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against, discredited, underestimated, disadvantaged, and abused, and yet
despite that, in the face of that, and perhaps even partly because of that,
they hardened their will, disciplined themselves, and persevered.21 Some
of the people Smiles describes faced and overcame almost unimaginable
hardship on the way to their ultimate success. The great nineteenth-
century ornithologist John James Audubon, to take one example, had all
his drawings, representing years and years of work, totally destroyed by
rats. Here, according to Smiles, is the event in Audubon™s own words:

My absence was of several months; and when I returned, after having enjoyed the
pleasures of home for a few days, I inquired after my box, and what I was pleased
to call my treasure. The box was produced and opened; but reader, feel for me”a
pair of Norway rats had taken possession of the whole, and reared a young family
among the gnawed bits of paper, which, but a month previous, represented nearly
a thousand inhabitants of air! The burning heat which instantly rushed through
my brain was too great to be endured without affecting my whole nervous system. I
slept for several nights, and the days passed like days of oblivion”until the animal
powers being recalled into action through the strength of my constitution, I took
up my gun, my notebook, and my pencils, and went forth to the woods as gaily as if
nothing had happened. I felt pleased that I might now make better drawings than
before; and, ere a period not exceeding three years had elapsed, my portfolio
was again ¬lled. (Self-Help, p. 95)


Note again that Audubon proceeded to draw them all again, grateful
for the chance to do them all better”and it only took him three years!
One cannot help but be awed and humbled, if not outright humiliated,
reading the stories of these heroic accomplishers and then re¬‚ecting
on oneself. Read Smiles™s book, and then read it with your children. I
promise you will be amply rewarded.
Right now, though, you might be thinking that those Victorian, “bour-
geois” virtues are outdated indeed. But I beg you to reconsider. First of
all, a considerable amount of recent research has shown that learning
and taking to heart these “bourgeois” virtues is poor people™s key out of
poverty, while not learning is the key to remaining permanently in poverty.
Even if people in the top economic classes can afford to ¬‚out the virtues
of steadiness, perseverance, and industry, poor people emphatically can-
not afford to do so”and their growing family and social disintegration,
which is due not to lack of money but the other way around, is a high


21 For more recent documentation of the same phenomena, see Murray™s Human Accom-
plishment.
The End
336

price to pay for the freedom to entertain a fashionable upper-class moral
libertinism.22
Second of all, however, think for a moment how much you could accom-
plish in your life if you took, say, half an hour every day to devote to some-
thing. What could you do in, let us say, one year? You could learn ancient
Greek, you could commit to memory scores of Shakespearean sonnets,
you could learn the Argentinean tango, you could master Scottish history,
you could learn how to paint, you could become an expert on the Civil
War or Winston Churchill or Thomas Jefferson or Alexander the Great
or Leonidas or Mary Queen of Scots or Darwin or Leonardo da Vinci or
Pope Innocent III or Catherine the Great, you could ¬nd out what quan-
tum mechanics or general relativity or string theory is, what sociobiology
or kin selection or punctuated equilibrium is, you could ¬nally ¬gure out
what statistical signi¬cance is, what irrational numbers do, or how to do
multiple regression analysis, you could learn how to cross-stitch or knit or
weave or play guitar. And on and on. Consider, moreover, how much you
could accomplish if you took your three-and-a-half hours a week, gathered
them together, and devoted them to doing something with someone else:
you could go to every one of your son™s football games, every one of your
daughter™s dance practices and recitals, you and your spouse could start
an at-home business, you could save money by buying the “¬xer-upper”
house and actually ¬xing it up, and again on and on. You will have your
own list, but I hope the point is clear.
Now do not respond by saying that you simply cannot ¬nd half an hour
a day to devote to a new project. Ask yourself this: How much time do you
spend every day sitting around doing pretty much nothing? How much
time do you spend watching TV? How much time do you spend doing
nothing of importance on the computer”playing games, idly sur¬ng the
net, sending (let us be honest) needless e-mails or silly text messages or
pointless chatroom comments? If you claim that you simply cannot carve
out of your day one half-hour to devote to some new, creative project that
you would in a year or ¬ve or ten look back on and thank heaven you did,
well, you may be kidding yourself but you™re not kidding anyone else. A
measure of laziness may be natural to human beings, but so are diseases;
it is just as evil and necessary to combat as the plague is. So stop making
excuses. Pick something, get to work, and see it through.
What is the point of all this, and what is its connection to happiness?
As I suggested earlier, idle time varies directly with whining: the more

22 See Theodore Dalrymple™s Life at the Bottom, and Amy L. Wax™s “Against Neutrality,” “The
Political Psychology of Welfare Reform,” and “What Women Want.”
What Is Good for the Goose 337

time you spend doing nothing, the more likely you are to complain about
everything. And although having more whiners in the world is not exactly
an attractive prospect for the rest of us, the point here is that it will make
you unhappy. If you are busy devoting yourself to something worthwhile,
you just will not have time, or inclination, to lie about pondering the
world™s injustices or growing aggrieved at all the slights you have suffered.
Personal industry, diligence, perseverance, and persistence do not just
make the world better, then, they also make you better. Those are precisely
the virtues of character that will enable you to become independent and
to accomplish things that when you are not looking make you happy.
Neither I nor anyone else can tell you what you should be doing, which
projects you should undertake, how you should devote your energy, or
what you should focus your attention on. But I can tell you that you need
to ¬nd something. A life of idle inactivity might have provided an anemic
pleasure in the moment, but it will provide you only sorry solace and an
embarrassed disappointment in your old age. Aristotle was right that man
is not only a social and contemplative animal but also a productive one.
Happiness attends only upon both.


making the world a better place
This book is, as stated in the Preface, a primer, which means it covers only
the basic elements. It has not aimed to answer all the questions, exhaus-
tively examine any topic, or be the ¬nal word on anything. I believe it
contains sound advice (I wrote it, after all!), but the most that a primer like
this can succeed at is in pointing you in the right direction. All the really
heavy lifting is left for you: you will have to ¬gure out how to apply it to
your own unique circumstances and you will have to investigate trouble-
some issues or inadequately discussed topics on your own. Despite, then,
all the demands that are and will continue to be made on you, despite all
the exhortations and remonstrations to be or do this or that, in the end
leading a good and happy life begins with one crucial, indispensably nec-
essary element. Before you set out to make the whole world a better place,
¬rst present the world with one improved unit: you. You may be surprised
how much power one sound example of moral witness can have, how pro-
foundly and extensively one instance of quiet but ¬rm moral resolve can
affect others, how greatly others can bene¬t both directly and indirectly
from one inspiring case of steady diligence and perseverance. You will
not know exactly how far your example has reached and you will never
know exactly whom it has reached, but you can be sure that it has reached
somewhere and someone. And toward the end, when your path is taking
The End
338

you to the river, and you look back on your life, there is little in this world
that can provide greater and more deserved satisfaction. You may even
discover that you were happy.


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Index




Abraham, son Isaac and (story from Aramony, William, 133
Genesis 22:1“14), 47 Aristotle, ix, xv, 7, 17, 25, 68, 279, 305,
Adair, Douglass, 162 319, 321, 337
Adams, John, 103 arithmetic, xviii, 53, 226
Adams, Mike S., 252 Armentano, Dominick T., 187
Addleson, Mark, 144 Arnold, N. Scott, 49
Adler, Jonathan H., 306 Arthur, John, 132
advertising, 187“8 Atkins diet, 33
af¬rmative action, 259“67, 271“3 AT&T, 187
age of consent, 291“2 Audubon, John James, 335
Aiken, William, 130 Austrian School, 142“3
Alessi, Michael de, 303 Ayers, Ronald M., 182
Alexander the Great, 336
Alm, Richard, 69, 186 Bailey, Ronald, 66
Alter, Torin, ix, 301 Bandow, Doug, 115
altruism, 18“20, 116 Bangladesh, 138, 154, 168
American Civil Liberties Union, 207, 214, banned books, 221“2
Barber, Benjamin R., 179
215, 271
Barnett, Randy, ix, 102, 217, 231
American Enterprise, 233
American Library Association, 221“2 Barnum, P. T., 186
Americans with Disabilities Act, 75 Barra, Allen, 269
Americans United for the Separation of Barry, Brian, 114
Church and State, 207 Bartholomew, James, 173
Amin, Idi, 47 Bartlett, Bruce, 162
Amtrak, 181, 185, 189 Barton, Robert A., 329, 331
anarchism, 45, 46, 63, 64, 102, 108, 324 Barzilai, Fonna Forman, 332
anarcho-capitalism, 102, 108, 110 Barzun, Jacques, 190, 260
Anderson, Terry L., 306 Baskerville, Stephen, 287
animals: private property and, Bastiat, Fr´ d´ ric, ix, 65, 73, 185“6, 202“3,
ee
294“307; testing on, 308“10 221
Annan, Ko¬, 174“7 Bauer, Peter, 179
Becker, Gary S., 18
ap´ theia, 159
a
Aquinas, St. Thomas, 143, 279, 281 Beito, David, ix, 69, 70, 112


341
Index
342

benevolence, limited vs. universal, 19“20 Car and Driver, 188
Bengal, 131, 136, 138 Carnegie, Andrew, 165
Bennhold, Katrin, 165 Carnell, Brian, 298
Benson, Bruce, 102 Carney, Brian M., 177
Berlin, Isaiah, 23, 65, 68 categorical imperative, 6
Berliner, David, 218“9 Cato™s Letters, 105, 205
Bernstam, Mikhail S., 170 cave paintings, 3“5
Bernstein, David, 244, 270 Centre for the Study of Scottish
Bethell, Tom, 75, 120, 165, 169, 170, 302, Philosophy, x
Chaddock, Gail Russell, 34
305
Bhagwati, Jagdish, 180 Chapman, Cornelius, 181
Biddle, Bruce, 218“9 Charles I (King of England), 18
“Big Dig,” Boston™s, 184 Cherlin, Andrew, 287
biophilia, 296 Chesterton, G. K., 3“4
Birdzell, L. E., 179 children, 38“9
Birzer, Bradley, ix Childs, Stephen, 231
Bismarck, Count Otto von, 104 chimpanzees, 4, 9, 297, 299, 300, 308
Blackman, Paul, 124 Chira, Susan, 233
Blank, Rebecca M., 49, 114 Christian Coalition, 215, 271
Blankenhorn, David, 287 Christianity, 47“8, 207
Block, Walter, 102 Christman, John, 49, 186
Bloom, Alan, 69, 217 Chua, Amy, 179
B¨ hm-Bawerk, Eugen von, 143
o Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 330, 333
Bolick, Clint, 220, 233 Ciotti, Paul, 231
Boltanski, Luc, 332 Civil Rights Act of1964, 261, 272
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 104 Clark, Henry, ix
Bork, Robert, 187 Clark, Russell, 230“1
Boudreaux, Donald, ix classical liberalism, see liberalism, classical
“bourgeois virtues,” 335“6 Clemens, Jason, 167
Bovard, James, 123, 124, 181 coef¬cient of relatedness, 19
Brady, Gordon L., 115 Cohen, Carl, 295
Braybrook, David, 67 Cohen, G. A., 49
bread, 32 Coleman, James, 233
Brimelow, Peter, 218, 219, 223, 224 Collinge, Robert A., 181
Brock, Gillian, 67 commons, tragedy of, 170, 302“8, 311
broken window fallacy, 65, 185“6, 221 Communist Party of Great Britain, 46, 48
Brown, Donald E., 10, 255 compossible actions, 74, 118
Brudney, Daniel, 49 conjectural history, 244
Bryant, Paul W. “Bear,” 268“9 Conquest, Robert, 178
Buchanan, James, 115, 143, 184, 212 consent, express and tacit, 60“2,
Buchanan, Pat, 215 215“16; age of consent, 291“2
Burke, Edmund, 324 contract society vs. status society, 190
Burnham, Daniel H., 105 Copp, David, 67
Bush, George W., 66“7, 207“8, 210 Corvino, John, 286
business power vs. state power, 185“90 cosmopolitanism, 21, 329“31
Buss, David M., 19, 290, 291, 312, 329 Coulson, Andrew J., 54, 218, 220, 227, 230,
231, 232, 233, 237
Callicott, J. Baird, 296 Courtois, St´ phane, 137, 178
e
Cantillon, Richard, 143 Cox, W. Michael, 69, 165“6
Capaldi, Nicholas, ix, 264, 275 Cullity, Garrett, 130, 131, 139, 145
capitalism, 146, 48“9, 57, 161 Cunningham, Anne, 186
Index 343

Dalrymple, Theodore, 173“4, 284“5, 305, Ehrenfels, Christian von, 143
elephants, 4, 300, 304
336
Danford, John, ix, 207 Ellickson, Robert, 102
Daniels, Cynthia, 287 Elster, Jon, 49
Danko, William D., 155, 164 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, xiii
Davidson, Joe, 233 Endangered Species Act of1973, 305“6
Davis, Sherry Shef¬eld, 221 ends vs. means, 5“7
Davis-Bacon Act, 269“70 Engels, Friedrich, 46, 47, 63
Daw, Russell, ix English Bill of Rights, 103
Dawkins, Richard, 3, 19, 291 English Petition of Right, 103
De Soto, Hernando, 169, 204 Epstein, Richard, ix, 39, 118, 169, 170, 265,
decentralized power, 170, 177, 191 269, 272, 302, 306
Declaration of Arbroath, 103 Equal Employment Opportunity
Declaration of Independence, 26, 103, 117, Commission, 265
Evans, M. Stanton, 207
279, 324
Delphi, oracle at, 36“7 experiments, 30“4, 36“7
Descartes, Ren´ , 18, 118
e
desires: Freudian conception of, Fagles, Robert, 244, 275
283“6; General Liberty principle and, Faith-Based Initiatives, 207“8, 210
285“6; judgment and, 285“6 familiarity principle, 20“22, 52, 290“1
Dewey, John, 217, 227 families, importance of, 289“90
Diamond, Jared, 32, 190 Family Planning Association, 271
diet, see nutrition Federal Emergency Management Agency,
dignity, 6“7, 49 113
diminishing marginal utility, principle of, Federal Express, 182
143“4 Federal Register, 76
discrimination, 259“62; General Liberty Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, 164, 173
principle and, 259“60; and markets, Feinberg, Joel, 130
262“7; merit and, 260“1; and Feldman, Fred, 130
personhood, 262; in private institutions, Feldman, Roger D., 33
262“6; in public institutions, 261“2 Ferguson, Adam, 4, 251, 259
Dollar, David, 167, 171 Feser, Edward, 59
Donaldson, Ann M., ix Feuer, Elaine, 33
drugs, 13, 35, 233 Finegan, Brian J., 64
Dubner, Stephen J., 236, 240 Finnis, John, 281
Dudley, Susan, 76 Fleischacker, Samuel, ix, 23, 68“75, 110,
Dumont, Louis, 103 114, 162, 321
Dunbar, Robin I. M., 14, 329, 331 Flew, Antony, 68, 70, 217, 280, 288, 344,
Dunbar High School, 221 234
Dutton, Denis, 4 Focus on the Family, 271
Fogel, Robert W., 166
Earhart Foundation, x Foldvary, Fred, 70, 102
Earth First!, 310 food pyramid, 33
Earth Liberation Front (ELF), 310 Food and Agriculture Organizations of the
United Nations, 175
Economic Freedom of the World, 47, 59, 138,
Food and Drug Administration, 33, 77
172, 168
economizer argument, 15, 325 “forgotten man,” 107“8
Edmonds, Brad W., 34 forms, Platonic, 24“5, 32, 245, 320“1
education: government spending on, 218, Francis of Assisi, St., 21
233, 330“1; Plato on, 223“4, 235“6; see Frankfurt, Harry G., 143
also schooling Franklin, Benjamin, 182
Index
344

freedom, 10“16, 65“8; of conscience, Higgs, Robert, 33, 76, 150, 179
204“6; of religion and education, Hill, Paul T., 233
Hines, James R., Jr., 167
207“8
Frey, R. G., 144 Hobbes, Thomas, 17“18, 24
Friedman, David, 102 Hobson™s choice, 61
Friedman, Milton, 17, 235 Hocutt, Max, ix, 23, 44, 68, 117, 280, 323,
Furstenberg, Frank, 287 324
Hollingsworth, Heather, 230
Galloway, Lowell E., 171, 187 Holmes, Stephen, 23, 116“19
Garrett, Aaron V., 295 Homer, 244
Gates, Bill, 189 homosexuality, 226, 281“91; and adoption,
Gatto, John Taylor, 218, 219, 221, 224 288“91; General Liberty principle and,
General Liberty principle, 39“40, 66, 108, 281“2; and marriage, 286“8
Honor´ , Antony, 29
e
116, 204, 253, 260, 271, 279, 280, 281,
Hoppe, Hans-Hermann, 102
282, 285, 288, 327, 331
General Motors, 79, 187 Horiuchi, Lon (FBI agent), 123“4
Gingrich, Newt, 215 Hudgins, Edward L., 181
Gladwell, Malcolm, 331 Hume, David, ix, 57, 61“2, 103, 109, 247,
Godbey, Geoffrey, 69, 100, 166 258, 287, 296, 323, 324
Golden Rule, Jesus™s, 331
Goldfarb, Michael, 47 IBM, 187
Goldsmith, Gardner P., 123 Iceland, Lutheranism in, 210“11
Good, the, 19, 69, 32, 235“6, 319“21 Illinois, Department of Children and
Goodin, Robert E., 67 Family Services, 77“8
Goodrich, Pierre F., 213, 236, 241 incentives, 12“15, 53“6, 179“84, 213,
Gordon, Thomas, 105, 205 267“8; natural, 12“13, 16, 186; public vs.
Graham, Gordon, ix, xvii, 72, 189, 210 private property and, 302“8
grammar, xviii“xix, 53“4, 148 income gap, 167
grand uni¬cation social theory, 191“2 India, 138, 140, 168, 174
Gray, John, 377, 179 Individualist Feminists, 271
Greene, Jay P., 233 Infantino, Lorenzo, 249
Greenpeace, 307 Institute for Advanced Studies in the
Gwartney, James, 47, 168 Humanities, x
invisible hand argument, 325“6
Hamilton, William D., 19 Ireland, 168, 176“7, 249
happiness, 30“4, 274, 319“38; and loving
relationships, 255, 329“33 Jacoby, Jeff, 64
Hardin, Garrett, 302 James, Susan, 130
harm, 36“40 Jasay, Antony de, 102
harm principle, 37, 39 Jefferson, Thomas, 103, 214“15, 324, 336
Harper, Amy LeJeune, 141“2, 144 Jespersen, Otto, 245
Hart, H. L. A., 29 Jesus, 331
Hasterok, Pamela, 181 Jews for the Preservation of Firearms
Haworth, Alan, 59 Ownership, 271
Hayek, F. A., 17, 24, 249, 323, 324 John, King of England, 103
Hayward, Steven F., 176, 303 joke telling, 250“2, 254“5, 267, 270
Heckman, James J., 220 Jones, Eric L., 179
Hecox, Eric B., 303 Jordan, Mary, 231
Henry, Patrick, 103 Jouvenel, Bertrand de, 112
Hicks, J. R., 179 judgment, xii, xv, 10“16, 34, 35, 73“8, 186,
Hierocles, 20 289, 292“4, 321
Index 345

justice, 22“30, 216, 329“31; Aristotelian, LeBar, Mark, ix
24“5; cardinal rules of, 24“6, leisure, 69“71, 166“7
122; exceptions to, 256“6023“4, LeJeune, Dennis, ix
121“5; natural, 26; negative, Lenin, V. I., 56, 65, 155, 178
22“4; “social,” 228; Socratic and Platonic, Leonidas, King of Sparta, 104, 336
24“5; universal, 25“6; vs. virtue, 147“53 Lester, J. C., 102, 146
Levellers, 103, 178
Kamm, Frances M., 332 Levitt, Steven D., 236
Kansas City schools, 230“1 Levy, Jacob T., 244
Kant, Immanuel, 5“7, 74, 248 liberalism, classical, 26, 57, 118, 191“2,
Katz, Michael S., 221 204, 279; heroism and, 104“5; and
Kay, Charles, 306 human diversity, 120, 213; personhood
Keats, John, 247 and, 119“20; and the poor, 113“16
Kekes, John, 136, 141, 298, 300 liberty, “negative” vs. “positive,” 65“8, 74,
Keller, Rudi, 245 78“9, 116“18; personhood and,
Kellert, Stephen R., 296 78“9; “third” concept of, 68“75; see also
freedom
Kelo v. New London, 64
Kennedy, Ted, 215 Limbaugh, David, 207, 211, 224
Kerm, Philippe Van, 167 Lloyd, Gordon, ix
Khmer Rouge, 178 local knowledge, 35“6, 51“2, 56“7, 141,
kin selection, 19“20, 336 161, 208, 228, 249, 252“3, 259, 265,
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 263, 268 289“92, 301, 327
Kirsch, I. S., 220 local knowledge argument, 51“2, 191, 201,
Kirzner, Israel M., 144 213, 324“5
Kitcher, Philip, 19 Locke, John, 57, 60“61, 65, 99, 103, 178,
Klein, Daniel, 33, 58, 191 209“11, 215“16, 279, 281, 324
Kling, Arnold, 164 Lomasky, Loren, 296
Knautz, Robert, 181 Lomborg, Bjørn, 138, 175, 176, 303
Knox, Bernard, 244 Long, Roderick, ix, 12, 191
Kopel, David, 124 Lubienski, Christopher, 232
Kors, Alan Charles, 251 Lubienski, Sarah Theule, 232
Kraay, Aart, 167, 171
Krass, Peter, 165 Macbeth, 305
Kraut, Richard, 25 Macfarlane, Alan, 103, 207
Ku Klux Klan, 271 Machan, Tibor, 102
Kukathas, Chandran, 31 Mack, Eric, 144
Kurtz, Stanley, 265 MacQueen, Val, 224
Kymlicka, Will, 59 Madison, James, 103
Magna Carta, 103, 178
LaFollette, Hugh, xvii, 130, 244, 264 Magnet, Myron, 173
Lake Michigan, 54 Maine, Henry Sumner, 111
Lal, Deepak, 179, 249 Malthus, Thomas, 139
Lamborghini Countach, 188 Mann, Horace, 227
Landes, David S., 179, 190, 260 Mao Tse-tung, 47, 178
language: gender-speci¬c, 243“8; social Maranto, Robert, 223
order and, 249“50 Marcus Aurelius, 333, 338
Larson, Erik, 105 marginal cases, 10, 117“18, 270
Lawson, Robert, ix, 47, 59, 168 marginal utility, 27, 153
laziness, 15“16, 179, 260, 330 markets, moral and economic,
Le Corbusier, 247 267“8
Leal, Donald R., 306 marriage, importance of, 235, 287“8
Index
346

Marx, Karl, 46“49, 51, 63“4, 110, 142, 168, mutual sympathy of sentiments, 255, 259,
178; vs. Adam Smith, 160“7 266“7
mayonnaise sandwiches, 13 My Lai courts-martial, 124
McCallum, Gerald, 23
McChesney, Fred S., 187 Nader, Ralph, 215
McElroy, Wendy, 257 Narveson, Jan, 102
McNabb, Donovan, 263 National Assessment of Educational
McWilliams, Peter, 123 Progress, 219
Menger, Carl, 143 National Association for the Advancement
Michael, Mark A., 59 of Colored People, 271
Michelangelo, 155 National Association of Scholars, 219
Microsoft, 187, 189 National Football League, 262“3“502
middle-class economic life, 112, 161, 162, National Organization for Women, 271
natural necessity, 12“13, 16, 21“2, 55, 179,
164“5
middle-way objectivity, 324, 327 183, 191
Mill, John Stuart, ix, 31, 37, 38, 119, 212 naturalistic fallacy, 332“3
Miller, Fred D., Jr., 25 Nature Conservancy, 307
Milton, John, 205 Nestle, Marion, 34
Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District, New Deal, 57
Newton, Isaac, ix, 26
54“5
Mises, Ludwig von, 143, 144, 188 Nielsen Media Research, 167
Mitchell, John, 268 Nock, Albert Jay, ix, 15, 65, 104, 111, 212,
Mitchell, S. Cole, ix 247
monopolies, 187“9 nonperson humans, 40“1
Montaigne, Michel de, 333 Norberg, Johann, 179
Montana Land Reliance, 307 North, Douglass C., 171, 179
Montes, Leonidas, 20 North American Man/Boy Love
Moore, Stephen, 150, 164“5, 166, 172, Association, 215
Nozick, Robert, 59, 114, 144, 191
175
moral condemnation, 26“7, 119, 248, 249, Nuremberg trials, 124
Nussbaum, Martha Craven, 296, 330
281“2, 301, 308
moral signi¬cance, 130“2, 144“6, 140“1 nutrition, 33“4, 77
morality: causation and, 29“30; intuitions
and, 147, 153“4; language and, objectivity, middle-way, 324, 327
246“8; and obligations toward the poor, Ockham™s Razor, 321
110“16, 159“67, 236“7; one-place vs. O™Driscoll, Gerald P. Jr., 144
two-place conception of, 27“9, O™Neill, Onora, 67, 150
148“9; origins of rules of, 323“4; private Operation Rescue, 215
vs. public, xi“xii, 121“5; pro vs. con, Oppenheimer, Franz, 111
xiii“xiv; Robin Hood, 123 Or¬eld, Gary, 231
Morgan, J. P., 165 O™Rourke, P. J., 174
Morris, Christopher W., 144 Oster¬eld, David, 137
Morse, Jennifer Roback, 41; see also Othello, 264
Roback, Jennifer O™Toole, Randal, 75
Mosley, Albert G., 264 Otteson, James R., 20
Mother Teresa, 21 Otteson, James R. Sr., ix
motor vehicles, departments of, 179“81, Otteson, P. Shannon, ix
Overseas Aid Cases, 131, 133“8, 140“1, 145,
185, 189
Mulroy, David, xviii, 54, 219 148“50
Murray, Charles, 155, 173, 190, 260, 335 Owen, Robert Dale, 120
Murray, Iain, 181 Oxford English Dictionary, 244
Index 347

Paganelli, Maria Pia, ix, 170 Rachels, James, ix, xvii, 17, 130, 154
Paglia, Camille, 257 Rachels, Stuart, ix, 17
Paine, Thomas, 103 Rand, Ayn, 17
Palmer, Tom, ix Ravitch, Dianne, 226
Parks, Rosa, 268 Raz, Joseph, 67
Pascal, Blaise, 210“11 reaction norms, 20
Pauley, Mark, 33 Rector, Robert E., 162, 291
People for the American Way, Red Cross, 137
Regan, Tom, 300, 331
271
People for the Ethical Treatment of Rehl, Beatrice, x
Animals, 295, 298, 331 Reisman, George, 188
Perry, Ralph Barton, 144 religion, 11“12; education and,
person vs. thing, 5“7, 34, 296 203“8
personhood, 3“9, 13“14, 39“40, 45, 68“9, Resch, H. George, 213, 225
74, 109“10, 113, 119“20; and education, resource depletion, 175
204“6; poverty and, 125“6, 149“53; the responsibility, 10“16, 36, 50, 55, 104,
state and, 49“51, 56“7, 59“60, 62“3, 114“15, 179, 201, 209, 210, 217, 222,
67“8, 78“9, 102“7 223, 311
Reynolds, Alan, 164
phronesis, 68, 70, 71, 75“8, 321
Pinker, Steven, ix, 244, 245, 247, 255, 257, Ricardo, David, 142
Richards, Norvin, ix
283, 288, 290, 291, 299
Pipes, Richard, 103, 165, 169, 304 Richards, Richard, ix, 322
Plato, 21, 24“5, 32, 69, 223“4, 235, 237, Richman, Sheldon, 217, 221, 227, 237
Ridley, Matt, 19, 255, 291
245, 279, 297, 305, 320“1, 327, 333; see
also Platonic forms rights, 40, 278“81; animals and, 294“5,
Pojman, Louis P., xvii 297“302; General Liberty principle and,
pollution, air, 175 280“1; natural, 117, 215“16, 278“81
Pol Pot, 56, 178 Rihory, Liz, 303, 314
Pond Case, 27“30, 131“2; justice, virtue, Rizzo, Mario, 144
and, 147“53; knowledge and, 133“41; Roback, Jennifer, 269; see also Morse,
value and, 141“7 Jennifer Roback
Ponzi scheme, 106“7 Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland,
poor: Africa™s, 164; America™s, 162“7; 103
economic freedom and the, 167“74; Robinson, John P., 69, 166
education and, 229“33; Europe™s, 164 Rochester, J. Martin, 221, 227
population, world-wide, 139“40 Rogge, Benjamin A., 213, 236
positive evil, see positive hurt romance novels, 13
positive hurt, 27“30, 37, 149, 150 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 57
Posner, Richard A., 18, 187 Rosenberg, Nathan, 179, 190
Powell, Ben, 177 Ross, Edward, 227
Powell, Jim, 104 Rothbard, Murray N., 221, 227
Preussel, Robin I., ix Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 246
pronouns, use of, 243“8 Rummel, R. J., 47, 125, 151, 178
Property and Environment Research Ryan, Nolan, 142
Center, 307
prostitutes, 13 Sagan, Carl, 211“12
public choice economics, 184, 213 St. Augustine High School, 221
public goods, 234“7 Schabner, Dean, 310
purposes, 6, 7“9 Schelling, Thomas, 324
Putka, Gary, 233 Schmidt, Thomas E., 286
Schmidtz, David, 306
Index
348

schooling: disagreements over curricula in, social pressure vs. political pressure, 271“2
226“8; parental involvement in, socialism, 45“56; personhood and, 49“56,
222“3; public, 202; as public good, 63“4
234“7; public vs. private, 232“3; Roman Socrates, 18, 24, 245
Catholic, 232“3; see also education Sommer, John W., 219
Schor, Juliet B., 69, 166 Southern Poverty Law Center, 271
Schwartz, Barry, 13 Sowell, Thomas, ix, 48, 111, 115, 164, 189,
Scottish Parliament building, 183“4, 185, 218, 220, 224, 232, 233, 264, 272, 273
speciesism, 300“1, 331“2
247
Scully, Matthew, 298, 308 speech, metaphorical vs. literal, 295“7
Seabright, Paul, 179 Spencer, Herbert, 12, 58, 111, 152
Searle, John R., 323 Spooner, Lysander, 30
Seldon, Arthur, 115 Stalin, Joseph, 56, 133, 146, 178
self-esteem, 67, 218, 219, 236 standards, pragmatic vs. transcendent,
self-interest, 16“22, 228; children and, 18 322“4, 327
sel¬shness, see self-interest Stanley, Thomas J., 155, 164
Sen, Amartya, 139“40 Stark, Rodney, 207
sexual harassment, 250“9; codes, 250“3; vs. status society vs. contract society, 190
sexual assault, 250“2; social power and, Steers, Stuart, 233
stem-cell research, 66
258“9
Shafer-Landau, Russ, 130 Sterba, James P., 67
Shaftesbury, Third Earl of (Anthony Ashley Stevenson, Harold, 219
Cooper), xix, 293, 294 Stewart, Dugald, 244
Shakeshaft, Charol, 231 Stiglitz, Joseph, 179
Shakespeare, William, 155, 222, 244, 305, Stirner, Max, 17
Stone, Lawrence, 18
336
Shapiro, Ben, 251 Stossel, John, 115
“shoot, shovel, and shut up,” 305“6 Strunk, William, Jr., 243
Shugart, William F. II, 187 Sullivan, Andrew, 286, 287, 288
Sierra Club, 307 Summers, Brian, 181
Silverglate, Harvey A., 251, 275 Sumner, William Graham, 58, 107“8, 111,
Simmons, Randy T., 306 151“2
Simon, Julian, 105, 135, 140, 166, 175, 176, Sunstein, Cass, ix, 23, 68, 71, 116“19, 244,
303, 306, 311 295
Singer, Peter, ix, xiv, xvi, xviii, 27“30, supererogatory, 27, 148, 153
Suprynowicz, Vin, 180, 306
129“55, 159, 172, 298“9, 300, 330, 331
Skoble, Aeon, ix Surowiecki, James, 179
Skousen, Mark, 166
Skyrms, Brian, 249 Tabarrok, Alexander, 33
Smiles, Samuel, 155, 334“5 Tagliabue, Paul, 262“3
Smith, Adam, ix, 17, 20, 22, 24, 27“28, 30, Talley, Brett J., ix
Tanner, Michael, 115, 173
51“2, 74, 103, 104, 109, 142, 148, 152,
Tax Foundation, the, 59
160“7, 179, 187, 245, 255, 267, 284, 323,
324“7, 329; vs. Karl Marx, 160“7 taxation: forced labor and, 59“60, 62, 109,
Smith, Barry, 143, 157 206; personhood and, 62“5, 108“9;
Sober, Elliott, 19, 249 slavery and, 59“60, 108“9; theft and,
Sobran, Joseph, 244 62
social means vs. political means, see social Taylor, James Stacey, ix, 29, 38, 186
power vs. political power Taylor, Richard, 320, 322, 323, 324
social power vs. political power, Taylor, Robert S., 7
110“16; personhood and, 113“15 Terry, Katherine I., ix
Index 349

Thales, 328 Wallace, Richard, ix
thing, see person vs. thing Wall Street Journal, 306
third-party interference, 39“40, 72, 249, Wal-Mart, 79, 144, 162
Wanniski, Jude, 171
259
Thomas, Robert P., 179 War on Poverty, America™s, 172“3
Thomas, St., see Aquinas Warren, Melinda, 76
Thousand Pigs, Objection of, 300“2 Warren, Virginia L., 243
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 63, 112 Washington, Booker T., 270
Tomasi, John, 207 Wax, Amy L., 173, 220, 240, 336
Tong, Rosemary, ix Weede, Erich, 179
tragedy of the commons, 170, 302“8, welfare state, 57“8, 71; personhood and,
311 59“65, 74, 75“9
Tullock, Gordon, 115, 184, 212 West, E. G., 213, 218, 220, 221, 227, 228,
Turner, Ted, 307 232, 235, 237
Tyack, David, 219, 234 Whelan, John M., Jr., 130, 139
Whelan, Robert, 287
Unger, Peter, 130, 131, 139“40, 154 White, E. B., 243
United Nations General Assembly, 67, 168, Wieser, Friedrich von, 143
Wikipedia (Web site), 17
177, 231
United Way, 133“4, 135 Wildavsky, Ben, 230
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Williams, Walter E., ix, 164, 173, 272
Willott, Elizabeth, 306
67“8
University of Alabama, x, 268“9 Wilson, D. Mark, 164
U.S. Constitution, 106, 209, 216“17, 230, Wilson, David Sloan, 19, 249
Wilson, Edward O., 17, 19, 291, 296, 298,
261
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 33 323, 324
U.S. Department of Health and Human Wilson, James Q., 19
Services, 291, 312 Winkeljohn, Matt, 263
U.S. Forest Service, 75 Wise, John P., 176
U.S. Post Of¬ce, 181“2, 185, 189 Wise, Steven, 331
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 320“1
Wolf, Martin, 179
106“7
U.S. Steel, 187 Wolff, Jonathan, 59
Wolff, Robert Paul, 59, 102
Valdez, Exxon tanker, 55 Wootton, David, 210
value, interpersonal comparisons of, words, origins of, 243“6
141“7, 151; subjective, 141“4, 297 World Bank, 138, 139, 154, 164, 168, 171,
Vaughn, Karen I., 143 172“3, 175
Vedder, Richard K., 171, 187 Wright, Erik Olin, 179
Veldhuis, Niels, 167 Wright, Robert, 19, 52, 255
Vere, Edward de, 244 Wright, Robert E., 34
Vetterling-Braggin, Mary, 244
Vilkka, Leena, 296 Yandle, Bruce, ix
virtue(s): positive, 22“4, 27, 28, 30, 31, 41; Young, Arthur, 305
Victorian, 334“7 Young, H. Peyton, 249
Vital Ground, 307 Youssef, Sarah, 162
Vogel, Ed, 180
Voltaire, 65, 73, 104, 293 Zimmerman, Jonathan, 211, 218, 220, 226,
Vranich, Joseph, 181 227, 237

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