront us, today
and every day. But can we offer an alternative?

Augustinian eschatology against apocalyptic
From the outside, this book™s proposal may seem sympathetic
to the worldview of ˜˜Left Behind.™™ After all, it suggests that we should
understand ourselves as existing during the world, and see this life as
a training in suffering and endurance for the next. Is this not just
another, albeit more sophisticated, species of apocalyptic escapism?
No. Quite the contrary: this book™s Augustinian eschatology and
that of ˜˜Left Behind™™ are exact opposites, revealing radically differ-
ent estimations of worldly life. In the books it is the saints who
escape the world, who get to heaven. But for Augustine, it is
the sinful who get ˜˜raptured™™ from the church, not the church that
is raptured from the sinful; on this view the sinful are the truly
314 A Theology of Public Life

escapist.3 Augustine™s own eschatological re¬‚ections developed in
crucial respects as a critique of the Christian churches™ apocalyptic
temptations, and the struggle against the human proclivity towards
escapism and avoidance “ manifest in believers and non-believers
alike “ has always been one of the fundamental tasks of theology.
We can see this difference displayed in the contrast between the
picture of hell in ˜˜Left Behind™™ and Augustine™s in Book 21 of the
City of God. There Augustine argues that while hell is material, it is
not hell because it is material, but because the damned are attached
to their materiality in the wrong way; they make it their absolute,
their god. After all, materiality is not a fundamental ontological
category, as if the world were fundamentally composed of ˜˜matter™™
and ˜˜spirit™™; it is simply one stage of the gradual continuum
between God™s absolute Being and the nihil that lies ˜˜outside™™ what
God ordains to be. Hence it is not the damned™s ¬‚esh that is the
proper locus of suffering, but their souls (DCD 21.3); it is not the
world that is the problem but our expectations of it (and by exten-
sion of ourselves) “ what we demand that it (and we) be.
On an Augustinian reading, then, the eschatology of ˜˜Left
Behind,™™ and its picture of the world as the locus of sin, simply
reveal one more strategy of the sinful soul, longing for evasion. But
escapism cannot simply be condemned; it must be replaced, and so
this book™s strategy has been an indirect one, coming to grips with
the disappointment that motivates escapism rather than simply
assaulting it. We should not look to have our desires satis¬ed, but
look instead to see what prompts them “ to look ¬rst not at the
world, but at God, and at what God wants for us, proclaimed in and
through Christ and the churches he inaugurated. When we have
understood God™s purposes for us, we can see the world anew, and
see it as not ultimately what we think of as ˜˜the world™™ at all, but as
part of God™s ongoing gratuitous gift of Creation, in and through
which (but not from which) we have our being. Our redemption is
not found in an escape from our created condition, but a ¬nal, full,
and endless reception of the gift of Creation itself. Today, during the
world, we live east not only of Eden, but of Creation itself “ oblique,

3. See DCD 20.19: ˜˜until the mystery of iniquity, which is now hidden inside the
church, departs from the church.™™ I thank Kevin Hughes for bringing this to my
attention; see K. Hughes 2005a: 104 n. 52.
Conclusion: The republic of grace

off-center, eccentric. We must come to see our world as the old
world, waiting to be transformed into the new, and ourselves “ the
aged and withered, the tired and cynical “ as those who are always
being reborn as little children, infants in God™s graceful tutelage. As
Miroslav Volf puts it, ˜˜Unlike the present world, the world to come
will not be created ex nihilo but ex vetere,™™ out of ˜˜the old™™ (Volf 2000:
92). As in the Incarnation and the Eucharist, there is a continuity, a
mystical continuity between old and new “ a transubstantiation of
creation, if you will, a union of two natures, in which life takes in
and redeems death. The resolution of our story comes not most
fundamentally by renunciation “ the renunciation of escapism or
the renunciation of our very temptations toward escapism “ but by
trans¬guration and reception.4
This theological claim lies at the base of Augustine™s disagreement
with both thoroughgoing secularists and thoroughgoing apoc-
alypticism. Against the former, Augustinians af¬rm the real con-
tinuity (and hence relevance) of putatively ˜˜otherworldly™™ concerns
with this-worldly ones, and insist that we not suppress or ignore
humans™ transcendental longings. Against the latter, Augustinians
af¬rm the real continuity (and hence value) of ˜˜worldly™™ matters
with otherworldly realities, and insist that we not indulge in our
(already too powerful) temptations toward escapism. For Augusti-
nians, this world is pregnant with redemption, groaning in labor,
bearing the weight of glory.
This theological vision entails not only a metaphysics of con-
tinuity, but more precisely an ontology of natality, wherein begin-
nings are more fundamental to being than endings. The new, and
beginning, is real, yet it implies no rupture with our life before; it has
a continuity with our present condition. We have everything back-
wards “ we are moving not towards conclusion but towards truly
beginning. As Franz Rosenzweig puts it, the Christian is the ˜˜eternal
beginner™™ (1985: 359); and for Christians, the fundamental ontology
of the world is describable as ˜˜being born again™™ “ a form of existence
oriented toward an ever deeper beginning. We are saved from some-
thing, but what we are saved from is fundamentally a bad version of
ourselves, our solitude, our isolation. And what we are given is life
abundant “ life that has properly, at last, begun.

4. See Schmemann 1973 and P. Miller 2000, esp. 163“4.
316 A Theology of Public Life

Called to the feast of the kingdom of God
The church is that structure wherein we try to live out this
habitus of natality. While our inhabitation of it is provisional, we do
see in it (or in our understanding of it) some intimations of this
most proper mode of our being. The church, as Augustine says,
seeks the end without end (DCD 22.30). And it does so fundamentally
musically, embodying a musical form of being “ in the sense that
music is the fundamental experience of receiving the gift of time.5
The church is the singing society of the redeemed, in pilgrimage
during this life, towards that time when it will join in the full choir
of the saints, its song ¬nally and fully underway, unrestrained.
How is this habitus of natality inhabited today? David Ford gives an
important clue when he says that the ˜˜Christian vocation can be
summed up as being called to the feast of the Kingdom of God. The
salvation of selves is in responding to that invitation,™™ so that we
have ˜˜a responsibility to respond to an invitation into joy™™ (1999:
272). The metaphor of ˜˜feast™™ signals three dimensions of that
calling “ how we are to relate to ourselves, to our neighbors and
creation, and to God.
As regards oneself, here the struggle is to become what Ford calls
a ˜˜singing self,™™ one capable of ˜˜being loved and delighted in™™ (99).
This is a struggle to come to see ourselves as fundamentally public:
we are not fundamentally private, isolated, and disconnected
monads, but part of a larger harmony, seen and loved by another,
God, who in this love wishes us nothing more fundamentally than
to be. And this is a struggle, for we fear being seen. To be seen is to
be exposed. Too often the gaze is a gaze of judgment or con-
demnation. But what we do not see is that our ˜˜exposure™™ before
God is not fundamentally an exposure to harsh condemnation, but
an ennabling love. God™s love and judgment are inseparable; God™s
judgment is rooted in nothing but God™s love for us, and so when we
seize this judgment without seizing this love, we do not imitate
but perversely parody God.6 We separate them by presum-
ptuously usurping God™s right to judge, while dismissing the love

5. See Ford 1999: 123.
6. For more see P. Miller 2000, esp. 165: ˜˜the encompassing rhetoric for the end [is]
consummation rather than judgment.™™
Conclusion: The republic of grace

that energizes and directs that judgment. And this is our despair. At
heart we are self-condemned; we see ourselves, and judge ourselves
thereby to have fallen woefully short of where we should be, and so
we fear God™s judgment as a simple extension of our own. But we
must be shriven of this, our most fundamental prejudice, our pre-
judice against ourselves “ a prejudice built on the enormous pre-
sumption to be able to see sicut Deus, ˜˜like God™™ “ and renounce our
attempt to seize our inheritance before it is due to us. When we are
so shriven, we see that the gaze that we fear is not (as we think it is)
the condemning gaze of the judge, but the merciful gaze of God. We
see that our panicked activity consists fundamentally in our trying
to be God, which means trying to judge ourselves. Instead, we
should submit to God™s judgment and hence to God™s love. We must
accept our publicity, our being seen, and through that discern our
being loved. Because being loved is an af¬rmation of our being at
all, accepting God™s love for us as unmerited by us means accepting
our ˜˜being begun.™™
The ˜˜singing self™™ is not alone; we sing with each other, and to
each other, as well as to God.7 The self is part of a choir, so that its
being is simultaneously individual and communal. Once our fear of
being judged has been named and cruci¬ed, living with the neigh-
bor, in the church, we seek genuinely to see and to be seen. This is a
phenomenological truth; in loving someone we want to see them
exposed to us, we want to see them entire. As with our experiences
of love here and now, so paradise will be all of us, with nothing
hidden, involving the full disclosure of who we are and how God
saved us from ourselves. In this disclosure the practice of confession
will turn out to have been all along a practice of presence, of our
presence for and before each other. Confession will turn out to be,
in part, our proleptic participation in God™s kingdom. In our
recognition that we will be judged, and the activity of confession
that that recognition provokes, we seek to be seen in our desire
genuinely to be present. More than that, we seek to see one another,
to stand in the warm glow of our neighbors™ presences. We shall
seek to see by trying, properly speaking, to recognize the neighbor,

7. See Ford 1999: 122 and P. Miller 2000: 169; for an analogous secular project, see
Allen 2004: 88“9 on the symbolic expression through singing of a community™s
˜˜aspiration to wholeness (not oneness).™™
318 A Theology of Public Life

an act that requires mutual reciprocation. Love and vision regard
our relations with others as well; to love someone is to want to see
them, to see all of them, to adore them. Indeed, ultimately to see
just is to adore; apprehension and adoration ¬nally draw together.
Yet we will not see each other directly but in the refracted and
re¬‚ected illuminating gaze of God. We will see, that is, through God.
To see the neighbor, properly to see them, is to see them as in¬n-
itely valuable. As C. S. Lewis said, ˜˜There are no ordinary people. You
have never talked to a mere mortal™™ (Lewis 1980: 39). This recog-
nition is the basis of the ethical language of ˜˜dignity.™™ It is also one
crucial, but under-appreciated, source for the political language of
democracy. To see our neighbors is the core of democracy;
to recognize their value, not their ˜˜worthiness,™™ but their value
in God.
Naturally the respect for the other™s dignity that is endorsed by
this adoration is deeper, more profound, than democracy, and
hence has a place in other political orders. But democracy can at
times be a reinforcing form of Christian witness, because democ-
racy itself can be a partial form of seeing the neighbor, an awesome
vision of realizing our ultimate magnitude; it has the advantage of
suggesting more distance between a person™s position or ˜˜station™™
(in democracy, no one is stationary) and their proper signi¬cance. In
recognizing the other as a genuine, living other “ by seeing the
other as the neighbor “ we seek truly to see them. This core
recognition of the other is what we call ˜˜respect,™™ which in German
is the far more revelatory word Achtung “ attention “ the way we
elicit from one another, if we can hear the call, real looking at who
we are. And this recognition both warrants our statements about
human dignity and generates the political energies of democracy.
This is not an easy task, and it is certainly not what we do in
everyday social life; in fact that life may seem to run better if we
actually evade it. We so rarely see one another, seeing instead only
the masks we place upon one another “ stranger, neighbor, friend;
child, parent, spouse; colleague, enemy, ally. All these are nothing
but forms of cognitive avoidance, ways we negotiate the world in
proximity to one another without ever actually asking, ˜˜But who,
really, are you?™™ So much of our ˜˜knowledge™™ of one another is in
this way little more than a technique for avoiding facing each other,
confronting the plenum that each of us, in our molten quiddity,
Conclusion: The republic of grace

¬nally is. So social life can be strangely dissatisfying, even as it
grows more ef¬cient; and the dissatisfaction consists fundamentally
in this, our tacit recognition that we actually want to see one
another “ or better, that each of us is worth seeing in ourselves for
who we truly are.
Our solicitousness for our neighbor does not rest content in her or
his bare there-ness. To see the neighbor is to see a mystery that
transcends itself and iconically refers to the divine reality beyond it.
The dignity of the neighbor is the glow of a divine purpose im-
manent within her or him, yet also not exhaustively immanent
therein. To see the neighbor is to love the neighbor, and to love the
neighbor is to be awed by and drawn to the other whose love for the
neighbor anchors our own “ namely, God. God loves each of us and
knows us by name. In light of this, we seek the neighbor out as
coparticipant in our proper task of adoring God.
What we are doing, understood as community and as individuals
begun by God, is adoring God. But what is that heavenly adoration
like What, that is, is this beginning? We have only the slimmest
glimpses of it in Scripture and tradition; but what we can say is that
our worshipful adoration of God will be endless and in¬nite “ not
the bad in¬nite of ceaselessness, which is really merely temporally
extended stasis, but the truly in¬nite dynamism of everdeepening,
ever widening, and ever heightening seeking into (not seeking ˜˜out
for™™) God™s in¬nite being. Here, ˜˜consummation™™ entails both
achievement and dynamism. Aquinas captured this, in part, in his
metaphysics of God as actus purus: the idea of God as wholly
dynamic, without reserve, willing God™s Trinity as love and Creation
as the bene¬ciary of that superabundant love. Yet this dynamism, so
complete, is also not a dynamism provoked by some need of
something outside of it; in that way the activity is simultaneously a
peacefulness, a restful exertion, an exposition of pure gratuity. Such
restful dynamism is God™s gift to us of self-presence, in the eschaton;
as W. H. Vanstone puts it, the glory of God is an activity that leads to
passivity, that ˜˜destines itself to waiting™™ in love (1983: 99). God™s
˜˜completion™™ is not the cessation of temporal sequence, but its
consummation, the fullness of life, of being and time itself.
And a form of this perfection is what God has destined for us as
well; as God is, so shall we be when we live fully in God, in God™s
gratuitous gift to us of Creation. To see Creation for what it truly is,
320 A Theology of Public Life

God™s Sabbath gift “ a restfulness and peace which are not exhaus-
tion but fullness of life and primacy of being “ is to begin to live our
true lives, to begin the process of living into a beginning without an

At last, the rst things
In the fusion of stability and dynamism of God as actus purus is
the core idea of our experience of heaven “ both rest and joy,
resolution and commencement, the ˜˜Sabbath morning without an
evening™™ “ and also, unsurprisingly, the core idea of our experience
of the presence of God. But the site of this sabbathing is none other
than Creation “ a new creation, to be sure, but again one born of the
old, not a renunciation but a completion, not an annihilation but a
resolution. We will see God walk, not in the cool of the day, but in
the morning of the new creation.
What will that day, that eschatological morning, look like? What
will we feel? What will feeling be, or for that matter understanding?
We cannot know here, during the world. The best words we have for
it are paradoxical, attempts to communicate the vexation of our
comprehension, such as Augustine™s claim that ˜˜busy idleness
(otioso negotio) will be our beatitude™™ (ennar. 86.9).8 But we can af¬rm
now, in faith and hope, that such a beatitude exists; and we can,
partially and proleptically, participate in it “ in love “ even today.
C. S. Lewis well describes this faithful, hopeful, and charitable
At present we are on the outside of the world, the wrong side of the
door. We discern the freshness and purity of morning, but they do
not make us fresh and pure. We cannot mingle with the splendors
we see. But all the leaves of the New Testament are rustling with the
rumor that it will not always be so. Some day, God willing, we shall
get in. (Lewis 1980: 37)
And we shall get in; and then we will, at last, see God as all in all “
see the Father, in Christ, through the Holy Spirit, and our neighbor;
and through the Father, in Christ, our neighbor, our friend, our
other self. Then, at last, shall we be fully joyful; then, at last, shall
we be blessed; then, at last, shall we be we; and then, and only then,

8. See Grif¬ths 2001 for illuminating work on this.
Conclusion: The republic of grace

shall our lives as beginners be fully given to us “ not given over,
handed over as Jesus was by Judas to the authorities, but truly given,
with the giver in the gift, as Jesus gave himself to his disciples, even
unto Judas, and through them the world “ and our true lives ¬nally
But in the meantime, during the world, our task is to quicken to
that longing, to sharpen our waiting on this advent: to be brave, be
strong, stay ¬rm in the faith, do all our work in love, and in so doing
to long for the day when “ and, best as we can in the here and the
now, during the world, to accept the presence of the promise of that
day as “ we turn to one another, face to face, before the Father,
through the Son, in the Spirit, and say: Venite adoremus.

Abraham, William J. (1989), The Logic of Evangelism. Grand Rapids: William
B. Eerdmans.
Adorno, T. W. (2003a), ˜˜Cultural Criticism and Society,™™ pp. 146“62 in Can One
Live After Auschwitz? A Philosophical Reader, ed. Rolf Tiedemann. Stanford:
Stanford University Press.
(2003b), ˜˜Trying to Understand Endgame,™™ pp. 259“94 in Can One Live After
Auschwitz? A Philosophical Reader, ed. Rolf Tiedemann. Stanford: Stanford
University Press.
Alexander, Jeffrey (2003), The Meanings of Social Life: A Cultural Sociology. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Alison, James (1996), Raising Abel: The Recovery of the Eschatological Imagination.
New York: Crossroad.
Allen, Danielle (2004), Talking to Strangers: Anxieties of Citizenship since Brown v.
Board of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Alston, William (1991), Perceiving God: The Epistemology of Religious Experience.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Ammerman, Nancy (1997), ˜˜Golden Rule Christianity: Lived Religion in the
American Mainstream,™™ pp. 196“216 in Lived Theology in America: Toward a
History of Practice, ed. David Hall. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Anderson, Victor (1995), Beyond Ontological Blackness: An Essay on African American
Religious and Cultural Criticism. New York: Continuum.
Anscombe, G. E. M. (1958), Intention. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Anselm (1998), ˜˜On the Fall of the Devil,™™ pp. 193“232 in Anselm of Canterbury:
The Major Works, ed. Brian Davies and G. R. Evans. New York: Oxford
University Press.
Aquino, Frederick D. (2004), Communities of Informed Judgment: Newman™s Illative
Sense and Accounts of Rationality. Washington: Catholic University of
America Press.
Arato, Andrew, and Jean Cohen (1992), Civil Society and Political Theory.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Arendt, Hannah, (1963). On Revolution. New York: Viking
Asad, Talal (1993), Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in
Christianity and Islam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

List of references

(2003) Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Palo Alto: Stanford
University Press.
Auden, W. H. (1968), The Dyer™s Hand: And other Essays. New York: Vintage.
Audi, Robert (1986), ˜˜Direct Justi¬cation, Evidential Dependence, and Theistic
Belief,™™ pp. 139“66 in Rationality, Religious Belief, and Moral Commitment:
New Essays in the Philosophy of Religion, ed. Robert Audi and William
J. Wainwright. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Ayres, Lewis (1992), ˜˜Between Athens and Jerusalem: Prolegomena to Theological
Anthropology in De Trinitate,™™ pp. 53“73 in Modern Theology, 8.1.
(1995), ˜˜The Discipline of Self-Knowledge in Augustine™s De Trinitate Book X,™™
pp. 261“96 in The Passionate Intellect: Essays on Transformation of the Classical
Traditions. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.
Baer, Helmut David (1996), ˜˜The Fruit of Charity: Using the Neighbor in De
Doctrina Christiana,™™ pp. 47“64 in Journal of Religious Ethics, 24.1 (Spring).
Baier, Annette (1994), Moral Prejudices. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Baker, C. Edwin (1994), Advertising and a Democratic Press. Princeton: Princeton
University Press.
Balthasar, Hans Urs von (1988a), Theo-Drama: Theological Dramatic Theory, I, trans.
Graham Harrison. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.
(1988b), Dare We Hope ˜˜That All Men Be Saved™™? With a Short Discourse on Hell,
trans. Dr. David Kipp and Rev. Lothar Krauth. San Francisco: Ignatius
Barber, Benjamin (1988), The Conquest of Politics: Liberal Philosophy in Democratic
Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
(1996), Jihad vs. McWorld. New York: Ballantine Books.
Barnes, Michael, SJ (2002), Theology and the Dialogue of Religions. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Barney, Darin (2000), Prometheus Wired: The Hope for Democracy in the Age of
Network Technology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Barth, Karl (1957), Church Dogmatics, Vol. I/1: The Doctrine of God, trans. G. W.
Bromiley et al. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.
(1961), Church Dogmatics, Vol. III/4: The Doctrine of Creation, trans. G. W.
Bromiley. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.
(1975), Church Dogmatics, Vol. I/1: The Doctrine of the Word of God, 2nd edn trans.
G. W. Bromiley. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.
Bartov, Omar (2002), ˜˜The Scholarly Profession and Extreme Violence,™™
pp. 508“18 in International Social Science Journal, 174 (December).
Bathory, Peter Dennis (1981), Political Theory as Public Confession: The Social and
Political Thought of St. Augustine of Hippo. New Brunswick: Transaction
Batnitzky, Leora (2000), Idolatry and Representation: The Philosophy of Franz
Rosenzweig Reconsidered. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Baudrillard, Jean (1988), ˜˜Consumer Society,™™ pp. 31“44 in Selected Writings.
Stanford: Stanford University Press.
(1994), The Illusion of the End. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Bauman, Zygmunt (1987), Legislators and Interpreters: On Modernity, Postmodernity,
and Intellectuals. Cambridge: Polity Press.
324 List of references

(1999), In Search of Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bavel, Tarcisius J. van, OSA (1991), ˜˜Augustine on Christian Teaching and Life,™™
pp. 89“112 in Augustinian Heritage, 37.
(1987), ˜˜The Anthropology of Augustine,™™ pp. 25“39 in Milltown Studies, 19/20.
(1986), ˜˜The Double Face of Love in Augustine,™™ pp. 169“81 in Augustinian
Studies, 17.
Beck, Ulrich, Anthony Giddens, and Scott Lash (1994), Re¬‚exive Modernization:
Politics, Tradition, and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Stanford:
Stanford University Press.
Beckett, Samuel (1958), Endgame. New York: Grove Press.
Beem, Chris (1999), The Necessity of Politics: Reclaiming American Public Life. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Beiner, Ronald (1992), What™s the Matter with Liberalism? Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
(1997), Philosophy in a Time of Lost Spirit. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Bell, Daniel (1988), The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the
Fifties. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(1996), The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. New York: Basic Books.
Bell, Daniel M., Jr. (2001), Liberation Theology After the End of History: The Refusal to
Cease Suffering. New York: Routledge.
Bellah, Robert (1974), ˜˜Civil Religion in America,™™ pp. 21“44 in Russell Richey
and Donald Jones, eds., American Civil Religion. New York: Harper & Row.
Benhabib, Seyla (1999), ˜˜Citizens, Residents and Aliens in a Changing World:
Political Membership in the Global Era,™™ pp. 709“44 in Social Research,
Bennett, Oliver (2001), Cultural Pessimism: Narratives of Decline in the Postmodern
World. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Berger, Peter (1979), The Heretical Imperative: Contemporary Possibilities of Religious
Af¬rmation. Garden City: Anchor Press.
(1992), A Far Glory: The Quest for Faith in an Age of Credulity. New York: Free Press.
ed. (1999), The Desecularization of the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics.
Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.
Berkowitz, Peter (1999), Virtue and the Making of Modern Liberalism. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Bernstein, Michael Andre (1994), Foregone Conclusions: Against Apocalyptic History.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bernstein, Richard J. (1983), Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics,
and Praxis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Berry, Wendell (1990), What are People For? San Francisco: North Point Press.
Bertram, Christopher (1997). ˜˜Political Justi¬cation, Theoretical Complexity,
and Democratic Community,™™ pp. 563“83 in Ethics, 107.4 ( July).
Betti, Ugo (1956), ˜˜ The Queen and the Rebels,™™ in Three Plays by Ugo Betti, ed.
and trans. Henry Reed. New York: Grove Press.
Betz, Hans Dieter (2000), ˜˜The Human Being in the Antagonisms of Life
according to the Apostle Paul,™™ pp. 557“76 in Journal of Religion, 80.4.
Bewes, Timothy (1997), Cynicism and Postmodernity. New York: Verso.
Binder, Amy J. (2002), Contentious Curricula: Afrocentrism and Creationism in
American Public Schools. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
List of references

Bird, Colin (1999), The Myth of Liberal Individualism. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Bivins, Jason C. (2003), The Fracture of Good Order: Christian Antiliberalism and the
Challenge to American Politics. Chapel Hill: UNC Press.
Black, Antony 1997, ˜˜Christianity and Republicanism: From St. Cyprian to
Rousseau,™™ pp. 647“56 in American Political Science Review, 91.3
Bloch, Ernst (1986), The Principle of Hope, trans. Neville Plaice, Stephen Plaice,
and Paul Knight. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bloch, Ruth H. (1988), Visionary Republic: Millennial Themes in American Thought,
1756“1800. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Block, James (2002), A Nation of Agents: The American Path to a Modern Self and
Society. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich (1997), Creation and Fall, trans. Douglas Stephen Bax.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Bowlin, John (1997), ˜˜Augustine on Justifying Coercion,™™ pp. 49“70 in The
Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics, 17.
Boyarin, Daniel (1994), A Radical Jew: Paul and the Politics of Identity. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Boyer, Paul (1992), When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American
Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(2005), ˜˜Biblical Prophecy and Foreign Policy™™ pp. 107“22 in Claire
Badaracco, ed., Quoting God: How Media Shape Ideas about Religion and
Culture. Waco: Baylor University Press.
Boyle, Marjorie O™Rourke (1997), Divine Domesticity: Augustine of Thagaste to Teresa
of Avila. New York: E. J. Brill.
Boyle, Nicholas (1998), Who Are We Now? Christian Humanism and the Global Market
from Hegel to Heaney. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Bramadat, Paul A. (2000), The Church on the World™s Turf: An Evangelical Christian
Group at a Secular University. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bright, Pamela, ed. and trans. (1999), Augustine and the Bible. Notre Dame:
University of Notre Dame Press.
Brinkley, Alan (1998), Liberalism and Its Discontents. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press.
Brint, Steven (1994), In an Age of Experts: The Changing Role of Professionals in Politics
and Public Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Brooks, David (2000), Bobos in Paradise. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Brown, Michael F. (1997), The Channeling Zone: American Spirituality in an Anxious
Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Brown, Peter (1988), The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in
Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press.
(1992), Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity: Towards a Christian Empire.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
(1995), Authority and the Sacred: Aspects of the Christianization of the Roman World.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
(1997), The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, AD 200“1000.
Malden: Blackwell.
(2000), Augustine of Hippo: A Biography, rev. edn. London: Faber.
326 List of references

(2002), Poverty and Leadership in the Later Roman Empire. Hanover, NH:
University Press of New England.
Brown, Wendy (1995), States of Injury: Power and Freedom in Late Modernity.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bruns, Gerald (1984), ˜˜The Problem of Figuration in Antiquity,™™ pp. 147“64 in
Hermeneutics: Questions and Prospects, ed. Gary Shapiro and Alan Sica.
Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
(1992), Hermeneutics Ancient and Modern. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Buchanan, Allen (2000), ˜˜Rawls™s Law of Peoples: Rules for a Vanished
Westphalian World,™™ pp. 697“721 in Ethics, 110.4 (July).
Buford, Bill (1992), Among the Thugs. New York: Norton.
Bull, Malcolm (1995), Apocalypse Theory and the End of the World. Oxford: Blackwell.
Burnaby, John (1938), Amor Dei: A Study of the Religion of St. Augustine. London:
Hodder & Stoughton.
(1970), ˜˜Amor in St. Augustine,™™ pp. 174“86 in Charles Kegley, ed., The
Philosophy and Theology of Anders Nygren. Carbondale: Southern Illinois
University Press.
Burnell, Peter (1992), ˜˜The Status of Politics in Augustine™s City of God,™™ pp. 13“
29 in History of Political Thought, 13.1.
(2005), The Augustinian Person. Washington: Catholic University of America
Burnyeat, Myles (1987), ˜˜Augustine and Wittgenstein De Magistro,™™ pp. 1“24 in
Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volume LXI.
Burrell, David (2004), Faith and Freedom: An Interfaith Perspective. Cambridge, MA:
Burton-Christie, Douglas (1993), The Word in the Desert: Scripture and the Quest for
Holiness in Early Christian Monasticism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Butler, Joseph (1983), Five Sermons. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Campbell, Colin (1987), The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism.
New York: Blackwell.
Camus, Albert (1956), The Fall, trans. Justin O™Brien. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Canning, Raymond (1993), The Unity of Love for God and Neighbor in St. Augustine.
Leuven: Augustinian Historical Institute.
Carney, Frederick S. (1991), ˜˜The Structure of Augustine™s Ethic,™™ pp. 11“37 in
William S. Babcock, ed., The Ethics of St. Augustine JRE Studies in Religious
Ethics 3. Atlanta: Scholars Press.
Carruthers, Mary (1992), The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carter, Stephen (1994), The Culture of Disbelief: How American Law and Politics
Trivialize Religious Devotion. New York: Anchor Books.
Cary, Philip (2000), Augustine™s Invention of the Inner Self: The Legacy of a Christian
Platonist. New York: Oxford University Press.
Casanova, Jose (1994), Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Cavadini, John. ˜˜Simplifying Augustine,™™ pp. 63“84 in Educating People of Faith:
Exploring the History of Jewish and Christian Communities, ed. John Van
Engen. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.
List of references

Cavanaugh, William (1995), ˜˜A Fire Strong Enough to Consume the House: The
Wars of Religion and the Rise of the State,™™ pp. 397“420 in Modern
Theology, 11.4 (October).
(1998), Torture and Eucharist: Theology, Politics and the Body of Christ. Malden:
(1999), ˜˜The City: Beyond Secular Parodies,™™ pp. 182“200 in Milbank et al.
Cavell, Stanley (1976), ˜˜Ending the Waiting Game: A Reading of Beckett™s
Endgame,™™ pp. 115“62 in Must We Mean What We Say? A Book of Essays. New
York: Cambridge University Press.
(1979), The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality, and Tragedy. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Certeau, Michel de (1992), The Mystic Fable, trans. Michael B. Smith. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Chaloupka, William (1999), Everybody Knows: Cynicism in America. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press.
Chambers, Simone, and Jeffrey Kapstein (2001), ˜˜Bad Civil Society,™™ pp. 837“65
in Political Theory 29.6 (December).
Chambers, Simone, and Will Kymlica (2002), Alternative Conceptions of Civil
Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Chappell, David (2004), A Stone of Hope: Prophetic Religion and the Death of Jim Crow.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Chappell, T. D. J. (1995), Aristotle and Augustine on Freedom. New York: St. Martin™s
Charry, Ellen (1997), By the Renewing of Your Minds: The Pastoral Roots of Christian
Doctrine. New York: Oxford University Press.
Clarke, Randolph (2003), Libertarian Accounts of Free Will. New York: Oxford
University Press.
Claussen, M. A. (1991), ˜˜Peregrinatio and Peregrini in Augustine™s City of God and
the Image and Idea of Pilgrimage as a Metaphor for the Christian Life in
the Early Church Fathers,™™ pp. 33“75 in Traditio, 46.
Cloeren, Herman J. (1985), ˜˜St. Augustine™s De magistro: A Transcendental
Investigation,™™ pp. 21“7 in Augustinian Studies, 16.
Clooney, Francis X. (1992), Theology After Vedanta. Stony Brook: State University
of New York Press.
Coakley, Sarah (2002a), Powers and Submissions: Spirituality, Philosophy and Gender.
Oxford: Blackwell.
(2002b), ˜˜Deepening Practices: Perspectives from Ascetical and Mystical
Theology,™™ pp. 78“93 in Volf and Bass 2002.
Cohen, Diane, and A. Robert Jaeger (1997), Sacred Places at Risk: New Evidence on
How Endangered Older Churches and Synagogues Serve Communities.
Philadelphia: Partners for Sacred Places.
Cohen, Jean (1999), ˜˜Trust, Voluntary Association, and Workable Democracy:
The Contemporary American Discourse of Civil Society,™™ pp. 208“48 in
Democracy and Trust, ed. Mark E. Warren. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Cohen, Lizabeth (2003), A Consumer™s Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in
Postwar America. New York: Knopf.
328 List of references

Cohen, Mitchell (2002), ˜˜An Empire of Cant: Hardt, Negri, and Postmodern
Political Theory,™™ pp. 17“28 in Dissent, 493 (Summer 2002).
Colburn, Forrest D. (2002), Latin America at the End of Politics. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Coleman, John J. (1996), Party Decline in America: Policy, Politics, and the Fiscal State.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Coles, Romand (1997), Rethinking Generosity: Critical Theory and the Politics of
Caritas. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Collinge, William J. (1988), ˜˜The Relation of Religious Community Life to
Rationality in Augustine,™™ pp. 242“53 in Faith and Philosophy, 5.3 (July).
Connolly, William (1999), Why I am not a Secularist. Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press.
(2002a), The Augustinian Imperative: A Re¬‚ection on the Politics of Modernity, new
edn. Lanham: Rowman & Little¬eld.
(2002b), Neuropolitics: Thinking, Culture, Speed. Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press.
Constable, Giles (1976), ˜˜Opposition to Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages,™™ pp. 125“
446 in Studia Gratiana, 19.
Conybeare, Catherine (1999), ˜˜Terrarum Orbi Documentum: Augustine, Camillus,
and Learning from History,™™ pp. 59“74 in Fitzgerald et al. 1999.
(2000), Paulinus Noster: Self and Symbols in the Letters of Paulinus of Nola. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Cook, Martin (2004), ˜˜Christian Apocalypticism and Weapons of Mass
Destruction,™™ pp. 200“10 in Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Religious
and Secular Perspectives, ed. Sohail H. Hasmi and Steven P. Lee. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, Kate, and Conrad Leyser (2000), ˜˜The Gender of Grace: Impotence,
Servitude, and Manliness in the Fifth-Century West,™™ pp. 536“51 in
Gender and History, 12.3 (November)
Cowen, Tyler (1998), In Praise of Commercial Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press.
(2000), What Price Fame? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cox, Jeffrey (2003), ˜˜Master Narratives of Long-Term Religious Change,™™
pp. 201“17 in The Decline of Christendom in Western Europe: 1750“2000, ed.
Hugh McLeod and Werner Ustorf. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Cranz, F. Edward (1972), ˜˜The Development of Augustine™s Ideas on Society
Before the Donatist Controversy,™™ pp. 336“403 in Augustine: A Collection of
Critical Essays, ed. R. A. Markus. Garden City: Anchor Books.
Crenson, Matthew A., and Benjamin Ginsberg (2002), Downsizing Democracy: How
America Sidelined Its Citizens and Privatized Its Public. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press.
Cronon, William, ed. (1995), Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New
York: W. W. Norton and Company.
Crouse, R. D. (1976), ˜˜Recurrens in te unum: The Pattern of St. Augustine™s
Confessions,™™ pp. 389“92 in Studia Patristica XIV, ed. E. A. Livingstone.
Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
List of references

Curran, Charles E. (2002), Catholic Social Teaching, 1891“Present: A Historical,
Theological, and Ethical Analysis. Washington: Georgetown University Press.
Cushman, Thomas (1997), Critical Theory and the War in Croatia and Bosnia, The
Donald W. Treadgold Papers in Russian, East European, and Central
Asian Studies. Seattle: Jackson School of International Studies,
University of Washington.
Dagger, Richard (1997), Civic Virtues: Rights, Citizenship, and Republican Liberalism.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Dalton, Russell J. (2000), ˜˜Value Change and Democracy,™™ pp. 252“69 in
Disaffected Democracies: What™s Troubling the Trilateral Countries?, ed. Susan
J. Pharr and Robert D. Putnam. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Dalton, Russell J., Scott C. Flanagan and Paul Allen Beck, eds. (1984), Electoral
Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies: Realignment or Dealignment?
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Davidson, Donald (1980), ˜˜How is Weakness of the Will Possible?™™ pp. 21“42 in
Essays on Actions and Events. New York: Oxford University Press.
Davies, Oliver (2001), A Theology of Compassion. London: SCM Press.
(2004), The Creativity of God: World, Eucharist, Reason. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Davis, Scott (1991), ˜˜˜Ed Quod Vis Fac™: Paul Ramsey and Augustinian Ethics,™™
pp. 31“69 in Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics, 19.2.
(1996), ˜˜Philanthropy as a Virtue in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages,™™
pp. 1“23 in Giving: Western Ideas of Philanthropy, ed. J. B. Schneewind.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
D™Agostino, Fred (1996), Free Public Reason: Making It Up As We Go. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Daley, Brian E., SJ (1999), ˜˜Building a New City: The Cappadocian Fathers and
the Rhetoric of Philanthropy,™™ pp. 431“61 in Journal of Early Christian
Studies 7:3 (Fall).
Darsey, James (1997), The Prophetic Tradition and Radical Rhetoric in America. New
York: New York University Press.
Dawson, John David (2002), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
De Lubac, Henri (1969), Augustinianism and Modern Theology, trans. Lancelot
Sheppard. London: Geoffrey Chapman.
Deane, Herbert A. (1963), The Political and Social Ideas of St. Augustine. New York:
Columbia University Press.
Delbanco, Andrew (1995), The Death of Satan: How Americans Have Lost the Sense of
Evil. New York: Farrar, Strauss, Giroux.
Deneen, Patrick (2005), Democratic Faith. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Dickstein, Morris (1992), Double Agent: The Critic and Society. New York: Oxford
University Press.
DiNoia, J. A. (1990), ˜˜American Catholic Theology at Century™s End:
Postconciliar, Postmodern, Post-Thomistic,™™ pp. 419“518 in The Thomist,
54.3 (July).
(1993), The Diversity of Religions: A Christian Perspective. Washington: Catholic
University of America Press.
Dionne, E. J., Jr. (1991) Why Americans Hate Politics. New York: Simon & Schuster.
330 List of references

Dionne, E. J., Jr. and John J. DiIulio, eds. (2000), What™s God Got To Do with the
American Experiment? Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Djuth, Marianne (1990), ˜˜Stoicism and Augustine™s Doctrine of Human
Freedom After 396,™™ pp. 387“401 in Schnaubelt and Van Fleteren.
Dodaro, Robert, O. S. A. (1991), ˜˜Pirates or Superpowers: Reading Augustine in a
Hall of Mirrors,™™ pp. 9“19 in New Blackfriars, 72.845 (January).
(1994), ˜˜Eloquent Lies, Just Wars and the Politics of Persuasion: Reading
Augustine™s City of God in a ˜Postmodern™ World,™™ pp. 77“138 in
Augustinian Studies, 25.
(2004a), Christ and the Just Society in the Thought of Augustine. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
(2004b), ˜˜Political and Theological Virtues in Augustine, Letter 155 to
Macedonius,™™ pp. 430“474 in Augustiniana, 54.
Doody, John, Kevin L. Hughes, and Kim Paffenroth, eds. (2005), Augustine and
Politics. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Dorff, Elliot N. (2000), ˜˜The King™s Torah: The Role of Judaism in Shaping Jews™
Impact in National Policy,™™ pp. 203“21 in Douglass and Mitchell 2000.
Doughtery, Richard J. (1990), ˜˜Christian and Citizen: The Tension in
St. Augustine™s De civitate Dei,™™ in Schnaubelt and Van Fleteren.
Douglass, R. Bruce and Joshua Mitchell, eds. (2000), A Nation Under God: Essays on
the Future of Religion in American Public Life. Lanham: Rowman & Little¬eld.
Doyle, Daniel Edward, O. S. A. (2002), The Bishop as Disciplinarian in the Letters of
St. Augustine. New York: Peter Lang.
Drake, Hal (2000), Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance. Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dreyfus, Hubert (1991), Being-In-The-World: A Commentary on Heidegger™s Being and
Time, Division I. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dubay, Thomas (1999), The Evidential Power of Beauty. San Francisco: Ignatius
Dumont, Louis (1977), From Mandeville to Marx: The Genesis and Triumph of Economic
Ideology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dunn, Richard (1970), The Age of Religions Wars 1559“1689. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company.
Dyas, Dee (2001), Pilgrimage in Medieval English Literature 700“1500. Rochester, NY:
D. S. Brewer.
Eberle, Christopher J. (2002), Religious Conviction in Liberal Politics. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Eck, Diana L. (2001), A New Religious America: How a ˜˜Christian Country™™ Has Become
the World™s Most Religiously Diverse Nation. San Francisco:
Edmundson, Mark (1997), Nightmare on Main Street: Angels, Sadomasochism, and the
Culture of Gothic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Edwards, Bob, and Michael Foley, eds. (1997), ˜˜Social Capital, Civil Society, and
Contemporary Democracy,™™ American Behavioral Scientist, 40 (March“
Ehrenberg, John (1999), Civil Society: The Critical History of an Idea. New York: New
York University Press.
List of references

Ehrman, John (1995), The Rise of Neoconservativism: Intellectuals and Foreign Affairs,
1945“1994. Yale University Press.
Eliasoph, Nina (1998), Avoiding Politics: How Americans Produce Apathy in Everyday
Life. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke (1981), Public Man, Private Woman: Women in Social and
Political Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
(1995), Democracy on Trial. New York: Basic Books.
Elster, Jon (1983), Sour Grapes: Studies in the Subversion of Rationality. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
(1993), Political Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1957), Selections From Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Stephen E.
Whicher. Boston: Houghton Mif¬‚in.
Ertman, Thomas (1997), Birth of the Leviathan. New York: Cambridge University
Eusebius of Caesarea (1976), ˜˜In Praise of Constantine,™™ in In Praise of
Constantine: A Historical Study and New Translation of Eusebius™ Tricennial
Orations, by H. A. Drake. Berkeley: University of California Press.
(1999), Life of Constantine, ed. and trans. Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall
Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Evans, Sara, and Harry C. Boyte (1986), Free Spaces: The Sources of Democratic
Change in America. New York: Harper & Row.
Everett, William Johnson (1997), Religion, Federalism and the Struggle for Public Life.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Fabian, Johannes (1983), Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object.
New York: Columbia University Press.
Farkas, Steve, Jean Johnson, and Tony Foleno (2001), For Goodness™s Sake: Why So
Many Want Religion to Play a Greater Role in American Life. New York: Public
Ferree, Myra Marx, William Anthony Gamson, Jurgen Gerhards and Dieter
Rucht (2002), Shaping Abortion Discourse: Democracy and the Public Sphere in
Germany and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ferreira, M. Jamie (2001), Love™s Grateful Striving: A Commentary on Kierkegaard™s
Works of Love. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fiorina, Morris P., Samuel J. Abrams, and Jeremy C. Pope (2005), Culture War?
The Myth of Polarized America. New York: Pearson Longman.
Fish, Stanley (1999), The Trouble with Principle. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press.
Fitzgerald, Allan D., O. S. A., Mark Vessey, and Karla Pollmann, eds. (1999),
History, Apocalypse, and the Secular Imagination: New Essays on Augustine™s City
of God. Bowling Green: Philosophy Documentation Center.
Flathman, Richard (1998),˜˜˜It All Depends . . . on How One Understands
Liberalism™: A Brief Response to Stephen Macedo,™™ pp. 81“4 in Political
Theory, 26.1 (February).
Flood, Gavin (2004), The Ascetic Self. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fodor, James (1995), Christian Hermeneutics: Paul Ricoeur and the Re¬guring of
Theology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Foley, Richard (1993), Working Without A Net: A Study of Egocentric Epistemology.
New York: Oxford University Press.
332 List of references

Ford, David (1999), Self and Salvation: Being Transformed. New York: Cambridge
University Press.
Forsyth, Neil (1987), The Old Enemy: Satan and the Combat Myth. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Foucault, Michel (1981), The History of Sexuality, I, trans. Robert Hurley.
Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Fowler, Robert Booth (1999), Enduring Liberalism: American Political Thought Since
the 1960s. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Fowler, Robert Booth, Allen D. Hertzke, and Laura R. Olson, eds. (1999), Religion
and Politics in America: Faith, Culture, and Strategic Choices, 2nd edn. Boulder:
Westview Press.
Frank, Thomas (1997), The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture and the
Rise of Hip Consumerism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(2004), What™s the Matter with Kansas? New York: Metropolitan Books.
Frankfurt, Harry G. (1988), The Importance of What We Care About: Philosophical
Essays. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fredriksen, Paula. (1990), ˜˜Beyond the Body/Soul Dichotomy: Augustine™s
Answer to Mani, Plotinus and Julian,™™ pp. 227“51 in Paul and the Legacies
of Paul, ed. William Babcock. Dallas: Southern Methodist University
Friedman, Lawrence Meir (1990), The Republic of Choice: Law, Authority, and Culture.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Frykholm, Amy Johnson (2004), Rapture Culture: Left Behind in Evangelical America.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Fukuyama, Francis (1992), The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free
(1999), The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order.
New York: Free Press.
(2002), Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New
York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux.
(2004), State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press.
Gagnier, Regenia (2000), The Insatiability of Human Wants: Economics and Aesthetics
in Market Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gainsborough, Juliet F. (2001), Fenced Off: The Suburbanization of American Politics.
Washington: Georgetown University Press.
Galston, William (1991), Liberal Purposes. New York: Cambridge University Press.
(2002), Liberal Pluralism: The Implications of Value Pluralism for Political Theory and
Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
(2004), ˜˜Civic Education and Political Participation,™™ pp. 263“6 in PS: Political
Science & Politics (April).
Gamwell, Franklin I. (1990), The Divine Good: Modern Moral Theory and the Necessity
of God. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.
(1995), The Meaning of Religious Freedom: Modern Politics and the Democratic
Resolution. Albany: SUNY Press.
Gardella, Peter (2003), ˜˜Pluralisms in the United States and in the American
Empire,™™ pp. 255“9 in Religious Studies Review, 29.3.
List of references

Gary, Brett (1999), The Nervous Liberals: Propaganda Anxieties from World War I to the
Cold War. New York: Columbia University Press.
Geach, Peter (1977), The Virtues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gergen, Kenneth (1991), The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary
Life. New York: Basic Books.
Geuss, Raymond (1981), The Idea of a Critical Theory. New York: Cambridge
University Press.
Gibbon, Edward (1995), The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 3 vols. New York:
The Modern Library.
Gibson, Alan (2000), ˜˜Ancients, Moderns, and Americans: The Republicanism-
Liberalism Debate Revisited,™™ pp. 261“307 in History of Political Thought,
21.2 (Summer).
Gibson, Cynthia, and Peter Levine, eds. (2003), The Civic Mission of Schools.
New York and College Park: Carnegie Corporation and CIRCLE, The
Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement.
Gilkey, Langdon (1975), ˜˜Reinhold Niebuhr™s Theology of History,™™ pp. 36“62 in
The Legacy of Reinhold Niebuhr, ed. Nathan A. Scott. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Gill, Robin (1999), Churchgoing and Christian Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Glendon, Mary Ann (1991), Rights Talk: The Impoverishment of Political Discourse.
New York: Free Press.
Glendon, Mary Ann, and David Blankenhorn, eds. (1995), Seedbeds of Virtue:
Sources of Competence, Character, and Citizenship in American Society. Lanham:
Madison Books.
Glenn, John K., III (2001), Framing Democracy: Civil Society and Civic Movements in
Eastern Europe. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Goldfarb, Jeffrey (1991), The Cynical Society: The Culture of Politics and the Politics of
Culture in American Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goodheart, Eugene (1991), Desire and Its Discontents. New York: Columbia
University Press.
Graff, Gerald (1989) ˜˜Looking Past the de Man Case,™™ pp. 246“54 in Responses on
Paul de Man™s Wartime Journalism, Werner Hamacher et al., eds. Lincoln,
NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Green, Donald P., and Ian Shapiro (1994), Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: A
Critique of Applications in Political Science. New Haven: Yale University
Greer, Rowan (1986), Broken Lights and Mended Lives: Theology and Common Life in
the Early Church. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Gregory of Nyssa (1978), The Life of Moses, trans. Abraham J. Malherbe and
Everett Ferguson. New York: Paulist Press.
Grif¬th, R. Marie (2004), Born-Again Bodies. Berkeley: University of California
Grif¬ths, Paul J. (1991), An Apology for Apologetics: A Study in the Logic of
Interreligious Dialogue. Maryknoll: Orbis Books.
(1999), Religious Reading: The Place of Reading in the Practice of Religion. New York:
Oxford University Press.
334 List of references

(2001), ˜˜Nirvana as the Last Thing? The Iconic End of the Narrative
Imagination,™™ pp. 17“36 in Theology and Eschatology at the Turn of the
Millennium, ed. James J. Buckley and Gregory Jones. Oxford: Blackwell.
Guinn, David E. (2002), Faith on Trial: Communities of Faith, the First Amendment, and
the Theory of Deep Diversity. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Gunn, Giles (1985), The Culture of Criticism and the Criticism of Culture. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Gutierrez, Gustavo (1988), A Theology of Liberation, rev. edn. Maryknoll: Orbis
Habermas, Jurgen (1984), The Theory of Communicative Action, I: Reason and the
Rationalization of Society, trans. Thomas McCarthy. Boston: Beacon Press.
Hadot, Pierre (1995), Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to
Foucault, ed. Arnold I. Davidson, trans. Michael Chase. Oxford: Blackwell.
(2002), What is Ancient Philosophy? trans. Michael Chase. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
Halberstam, Michael (1999), Totalitarianism and the Modern Conception of Politics.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
Hall, Amy Laura (2002), Kierkegaard and the Treachery of Love. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Hall, Peter Dobkin (1984), The Organization of American Culture, 1700“1900: Private
Institutions, Elites and the Origins of American Nationality. New York: New
York University Press.
Halliburton, R. (1967), ˜˜The Concept of ˜Fuga Saeculi™ in St. Augustine,™™ pp. 249“61
in Downside Review, 85.
Halter, Marilyn (2000), Shopping for Identity: The Marketing of Ethnicity. New York:
Halttunen, Karen (1998), Murder Most Foul: The Killer and the American Gothic
Imagination. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hammond, Phillip (1992), Religion and Personal Autonomy: The Third
Disestablishment in America. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
Hann, Chris, and Elizabeth Dunn, eds. (1996), Civil Society: Challenging Western
Models. New York: Routledge.
Harding, Susan Friend (2000), The Book of Jerry Falwell: Fundamentalist Language
and Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri (2000), Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press.
(2004), Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. New York: Penguin
Hariman, Robert, ed. (2003), Prudence: Classical Virtue, Postmodern Practice.
University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Harmless, William (1995), Augustine and the Catechumenate. Collegeville:
Liturgical Press.
Harpham, Geoffrey Galt (1987), The Ascetic Imperative in Culture and Criticism
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Harris, Daniel (2001), Cute, Quaint, Hungry, and Romantic: The Aesthetics of
Consumerism. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.
Harrison, Carol (2000), Augustine: Christian Truth and Fractured Humanity. New
York: Oxford University Press.
List of references

Hart, Stephen (2001), Cultural Dilemmas of Progressive Politics: Styles of Engagement
Among Grassroots Activists. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Harvey, David (1990), The Condition of Postmodernity. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Harvey, Paul B., Jr. (1999), ˜˜Approaching the Apocalypse: Augustine, Tyconius,
and John™s Revelation,™™ pp. 133“51 in Fitzgerald et al.
Hatch, Nathan O. (1977), The Sacred Cause of Liberty: Republican Thought and the
Millennium in Revolutionary New England. New Haven: Yale University Press.
(1989), The Democratization of American Christianity. New Haven: Yale University
Hauerwas, Stanley, (1983), The Peaceable Kingdom: A Primer in Christian Ethics.
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
(2002), ˜˜Enduring, or, How Rowan Greer Taught Me To Read,™™ pp. 199“213 in
Reading in Christian Communites: Essays on Interpretation in the Early Church,
ed. Charles A. Bobertz and David Brakke. South Bend: University of
Notre Dame Press.
Hauerwas, Stanley and Will Willimon (1989), Resident Aliens: Life in the Christian
Colony. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
Hauptmann, Emily (1996), Putting Choice Before Democracy: A Critique of Rational
Choice Theory. Albany: SUNY Press.
Havel, Vaclav (1989), Letters to Olga: June 1979“September 1982, trans. Paul Wilson.
New York: Henry Holt & Company.
(1991), Disturbing the Peace, trans. Paul Wilson. New York: Vintage Books.
(1997), The Art of the Impossible: Politics as Morality in Practice, trans. Paul
Wilson et al. New York: Knopf.
Healey, Nicholas (2000), Church, World, and Christian Life: A Practical-Prophetic
Ecclesiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Heim, S. Mark (1995), Salvations: Truth and Difference in Religions. Maryknoll: Orbis
Henry, Patrick (1981), ˜˜˜And I Don™t Care What It Is:™ The Tradition-History of a
Civil Religion Proof Text,™™ pp. 35“49 in Journal of the American Academy of
Religion, 49.1.
Hertzke, Allen (1988), Representing God in Washington: The Roles of Religious Lobbies
in the American Polity. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
(2004), Freeing God™s Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights.
Lanham: Rowman & Little¬eld.
Herzog, Don (1989), Happy Slaves: A Critique of Consent Theory. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
Heschel, Abraham (1962), The Prophets. New York: Harper & Row.
Heyd, David, ed. (1996), Toleration: An Elusive Virtue. Princeton: Princeton
University Press.
Hick, John (1990), ˜˜The Non-Absoluteness of Christianity,™™ pp. 16“36 in
Christian Uniqueness Reconsidered: The Myth of a Pluralist Theory of Religions,
ed. Gavin D™Costa. Maryknoll: Orbis.
Hill, Christopher (1991), The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the
English Revolution. New York: Penguin Putnam [1972].
Hirschman, Albert O. (1970), Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms,
Organizations and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
336 List of references

(1977), The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism Before Its
Triumph. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hoffmann, Stefan-Ludwig (2003), ˜˜Democracy and Associations in the Long
Nineteenth Century: Toward a Transnational Perspective,™™ pp. 269“99 in
Journal of Modern History, 75 ( June).
Hofrenning, Daniel J. (1995), In Washington But Not Of It: The Prophetic Role of
Religious Lobbyists. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Hollenbach, David. (1996), ˜˜Social Ethics Under the Sign of the Cross,™™ pp. 3“18
in Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics.
(1997), ˜˜Politically Active Churches: Some Empirical Prolegomena to a
Normative Approach,™™ pp. 291“306 in Religion and Contemporary Liberalism,
ed. Paul Weithman. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Holman, Susan R. (2001), The Hungry are Dying: Beggars and Bishops in Roman
Cappadocia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Holmes, George (1962), The Later Middle Ages. New York: W. W. Norton.
Holmes, Stephen (1993), The Anatomy of Anti-Liberalism. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Hopkins, Gerard Manley (1986), Gerard Manley Hopkins: The Major Works, ed.
Catherine Phillips. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hout, Michael A., Andrew Greeley, and Melissa J. Wilde (2001), ˜˜The
Demographic Imperative in Religious Change in the United States,™™
pp. 468“500 in American Journal of Sociology, 107.
Hubbard, Moyer V. (2002), New Creation in Paul™s Letters and Thought. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Hughes, Graham (2003), Worship as Meaning: A Liturgical Theology for Late
Modernity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hughes, Kevin (2005a), Constructing Antichrist: Paul, Biblical Commentary, and the
Development of Doctrine in the Early Middle Ages. Washington: Catholic
University Press.
(2005b), ˜˜Local Politics: The Political Place of the Household in Augustine™s
City of God,™™ pp. 145“64 in Doody et. al. 2005.
Huiziga, Johan (1955), Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture. Boston:
Beacon Press.
Hulliung, Mark (1994), The Autocritique of Enlightenment: Rousseau and the
Philosophes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hunter, James Davison (1990), Culture Wars. New York: Basic Books.
(2000), The Death of Character: Moral Education in an Age without Good or Evil. New
York: Basic Books.
Hutter, Reinhard (1992), ˜˜The Church™s Peace Beyond the ˜Secular™: A
Postmodern Augustinian™s Deconstruction of Secular Modernity and
Postmodernity,™™ pp. 106“16 in Pro Ecclesia, 2.1.
Ignatieff, Michael (2001), Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Independent Sector, The (1988), From Belief to Commitment: The Activities and
Finances of Religious Congregations in the United States. Washington: The
Independent Sector.
List of references

´ ´ `
Inglebert, Herve (1996), Les Romains chretiens face a l™histoire de Rome: histoire,
´ ´ `
christianisme et romanites en Occident dans l™Antiquite tardive (IIIe“Ve siecles).
Paris: Etudes augustiniennes.
Inglehart, Ronald (1990), Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Innes, Stephen (1995), Creating the Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan
New England. New York: W. W. Norton.
Irvin, Dale T. (1994), Hearing Many Voices: Dialogue and Diversity in the Ecumenical
Movement. Lanham: University Press of America.
Irvine, Martin (1994), The Making of Textual Culture: Grammatica and Literary Theory,
350“1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Isaac, Jeffrey C. (1997), Democracy in Dark Times. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
(2003), The Poverty of Progressivism: The Future of American Democracy in a Time of
Liberal Decline. Lanham: Rowman & Little¬eld.
Isaac, Jeffrey C., Matthew F. Filner, and Jason C. Bivins (1999), ˜˜American
Democracy and the New Christian Right: A Critique of Apolitical
Liberalism,™™ pp. 222“64 in Democracy™s Edges, ed. Ian Shapiro and Casiano
Hacker-Cordon. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jackall, Robert, and Janet M. Hirota (2000), Image Makers: Advertising, Public
Relations and the Ethos of Advocacy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jackson, Timothy (1997), ˜˜The Return of the Prodigal? Liberal Theory and
Religious Pluralism,™™ pp. 182“217 in Religion and Contemporary Liberalism,
ed. Paul Weithman. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Jacobs, Alan (2001a), ˜˜Bakhtin and the Hermeneutics of Love,™™ pp. 25“45 in
Bakhtin and Religion: A Feeling for Faith, ed. Susan M. Felch and Paul
J. Centino. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
(2001b), A Theology of Reading: The Hermeneutics of Love. Boulder: Westview
Jacobsen, Eric (2003), Sidewalks in the Kingdom: New Urbanism and the Christian
Faith. Grand Rapids: Brazos Press.
Jameson, Frederic (1990), Postmodernism: Or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism.
Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Jasper, James M. (1997), The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography and Creativity in
Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jenkins, Philip (2002), The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Jenson, Robert (1997), Systematic Theology, I: The Triune God. New York: Oxford
University Press.
(2004), ˜˜On the Ascension,™™ pp. 331“40 in Loving God with Our Minds: The Pastor
as Theologian, ed. Michael Welker and Cynthia A. Jarvis. Grand Rapids:
William B. Eerdmans.
Johnston, David (1994), The Idea of a Liberal Theory. Princeton: Princeton
University Press.
Jones, L. Gregory (1990), Transformed Judgment: Towards a Trinitarian Account of the
Moral Life. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Jones, L. Gregory, and Stephen Fowl (1991), Reading in Communion: Scripture and
Ethics in the Christian Life. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.
338 List of references

Jones, L. Gregory, and Stephanie Paulsell, eds. (2002), The Scope of Our Art: The
Vocation of the Theological Teacher. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.
Jones, Serene (2002), ˜˜Graced Practices: Excellence and Freedom in the
Christian Life,™™ pp. 51“77 in Volf and Bass.
Juergensmeyer, Mark (1993), The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the
Secular State. Berkeley: University of California Press.
(2000), Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Jungel, Eberhard (1989), ˜˜The World as Possibility and Actuality: The Ontology
of the Doctrine of Justi¬cation,™™ pp. 95“123 in Eberhard Jungel: Theological
Essays, trans. and ed. John Webster. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.
Kahn, Paul W. (2004), Putting Liberalism in Its Place. Princeton: Princeton
University Press.
Kant, Immanuel (1965), Critique of Pure Reason, trans. Norman Kemp Smith. New
York: St. Martin™s Press.
Kantorowicz, Ernst Hartwig (1957), The King™s Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval
Political Theology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Keller, Catherine (1996), Apocalypse Now and Then: A Feminist Guide to the End of the
World. Boston: Beacon Press.
(1997), ˜˜The Lost Fragrance: Protestantism and the Nature of What Matters,™™
pp. 355“70 in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65.2 (Summer).
Kelsey, David (1992), To Understand God Truly: What™s Theological about a Theological
School. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press.
Kenney, Padraic (2002), A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Kim, Sunhyuk (2000), The Politics of Democratization in Korea: The Role of Civil
Society. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
King, Anthony (2000), ˜˜Distrust of Government: Explaining American
Exceptionalism,™™ pp. 74“98 in Disaffected Democracies: What™s Troubling the
Trilateral Countries? ed. Susan J. Pharr and Robert D. Putnam. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Kirk, Kenneth (1966), The Vision of God: The Christian Doctrine of the summum bonum.
New York: Harper & Row.
Konrad, George (1984), Antipolitics: An Essay, trans. Richard E. Allen. San Diego:
Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
Krasner, Stephen D., ed. (2001), Problematic Sovereignty: Contested Rules and Political
Possibilities. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kraynak, Robert P. (2001), Christian Faith and Modern Democracy: God and Politics in
the Fallen World. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Krupnick, Mark (1986), Lionel Trilling and the Fate of Cultural Criticism. Evanston:
Northwestern University Press.
Kumar, Krishan (2001), 1989: Revolutionary Ideas and Ideals. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press.
Kuttner, Robert (1997), Everything for Sale: The Virtues and Limits of Markets. New
York: Alfred A. Knopf.
LaHaye, Tim, and Jerry B. Jenkins, (2004), Glorious Appearing: The End of Days.
Wheaton: Tyndale House.
List of references

Lakoff, George (2002), Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think, 2nd edn.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Lambert, David (1999), ˜˜The Uses of Decay: History in Salvian™s de gubernatione
dei,™™ pp. 115“30 in Fitzgerald et al.
Lamberton, Robert (1986), Homer the Theologian: Neoplatonist Allegorical Reading
and the Growth of the Epic Tradition. Berkeley: University of California
Lane, Robert E. (2000), The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies. New Haven:
Yale University Press.
Larana, Enrique, Hank Johnston, and Joseph R. Gus¬eld, eds. (1994), New Social
Movements: From Ideology to Identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Lasch, Christopher (1991), The True and Only Heaven: Progress and Its Critics. New
York: Norton.
Lash, Nicholas (1988), Easter in Ordinary: Re¬‚ections on Human Experience and the
Knowledge of God. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
Laursen, John Christian, and Cary J. Nederman, eds. (1998), Beyond the Persecuting
Society: Religious Toleration Before the Enlightenment. Philadelphia: University
of Pennsylvania Press.
Lawless, George (1998), ˜˜Auaritia, Luxuria, Ambitio, Lib. Arb. 1,11,22: A Greco-
Roman Literary Topos and Augustine™s Asceticism,™™ pp. 317“31 in Studia
Ephemeridis Augustinianum, 62.
(2000), ˜˜Augustine™s Decentering of Asceticism,™™ pp. 142“63 in Augustine and
His Critics, ed. Robert Dodaro and George Lawless. London: Routledge.
Layman, Geoffrey (2001), The Great Divide: Religious and Cultural Con¬‚ict in
American Party Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lear, Jonathan (1990), Love and Its Place in Nature: A Philosophical Interpretation of
Freudian Psychoanalysis. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux.
(1998), Open Minded: Working Out the Logic of the Soul. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press.
Lears, T. J. Jackson (1994), No Place for Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation
of American Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lendon, John (1997), Empire of Honour. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Levinas, Emmanuel (1969), Totality and In¬nity, trans. Alphonso Lingis.
Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.
Lewis, C. S. (1980), The Weight of Glory and Other Addresses. New York: Macmillan.
Leyerle, Blake (2004), ˜˜Monastic Formation and Christian Practice: Food in the
Desert,™™ pp. 85“112 in Educating People of Faith: Exploring the History of Jewish
and Christian Communities, ed. John van Engen. Grand Rapids: William
B. Eerdmans.
Leyser, Conrad (2001), Authority and Asceticism from Augustine to Gregory the Great.
Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Lichterman, Paul (1996), The Search for Political Community: American Activists
Reinventing Commitment. New York: Cambridge University Press.
(2005), Elusive Togetherness: Church Groups Trying to Bridge America™s Divisions.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Lieberman, Marcel (1998), Commitment, Value, and Moral Realism. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
340 List of references

Lilla, Mark (2001), The Reckless Mind: Intellectuals in Politics. New York: New York
Review Books.
Lischer, Richard (1995), The Preacher King: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Word that
Moved America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Loughlin, Gerard (1996), Telling God™s Story: Bible, Church and Narrative Theology.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lovibond, Sabina (1982), Realism and Imagination in Ethics. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press.
Lovin, Robin (1995), Reinhold Niebuhr and Christian Realism. New York: Cambridge
University Press.
Lyotard, J. F. (1989), The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press.
Macedo, Stephen (1993), Liberal Virtues. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(1998), ˜˜Flathman™s Liberal Shtick,™™ pp. 85“9 in Political Theory, 26.1
(2000), Diversity and Distrust: Civic Education in a Multicultural Democracy.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Macedo, Stephen, ed. (2004), Democracy at Risk: Toward a Political Science of
Citizenship. Princeton: American Political Science Association.
McCann, Dennis (1981), Christian Realism and Liberation Theology: Practical
Theologies in Creative Con¬‚ict. Maryknoll: Orbis Books.
McCarraher, Eugene (2000), Christian Critics: Religion and the Impasse in Modern
American Social Thought. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
McCarthy, John, and Jim Castelli (1998), Religion-Sponsored Social Service Providers:
The Not-So-Independent Sector, Working Paper Series. Washington: The
Aspen Institute.
McClay, Wilfred M. (1994), The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
McCloskey, Deirdre (1994), ˜˜Bourgeois Virtue,™™ pp. 177“91 in The American
Scholar (Spring).
McDowell, John. (1992), ˜˜Putnam on Mind and Meaning,™™ pp. 35“48 in
Philosophical Topics, 20.
(1994), Mind and World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(1995), ˜˜Knowledge and the Internal,™™ pp. 877“95 in Philosophy and
Phenomenological Research 55.4 (December).
McGreevy, John T. (2003), Catholicism and American Freedom: A History. New York:
W. W. Norton.
MacIntyre, Alasdair (1984), After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, 2nd edn. Notre
Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
(1988), Whose Justice? Which Rationality? Notre Dame: University of Notre
Dame Press.
(1990), Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry: Encyclopedia, Genealogy, and
Tradition. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
McLynn, Neil (1999), ˜˜Augustine™s Roman Empire,™™ pp. 29“44 in Augustinian
Studies, 30.
MacQueen, D. J. (1972), ˜˜Saint Augustine™s Concept of Property Ownership,™™
pp. 187“229 in Recherches Augustiniennes, 8.
List of references

McRoberts, Omar M. (2003), ˜˜Worldly or Otherworldly? ˜Activism™ in an Urban
Religious District,™™ pp. 412“22 in Handbook of the Sociology of Religion, ed.
Michele Dillon. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McWilliams, Wilson Carey (2003), ˜˜American Democracy and the Politics of
Faith,™™ pp. 143“62 in Religion Returns to the Public Square: Faith and Policy in
America, ed. Hugh Heclo and Wilfred M. McClay. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press.
Mahmood, Saba (2005), Politics and Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Marcel, Gabriel (1962), Homo Viator: Introduction to a Metaphysic of Hope, trans.
Emma Craufurd. New York: Harper & Row.
Markell, Patchen (2003), Bound by Recognition. Princeton: Princeton University
Markham, Ian S. (2003), A Theology of Engagement. Oxford: Blackwell.
Markus, R. A. (1970), Saeculum: History and Society in the Theology of St. Augustine.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1990a), ˜˜A Defense of Christian Mediocrity,™™ pp. 45“62 in his The End of
Ancient Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1990b), ˜˜City or Desert? Two Models of Community,™™ pp. 157“79 in his The
End of Ancient Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(1996), Signs and Meanings: World and Text in Ancient Christianity. Liverpool:
Liverpool University Press.
Marsh, Charles (1997), God™s Long Summer: Stories of Faith and Civil Rights.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
(2005), The Beloved Community: How Faith Shapes Social Justice, from the Civil Rights
Movement to Today. New York: Basic Books.
Martin, David (1997), Does Christianity Cause War? Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Martin, Thomas, O.S.A (1998), ˜˜˜An Abundant Supply of Discourse™: Augustine
and the Rhetoric of Monasticism,™™ pp. 7“25 in Downside Review, 116.402
(2005), ˜˜Augustine and the Politics of Monasticism,™™ pp. 165“86 in Doody
et al.
Marx, Karl (1978), ˜˜For a Ruthless Critique of Everything Existing,™™ pp. 12“15 in
The Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd edn., ed. Robert C. Tucker. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company.
Mathewes, Charles T. (1999), ˜˜The Academic Life as a Christian Vocation,™™
pp. 110“21 in Journal of Religion, 79.1 (January).
(2000), ˜˜An Appreciation of Hauerwas: One Hand Clapping,™™ pp. 343“60 in
Anglican Theological Review, 82.2 (Spring).
(2001a), Evil and the Augustinian Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University
(2001b), ˜˜The Hermeneutics of Charity and Original Sin: A Response to
Gilbert Meilaender,™™ pp. 35“42 in Journal of Religious Ethics, 29.1.
(2002a), ˜˜The Liberation of Questioning in Augustine™s Confessions,™™ pp. 539“
64 in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 70.3 (September).
(2002b), ˜˜Reconsidering the Role of Mainline Churches in Public Life,™™
pp. 554“66 in Theology Today, 58.4.
342 List of references

(2002c), ˜˜The Career of the Pelagian Controversy,™™ pp. 199“210 in Augustinian
Studies, 33.2.
(2003), ˜˜The Presumptuousness of Autobiography and the Paradoxes of
Beginning in Confessions Book One,™™ pp. 7“23 in A Reader™s Companion to
Augustine™s Confessions, ed. Kim Paffenroth and Robert P. Kennedy.
Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press.
Mayer, Arno J. (2000), The Furies: Violence and Terror in the French and Russian
Revolutions. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mehta, Uday Singh (1995), Liberalism and Empire: A Study in Nineteenth-Century
British Liberal Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mele, Alfred (1995), Autonomous Agents: From Self-Control to Autonomy. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Melucci, Alberto (1989), Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual
Needs in Contemporary Society. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Mendus, Susan (1999), ˜˜The Importance of Love in Rawls™s Theory of Justice,™™
pp. 57“75 in British Journal of Political Science, 29.
Mennell, Susan (1994), ˜˜Augustine™s ˜I™: The ˜Knowing Subject™ and the Self,™™


. 10
( 12)