<<

. 9
( 9)



index 247

Common Article 3, 68“9
Inter-American Commission, 205“6
UN Commission on Human Rights, 48,
internal armed con¬‚ict, 4, 26, 32
64, 69, 175, 192
International Covenant on Civil and
see also killings
Political Rights (1966), 50
ONUSAL see UN Observer Mission in expulsions, Convention against Torture
(1984), 179
El Salvador
extradition, 175
prosecution, 70“4
Protocol I (1977), 32, 33
fair trial, 66, 103, 221
Protocol II (1977), 11, 25, 33, 50, 63,
force majeure, 217
70“2, 78, 145, 146
forum, prosecution, 134, 157“63
San Jos´ Agreement on Human Rights
e
´
Frente Farabundo Mart´ para la Liberacion
(1990), 16“17, 49“51, 186, 212 ±
Nacional (FMLN)
special agreements, 16“17, 25“6, 49“51,
amnesties, 205
186“7, 212
attribution of acts, 151“2
territorial control, 208
children, 63
UN Commission on Human Rights, 11,
indiscriminate attacks, 78
32“3, 63“4, 88“9, 145
legislation, 70“4, 187
violence to life and person, 63“4
ONUSAL, 16“17, 63, 70“4, 78, 145,
European Commission on Human Rights
152“3, 186“7
prosecution, 203
prosecution, 202
right to life, 185, 191, 193, 195
special agreements, 16“17, 25“6, 49“51,
European Convention on Human Rights
186“7, 212
(1950)
see also El Salvador
applicability, 39
˜ensure respect™, 173
Geneva Convention III (1949)
freedom of assembly, 167
internal armed con¬‚ict, 36
prosecution, 198
judicial guarantees, 69
right to life, 168, 170, 184, 185, 191,
military courts, 69
198“9
rights of appeal, 71
rights secured/ensured, 166, 168
special agreements, 29
European Court of Human Rights
Cakici case, 171 Geneva Convention IV (1949)
¸
detention/internment, 65“6, 67
criminal investigation, 203“4
Ergi case, 168, 170“1, 190, 192“3, 194 fair trial, 65“6, 103
occupying powers, 71
international humanitarian law, 161
Kilic case, 193 rights of appeal, 71
Kurt case, 171, 204 Geneva Conventions (1949)
¨
Platform ˜ Arzte f¨ r das Leben™ case, 167
u accessor states, 14“15
Afghanistan, 22, 29
positive obligations, 167, 168, 170, 191
armed opposition groups, adherence,
protection from other individuals, 167,
14“15
190
belligerent status, 2
state accountability, 161, 167, 168, 170,
Common Article 1, 92“3, 173, 174
171, 172, 190, 203“4
Common Article 2, 174
Turkey, 168, 170“1, 190, 192“4, 198“9,
Common Article 3 see Common Article 3
203“4
Yasa case, 193, 198“9, 203“4 ˜ensure respect™ obligation, 173, 174, 175
grave breaches, 103, 111
European Court of Justice (ECJ), 215
High Contracting Parties, 14
Executions
International Criminal Tribunal for the
Afghanistan, 64, 67
Former Yugoslavia, 25
Argentina, 60, 61
leadership accountability, 120
Colombia, 84, 192
248 index

local authorities, 213“15
Geneva Conventions (1949) (cont.)
political power, 1
legal restraints, 9“26
Somalia, 2, 139, 140, 141, 208
national liberation movements, 17“18,
UN Secretary-General, 227
35
Greenwood, Christopher, 161
obligations, 92“3
Guerrillas
ordering crimes, 111
Colombia, 62
prosecution, 67
organization, 35
rati¬cation, 15, 24
terminology, 134
state accountability, 173, 174
Guiding Principles on Internal
war crimes, 103
Displacement (1998), 49, 52, 150“1
genocide
criminal responsibility, 108“10
Hague Conventions (1907), war crimes, 103
de¬nition, 108
high intensity con¬‚icts, 2
Genocide Convention (1948), 44, 108“9,
Honduras, 167, 171
178, 185, 189, 197, 221
hostages, 62, 84, 90
International Court of Justice (ICJ), 178
human rights
International Criminal Court, 109
Afghanistan, 48, 150, 211, 214
International Criminal Tribunal for the
Algeria, 168“9, 189, 199
Former Yugoslavia, 109
America see Inter-American Commission
International Criminal Tribunal for
American Convention see American
Rwanda, 109
Convention on Human Rights (1969)
International Military Tribunal
Colombia, 21, 41, 46, 47, 52, 54, 192,
(Nuremberg), 108
213
leadership accountability, 109, 221
concept, 46
legislation, 185
detention/internment, 66
outside armed con¬‚ict, 105
El Salvador, 11, 21, 32“3, 49“51, 63“4
prosecution, 197
freedom of assembly, 167
state accountability, 178, 185, 189, 197,
freedom of movement, 186“7
219, 221
government/governed, 53“4
territorial control, 219
international law see international
UN Secretary-General, 109
human rights law
Yugoslavia, 178
life see right to life
Georgia, UN Security Council, 31
national liberation movements, 46
government
accountability see state accountability reconceptualization, 51“5
Sri Lanka, 48
amnesties, 205
de facto see de facto authorities terrorism, 42, 46, 48, 191, 195
UN Commission see UN Commission on
established authorities, 166
Human Rights
in exile, 208, 211
violations denounced, 39, 48, 64
human rights obligations, 53“4, 148“9,
Human Rights Committee
166“7
Algeria, 168“9, 189, 199
laws, 70“1
amnesties, 206
occupying powers, 71
Colombia, 171“2
states distinguished, 165
territory see territorial control disappearances, 171“2
El Salvador, 201
government collapse
international humanitarian law, 161
Afghanistan, 2, 150, 208
Lebanon, 195, 210“11
anarchic con¬‚ict, 139, 140, 144
precautionary measures, 189“90
civilian victims, 2
Sri Lanka, 196
failed states, 208, 230
state accountability, 161, 168“9, 171“2,
leadership accountability, 119
179, 185, 189
Liberia, 140, 144
index 249

individual obligations
torture, 179, 185, 206
see also International Covenant on Civil armed opposition groups compared, 16
international criminal law, 16, 44
and Political Rights (1966)
international human rights law, 43“4,
Human Rights Watch, 2, 23
52
humane treatment
leaders see leadership accountability
civilian protection, 61, 82“3
insurgents
Common Article 3, 59“62, 65“9, 82“3
Common Article 3, 135
detention/internment, 60, 65“7, 83
counter-insurgency, 39
fundamental guarantees, 62“4
hors de combat, 60, 66 terminology, 134
hostages, 62 territorial control, 135
humiliating and degrading treatment, insurrections, 137, 176, 181, 183
62 Inter-American Commission
international bodies, 60 attribution of acts, 153, 155
civilian/military objects, 80“1
non-combatants, 60“1, 66, 82
civilian protection, 75“6, 79, 80“1
non-derogable guarantees, 61
Colombia see Colombia
prisoners, 59“74
Common Article 3, 61, 135, 137“8,
prosecution, 21, 60, 67“74
145“6
protected persons, 60“1
cultural property, 21
Protocol II (1977), 59“67, 69“73
customary humanitarian law, 30, 32
violence to life and person, 62, 63“4,
detention/internment, 65
82
El Salvador, 205“6
humanitarian relief
fundamental guarantees, 62
Afghanistan, 88
grave-breaches regime, 104
Angola, 88
human rights concept, 40“1
consent, 86, 87
individual petitions, 158
El Salvador, 88“9
internal armed con¬‚ict, 13, 61, 135,
International Committee of the Red
137
Cross (ICRC), 87, 88
internal disturbances, 137“8
Protocol II (1977), 86, 87
international human rights law, 39,
Somalia, 86, 88, 113
40“1, 42, 43, 47, 52
UN Commission on Human Rights, 88
international humanitarian law, 41, 52,
UN General Assembly Resolutions, 87“8
65, 155, 158“62
UN Security Council, 88, 113
mandates, 158“62
member states, observations, 159, 160
immunities
precautionary measures, 79, 81
civilian immunity, 75, 76
protected persons, 60“1
prisoners of war, 36
Protocol I (1977), 75, 80
prosecution, 36, 38, 188, 198, 206
see also amnesties Protocol II (1977), 21, 61, 75, 80, 145“6
Regulations, 159
independent observers, International
reporting procedure, 158, 159
Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC),
reprisals, 90
22
right to life, 47, 90, 180
indiscriminate attacks, 77, 78
Tablada case, 10, 60“1, 137, 160
individual criminals
terrorism, 159
armed forces, 105
´
Velasquez Rodr´guez case, 167
criminal responsibility, 44, 97, 98“100, ±
see also American Convention on Human
102, 105, 108“10, 112, 223
Rights (1969)
levels of accountability, 3, 97
Inter-American Court of Human Rights
organizational membership, 55, 56, 58,
individual petitions, 159
105
international humanitarian law, 160“1
tribunals, 20
250 index

due diligence/non discrimination, 82
internal armed con¬‚ict
grave-breach regime, 111
amnesties, 37, 164, 188, 197
inter-ethnic con¬‚ict, 35
Amnesty International (AI), 23
internal con¬‚ict compared, 33“8, 77“8,
civilian participation, 75“6
123, 124
Common Article 3, 18, 33“4, 135, 138,
leadership accountability, 111, 112, 114,
143
123, 124, 128
con¬‚ict internationalized, 18
ordering crimes, 112
criminal activity, 36“7
international bodies
cultural property, 27“8, 81“2
applicable norms, 12, 13, 35
customary humanitarian law, 30“3, 53
attribution of acts, 134
direct/indirect participation, 75, 76, 84
civilian protection, 77
duration of con¬‚ict, 138
Common Article 3, 12, 13, 35
examples, 4
customary humanitarian law, 22, 24
grave-breaches regime, 103“5
humane treatment, 60
Human Rights Watch, 23
internal armed con¬‚ict, 33“4, 35,
humanitarian norms, 34
230
immunity from prosecution, 36, 38, 188
international human rights law, 39,
independent observers, 22
52, 54
Inter-American Commission, 13, 61, 135,
international law, 4
137
obligations recognized, 16, 17
internal disturbances, 136“8, 143, 147
opinio iuris, 22, 24
international bodies, 33“4, 35, 230
Protocol II (1977), 12, 13, 53, 77
international con¬‚ict compared, 33“8,
right to life, 180“1
77“8, 123, 124, 127
starvation, 87
International Criminal Court, 141, 142
state accountability, 164, 165, 228
International Criminal Tribunal for the
International Committee of the Red Cross
Former Yugoslavia, 19, 20, 22“3, 34,
(ICRC)
35“6, 107, 112, 123, 124, 127, 135, 137
Afghanistan, 88
International Criminal Tribunal for
amnesties, 206
Rwanda, 19, 20, 107, 112, 135, 137
Common Article 3, 137“8, 140
international human rights law, 52“3,
con¬dential discussions, 162
168
detention/internment, 67
international humanitarian law, 20, 52,
human rights, 46
53, 62
humanitarian relief, 87, 88
mass media, 23
independent observers, 22
military necessity, 82
leadership accountability, 115
misinformation, 23
national justice system, 73
party to con¬‚ict, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140,
special agreements, 29
151“2
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
prevalence, 1“2
Advisory Opinion on Nuclear Weapons,
prisoners of war, 36, 38
protection of civilians see civilian 19, 85, 227
binding declarations, 13
protection
Common Article 3, 10, 19, 174
Protocol I (1977), 32, 33“4, 78“9
evidence of general practice, 26
Protocol II (1977), 18, 34, 143“4
Gabc´ kovo“Nagymaros Project, 211“12
territorial scope, 136 ±
genocide, 178
war crimes, 57“8, 99
see also human rights international bodies, 4
international humanitarian law, 227
international armed con¬‚ict
Namibia, 209
acts of omission, 114
Nicaragua, 10, 19, 174
civilian protection, 33
index 251

criminal organizations, 55“8
state agents/local entities, 214“15
genocide see genocide
territorial control, 209, 211“12
individual obligations, 16, 44
International Covenant on Civil and
individual responsibility see individual
Political Rights (1966)
criminals
Bosnia-Herzegovina, 149
international crimes, 37, 207, 224
Colombia, 171“2
Committee see Human Rights Committee jurisdiction, 103
legal restraints, 55“8
El Salvador, 50
levels of accountability, 3, 97
individual obligations, 43“4
multilateral treaties, 178“80
international humanitarian law, 161
non-state actors, 46
Lebanon, 210“11
prosecution, 197
legislation, 187
state accountability, 178“80
obligations, 44
war crimes see war crimes
prosecution, 198
International Criminal Tribunal for
Protocol II (1977), 64, 70
Rwanda
right to life, 183“4
Akayesu case, 11, 19, 21
state accountability, 166, 173
binding declarations, 13
state parties, 38“9
civilian protection, 75
torture, 179, 185
Common Article 3, 19, 135, 136
violence to life and person, 64, 198
crimes against humanity, 107, 108
International Covenant on Economic,
criminal responsibility, 98, 105, 112
Social and Political Rights (1966), 43,
customary international law, 21“2, 22“4
44
evidence of accountability, 135, 136,
International Criminal Court
137, 138, 141, 144
binding declarations, 13
genocide, 109
Common Article 3, 101, 141“2, 221
internal armed con¬‚ict, 19, 20, 107, 112,
crimes against humanity, 108
123, 135, 137
criminal responsibility, 98, 101, 113“14,
Kayishema case, 105, 110, 121, 122, 124
130, 221
leadership accountability, 100, 110“12,
draft Statute, 55, 56, 57
115“19, 121, 123“5, 128“32, 222
fair trial, 221
Protocol I (1977), 75
genocide, 109
Protocol II (1977), 11, 16, 21“2, 61, 144“5
internal armed con¬‚ict, 141, 142
war crimes, 105“6
juridical persons, 57
International Criminal Tribunal for the
leadership accountability, 111, 113“14,
Former Yugoslavia
117, 119“20, 124, 127“8, 130“2, 222
Aleksovski case, 98, 106, 116“17, 119,
legal persons, 56“7
120“1, 123, 126, 127, 129, 132
national courts, 200
binding declarations, 13
natural persons, 56, 58
Celebici case, 24, 110, 122, 125, 127, 129
nullum crimen sine lege rule, 101
civilian protection, 76, 77, 80
Protocol II (1977), 101, 142
Common Article 3, 102, 135, 136, 144
Rome Conference (1988), 56, 57
crimes against humanity, 107, 108
serious violations, 221
criminal responsibility, 98“9, 102, 106,
substantive law, 101
112
territorial control, 142, 143
cultural property, 27“8, 81
war crimes, 102, 142
customary humanitarian law, 20“1,
international criminal law
22“5, 26, 30“2, 76
amnesties, 37
emerging states, 35
civilian victims, 2
crimes against humanity see crimes evidence of accountability, 135“6, 138,
141, 144
against humanity
252 index

special agreements, 49“51, 212
International Criminal Tribunal (cont.)
Furundˇ ija case, 100, 112, 205
z state accountability, 166“173, 183“4,
185“6, 227
Geneva Conventions (1949), 25
supervision, 51, 52
genocide, 109
temporary impossibility, 210“15
grave-breaches regime, 103
territorial control, 150, 210“17
internal armed con¬‚ict, 19, 20, 22“3, 34,
Turku Declaration (1990), 48“9, 52, 54“5
35“6, 107, 112, 123, 124, 127, 135, 137
Kordi´ case, 21
c UN Commission on Human Rights,
39“40, 41“3, 46, 47“8, 54“5
leadership accountability, 100, 102, 106,
UN Secretary-General, 40, 42“6
111“12, 115“19, 121“32, 222
Marti´ case, 90, 91
c UN Security Council, 47, 48
Nikoli´ case, 107
c international humanitarian law
applicability, 13, 20, 149
protected persons, 60
civilian victims, 2
Protocol II (1977), 20“1, 25, 61“2, 102,
Colombia, 41, 54, 61, 155
144
Cultural Property Convention (1954),
reprisals, 90“1
27“8, 81, 146, 147, 148, 197“8
Rome Statute (1998), 101
distinguishing features, 23
special agreements, 29“30
Tadi´ case (Interlocutory Appeal), 19, 20,
c evidence of accountability, 146“8
grave breaches, 103“5
26, 27“8, 29, 77, 81, 102, 135
Tadi´ case (merits), 60, 107, 112, 123
c Inter-American Commission, 41, 52, 65,
155, 158“62
torture, 110, 113, 179, 205
internal armed con¬‚ict, 20, 52, 53, 62
UN General Assembly Resolutions, 23,
International Court of Justice (ICJ), 227
31, 32, 76
international human rights law see human interpretation, 12
legal restraints, 26“38
rights
minimum legal standard, 13, 64
international human rights law
multilateral treaties, 26“8
applicability, 47“9, 52, 148“9
obligations, 15, 16
change of circumstances, 215“17
prosecution, 197“8
civilian victims, 2
de facto authorities, 150, 230 state accountability, 173“8, 227
territorial control, 218
effective authority, 149
third party monitoring, 14
evidence of accountability, 148“51
force majeure, 217 UN Security Council, 32, 138“40, 225
violations, 73, 74, 155, 157, 175, 200, 221
government obligations, 53“4, 148“9,
violence to life and person, 62, 63“4, 82,
166“7
180, 198, 199
individual obligations, 43“4, 52
see also customary humanitarian law
Inter-American Commission, 39, 40“1,
international law
42, 43, 47, 52
command responsibility, 98, 111, 230
internal armed con¬‚ict, 52“3, 168
customary see customary international
international bodies, 39, 52, 54
law
legal restraints, 38“55
enforcement, 133
legislation, 185“6
international bodies, 4
local authorities, 213“15
International Law Commission
multilateral treaties, 38“49, 148“51,
attribution of acts, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157
166“73, 185“6, 210“17
Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace
obligations of conduct, 166, 167, 171
and Security of Mankind, 175, 200
obligations of result, 166, 167
leadership accountability, 100
prosecution, 198“200
state accountability, 153, 154, 155, 156,
reconceptualization, 51“5
157, 166, 176, 181
rights secured/ensured, 166, 173
index 253

see also Draft Articles on State UN Observer Mission in El Salvador
(ONUSAL), 86
Responsibility
Lauterpacht, H., 223
International Military Tribunal
leadership
(Nuremberg)
effectiveness, 1
crimes against humanity, 107, 108
norms enforced, 68, 97
criminal organizations, 55, 56, 58
leadership accountability
genocide, 108
ability to prevent/punish, 128“31
leadership accountability, 98
acts of subordinates, 97, 109“10, 221“2,
Nuremberg Charter, 55, 56
230
International Military Tribunal (Tokyo),
98 civilian leaders, 117“21, 123, 230
command responsibility
Jennings, Sir Robert, 24 crimes against humanity, 106“7
judiciary due diligence, 111
genocide, 109“10, 221
independence, 72
judicial guarantees, 68, 69 group leaders, 111“21
killings, 197 international law, 98, 111, 230
omission, 111, 114“17
Kabila, Laurent, 37, 156 principles, 115, 230
Protocol I (1977), 114“15, 120
Kalshoven, F., 23, 91
kidnapping, 47, 62 state accountability, 165
killings Common Article 3, 99“100, 221
control and authority, 121“4, 155
Chechnya, 175
Colombia, 62 criteria, group leaders, 121“31
de jure/de facto control, 122, 123“4
criminal law, 185“6
execution see executions direct responsibility, 111
judiciary, 197 government collapse, 119
group accountability compared, 221“4
legislation, 185“6
Rwanda, 197 ˜had reason to know™, 125“6
international armed con¬‚ict, 111, 112,
Sierra Leone, 104
114, 123, 124, 128
Sri Lanka, 196
International Committee of the Red
Sudan, 68, 175
Cross (ICRC), 115
violence to life and person, 62, 63“4,
International Criminal Court, 111,
82, 180, 198“200
113“14, 117, 119“20, 124, 127“8,
war crimes, 103, 104
130“2, 222
Kosovo, 4, 207“8
International Criminal Tribunal for the
Former Yugoslavia, 100, 102, 106,
landmines
111“12, 115“18, 121“32, 222
Colombia, 85
International Criminal Tribunal for
legislation, 184“5, 187
Rwanda, 100, 110“12, 115“19, 121,
Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel
123“5, 128“32, 222
Mines (1997), 184, 188, 197
International Law Commission, 100
precautionary measures, 188“9
knowledge, 124“8
prohibition, 27, 33, 59, 75, 85“6, 146,
levels of accountability, 3, 97
147, 197
˜necessary and reasonable measures™,
prosecution, 197
129
Protocol II (1977), 85
ordering crimes, 111“14, 123, 221
Protocol II on mines and booby-traps
prosecution, 131“2
(1996), 26, 27, 85“6, 146, 147, 184,
Protocol I (1977), 114“15, 120, 124“5,
187, 188, 218
128“9
territorial control, 218
254 index

military manuals, customary
leadership accountability (cont.)
humanitarian law, 23
Protocol II (1977), 99“100, 221
military necessity
Sierra Leone, 98, 108, 111, 114, 117,
internal armed con¬‚ict, 82
120, 124, 127, 130“2
state accountability, 165, 183, 191
superior“subordinate relationship,
multilateral treaties,
115“16, 118“19, 121“4, 128“31
˜ensure respect™ obligation, 173, 174,
torture, 107, 113, 221“2
175, 176“7
UN Security Council, 113
international criminal law, 178“80
violations condoned, 97
international human rights law, 38“49,
war crimes, 99“106
148“51, 166“73, 185“6, 210“17
Lebanon
international humanitarian law, 26“8
Human Rights Committee, 195, 210“11
origin of obligations, 15, 16
internal armed con¬‚ict, 4
Vienna Convention (1969), 30, 215“16
International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights (1966), 210“11
Namibia, 209
territorial control, 208, 210“11
national liberation movements
legal personality
Additional Protocols, 17“18
accountability, 152
Geneva Conventions (1949), 17“18, 35
groups unrecognized, 18, 141, 163,
human rights, 46
223“4
Protocol I (1977), 18, 35
International Criminal Court, 56“8
territorial control, 35
juridical person, 57
Nicaragua
national legal status, 56“7
Common Article 3, 10, 19, 24, 174
natural persons, 56, 58
Contras, 10, 19, 174
states, 165
ICJ decisions, 10, 19, 174
legislation
internal armed con¬‚ict, 4, 174
armed opposition groups, 70“4, 187,
Northern Ireland
188, 222
internal armed con¬‚ict, 4
Common Article 3, 187
de facto authorities, 222 Irish Republican Army (IRA), 118
Sinn Fein, 118
discretion, 188
terrorism, 191, 195
genocide, 185
inadequacy, 188
obligations
International Covenant on Civil and
Common Article 3, 15, 16, 92
Political Rights (1966), 187
customary humanitarian law, 26
international human rights law, 185“6
Geneva Conventions (1949), 92“3
killings, 185“6
human rights, government obligations,
landmines, 184“5, 187
53“4, 148“9, 166“7
Protocol II (1977), 187
humane treatment see humane
state accountability, 183“8
treatment
territorial scope, 186“7
individual see individual obligations
Liberia, 140, 144
international humanitarian law, 15, 16
life
leaders see leadership accountability
human rights see Right to life
origin
violence to life and person, 62, 63“4,
inter-state treaties, 14“18
82, 180
see also executions; killings multilateral treaties, 15, 16
protection of civilians see civilian
local authorities, 213“15
protection
Protocol II (1977), 15, 16, 92, 93
mass media, 23
rati¬cation, 15, 16, 17
Meron, T., 49
index 255

immunities, 36, 38, 188, 197, 206
recognized by international bodies, 16,
impartiality, 72, 73
17
international criminal law, 197
special agreements, 17, 25, 28“30, 51
states see state accountability international human rights law, 198“200
substantive, 59“74 international humanitarian law, 197“8
towards prisoners see prisoners judicial guarantees, 68, 69
judicial independence, 72
underdevelopment of law, 92“3
ONUSAL see UN Observer Mission in judicial structure, 197
landmines, 197
El Salvador
leadership accountability, 131“2
Organization of American States, 40, 160
military courts, 69
Pastrana, Andr´ s, 213
e Protocol II (1977), 21, 67, 69“73, 198
Peru, 46 regularly constituted courts, 68, 69
Philippines, 46 rights of appeal, 71, 72
state accountability, 196“204
places of worship, 21
treason, 197
Plattner, D., 68
UN Observer Mission in El Salvador
precautionary measures
(ONUSAL), 70“4
Common Article 3, 189
Protocol I (1977)
cultural property, 188“9
analogical application, 77, 78
Human Rights Committee, 189“90
civilian protection, 75, 77, 78“9, 80, 82,
Inter-American Commission, 79, 81
84
landmines, 188“9
command responsibility, 114“15, 120
leadership accountability, 128“31
El Salvador, 32, 33
Protocol II (1977), 76, 77, 189
Inter-American Commission, 75, 80
state accountability, 182, 183
internal armed con¬‚ict, 32, 33“4, 78“9
UN General Assembly Resolutions, 77
see also civilian protection International Criminal Tribunal for
Rwanda, 75
prisoners
leadership accountability, 114“15, 120,
Afghanistan, 29, 90
124“5, 128“9
humane treatment, 59“74
national liberation movements, 18, 35
prosecution, 60, 66
special agreements/declarations, 18, 29
reprisals, 90“1
see also detention/internment UN Observer Mission in El Salvador
(ONUSAL), 78“9
prisoners of war
war crimes, 102
equivalent treatment, 38
Protocol II (1977)
Geneva Convention III (1949), 29
accessor states, 14, 15
immunity from punishment, 36
Afghanistan, 22
internal armed con¬‚ict, 36, 38
amnesties, 37, 206
prosecution
Angola, 146
advocates, 69“70
amnesties see amnesties applicability
binding effect, 42
Common Article 3, 21, 67“9, 198
determination, 13
criminal investigation, 198“9, 203“4
express declaration, 14
cultural property, 197“8
geographical, 61
due diligence, 202, 203
international bodies, 12, 13, 53
enforcement apparatus, 201“4
temporal, 61“2
fair trial, 66, 103, 221
threshold, 53, 143, 144, 145
forum, 134, 157“63
child recruitment, 63
Geneva Conventions (1949), 67
civilian protection, 75“80, 83“7, 89,
genocide, 197
91“2, 189
humane treatment, 21, 60, 67“74
256 index

UN Secretary-General, 143“4
Protocol II (1977) (cont.)
violations, 103, 105, 112, 157, 184, 207
Colombia, 21, 61, 75, 80, 145, 146
war crimes, 102, 103
con¬‚ict internationalized, 18
punishment
Congo, 146
ability to prevent/punish offenders,
crimes, 102, 103, 184
128“31
customary humanitarian law, 20“2, 25
collective punishment, 91
detention/internment, 65“7
immunity from punishment, 36
El Salvador, 11, 25, 33, 50, 63, 70“2, 78,
UN Declaration (1975), 149
145, 146
essential protection, 52
evidence of accountability, 134, 136, rape, 107, 142
142“8 rati¬cation
fundamental guarantees, 62“4 Geneva Conventions (1949), 15, 24
grave breaches, 103 obligations, 15, 16, 17
Protocol II (1977), 15, 20, 22
High Contracting Parties, 14
rebels, 134
humane treatment, 59“67, 69“73
refugees, 180
humanitarian relief, 86, 87
relief see humanitarian relief
Inter-American Commission, 21, 61, 75,
reprisals
80, 145“6
collective punishment, 91
internal armed con¬‚ict, 18, 34, 143“4
Common Article 3, 89, 92
International Covenant on Civil and
de¬nition, 89
Political Rights (1966), 64, 70
Inter-American Commission, 90
International Criminal Court, 101, 142
International Criminal Tribunal for the
International Criminal Tribunal for the
Former Yugoslavia, 90
Former Yugoslavia, 20“1, 25, 61“2,
prisoners, 90
102, 144
prohibition, 59, 75, 89“92
International Criminal Tribunal for
Protocol II (1977), 89, 91, 92
Rwanda, 11, 16, 21“2, 61, 144“5
quasi-reprisals, 91
judicial guarantees, 69
right of reprisal, 89“90
landmines, 85
UN General Assembly Resolutions, 90, 91
leadership accountability, 99“100, 221
right to life
legal restraints, 9“26
American Convention on Human Rights
legislation, 187
(1969), 47, 184
obligations, 15, 16, 92, 93
European Commission on Human
precautionary measures, 76, 77, 189
Rights, 185, 191, 193, 195
prosecution, 21, 67, 69“73, 198
European Convention on Human Rights
rati¬cation, 15, 20, 22
(1950), 168, 170, 184, 185, 191, 198“9
reprisals, 89, 91, 92
Inter-American Commission, 47, 90, 180
right to life, 64
international bodies, 180“1
Sierra Leone, 146
International Covenant on Civil and
sovereignty, 225
Political Rights (1966), 183“4
special agreements/declarations, 17, 18,
Protocol II (1977), 64
29, 51
state accountability, 175, 180“1, 183“5,
Sri Lanka, 146
191, 193, 195
starvation, 87
UN Commission on Human Rights, 48,
state accountability, 173“7
175
Sudan, 145, 146
Rome Statute (1998) see International
territorial control, 142, 143, 146, 218
Criminal Court
UN Commission on Human Rights, 22,
Rosenne, S., 226
145
Russian Federation, Chechnya, 4, 175,
UN Observer Mission in El Salvador
199“200
(ONUSAL), 78, 145
index 257

International Committee of the Red
Rwanda
criminal proceedings see International Cross (ICRC), 29
International Criminal Tribunal for the
Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
Former Yugoslavia, 29“30
FAR, 144
international human rights law, 49“51,
internal armed con¬‚ict, 4
212
judicial structure, 197
obligations, 17, 25, 28“30, 51
killings, 197
Protocol I (1977), 29
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), 16, 144“5
Protocol II (1977), 17, 18, 29, 51
UN Observer Mission in El Salvador
secession, objectives, 1
(ONUSAL), 16“17, 50, 51, 186“7
Sierra Leone
unquestionably binding, 29, 30
grave breaches, 104“5
Sri Lanka
killings, 104
human rights, 48
Protocol II (1977), 146
Human Rights Committee, 196
Revolutionary United Front (RUF), 98,
internal armed con¬‚ict, 4
108, 130
killings, 196
Special Court, 37, 98, 101, 105, 108
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),
amnesties, 37, 207
48, 196
Common Article 3, 101
Protocol II (1977), 146
crimes against humanity, 108
self-defence, 196
leadership accountability, 98, 108,
starvation
111, 114, 117, 120, 124, 127,
international bodies, 87
130“2
prohibition, 21, 59, 75, 86“9
Protocol II (1977), 101
Protocol II (1977), 87
torture, 104
Somalia, 86
UN Commission on Human Rights, 104
state accountability
Somalia
American Convention on Human Rights
anarchic con¬‚ict, 139, 140
(1969), 166
government collapse, 2, 139, 140, 141,
amnesties, 164, 188, 197, 204“7
208
applicable law, 166“80
humanitarian relief, 86, 88, 113
armed opposition groups, 164“219
internal armed con¬‚ict, 4
civilian protection, 165
starvation, 86
civilian victims, 164
UN Commission on Human Rights, 150
coalitions, 156“7
UN Secretary-General, 139, 144
command responsibility, 165
UN Security Council, 88, 113, 138“41
Common Article 3, 173“7
South Africa, Namibia, 209
detention/internment, 181, 224
sovereignty
Draft Articles see Draft Articles on State
effective control distinguished, 209
Responsibility
legal personality, 18, 141, 163
due diligence, 182, 191“2, 202, 203
Protocol II (1977), 225
enforcement, 3
territorial control, 18, 141, 152, 225,
˜ensure respect™ obligation, 173, 174,
226
175, 176“7
special agreements
Geneva Conventions (1949), 173, 174
accountability, 148
genocide, 178, 185, 189, 197, 219,
Common Article 3, 17, 18, 25, 28“30,
221
50, 148
groups ¬ghting each other, 164
Cultural Property Convention (1954), 148
international bodies, 164, 165, 228
El Salvador, 16“17, 25“6, 49“51, 186“7,
International Covenant on Civil and
212
Political Rights (1966), 166, 173
Geneva Convention on the Treatment of
international criminal law, 178“80
Prisoners of War (1949), 29
258 index

Tajikistan, UN Security Council, 67
state accountability (cont.)
territorial control
international human rights law,
Afghanistan, 211
166“173, 183“4, 185“6, 227
Colombia, 208, 213
international humanitarian law, 173“8,
Common Article 3, 135, 136, 146
227
customary humanitarian law, 2
legislation, 183“8
de facto authority, 1, 15, 16, 54, 135, 150,
margin of appreciation, 195
152, 154
military necessity, 165, 183, 191
defence of integrity, 183
obligation to take action, 180“207
effective control, 207“8, 209
obligations of result/conduct, 166“7
positive obligations, 167“72, 176, 178, failed states, 208
182, 191 genocide, 219
preventative measures, 182, 183 insurgents, 135
prosecution, 196“204 International Criminal Court, 142, 143
international human rights law, 150,
Protocol II (1977), 173“7
right to life, 175, 180“1, 183“5, 191, 210“17
193, 195 international humanitarian law, 218
rights secured/ensured, 166, 173 landmines, 218
successful groups, 155“7 Lebanon, 208, 210“11
national liberation movements, 35
supreme authority, 163, 164, 182, 225,
partial control, 208
226
pertinence, 207“19
territorial control, 165, 182“3, 207“19,
physical control, 209
225“6
Protocol II (1977), 142, 143, 146, 218
terrorism, 191, 192
rapid change, 208
torture, 178“80, 192
sovereignty, 18, 141, 152, 225, 226
states
state accountability, 165, 182“3, 207“19,
American Convention on Human Rights
225“6
(1969), 39, 41
temporary ineffectiveness, 208, 212
Common Article 3, 53
failure see government collapse terrorism
human rights, 42, 46, 48, 191, 195
Geneva Conventions (1949), 14“15
Inter-American Commission, 159
government distinguished, 165
Northern Ireland, 191, 195
International Covenant on Civil and
state accountability, 191, 192
Political Rights (1966), 38“9
torture
legal capacity, warface, 89
amnesties, 204, 205, 206
legal personality, 165
attribution of acts, 222
Protocol II (1977), 14, 15
Committee against Torture, 178“9
reprisals, 89
sovereignty see sovereignty Common Article 3, 205
Convention against Torture (1984),
subversive groups, 134
178“80
Sudan
de facto authorities, 179
Ganyiel incident, 68
de¬nition, 178
internal armed con¬‚ict, 4
expulsions, 179
killings, 68, 175
Human Rights Committee, 179, 185, 206
Protocol II (1977), 145, 146
International Covenant on Civil and
Sudan Independence Army (SSIA),
Political Rights (1966), 179, 185
68
International Criminal Tribunal for the
Sudan People™s Liberation Army
Former Yugoslavia, 110, 113, 179, 205
(SPLA), 68, 145
leadership accountability, 107, 113,
UN Commission on Human Rights, 68,
221“2
145
index 259

Sudan, 68, 145
public of¬cials/of¬cial capacity, 178, 179
torture, 179
Sierra Leone, 104
UN General Assembly Resolutions
state accountability, 178“80, 192
civilian protection, 76“7, 80
UN Commission on Human Rights, 179
customary international law, 23, 31, 32,
UN Declaration (1975), 149
76
war crimes, 100, 103, 104
Declaration on torture and punishment
treason, prosecution, 197
(1975), 149
Turkey
humanitarian relief, 87“8
criminal investigation, 198“9, 203“4
International Criminal Tribunal for the
disappearances, 170, 171
Former Yugoslavia, 23, 31, 32, 76
European Court of Human Rights, 168,
judicial independence, 72
170“1, 190, 192“4, 198“9, 203“4
precautionary measures, 77
internal armed con¬‚ict, 4, 208
reprisals, 90, 91
state accountability, 168, 170“1, 192“4,
UN Observer Mission in El Salvador
208
(ONUSAL), 78
territorial control, 208
UN Observer Mission in El Salvador
Workers™ Party of Kurdistan (PKK), 168,
(ONUSAL)
170, 171, 190, 192, 203“4
attribution of acts, 152“3
Turku Declaration on Minimum
children, 63
Humanitarian Standards (1990), 48“9,
civilian protection, 78, 82
52, 54“5
fundamental guarantees, 62
landmines, 86
UN Charter, internal armed con¬‚ict, 2
prosecution, 70“4
UN Commission on Human Rights
Protocol I (1977), 78“9
Afghanistan, 64, 65, 66, 88, 90, 150, 154,
Protocol II (1977), 78, 145
211, 214
special agreements, 16“17, 50, 51, 186“7
amnesties, 37
UN General Assembly Resolutions, 78
attribution of acts, 153, 225
see also El Salvador
Colombia, 46
UN Secretary-General
Common Article 3, 11, 135, 138
amnesties, 37
Congo, 37
children, 63
customary humanitarian law, 30, 32“3
crimes against humanity, 44
detention/internment, 65, 66“7
genocide, 109
disappearances, 209
government collapse, 227
El Salvador, 11, 63“4, 88“9, 145
grave-breaches regime, 103
executions, 48, 64, 69, 175, 192
international crimes, 37
fundamental guarantees, 62
international human rights law, 40,
humanitarian relief, 88
42“6
international human rights law, 39“40,
Protocol II (1977), 143“4
41“3, 44, 47“8, 54“5
Somalia, 139, 144
mandates, 158
UN Security Council
non-binding declarations, 13
Afghanistan, 48, 150
Peru, 46
Angola, 77, 88
Philippines, 46
attribution of acts, 153, 225
Protocol II (1977), 22, 145
binding decisions, 13
right to life, 48, 175
Chapter VII, 13
Sierra Leone, 104
civilian protection, 77
Somalia, 150
Common Article 3, 11, 135, 138“41
Sub-Commission on Prevention of
customary international law, 23, 31“2
Discrimination and Protection of
detention/internment, 67
Minorities, 49
260 index

Wako, Amos, 201
UN Security Council (cont.)
war crimes
Georgia, 31
Common Article 3, 103
humanitarian relief, 88, 113
crimes against humanity compared, 105,
international human rights law, 47, 48
107
international humanitarian law, 32,
criminal responsibility, 97, 98“100, 102,
138“40, 225
105
international peace and security, 144
Geneva Conventions (1949), 103
leadership accountability, 113
grave-breaches regime, 103“5
mandates, 158
Hague Conventions (1907), 103
Somalia, 88, 113, 138“41
internal armed con¬‚ict, 57“8, 99
Tajikistan, 67
International Criminal Court, 102,
United Nations
142
amnesties, 207
International Criminal Tribunal for
peace conferences, 224
Rwanda, 105“6
United States Military Commission,
Yamashita case, 98 jurisdiction, 103
killings, 103, 104
Usama bin Laden, 154
leadership accountability, 99“106
Protocol I (1977), 102
Vienna Convention on the Law Treaties
Protocol II (1977), 102, 103
(1969), 30, 215“16
sexual violence, 142
violations
torture, 100, 103, 104
Common Article 3, 103, 105, 112, 142,
see also crimes; violations
157, 184, 205, 207
World Conference on Human Rights
condoned by leadership, 97
(1993), 200
human rights, 39, 48, 64
international humanitarian law, 73, 74,
155, 157, 175, 200, 221 Youmans claim, 155
Yugoslavia
Protocol II (1977), 103, 105, 112, 157,
184, 207 attribution of acts, 156
serious violations, 103, 105, 112, 142, Bosnia-Herzegovina, 112“13, 116“17,
207, 221 149
see also crimes; war crimes criminal proceedings see International
Criminal Tribunal for the Former
violence
Common Article 3, 62, 82, 199, 200 Yugoslavia
El Salvador, 63“4 Croatian Defence Council (HVO), 112
genocide, 178
International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights (1966), 64 internal armed con¬‚ict, 4
international humanitarian law, 62, Jokers, 112
63“4, 82, 180, 198, 199 Kosovo, 4, 207“8
Republika Sryska, 112
sexual violence, 142
cambridge studies in international
and comparative law
Books in the series

Principles of the institutional law of international organisations
C. F. Amerasinghe
Fragmentation and the international relations of micro-states
Jorri Duursma
The Polar regions and the development of international law
Donald R. Rothwell
Sovereignty over natural resources
Nico Schrijver
Ethics and authority in international law
Alfred P. Rubin
Religious liberty and international law in Europe
Malcolm D. Evans
Unjust enrichment
Hanoch Dagan
Trade and the environment
Damien Geradin
The changing international law of high seas ¬sheries
Francisco Orrego Vicu˜ a
n
International organizations before national courts
August Reinisch
The right to property in commonwealth constitutions
Tom Allen
Trusts
A comparative study
Maurizio Lupoi
On civil procedure
J. A. Jolowicz
Good faith in European contract law
Reinhard Zimmerman and Simon Whittaker
Money Laundering
Guy Stessens
International Law in Antiquity
David J. Bederman
The Enforceability of Promises in European Contract Law
James Gordley
International Commercial Arbitration and African States
Amazu A. Asouzu
The Law of Internal Armed Con¬‚ict
Lindsay Moir
Diversity and Self-Determination in International Law
Karen Knop
Remedies against International Organisations
Basic Issues
Karel Wellens
International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law
Ren´ Provost
e
Sharing Transboundary Resources:
International Law and Optimal Resources Use
Eyal Benvenisti
Accountability of Armed Opposition Groups in International Law
Liesbeth Zegveld

<<

. 9
( 9)