. 13
( 13)

public magistrate is under a necessity of employing the power of the
commonwealth to enforce the practice of this virtue. Without this pre-
caution, civil society would become a scene of bloodshed and disorder,
every man revenging himself at his own hand whenever he fancied he
was injured. To prevent the confusion which would attend upon every
man™s doing justice to himself, the magistrate, in all governments that
have acquired any considerable authority, undertakes to do justice to
all, and promises to hear and to redress every complaint of injury. In
all well-governed states too, not only judges are appointed for deter-
mining the controversies of individuals, but rules are prescribed for
regulating the decisions of those judges; and these rules are, in gen-
eral, intended to coincide with those of natural justice. It does not,
indeed, always happen that they do so in every instance. Sometimes
what is called the constitution of the state, that is, the interest of the
government; sometimes the interest of particular orders of men who
tyrannize the government, warp the positive laws of the country from
what natural justice would prescribe. In some countries, the rudeness
and barbarism of the people hinder the natural sentiments of justice
from arriving at that accuracy and precision which, in more civilized
nations, they naturally attain to. Their laws are, like their manners,
gross and rude and undistinguishing. In other countries the unfor-
tunate constitution of their courts of judicature hinders any regular
system of jurisprudence from ever establishing itself among them,
though the improved manners of the people may be such as would ad-
mit of the most accurate. In no country do the decisions of positive law
coincide exactly, in every case, with the rules which the natural sense
of justice would dictate. Systems of positive law, therefore, though
they deserve the greatest authority, as the records of the sentiments
of mankind in different ages and nations, yet can never be regarded
as accurate systems of the rules of natural justice.

· It might have been expected that the reasonings of lawyers, upon the
different imperfections and improvements of the laws of different
countries, should have given occasion to an inquiry into what were
the natural rules of justice independent of all positive institution. It
might have been expected that these reasonings should have led them
to aim at establishing a system of what might properly be called natural

The Theory of Moral Sentiments

jurisprudence, or a theory of the general principles which ought to run
through and be the foundation of the laws of all nations.± But though
the reasonings of lawyers did produce something of this kind, and
though no man has treated systematically of the laws of any particular
country, without intermixing in his work many observations of this
sort; it was very late in the world before any such general system was
thought of, or before the philosophy of law was treated of by itself, and
without regard to the particular institutions of any one nation. In none
of the ancient moralists, do we ¬nd any attempt towards a particular
enumeration of the rules of justice. Cicero in his Of¬ces, and Aristotle
in his Ethics, treat of justice in the same general manner in which they
treat of all the other virtues. In the laws of Cicero and Plato, where
we might naturally have expected some attempts towards an enumera-
tion of those rules of natural equity, which ought to be enforced by the
positive laws of every country, there is, however, nothing of this kind.
Their laws are laws of police, not of justice. Grotius seems to have
been the ¬rst who attempted to give the world any thing like a system
of those principles which ought to run through, and be the foundation
of the laws of all nations; and his treatise of the laws of war and peace,
with all its imperfections, is perhaps at this day the most complete
work that has yet been given upon this subject.µ I shall in another
discourse endeavour to give an account of the general principles of law
and government, and of the different revolutions they have undergone
in the different ages and periods of society, not only in what concerns
justice, but in what concerns police, revenue, and arms, and whatever
else is the object of law. I shall not, therefore, at present enter into
any further detail concerning the history of jurisprudence.

± Cf. LJ (B) ±.
 Cicero, De of¬ciis I.vii.°“xiii.±; Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, V.
 Plato™s Laws and Cicero™s De Legibus.
 Cf. LJ (A) I.±“, VI.±“; LJ (B) µ, °.
µ Cf. LJ(B) ±: ˜Grotius seems to have been the ¬rst who attempted to give the world any thing like
a regular system of natural jurisprudence, and his treatise on the laws of war and peace, with all
its imperfections, is perhaps at this day the most compleat work on this subject.™
 Cf. § of the Advertisement above.


Aristippus of Cyrene µ± and n, · and n
Academic (Platonic) school of philosophy
µ and n,  and n, µn Aristodemus, of Messenia “µ and n
Acad´ mie des Sciences, Paris ±n Aristomenes, of Messenia “µ and n
Acad´ mie francaise, Paris ±n Aristophanes µn
e ¸
Adams family, architects n Aristotle ° and n, “· and n, °“µ
Addison, Joseph ± and n, ± and n, ±µ, ± and n, ±“± and nn,
Aemilius Paulus  and n µn, µ,  and n, ° and n;
affections, natural µ·“° and nn, “; see also Peripatetic school of
and passions “·, ° and n“± philosophy
af¬‚iction, sympathy in µ±“, µ“µ, µ·“°, Arrian (Flavius Arrianus) µn
·°“ arts, liberal “ and n
Ajax, king of Salamis “µ and n Arundel, Thomas Howard, second earl
Alembert, Jean le Rond d™ ± and n of ° and n
Alexander the Great ±±, µ± and n, µ Athenaeus, grammarian °°n
and n, , µn Attila, the Hun  and n
ambition “·°, ±; see also rank Augustine of Hippo ± and nn
ancients and moderns, quarrel of ±n authority, as principle for government 
anger °“µ and nn and n
animals ±±±“±, ± Avaux, Claude de Mesmes, comte d™ ·±
Anne, of England ·± and n and n
Antigonus, Macedonian general µ and n Avidius Cassius, general · and n
Antimachus of Colophon, poet n
Antiochus of Ascalon µn Barbeyrac, Jean ± and n
Antipater, Macedonian general °°n beauty °“±°, ±“°, ·“
appetites “µ, ±“±· behaviour, anti-social ±±·“±, ±, ±·“
Apollonius of Tyre  and n bene¬cence ± and n“, µ“, °“±°,
approbation ±, µ, ·“, ±n, ±·“,  ±
and n, µ“, ·“ and nn, “·, benevolence ·“ and nn; as virtue
·±“ and nn; see also taste µ“° and nn
Aquinas, Thomas ±°±n Bengal, suttee in 
Berkeley, George ± and n, µ·n
architecture: classical orders (Doric, Ionic,
Corinthian, Tusculan, Composite)  Bible ±±±n
Birch, Thomas ± and n
and n“°
Aristides ˜the Just™, Athenian statesman · Biron, Charles de Gontaut, duc de ° and n
and n Black, Joseph xxiii


Cleitus, killed by Alexander  and n
Boileau-Despr´ aux, Nicolas ± and n, 
Cleomenes III, of Sparta “µ and n
and n
Colman, George, the elder ±n
Borgia, Cesare  and n, µ“µ and n
confession, dangers of practice of “
Bristol, John Digby, ¬rst earl of  and n
conscience ±±, ±, ±“, ±µµ“, ±±“,
Brutus, Lucius Junius, Roman consul 
°µ“·, µ
and n“µ
contracts n,  and n, °“ and nn
Brutus, Marcus Junius, assassin of
courage °“± and n, ·“, °, “
Caesar  and n
buccaneers  and n and nn
cowardice ·“
Buf¬er, Claude  and n“
Cowley, Abraham “ and n
Butler, Joseph ±·n, µ and n, ±±n
Crassus, Lucius Licinius, orator 
Butler, Samuel ± and n
Byng, John, admiral  and n and n
Crassus, Marcus Licinius, Roman
politician µ and n
Caesar, Gaius Julius ·· and n, ±±, µ“
credibility ·“
and n, · and n, , · and n
Cudworth, Ralph xi, µµ and n, ·
Calas, Jean ±° and n
Callisthenes, historiographer  and n and nn
culture ±“± and nn
Cambridge Platonists xi, µµn
Curtius Rufus, Quintus, µn °°n
Camillus, Marcus Furius · and n
customs, usages ·“, , “µ, µ“·
Campbell, Colen n
casuists, casuistry  and n, °, ± and and n
nn, , , µ“, °±“
Daoyz, S. n
Catherine de™ Medici  and n
Catilina (Catiline), Lucius Sergius  and Darwin, Charles xxiii
Davila, Enrico Caterino  and n
n, · and n, ·
death ±, , 
Cato, Marcus Porcius, the elder  and n,
Defoe, Daniel ±±±n
 and n
deformity “
Cato Uticensis, Marcus Porcius, the
Demetrius, the Cynic  and n
younger µ“ and n, · and n,
Demosthenes, Athenian statesman 
· and n, ·
and n, µn
character ±“, “·
Descartes, Ren´ ·° and n
charity °·“ e
desert ·“± and nn, “±°°, ±±“±,
Charles I, of England , µ,  and n
±±“°, ±, ±·“, µ° and n,
Charles II, of England µ
·“ and nn
China ·°
Diogenes Laertius µ±n, ±n,  and n,
Christianity °, ±n, n, 
·n, n
Chrysippus, Stoic philosopher ·n, ±µ and
disasters, reactions to ±µ·“ and n, ±·±
n,  and n
Domitian, Roman emperor  and n
Cicero, Marcus Tullius ··n, ·n, ±°±n, ±
and n, ±µn, ±· and n, ±n, nn, Dryads: see gods, pagan
Dryden, John ±·n, ± and n
n, ·µ and n,  and n, “µ and
Du Bos, Jean-Baptiste  and n
n, n, ·n, n, ±nn, n, ·
duelling  and n
and nn,  and n, ·n, µn, , 
duty xviii, ±, ·, ±“°, ±“°,
and n, ± and n, ° and n, ° and nn
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, ¬rst earl of 
and n, ° and n
Clarke, Samuel xi, xvi, ± and n,  eclecticism: see Neoplatonism
education ° and n“±, °µ
and n
envy µ, 
Claudius I, Roman emperor 
Epaphriditus  and n
Cleanthes, Stoic philosopher  and n


hedonism µ±n
Epictetus ± and n, ±n, “µ and n, 
Heineccius, J. G. ±°±n
and n, ° and nn,  and n
Heliodorus ±°±n
Epicurus, Epicureanism xi, xx, xxi, µ,
Hesiod  and n
, ·“µ and nn, 
Historia Augusta ·n
Eug` ne of Savoy, Prince  and n
Hobbes, Thomas xi, ±·n, · and n,
Eumenes, Macedonian general µ and n
·µ and n“·
Euripides · and n, µ“ and n
Homer “µ and n, µn
evil ±µ“·
Horace  and n, ° and n, ·n
Houbraken, Jakob, engraver ± and n
fanaticism: see religion, false
humanity “ and nn
fashion ·“ and nn, µ
fear °“µ and nn Hume, David xi“xii, xiv, xvi, xix, xxi,
xxii“xxiii, ±·n, µn, n, µn, ±°±n,
¬‚uxions ±n
±°n, ±n, ±n, ±µµn, ±µ·n,
Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de ±
° and n, ±“° and nn, n,
and nn
·n, n
Fortunate Islands  and n
Hutcheson, Francis xi, xvi, xxi, ±°±n, ±n,
fortune ±°“±°, ±±“°, ±“· and nn
± and n, °n, µµ“ and nn,
Frederick II, of Prussia  and n
· and n, ·“± and nn, ± and n
friendship, categories of µ± and nn,
“· and nn Hutton, James xxiii
frugality µ° and n, µ, °
imagination xii“xvi, xvii, ±±“±, , µ,
, “±, ±±n, ·“, 
Gassendi, Pierre xi
imprudence µ“µ and n
generosity “ and nn
infanticide µ“·
Genghis Khan, Mongol conqueror 
international relations  and n“·°
and n
God xv, xvi, , °nn“±, ±°, ±°· and n“
James I, of England and VI of Scotland 
±°, ±, ±°n, ± and n, ±±, ±“,
and n, ±· and n, ±n
±“·, ±, °, ··“, “, µ,
James II, of England µ and n
µ“µ, °“±
Japan ·°
Godolphin, Sidney Godolphin, ¬rst earl
Jesuits n
of ·±n
Joanna of Castile ±· and n
gods, pagan ±±±, ±°“±, , , ·“,
judgment “, °, ±±“ and nn,
±“µ and n
government, civil  and n, “ and nn,
jurisprudence x, “± and nn, “,
±“±, ±, ·µ and n“·
°“ and nn
Gracchus, Gaius Sempronius, Roman
justice ix, x,  and nn“, µ“, ±±, ±,
tribune  and n
±µ, °“µ, ±·“± and nn, µ±, ··;
Gracchus, Tiberius Sempronius, Roman
and animals, ±±± and nn; distributive,
tribune  and n
± and n“±; injustice, ±±“± and
gratitude ±“, “µ, , ±±, ±±µ, ±±,
nn, ±“° and n, µ“µ and n: see also
µ, µ, 
resentment; natural instincts for, “±
Gray, Thomas ± and n, ±µ and n
and nn, ±°°, ±°, ±°·n“±°, ±“·;
greatness, riches, value of ±±“±µ
social utility of, ±°°“· and nn,
Grotius, Hugo ±°n, ± and n“±, °
 and n, °“±°, ±“, °“ and nn
and n
Justinian ±±n, ±n
Gustavus Adolphus, of Sweden  and n
Gyaros (Nisos)  and n
Kames, Henry Home, Lord  and n, ±n
happiness, ±: see also virtues, social Kant, Immanuel xxiii
kinship societies 
hatred ±“·, , ±, ±·


Lactantius  and n Millar, John xxi
Milton, John ±,  and n
Laelius, Gaius, the elder  and n
mind , , ; intellectual abilities,
Laelius, Gaius, Sapiens  and n
respect for “, ; see also
La Fontaine, Jean de ± and n
La Mothe le Vayer, Francois de ± and n imagination
Minorca, siege of  and n
La Placette, Jean de, Huguenot
mirth ±·“±, °, ±
theologian ±nn
misfortunes ±·“·
La Rochefoucauld, Francois, duc de
Mithridates, king of Pontus ±±n, ±°n
 and n, n
Molesworth, Robert µ·n
La Rochefoucauld, Louis-Alexandre,
duc de n Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, baron
de la Br` de et de, ±±±n n
Lares: see Gods, pagan e
Moor, James °n
Lauzun, Antonin Nompar de Caumont,
comte and later duc de ±·“ and n morality: nature of viii“xii, xvi“xxi, xxiv,
·“·, ±µ“, ±“, ··“ and n; and
law: duties of µ; natural law, n,
approbation, ·“ and nn; practical,
±°± and n“±°, ±±n; respect for law,
 and n, “° and nn; see also
·, ·; Roman law, nn; Scots law,
±±, ±± and n virtues
More, Henry µµ and n
Lemery, Nicolas, chemist ±n
More, Sir Thomas ± and n
licentiousness µ, “·± and nn
music µ“ and n
Locke, John ±°±n,  and n, ° and n
Louis II de Bourbon, Prince of Cond´ 
nationalism “·° and nn
and n
nations, hostilities between ±·“±
Louis XIII, of France ·µ and n
natural order , µ, , , °nn, , ±°±,
Louis XIV, of France µ“ and n, ·±n
±, ±µ, ±, ±, ±, ±·, ±·°, ±·±,
love ±, “±, “, , µ“µ; see also
±µ“, °, , , µ, , ,
charity; self-love
“µ, ·, ·
Lucian  and n,  and n
necessaries, natural wants ± and n
Lucullus, Lucius Licinius ±± and n,
negligence ±°“, ±µ“·
Neoplatonism µ and n
Lysander, Spartan general “µ and n
Nero, Roman emperor  and n, 
Newton, Sir Isaac ±µ and n, ± and n
Machiavelli, Niccol´ n, µ“µ and n
Nicopolis, in Epirus  and n
Mack, Maynard, ±n
Maclaurin, Colin ± and n
Otway, Thomas ° and n, ± and n
Malebranche, Nicolas ± and n
Ovid  and n
Mandeville, Bernard xi, xii, ±·n, ± and n,
±n, ±n, “·± and nn, ·n
pain ±“±, µ“, ±±“; see also Epicurus,
manners, national differences in “µ
Marana, Giovanni Paolo ±±±n Epicureanism
Parmenides “ and n
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Roman
Parmenion, Macedonian general 
emperor · and n, ·, , °“±
and n“°°
and nn
Pascal, Blaise ±° and n, n
Marivaux, Pierre ±µ and n
passions ±“±µ, ±·“, “, °, “µ, ,
Marlborough, John Churchill, ¬rst duke
±“, ±·, ±°“, °°“±, , “,
of ·±n,  and n
, ·“ and nn, ±°“±±, ±“±·
Massillon, Jean-Baptiste ±µ“µ and n,
and n, “; sensation and, ±±±“,
±· and n
·, “; see also anger; fear
mathematics ±n
Pausanias, topographer µn
merit: see desert
Peleponnesian War 
military profession “


Pyrrhus, king of Epirus ±·“ and n
Peripatetic (Aristotelian) school of
Pythagoras µ
philosophy µ and n, 
and n, 
Quinault, Philippe ± and n
Perrault, Charles ± and n
Quintilian, Marcus Fabius ± and n
Persaeus, slave and disciple of Zeno 
Peter I, the Great, of Russia ±· and n,
Racine, Jean ° and n, ±“ and n, ±
µ± and n
and n, ±µ and n, °“± and n
Petrarch (Petrarca, Francesco) “ and n
Racine, Louis ± and n, ±n
Pharsalus, battle of · and n
Raleigh, Sir Walter ± and n
Philip II, of Macedon µ± and n, n, 
rank “µ, ·µ“·, “·, , µ,
and n, °°n
µ and n“, ·“ and n
Philopoemen, Achaean general µ and n
reason µ, °“± and nn, ±“±·, ±“°
Philotas, son of Parmenion  and n
and nn, ·±, ·µ“ and nn; loss
Phocion, Athenian general µ and n
of ±µ
Pindar  and n
Regulus, Marcus Atilius, Roman consul ·
pirates: see buccaneers
pity ±±“± and n
Reid, Thomas xxi, ±°±n, ±±n
planetary motion ·° and n
religion ±°, ±µ“µ, ±·“; false °“·;
Plato n, µ and n, ±°±n, “· and n, ·µ
and n, ·, µ and nn,  and n, see also Christianity; God
resentment ±“°, ±“·, ·, °, “, 
±µ“± and n, µ, µ, ° and n;
and n“°, ±“, “, ±±°, ±±“±,
see also Academic school of philosophy;
°°“±, µµ, ±“±·, µ, 
pleasure: see Epicurus, Epicureanism Retz, Jean Francois Paul de Gondi, Cardinal
de ·±“ and n, °, ·± and n, ·
Pliny the Younger ·“ and n
Plutarch n, ±±n, ±°n, ±·n, n, ·µn, and n
revenge n“°
n, µnn, ·n, nn
rewards ·“°, “±°°
poetry ±“ and nn
rhetoric °“± and nn
Pompey, Roman general ±± and n
Riccoboni, Marie-Jeanne ±µ and n
Pope, Alexander ± and n, ± and n, ±,
Richardson, Samuel ±µ and n
± and n
population size ·° and n Richelieu, Armand Jean Duplessis,
Cardinal, duc de °
possessions, attachment to ±±°“±±
rights ix, x,  and n
Pradon, Nicolas ±n
Robertson, William ±·nn
praiseworthiness ±“
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques ±n, n
pride °°“±, °, °“ and nn, °“
Russell, William Russell, Lord ±
propriety xvi“xviii, , ±“, , , µ“,
, ±°, ±“, ±, “ and nn, and n
Rye House Plot, ±n
·“, “·, ±“ and n, ±µ, ,
µ“, ± and n“; confused with
St Bartholomew, Massacre of °·
vanity,  and n
Sallust (Gaius Sallustius Crispus) ±
providence ±
Santeul, Jean de  and n
prudence “µµ and nn, °“±°, ±·
savages °“, , ,  and n,
and n; as virtue, ·“µ and nn
public speaking  and nn
public spirit ,  and nn“µ, µ“, Scipio Aemilianus Africanus, Publius
Cornelius  and nn
·“µ and n
Pufendorf, Samuel xi, ±°±n, ±°n, ·nn, Scipio Africanus Maior, Publius
Cornelius · and n,  and n
± and n
Scipio Nasica, Publius Cornelius 
punishments ·, °, “, µ, , “ and
nn, ±°µ“· and nn; and rank, ·°“± and n


Sophocles · and n, ± and n, µn
self-command “±, ±“·±, ±··“,
Southerne, Thomas ± and n
±±“, ±“, , µ±, ·“
Spanish Succession, War of the ·±n,
and nn, ±±“±, n
self-deceit ±“
Spectator, The ±·n
self-denial “, 
spectator, impartial ±, ±, , µ,
self-esteem ±“, ±, °“°° and nn,
µµ, µ, ·, ±±, 
speech ·“
self-interest “µ±, ±µ“·, °±“, µ,
statecraft ·±“ and nn
 and nn: see also self-love
self-love ±·, °, “, ±µ, ±µ, ±µ“, Stewart, Dugald xxiii
Stewart, Matthew, mathematician ±µ
±“, ± and n“, µ, µ, ·±,
·“·µ and nn and n
Stoicism xi, xx, , ·n, ·n, ±µ and n,
Seneca µ and n, ±± and n, ± and n,
± and n, ±µ and n, ±·, “
n, ·nn,  and n, 
and nn, ±“ and nn, µ“, ;
sensation: see passion
senses ±±“, °“± and n; see also vision see also Chrysippus; Cleanthes;
sentiment: see morality Epictetus; Marcus Aurelius
Seven Years War n Antoninus; Seneca; suicide; Zeno
Suetonius Tranquillus, Gaius n
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, ¬rst
suicide “ and nn; Stoic view of °“
earl of  and n
and nn, , “± and nn
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, third
Sully, Maximilien de B´ thune, duc de ·µ
earl of xi,  and n e
Shakespeare, William  and n, °µ and n
Sulpicius Rufus, Publius, Roman
and n
tribune  and n
Sidney, Algernon ± and n
Swift, Jonathan °“± and n, µ±
Simson, Robert, mathematician ±µ and n
sympathy xxiii, ±±“°, ±, , ·“, µ±“,
sincerity µ°, “°°
µµ“· and nn, °, µ“,  and n, ±n,
slavery  and n
±, µ“° and nn, ·“µ, µ, ;
Smith, Adam xxi“xxvi; Essays on
in¬‚uence of fortune on, ±°“°, ±“
Philosophical Subjects, n, n, ±n,
and nn, ±° and n“±±, ±“; see also
±µn, ±n, ±±n, ±n, ±µn, ±·n,
±n, ·n, µn, µµn, n, ·°n; imagination
system, concept of ±· and n“±,
Lectures on Jurisprudence, ±n, n,
n, n, n, ±°n, ±°n, ±±°n, ±±±n,
±±·n, ±±nn, ±n, ±°n, ±n, n,
Tacitus, Publius Cornelius ±
±n, ·µn, n, n, ±n, °nn;
Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres, Tamerlane (Tamburlaine), Tatar
conqueror  and n
·n, °n, n, ·n, ±n, ±µn, µµn,
Tarquinius Superbus n
n; Theory of Moral Sentiments, vii,
taste µ, , °, ±, “ and nn
x, xii, xiv, xvi, xx, xxii, xxiii, xxv, , µn,
temperance “µ, ±·
±°·“n, n, ±n; Wealth of Nations,
Themistocles, Athenian statesman “µ
x, xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxvi, , ±n, n,
and n, “µ and n
±°n, ±n, ±µn, ±·nn, n, µ°n,
Theobald, Lewis ±n
°n, ±n
Theramines, Athenian politician µ
Smith, John xi, µµ and n
society, theories of ± and n, ·“· and n
Thirty Years War ·± and n, n
and nn
Thomson, James ±° and n
Socrates µ and n, µ± and n, ±, µ
Thucydides µn
and nn, µ and n, µ
Tibullus  and n
solitude, evils of ±·“
Tickell, Thomas ±n
Solon, Athenian legislator ·µ and n


Tigranes, king of Armenia ±° and n virtues, social °“±, “µ, “, ·µ,
Timoleon of Corinth · and n ±“, ±“µ, °°, °“, µ,
toleration, religious ±° and n ·-; see also generosity; humanity;
treason ±±· and n“±± justice; prudence; public spirit
trust “°° vision ±µ and n
truth ·°“±, “ Voltaire, F. M. A. de n, ±°n, ± and n,
±µµnn, ±µ and n, ° and n, °“±
Turenne, Henri de La Tour d™Auvergne,
vicomte de  and n and n, µ±, · and n

wants: see necessaries
Ulpian ±±n
war ±“ and n; see also Peleponnesian
utility xix, n, °“; misapplied ±±“±;
War; Seven Years War; Spanish
see also justice
Succession, War of the; Thirty
Years War
vanity ± and n“, ±, µ“ and nn, Warton, Joseph ±n
°°, °±“, °“, °µ“, °“, Whichcote, Benjamin xi, µµn
, “ and nn William III, of England ·± and n
Vertue, George, engraver ± and n Wollaston, William xi, xvi,  and n
vices ±“, ±, µ, µ“µ and n, wonder, surprise  and n, ·“
±“, 
virtue ·, ·, ·µ, ·, °, ±, ±µ, ±, Xenophon µ±n, µn
±, ±, °, ±“±µ; Plato™s account
of, ±“± and nn, ±; Aristotle™s Zeno, of Citium ±µ and n, ±µ,
account of, ±“± and nn; Stoic ± and nn“, µ“ and n,
view of, “ and nn  and n, µ

Cambridge texts in the history of philosophy
Titles published in the series thus far
Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics (edited by Roger Crisp)
Arnauld and Nicole Logic or the Art of Thinking (edited by Jill Vance Buroker)
Bacon The New Organon (edited by Lisa Jardine and Michael Silverthorne)
Boyle A Free Enquiry into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature (edited by
Edward B. Davis and Michael Hunter)
Bruno Cause, Principle and Unity and Essays on Magic (edited by Richard
Blackwell and Robert de Lucca with an introduction by Alfonso Ingegno)
Cavendish Observations upon Experimental Philosophy (edited by Eileen O™Neill)
Cicero On Moral Ends (edited by Julia Annas, translated by Raphael Woolf)
Clarke A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God and Other Writings
(edited by Ezio Vailati)
Condillac Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge (edited by Hans Aarsleff)
Conway The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy (edited by
Allison P. Coudert and Taylor Corse)
Cudworth A Treatise Concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality with
A Treatise of Freewill (edited by Sarah Hutton)
Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy, with selections from the Objections
and Replies (edited by John Cottingham)
Descartes The World and Other Writings (edited by Stephen Gaukroger)
Fichte Foundations of Natural Right (edited by Frederick Neuhouser, translated
by Michael Baur)
Hobbes and Bramhall on Liberty and Necessity (edited by Vere Chappell)
Humboldt On Language (edited by Michael Losonsky, translated by Peter
Kant Critique of Practical Reason (edited by Mary Gregor with an introduction
by Andrews Reath)
Kant Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (edited by Mary Gregor with an
introduction by Christine M. Korsgaard)
Kant The Metaphysics of Morals (edited by Mary Gregor with an introduction
by Roger Sullivan)
Kant Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics (edited by Gary Hat¬eld)
Kant Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason and Other Writings
(edited by Allen Wood and George di Giovanni with an introduction
by Robert Merrihew Adams)
La Mettrie Machine Man and Other Writings (edited by Ann Thomson)
Leibniz New Essays on Human Understanding (edited by Peter Remnant and
Jonathan Bennett)
Malebranche Dialogues on Metaphysics and on Religion (edited by Nicholas
Jolley and David Scott)
Malebranche The Search after Truth (edited by Thomas M. Lennon and
Paul J. Olscamp)
Melanchthon Orations on Philosophy and Education (edited by Sachiko
Kusukawa, translated by Christine Salazar)
Mendelssohn Philosophical Writings (edited by Daniel O. Dahlstrom)
Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil (edited by Rolf-Peter Horstmann and Judith
Nietzsche The Birth of Tragedy and Other Writings (edited by Raymond Geuss
and Ronald Speirs)
Nietzsche Daybreak (edited by Maudemarie Clark and Brian Leiter, translated
by R. J. Hollingdale)
Nietzsche The Gay Science (edited by Bernard Williams, translated by Jose¬ne
Nietzsche Human, All Too Human (translated by R. J. Hollingdale with an
introduction by Richard Schacht)
Nietzsche Untimely Meditations (edited by Daniel Breazeale, translated by
R. J. Hollingdale)
Schleiermacher Hermeneutics and Criticism (edited by Andrew Bowie)
Schleiermacher On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers (edited by
Richard Crouter)
Schopenhauer Prize Essay on the Freedom of the Will (edited by G¨ nter Z¨ ller)
u o
Sextus Empiricus Outlines of Scepticism (edited by Julia Annas and Jonathan
Shaftesbury Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times (edited by
Lawrence Klein)
Adam Smith The Theory of Moral Sentiments (edited by Knud Haakonssen)
Voltaire Treatise on Tolerance and Other Writings (edited by Simon Harvey)


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