. 25
( 25)

has banished those metals from the greater part of the domestic
transactions in Scotland; and in both countries, it is not the
poverty, but the enterprizing and projecting spirit of the people,
their desire of employing all the stock which they can get, as active
and productive stock, which has occasioned this redundancy of paper

In the exterior commerce which the different colonies carry on with
Great Britain, gold and silver are more or less employed, exactly in
proportion as they are more or less necessary. Where those metals are
not necessary, they seldom appear. Where they are necessary, they are
generally found.

In the commerce between Great Britain and the tobacco colonies, the
British goods are generally advanced to the colonists at a pretty long
credit, and are afterwards paid for in tobacco, rated at a certain
price. It is more convenient for the colonists to pay in tobacco than
in gold and silver. It would be more convenient for any merchant to
pay for the goods which his correspondents had sold to him, in some
other sort of goods which he might happen to deal in, than in money.
Such a merchant would have no occasion to keep any part of his stock
by him unemployed, and in ready money, for answering occasional
demands. He could have, at all times, a larger quantity of goods in
his shop or warehouse, and he could deal to a greater extent. But it
seldom happens to be convenient for all the correspondents of a
merchant to receive payment for the goods which they sell to him, in
goods of some other kind which he happens to deal in. The British
merchants who trade to Virginia and Maryland, happen to be a
particular set of correspondents, to whom it is more convenient to
receive payment for the goods which they sell to those colonies in
tobacco, than in gold and silver. They expect to make a profit by the
sale of the tobacco; they could make none by that of the gold and
silver. Gold and silver, therefore, very seldom appear in the commerce
between Great Britain and the tobacco colonies. Maryland and Virginia
have as little occasion for those metals in their foreign, as in their
domestic commerce. They are said, accordingly, to have less gold and
silver money than any other colonies in America. They are reckoned,
however, as thriving, and consequently as rich, as any of their

In the northern colonies, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, the four
governments of New England, etc. the value of their own produce which
they export to Great Britain is not equal to that of the manufactures
which they import for their own use, and for that of some of the other
colonies, to which they are the carriers. A balance, therefore, must
be paid to the mother-country in gold and silver and this balance they
generally find.

In the sugar colonies, the value of the produce annually exported to
Great Britain is much greater than that of all the goods imported from
thence. If the sugar and rum annually sent to the mother-country were
paid for in those colonies, Great Britain would be obliged to send
out, every year, a very large balance in money; and the trade to the
West Indies would, by a certain species of politicians, be considered
as extremely disadvantageous. But it so happens, that many of the
principal proprietors of the sugar plantations reside in Great
Britain. Their rents are remitted to them in sugar and rum, the
produce of their estates. The sugar and rum which the West India
merchants purchase in those colonies upon their own account, are not
equal in value to the goods which they annually sell there. A balance,
therefore, must necessarily be paid to them in gold and silver, and
this balance, too, is generally found.

The difficulty and irregularity of payment from the different colonies
to Great Britain, have not been at all in proportion to the greatness
or smallness of the balances which were respectively due from them.
Payments have, in general, been more regular from the northern than
from the tobacco colonies, though the former have generally paid a
pretty large balance in money, while the latter have either paid no
balance, or a much smaller one. The difficulty of getting payment from
our different sugar colonies has been greater or less in proportion,
not so much to the extent of the balances respectively due from them,
as to the quantity of uncultivated land which they contained; that is,
to the greater or smaller temptation which the planters have been
under of over-trading, or of undertaking the settlement and plantation
of greater quantities of waste land than suited the extent of their
capitals. The returns from the great island of Jamaica, where there is
still much uncultivated land, have, upon this account, been, in
general, more irregular and uncertain than those from the smaller
islands of Barbadoes, Antigua, and St. Christopher's, which have, for
these many years, been completely cultivated, and have, upon that
account, afforded less field for the speculations of the planter. The
new acquisitions of Grenada, Tobago, St. Vincent's, and Dominica, have
opened a new field for speculations of this kind; and the returns
front those islands have of late been as irregular and uncertain as
those from the great island of Jamaica.

It is not, therefore, the poverty of the colonies which occasions, in
the greater part of them, the present scarcity of gold and silver
money. Their great demand for active and productive stock makes it
convenient for them to have as little dead stock as possible, and
disposes them, upon that account, to content themselves with a
cheaper, though less commodious instrument of commerce, than gold and
silver. They are thereby enabled to convert the value of that gold and
silver into the instruments of trade, into the materials of clothing,
into household furniture, and into the iron work necessary for
building and extending their settlements and plantations. In those
branches of business which cannot be transacted without gold and
silver money, it appears, that they can always find the necessary
quantity of those metals; and if they frequently do not find it, their
failure is generally the effect, not of their necessary poverty, but
of their unnecessary and excessive enterprise. It is not because they
are poor that their payments are irregular and uncertain, but because
they are too eager to become excessively rich. Though all that part of
the produce of the colony taxes, which was over and above what was
necessary for defraying the expense of their own civil and military
establishments, were to be remitted to Great Britain in gold and
silver, the colonies have abundantly wherewithal to purchase the
requisite quantity of those metals. They would in this case be
obliged, indeed, to exchange a part of their surplus produce, with
which they now purchase active and productive stock, for dead stock.
In transacting their domestic business, they would be obliged to
employ a costly, instead of a cheap instrument of commerce; and the
expense of purchasing this costly instrument might damp somewhat the
vivacity and ardour of their excessive enterprise in the improvement
of land. It might not, however, be necessary to remit any part of the
American revenue in gold and silver. It might be remitted in bills
drawn upon, and accepted by, particular merchants or companies in
Great Britain, to whom a part of the surplus produce of America had
been consigned, who would pay into the treasury the American revenue
in money, after having themselves received the value of it in goods;
and the whole business might frequently be transacted without
exporting a single ounce of gold or silver from America.

It is not contrary to justice, that both Ireland and America should
contribute towards the discharge of the public debt of Great Britain.
That debt has been contracted in support of the government established
by the Revolution; a government to which the protestants of Ireland
owe, not only the whole authority which they at present enjoy in their
own country, but every security which they possess for their liberty,
their property, and their religion; a government to which several of
the colonies of America owe their present charters, and consequently
their present constitution; and to which all the colonies of America
owe the liberty, security, and property, which they have ever since
enjoyed. That public debt has been contracted in the defence, not of
Great Britain alone, but of all the different provinces of the empire.
The immense debt contracted in the late war in particular, and a great
part of that contracted in the war before, were both properly
contracted in defence of America.

By a union with Great Britain, Ireland would gain, besides the freedom
of trade, other advantages much more important, and which would much
more than compensate any increase of taxes that might accompany that
union. By the union with England, the middling and inferior ranks of
people in Scotland gained a complete deliverance from the power of an
aristocracy, which had always before oppressed them. By a union with
Great Britain, the greater part of people of all ranks in Ireland
would gain an equally complete deliverance from a much more oppressive
aristocracy; an aristocracy not founded, like that of Scotland, in the
natural and respectable distinctions of birth and fortune, but in the
most odious of all distinctions, those of religious and political
prejudices; distinctions which, more than any other, animate both the
insolence of the oppressors, and the hatred and indignation of the
oppressed, and which commonly render the inhabitants of the same
country more hostile to one another than those of different countries
ever are. Without a union with Great Britain, the inhabitants of
Ireland are not likely, for many ages, to consider themselves as one

No oppressive aristocracy has ever prevailed in the colonies. Even
they, however, would, in point of happiness and tranquillity, gain
considerably by a union with Great Britain. It would, at least,
deliver them from those rancourous and virulent factions which are
inseparable from small democracies, and which have so frequently
divided the affections of their people, and disturbed the tranquillity
of their governments, in their form so nearly democratical. In the
case of a total separation from Great Britain, which, unless prevented
by a union of this kind, seems very likely to take place, those
factions would be ten times more virulent than ever. Before the
commencement of the present disturbances, the coercive power of the
mother-country had always been able to restrain those factions from
breaking out into any thing worse than gross brutality and insult. If
that coercive power were entirely taken away, they would probably soon
break out into open violence and bloodshed. In all great countries
which are united under one uniform government, the spirit of party
commonly prevails less in the remote provinces than in the centre of
the empire. The distance of those provinces from the capital, from the
principal seat of the great scramble of faction and ambition, makes
them enter less into the views of any of the contending parties, and
renders them more indifferent and impartial spectators of the conduct
of all. The spirit of party prevails less in Scotland than in England.
In the case of a union, it would probably prevail less in Ireland than
in Scotland; and the colonies would probably soon enjoy a degree of
concord and unanimity, at present unknown in any part of the British
empire. Both Ireland and the colonies, indeed, would be subjected to
heavier taxes than any which they at present pay. In consequence,
however, of a diligent and faithful application of the public revenue
towards the discharge of the national debt, the greater part of those
taxes might not be of long continuance, and the public revenue of
Great Britain might soon be reduced to what was necessary for
maintaining a moderate peace-establishment.

The territorial acquisitions of the East India Company, the undoubted
right of the Crown, that is, of the state and people of Great Britain,
might be rendered another source of revenue, more abundant, perhaps,
than all those already mentioned. Those countries are represented as
more fertile, more extensive, and, in proportion to their extent, much
richer and more populous than Great Britain. In order to draw a great
revenue from them, it would not probably be necessary to introduce any
new system of taxation into countries which are already sufficiently,
and more than sufficiently, taxed. It might, perhaps, be more proper
to lighten than to aggravate the burden of those unfortunate
countries, and to endeavour to draw a revenue from them, not by
imposing new taxes, but by preventing the embezzlement and
misapplication of the greater part of those which they already pay.

If it should be found impracticable for Great Britain to draw any
considerable augmentation of revenue from any of the resources above
mentioned, the only resource which can remain to her, is a diminution
of her expense. In the mode of collecting and in that of expending the
public revenue, though in both there may be still room for
improvement, Great Britain seems to be at least as economical as any
of her neighbours. The military establishment which she maintains for
her own defence in time of peace, is more moderate than that of any
European state, which can pretend to rival her either in wealth or in
power. None of these articles, therefore, seem to admit of any
considerable reduction of expense. The expense of the
peace-establishment of the colonies was, before the commencement of
the present disturbances, very considerable, and is an expense which
may, and, if no revenue can be drawn from them, ought certainly to be
saved altogether. This constant expense in time of peace, though very
great, is insignificant in comparison with what the defence of the
colonies has cost us in time of war. The last war, which was
undertaken altogether on account of the colonies, cost Great Britain,
it has already been observed, upwards of ninety millions. The Spanish
war of 1739 was principally undertaken on their account; in which, and
in the French war that was the consequence of it, Great Britain, spent
upwards of forty millions; a great part of which ought justly to be
charged to the colonies. In those two wars, the colonies cost Great
Britain much more than double the sum which the national debt amounted
to before the commencement of the first of them. Had it not been for
those wars, that debt might, and probably would by this time, have
been completely paid; and had it not been for the colonies, the former
of those wars might not, and the latter certainly would not, have been
undertaken. It was because the colonies were supposed to be provinces
of the British Empire, that this expense was laid out upon them. But
countries which contribute neither revenue nor military force towards
the support of the empire, cannot be considered as provinces. They
may, perhaps, be considered as appendages, as a sort of splendid and
shewy equipage of the empire. But if the empire can no longer support
the expense of keeping up this equipage, it ought certainly to lay it
down; and if it cannot raise its revenue in proportion to its expense,
it ought at least to accommodate its expense to its revenue. If the
colonies, notwithstanding their refusal to submit to British taxes,
are still to be considered as provinces of the British empire, their
defence, in some future war, may cost Great Britain as great an
expense as it ever has done in any former war. The rulers of Great
Britain have, for more than a century past, amused the people with the
imagination that they possessed a great empire on the west side of the
Atlantic. This empire, however, has hitherto existed in imagination
only. It has hitherto been, not an empire, but the project of an
empire; not a gold mine, but the project of a gold mine; a project
which has cost, which continues to cost, and which, if pursued in the
same way as it has been hitherto, is likely to cost, immense expense,
without being likely to bring any profit; for the effects of the
monopoly of the colony trade, it has been shewn, are to the great body
of the people, mere loss instead of profit. It is surely now time that
our rulers should either realize this golden dream, in which they have
been indulging themselves, perhaps, as well as the people; or that
they should awake from it themselves, and endeavour to awaken the
people. If the project cannot be completed, it ought to be given up.
If any of the provinces of the British empire cannot be made to
contribute towards the support of the whole empire, it is surely time
that Great Britain should free herself from the expense of defending
those provinces in time of war, and of supporting any part of their
civil or military establishment in time of peace; and endeavour to
accommodate her future views and designs to the real mediocrity of her

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes
of the Wealth of Nations, by Adam Smith


This file should be named wltnt11.txt or wltnt11.zip
Corrected EDITIONS of our eBooks get a new NUMBER, wltnt12.txt
VERSIONS based on separate sources get new LETTER, wltnt11a.txt

This etext was produced by Colin Muir <unco@btinternet.com>

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties. Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark. Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission. If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy. You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research. They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks. Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A. By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement. If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B. "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark. It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement. See
paragraph 1.C below. There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works. See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works. Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States. If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed. Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work. You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D. The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work. Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change. If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work. The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E. Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1. The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net

1.E.2. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges. If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder. Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4. Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5. Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6. You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form. However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (www.gutenberg.net),
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form. Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7. Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8. You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
you already use to calculate your applicable taxes. The fee is
owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Royalty payments
must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
returns. Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License. You must require such a user to return or
destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9. If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark. Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1. Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection. Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from. If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation. The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund. If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund. If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4. Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5. Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law. The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6. INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section 2. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers. It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come. In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at http://www.pglaf.org.

Section 3. Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service. The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541. Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at
http://pglaf.org/fundraising. Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations. Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email
business@pglaf.org. Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at http://pglaf.org

For additional contact information:
Dr. Gregory B. Newby
Chief Executive and Director

Section 4. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment. Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States. Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements. We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance. To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit http://pglaf.org

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States. U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses. Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including including checks, online payments and credit card
donations. To donate, please visit: http://pglaf.org/donate

Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone. For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included. Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:


This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.


. 25
( 25)