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339
˜fuzzy sets™ 17, 159“60
economic reform 209, 211
economic shocks 16, 129, 130, 134“40, 143,
Gaiha, R. and Deolalikar, A. B. 60
145, 146“7, 271“2, 275“6, 281, 282, 331
Garg, A. and Morduch, J. 270
economists 213, 214, 335“6
gender 116, 237, 267, 343
Ecuador, components analysis of chronic
assets at marriage 279“80
poverty 15“16, 102“25
discrimination 218, 236, 259, 270, 322
education 6, 7, 51“3, 78, 79, 80“2, 84“5, 111,
dowries 173, 176, 178
112, 184, 192, 216, 217, 230, 231, 299,
education and 20“1, 274, 280, 281
331
India 211“12
child labour and 298
stereotypes 259, 260
children™s adult height and 276
wealth transfers 274“5, 276“8, 282“3
gender and 20“1, 274, 280, 281
general parental consensus model 269
household income and 275“6
genetics 293“4, 299, 300, 303, 304
Indio Guayas study 114“17, 123
Ghana 20, 212, 270, 274, 276, 277, 282“3
land inheritance and 276“8
Gilligan, D. 276
maternal 300
Gitter, S. 282
parental investment in 270
Gledhill, J. 343
school attendance 5
globalization 16
stigmatization and 341
Gr¤b, J. and Grimm, M. 99
student-teacher relations 341, 345
Grameen Bank model 257, 258, 281
educational poverty 15, 83, 86, 88“99
Great Bengal Famine 314“15
elderly poor 95“6, 236“7, 321, 323
Green, M. and Hulme, D. 207, 219
emergency aid 281
Guayaquil, Ecuador 16, 103, 104, 110“25
Emirbayer, M. 341
Gujarat, India 189, 190, 191“2
employment 5, 117“19, 156, 211“12, 216, 259,
Guyer, J. 321
260
endogeneity 98, 116
Haddad, L. and Hoddinott, J. 274
endowments see assets
Haddad, L., Hoddinot, J., and Alderman, H.
entitlements 310“21, 323“4
273
entrepreneurs 117, 173, 278
hardship 29, 30, 31, 33, 35, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42,
environmental capital 299
43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 56
escape from poverty 183“9, 191“3, 227, 248,
Harrison, L. and Huntington, S. 334
253, 258, 261, 311
Harriss, J. 10
Ethiopia 21, 134, 281, 318
Harriss White, B. 22, 220, 317
Ethiopian Rural Household Survey 14, 33,
Hart, G. 221
49“54
headcount ratio 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 72,
ethnographic research 9, 12, 211, 292
88, 142, 208, 217
extreme poverty 249, 324
healthcare 6, 7, 14, 29, 78, 79, 80, 85, 158, 162,
174, 176, 230, 231, 299
Fafchamps, M. and Quisumbing, A. R. 278
Bangladesh 156
famine 165, 169, 314“15, 319
crises 160, 171, 189“90
FAT (Focus-Aggregation-Transformation) 40“1
expenses 18
Ferguson, J. 217
maternal 337“8, 339
FGT (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke) poverty
measurement of 44
measure 13, 14, 15, 17, 31, 34, 40, 42,
poverty 83
43, 50, 57, 60, 62, 73, 130, 143, 145, 147




351
Index

dowry-related violence 273
Hinduism 178, 319
famine 314“15
HIV/AIDS 283, 319, 338“9, 342
poverty research 216
Honduras 134
rural economy 219“20
household(s) 7, 209, 216, 234
stigmatization 341
asset index 15“16, 102“25
individualism 321
breakdown 17, 154, 174, 181
individuals and poverty 137“40, 213, 257, 259,
composition 51, 53, 83, 90, 98, 109, 116,
295, 300, 341
120, 198“9
Indonesia 221, 275
constraints 268, 272
indoor plumbing 108
coping strategies 103
Indra, D. M. and Buchignani, N. 163
economic shocks 134“7
industrialization 322, 341
expenditure 8, 78, 104, 121, 185, 230
inequality traps 330, 333, 341
measurement 217
infant
poverty dynamics within 87, 93“5, 97“8,
development 6
154, 276“8
low birth weights in 302
reciprocal exchange 235“6
mortality 165, 166, 169, 290, 338
resources allocation and gender 274
infrastructure 7, 53
social capital 119“20, 121
inheritance 276“8, 282, 293“4, 299, 300,
social reorganization 321, 322“3
343
stages-of-progress method 187“8
Insel, T. 293
housing 15, 78, 80, 108, 186, 187
insurance 7, 30, 271“2, 274
Bangladesh 169
integrability problem 258“9
Indio Guayas 110, 111“14, 120“1, 122
intergenerational transfers 15, 20“1, 87, 95“6,
Hulme, D. 159, 207, 219
267“9, 312
Hulme, D. and McKay, A. 7, 109
bargaining power 268, 269, 272“5
Hulme, D. and Shepherd, A. 299
children™s resilience in preventing 290, 295,
human capital 16, 20, 21, 105, 111, 112,
299“303
137“40, 213, 234, 256, 257, 258“9, 259,
constraints 268, 272, 275“6, 282
264, 267“83, 299
gender differences 274“5, 276“8, 282“3
Indio Guayas 109, 114“17, 121
lifetime incomes 276“8
Hungary 103
non-material capital 299“301
preferences 268, 269“71
identi¬cation steps 59, 60“1, 64“5, 74
returns 268, 271“2
illegal immigration 209
international poverty research 215“16,
income 15, 59, 60, 102, 104, 120, 217, 272,
221
298, 313, 329
interviews 9, 155“81, 184“200, 188
delayed 165
intra-household poverty 87, 93“5, 97“8,
disability and 176
154, 276“8
distribution 98, 114
intrinsic chronic poverty 17, 130, 133“4,
diversi¬cation 191“2
136, 137, 141, 142, 143, 145, 148, 150
education and 115“16
Ivory Coast 274
generation over time 249“50
lifetime 276“8
Jalan, J. and Ravallion, M. 50, 59, 64“5
non-income poverty and 79“80
non-wage 118
Kanbur, R. 8, 103, 212
permanent income hypothesis (PIH) 77
Kanbur, R. and Shaffer, P. 11, 13
poverty 81, 82, 84, 87“93, 95, 96, 97, 98
Kenny, C. and Williams, D. 214
shocks 134
Kenya 184, 189, 190, 191, 192, 198
standards 59“74, 77“8
Keynes, J. M. 328
trajectory patterns 165, 167, 170
KIDS (KwaZulu-Natal Income Dynamics
transfer/rental 117“19
Study) 16“17, 147“52, 233
increasing cost of hardship axiom 37, 40, 42
Kierkegaard, S. 4
INDEC (Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y
kinship 235“6, 318, 320, 321
Censos) 71“4
Klasen, S. 109
India 18, 211, 259
Kolenikov, S. and Angeles, G. 108
chronic poverty 5
Krishna, V. 12
destitution in 317, 318“19




352
Index

multivariate asset analysis 108“25
labour 117“19, 218, 220“1, 270, 271, 331, see
Murphy, K. M., Shleifer, A., and Vishny, R. W.
also employment
262
land inheritance 276“8, 282“3
land ownership 51“3, 157, 167, 172, 176, 178,
Namibia 315
186, 196“7, 219
Naoroji, D. 216
˜last-straw™ threshold events 17, 154
natural capital 256, 316
Latin America 259
natural disasters 281
Lawson, D. 13
natural sciences 18, 212“14
Lawson, D., McKay, A., and Okidi, J. 6
nature-nurture dialectic 290
laziness 191
neonatal deaths 338
legal reform 282“3
Nepal 90
life expectancy 230, 338
networks 156, 167, 169, 176, 234, 273, 318,
life histories 9, 12, 154“81, 281
320, 321, 333“4, 340
livelihood diversi¬cation 218, 233, 235“6
Newton, I. 4
loans 156, 169, 172, 173, 176, see also credit,
Nicaragua 282
micro¬nance; debt
Niehaus, I. 320“1
Lobe, M. M. 339
Nietzsche, F. 128
Long, N. 240
Nindo, W. 194n
Lusaka 103
non-income poverty 77“99, 230“1
Luthar, S. 292, 296
non-poverty spells 31, 33, 46, 54
Luttmer, E. F. P. 90
non-stochastic simulations 137“40, 142“3,
144, 145, 150
macro-level constraint 254“61, 262, 263
˜normal science™ 239, 240, 241
Malawi 320
normalized shortfalls 62, 63, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72
Malaysia 275
North Carolina, USA 18, 184, 189, 190, 197,
malnutrition 5, 81, 82, 83, 85“6, 109, 302
198
marginality 316, 319, 328
NSS (National Sample Survey) data 211, 212
marriage 18, 21, 156, 165, 169, 176, 178,
nuclear families 120
189“90, 267, 268, 271, 278“80, 339, see
nutrition 6, 30, 81, 82, 83, 85“6, 88“99, 109,
also dowry costs
230, 231, 302
Marx, K. 4, 314, 341
maternal health 337“8, 339
occupations 216, 259, 260
matrilineal inheritance system 276“7
O™Connor, A. 205, 215, 216, 221
MCA (multiple correspondence analysis) 108
old age support 268, 271, 274, see also elderly
medical costs 178, see also healthcare
poor
memory 5, 156, 194“5
opportunities 19“20, 247, 248, 254“64
mental illness 317
Ostrom. E. 12
meso-level constraint 262, 263
Mexico 9“10, 282
panel data 4“5, 7, 11“12, 31, 59, 64, 227, 232
Micawber threshold 129, 133, 135, 136,
Argentina 71“4
137, 139, 140, 141“4, 146“7, 148,
Ecuador 15“16, 102“25
150, 233
Ethiopian 33
micro¬nance 7, 173, 257“8, 258, 281, 331,
stages-of-progress methodology and 193“4,
332“3
198“9
migration 118, 209, 210, 216, 236
Vietnam Living Standard Survey
monotonicity axiom 37, 40, 42, 48, 60, 62,
(VLSS) 87“99
66, 73
paternalism 234“5
Morduch, J. 270
patrilineal inheritance system 276“7
Moser, C. and Felton, A. 5, 12
patron-client relationships 234“5
Muldavin, J. 337
PCA (principle components analysis) 105“15,
multidimensional poverty 22, 47, 70, 74, 86,
117“19, 120, 121, 123, 125
109, 296, 328, 329, 330, 332
permanent income hypothesis (PIH) 77
asset analysis and 102
Peru 184, 189, 190, 191, 192, 275
as chronic poverty 86, 87, 96“7, 99
Philippines 20, 276“7
Sen on 230“2
physical capital 15, 20, 109, 111“14, 256,
multiple equilibrium chronic poverty 17, 130,
267“83
133“4, 135, 142, 143“4, 147




353
Index

powerlessness 206
Pigou-Dalton condition 35“6, 37
PPAs (participatory poverty assessments) 6, 9
Pincus, J. 221
probability transfer 47, 55, 56
Pincus, J. and Sender, J. 209“10, 215, 217,
productive capital 16, 111, 112, 117“19, 299
220
prolonged poverty axiom 45“6, 47
plumbing 108, 112“3
property rights 21, 282, 331
Polanyi, K. 341
psychology 292, 293, 295, 296, 297, 301,
political capital 299
303
political disempowerment 200
Putnam, R. 333
political economy 219, 336
political participation 230
˜qual-quant divide™ 8, 9, 10, 12“13, 19, 103,
polychoric PCA (principle components
180, 207, 225“42
analysis) 108, 109“15, 117“19, 120
questionnaires 4, 8, 10, 12
polygamy 339
Quisumbing, A. R. and Maluccio, J. A. 274
poverty 39, 61, 67, 69
Quisumbing, A. R., Estudillo, J. P., and
conceptualization of 207, 226“30, 299, 313
Otsuka, K. 276, 277
culture of 334“5
cut-off 185“6
Radhakrishna, R. et al. 5
de¬nitions 187, 195, 205“6, 227, 229“30,
Rajasthan, India 184, 186, 189, 190, 191, 192,
233, 250“3, 296, 309
195“6
duration of 15, 59“74, 249
Ramsey, F. 74
gaps 50, 62, 147, 149
Rao, V. and Walton, M. 341
government of 237“42
rate of return 256“8, 260“1, 265, 268, 271“2
historical accounts 6, 12
Ravallion, M. 13, 31, 50, 59, 64“5
indicators 84“7, 231
recall reliability 5, 194“5
intertemporal 14, 29“57
resilience research 21, 291“304
irremediable impact of 32, 41, 43
resource pro¬le approach 155
judgements 228“9
Ricardo, D. 314
knowledge 209“12, 215“17, 221
risk 47“8, 56, 130, 134“50, 208, 289, 291“9,
lifecycle 253
301, 303, 304
measurement 16“17, 19, 61“2, 140“52,
Rogoff, B. 302
225“42
Roma people 319, 332
mobility 13, 31
Rosentein-Rodan, P. N. and Nurkse, R. 262
multidimensional see under multidimensional
Rutter, M. 290
poverty
pro¬les 51, 54
Sahlins, M. 315
reduction 210, 295, 336, 337
Sahn, D. and Stifel, D. 107, 109
research 18, 205“21, 333“5
St Augustine 4
rural 219“20; see also axiomatic approach;
San people 315
asset-based approach; capability
Santos, P. and Barrett, C. B. 142
approach; components approach
scale invariance 47, 55
poverty lines 15, 59“72, 146, 206, 207, 218,
Scheper-Hughes, N. 292
227, 248“9, 250
Scott, J. C. 19, 163, 240, 241, 343
absolute 61“74, 298
seasonality 6, 30, 104
non-income 84, 89
selective memory 156
problems with 228“9
self-employment 117“18, 258, 262
relative 61, 298
self-reliance 321
subjective 61
self-respect 206
poverty spells see spells of poverty
Sen, A. K. 7, 11, 61, 79, 193, 230, 231, 233,
poverty traps 16, 129, 208, 227, 247, 248,
302, 314“15
254“5, 257, 262“3, 264, 311, 316
Sen, A. K. and Hulme, D. 159
economic shocks and 134“40
sequence sensitivity 45“7, 50
heterogeneous ability and 130“4
service delivery 341“2
literature 260“1
SET (separable earnings-transfers) 269
long-term 312“13
Smith, A. 257
microeconomics of 330, 331“5
social capital 16, 105, 111, 112, 119“20, 121,
power resources 155, 157, 163, 165, 167,
219, 233, 234“6, 237, 273, 281, 299, 316
170




354
Index

Thomas, D. 274
social exclusion 7, 22, 98, 200, 219, 298, 311,
Thorbecke, E. 237
316, 318“19, 328, 334, 340
Tilly, C. 319, 341
social justice 239, 342
time 4“8, 11“14, 248“9, 254“5
social mobility 183“9, 191“3, 219, 227, 248,
chronic poverty 29“57
253, 258, 261, 278, 311
constraints 268, 272
social order 22, 309, 310“11, 314, 316“23,
duration line 60“74
341“2
monotonicity 37, 40, 42, 48, 60, 62, 66,
social policy 7, 314, 322, 323, 330“5, 336
73
chronic poverty 30, 130, 149“50
paths 255“8
development 342“3
poor 4
intergenerational transfers and 280“3
sensitivity 301“2
poverty reduction 210, 295, 336, 337
trade liberalization 259
social orders and 310“11
trajectory patterns 17, 157, 158“80, 199, 230,
trajectory patterns 161, 165, 180
261, 301
social protection measures 155, 163, 165, 170,
transactional theory 302
173, 174, 180“1
transfer axiom 60, 62, 65, 70, 73
social science 213“14, 228, 333, 335, 336, 342,
transient poverty 7, 11, 60, 71“3, 77, 81“2,
344“5
84, 88“99, 227, 229, 232, 233, 248,
socialization 299, 302
250“3
South Africa 19, 226, 234“7, 239, 241
education 274
Uganda 6, 184, 189, 190, 191, 192, 195
KIDS 16“17, 147“52, 233
uncertainty 34“5, 48
witchcraft 320
unemployment 7, 156, 163, 181, 257
South Asia 221, 270, 277“8
Ungar, M. 295
Southeast Asia 259, 332
United States 274
spells of poverty 7, 13, 30, 31“3, 34, 37“8, 144,
North Carolina 18, 184, 189, 190, 197,
233
198
compensation over time 31, 39, 41“2, 43, 44,
poverty knowledge 215, 216, 217, 221
50, 51, 53, 54
resilience research 297
discount rate 32, 41, 43“4, 51, 54
universalism 14, 44
duration line 60“74
upwardly mobile 17, 130, 133“4, 135, 145
equal-valued 43“5, 50, 51
urbanization 209“10
non-income poverty 83“99
transformation 35“6
Vietnam 15, 79, 216
stages-of-progress methodology 18, 183“8
child labour study 297“8
comparability and reliability 194“7
Living Standard Survey (VLSS) 87“99,
compared to panel studies 193“4
209“10, 217, 220
limitations 197“200
village characteristics 51“3
results 188“93
violence 163, 178, 181, 320“1
static poverty 91“2
vulnerability 11, 14, 47“8, 54“7, 77, 78, 119,
stigmatization 176, 198, 298, 318, 319, 324,
163, 206, 208, 233, 236“7
341
children 290, 291, 292
stochastic simulations 138“40, 142“3, 145,
chronic poverty 16“17, 146“7
151, 249“50
de¬nition 314
Strauss, J. and Thomas, D. 269
to destitution 318
structural constraints 254“61, 262
families 212
structural poverty 232“7
famine and 319
structural violence 176
Indio Guayas 117
subsistence ethic 163
South Africa 241, see also economic shocks;
Sumatra 275, 276, 277
crises
Suomi, S. 294
Vygotsky, L. 297
TAF (Transformation-Aggregation-Focus)
wealth accumulation 207
42“3
wealth transfers 20“1, 267“83, 269, 270
Taiwan 270
Weber, M. 4, 342
television 114
welfare dependency 315
temporary employment 117




355
Index

Wilson, W. J. 333
well-being dynamics 4, 12, 29, 30, 103, 120,
witchcraft 22, 319“21, 322, 324, 339
206, 217, 296“9
World Bank 103, 205, 210, 295, 332
casualization of labour and 212
absolute poverty lines 61
children 268, 270, 299, 300, 301
Poverty Assessments 8
non-income 77“99, 230“1
poverty research 207“8
obosta 155, 160, 162“3, 167
West Africa 221, 321 ˜Voices of the Poor™ 4, 206“7, 216
West Bengal 210“20 World Development Reports 332
Whitehead, A. 221
WHO (World Health Organization) 85 Zambia 103, 320
widowhood 162, 173, 283, 319, 343 ˜Zomia™ residents 332




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