. 1
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C Ca ml;ridl'e Umvc" i, y

This hoo k i, in ,-opyrighr, Subj"' t to >!3 !Ul<".,., except ion
a nd the provisio n, "f rekvan ' {()I1",'..e Iicemin!: al\'ccme n",
no F< prod"",i"n of a ny par ' may ' ale place w"hout
' he wrin en perm,,,,,,n of C a mhnd˜< Umvc"i, y Pr""

Pr!Jl'OO in Gr eat Brita in hy Ik mru", B<.."h , Derby

I S II ˜ 0 52 1 B291 4 Advanced Gra mma r In t:,e w i,h . n, we"
I S B˜ 0 .H l ,l n 92 2 Adva n"ed Gra mma r in t:se
ISII!\: 0 521 6141H I Adva'Kcd Gr3mma r in L'.., with Cll Rom
ISIIK 0 521 61402 3 Advan,'ed Gram ma r in t:se Cll [{" m
ISB!\: O.H I 61404 X Advanced Gram mar in t:'C CD Rom Inetwo rk ,""mn )
in Use A self-study
and practice
book for
learners of
with answers


Martin Hewings
Than h ",
1" 'he ,on,
T" 'he ,."",h., IX

T ".˜.
I Prnm' <o,";n"o". . ...1 p..... .n' .. mrl< I II
2 I'rcwn' m Ill;"""'" and prnonl ..mplr III
3 P... " ",pi.: and p....w", ptrl....1
" P." """""",- """ p..., "mpk
S Pa.. pnk..1 ...d 1'<''' .. mplr
pnf"","OflltnllO", an d ptn<'n l prrlfi1
7 P. .. pt<in1 , onion P' " ","",-1 a Dd P'" ,'0<\1;0010'"
8 PTnrn, a n d ˜. h IM': _

, lIill . nd be ..... 1<>
10 I'tncn' ..mpl.. and I'f'C"""IC «_on"",,' f.... 1M fut .
I I Futu.... """"""""" and N._ p.d....' 4
"".." )
12 Ik In • mfim..""
1J 00:"" ,"'an of ,.Ik,,,,,.t.- II>< I.- _
I ' n.. future _ 0 f...., .... p_

......I.d> -.I
e-. wuId. I>< <lIhk In a nd b< a/k>.. n11O
lh \\',ll ..ould anJ UW<! ,..
I"' _hoc poouhr.hr,
11 '10 and loa. , IllOC l lO
' l. ..... ˜ n«d '0 and
1" S ' h,o.< '0
211 ˜ -.r:ht 10 an.l " ad hm...

1.PI˜"'ll 'vrl>o. IlWOl. ',"
21 Li nk,"fI ,nt>.: p poa<................".,.. II'" ..".
21 fof ... n,. p.a",,'< " ,""'-... t II
l i Fonn"'lt J"" "" """nll.'ft ll t: , ....b • ""II o ....infi ,,"i.'
2" u.i"", 1-';''''
l i R'l"'m n,. wIlh 1"''''''' ..-b., Ie; id .h••.••
aDd who.c
16 "'h -<l """O'" wi'h .. bo h..m hid.,
P S ."." "" q......t 1"...; » ·lth thal-daon.n
'I ....,,""'; 'I ,

\nt- compkm˜˜lJh()": ..-1>"1 (u/l"".. ,....1>.
18 Verb>, oI>,c.:t> .nd CiOffi!'k..... n!>
1'J V..-h + ' ....0 ohin˜•
.JO Verb . '; n ˜ for m' and ,nhn",,,,, ( II
31 V..-b. 'In˜ for m, ond ",hn1l''''' (21

.\2 Reporting people', wor d, an d 'hought<
.n Reportiog , talement" tha, -da,,''''
Ve,h + wh-d ano<
Tense ˜ ho i˜e '" repon ,ng
,16 [{epor'ing o(fe", 'UI\I;eSl'On" orders, ,ntent'o"" ef<,
I\-!<"bl verb- in 'epon ;nl;
[{epo,t;ng what people sa}' U>Lng noum and adie .., ive,
Should au,.., , he p'e",nl m hiunn ive
.1 9

40 Agreemenl between ' Uhl"'" . nd ve, h (1 )
41 !\j;ree",enl be,ween ' uhl«-l .nd ve,h (2)
42 !\j;ree",e nr be,w..,n ' uhj"", .nd ve,b (3)
43 Co mpound no un, . nd nOun ph,..e,

Article•. deferm,,,,,,, ""d qua"t,lie"
44 M a n an d one
Alan . lhe and 'w, ' rf,d e (1 )
46 AI. n. lhe an d >e m . ,,'d. (2)
47 AI. n, lhe a" d >e m " Iid e 0 1
48 Some and a ny
49 No , none (of) and not . ny
SO M lICb (o fl, ma ny 1of) . 1 0f, 1 lofl, el<.
01 01'
All {ofI, .. bole, ",.ry, eac h
.1' 2 h ... lin le. I""" fewer

RelJ'i˜e d"use, and ,,,her type. of dau,"
$.I Itela' ;ve pronou n'
.14 O'her ,dal, ve words: ..10""" when. wherm }" e".
5.1' P,e p",i, io", 11l rel."ve dau..,
% O,he, way' of . ddinl; ",fo,,,,a,io n to no un ph , (1) : add "i ,m,,1 noun pb..,." erc
-'7 0,10.. way' of adding ",formalio " to no un pb ra (2): prepo"""" .1 ph .."" , <I•.
.\ 8 Part i"ple dause' wi' h . dver bi.1 ",e.n"'g 0 1
.W Parti..,p˜ dau.., ".-'tb ad verbi.1 me.n 'nl; 121

Pro"",."S, ,,,h>ri,u,i,,,, and lea˜",g o"t word,
60 Rellexi.. prono un" he" elf. hi", ,,,lf, ,he",..I,·"" et˜ .
6 1 O ne an d one.
62 So a nd no, .. ' ub-mute' lor da u"" , <1:<.
(,.1 0<, ' 0 ; ,u< b
64 M ore on leaVIng " ut wo,d, after a uxiliary 'e, b-
6.1 l ",..ing ou' "'_in fini'ive<

Adre<l"˜' and ad.wb.
66 Po, j,M," "f ad,"e" ....
67 G"d,hlc,n<! non -l\..d,h l" adl""" '" ( I)
G..d.hlc . nd non·l\..d. h l" . J I"" " .... (2)
P,<t;,;'pk 'd."e, i..... ,oo " ""I"", nd aJj""" ...
Ad,c."{,wn . ,... in˜ni'i"•.inK. ,ha ,·du-< h_da"..,
AJjc."{...... . nd .d.er'"
"""pa,,,..,,.nd "'pc'I."".,
72 10,....
Adj...." {'.n.nd ad "",...,
7l ComPO"".' ph' a"" and d .."""
Po.iIlO of ad
74 (I)
75 """ino 01 ad." (1)
1 pL.",. d" ""'. ,nd,˜nll" I,"!"........,.. a nd \lID<
n Dqrtt ad.erb- and f ˜• •d........
7K Com"""" ad........ and .'.... po'n' a.h"m.

,w,.....tn.B d........ •"J "',.......
Ad• ....n..1do
79 of 11 m<
bn:auv. <t<:..; .... and w llh
!IO G,vtng ,.,.""""
in oN... '0. "" b ' 0. <t".
Pu'JIO>" and
Com.....: ..,hou˜.nd ,'-˜; ..... ' hoootth!if; wh˜.,. ..hil" and ..........,...
83 If (l l
If (2 )
lor w«<, '0wi.
85 If I w... ., you.-;
if and w .....hn- ; <to.:.
116 IL.. - and "

ConMetmtt ode a """,˜.., and ho<tw ..... wnI<n<:n

1"""'_ and " .... " ...
gg PT<po... of
˜ Iktw and . ''''''''It
"0 P"'POO" """ of lim<
91 Ta lk"'lt . houc n.... pn"'..
92 ",""powl""" .her • .,m.
93 ˜ .."",• • lIer no"....
˜ T...... and rh....,.""",d ..erb-: word and."

˜1I!l' '"fomul"'"
'is 110«<' ˜ ,....... Wb. ne.
˜ 11 •.• 11)
'17 I•••• (2 )
'HI FOOl" "!\' i,-d a..,," and ..ha,...I. ..,,"
9"1 In ...,., (II
100 1" II I

Gram ' .....'cw 201
Glo. " 11 9

I'n . i rb form. 224
i\rP'",••h ˜ 1
i\Pf'tnoJl ˜ 2 1\.0, .. 01"" '" forms 225
tJ˜otl'" ,.h˜, pc<>pl.'h"'k or wlu""", h˜,.""d 116
i\Pf'tnoJ; ˜}
..<'lI:˜I˜r ..... 1>s 21 1
i\Pf'<1'dI˜ <4 1

"'˜dy Gu.... 2<40
K˜ 10 E..",ion H l
K'1' k> Addi ,i< ...al ••«<no:s 2711
""'" II> Sludy Il˜io.k 28 1

J r><k˜ 282

""I' li,,, Nit"," al Ad"""c˜d G,,,"'.....
I by .....ny I""'rk In wril1ntt.I><
l\I"tn ..........k,.hk
", V and , hn t mt1....˜. ,"",II <,(,11 he-......., ,n ,h" II<'W nl"...... In "" 1..•• 1 ",'ou1<1 I,k. to
,Iwlk J•.annt \.I.cu rt", . 1 C.m˜ l: ' " . Pr.... and m,- ˜oIlt.l': and otu<k<lr- ,n 1M
f˜"" for Irwtrn.a""lal ",...1,.", Un" <Of l"nwn-o,.,- oI llorm'''ld>a .

uppon I h••• r""n˜ from . "U"'..... oj
for ,hn _ Nil ...... I h••• hnon """,,11y lucky on ,
kncw.lnjgnt>lo. proln.1olOlUl. and ˜ pt<>plt•.'h rpe' h.ad Itu,drd "'. prot<Ct '0
.nnpWflllll w"h , .....u ..........rattrmnlt d VUI d,pkwTw.-,. Ako., c..m!>nd(tt t:",˜ ,.
rr....... I ..ould Llt.o rNnk Knry .\b˜ ...n1, X.n' '>no<1 Taylor, Je'an Uud.on . and ....
.., .ad by ˜,
(>rain of
T I'tftnno.-.. nu.mal Olatkn, Fu E. .
Thnr ."Om"''''''' .
" :.lIon,.c..rmoru C.....,.., ˜'ll..... Can... Parad, k " lu rd I.n
iau.lu..ohk ,n http'....... loITYN.nddarif"h.. panotrlwbook.
'l'hanJ<••I> '"I˜.n Ma n ,n. R..... P""...˜II 100 L.... S",,,h for .... I• •••".,,"'" and '0 " .......
On.1lJI for.h.nr "˜,or. nn 'M fin,.h,N prod ....... I ,,·oul..l aho kk, 10 rlunl< Camb,idjlt l:n;.""",.,
".... f...I""'·mll .... au:.... lo ,tot c...mbrid˜. r.......... _ al Corru..

A o ˜r " .he> u˜ Ih. ˜"• •.111''''' n. m. ,u˜"o'" on bow '.
n.l ••a.;
Imp.",,"', and.˜ tu .. hftn ..ry u..iul ;o P'<f"""lt . hi, ˜ ˜ "ion- Th onk you
for ...,ng ,II. I>clOk .n.J ,. k,ng Ih. lroubk 10 ...."'. '0 m•.

WIl" II>< h oo k i˜ for
The b"ok i, io,<oJed fOT aJvao,˜ "uJ nl" of Eo˜h,h , b<˜)k,
h i, wrifleo mdlnll' os a .d f-"",ly
but mighl al,o be u>eJ io d a" with a teach...

How the book i, orgaoised
Ther e are 100 uoit, io the l><w,k . Each ooe I,w>ks at a pa" icul...... 01 ˜ramm... S""", ""tioos
within each uo it fuc u, 00 the pa rticul" u>e ol a gcammarical pa" "'o, 'u,h os wi/I he + .ing (.,
in w,/lbe tr,,,,rlling ). O the" explore gcammarical cootra, t" , u, h as whet ....r 10 u'" would or
used to to repo" past e.en", or wheo we u'" ex cept or e",ep t {or. The 100 uoit> are gro uped
uoJ.,. a numbe r o f h. adlng. .uc h as Tm u. and The future, You ca n lioJ J eta il> 01 this in t....
COOleO" pag.e;"

Each u" it o;<"" i" , of two pag... 0 0 t.... left haoJ pa˜e a re cxplaoa""ns doJ example" 00 ,he
rei..... The lene.. next to each e..rci", ,huw you which >e<.1 'oo, " f the left
right ar. practic'e
hand pa ˜. l'OU n J TO understan d to do that exerei,.. The G rammar Rev,ew pre,. ots exampl..
anJ .. planalion, on are as of gramma r rhat you are likely to have "uJied alreadl' at earlier
"a˜•• o f I.arning Engli' h, Altho,,!;h rerm. t<> de""ibe grammar have 1>«0 kept to a minimum
"'m' h..e be.n ind oded, and y"U ca n lind expla"a, ion, of ,....... term, in the GI"'>ary. fou,
Appemlie., tell you al>o ", pa", i....rb form, . b.,ie' '1u",ion form., '1u"",ion, and irregula r
verb•. A oumber of AJditioo. 1Exereise••re i",-'Iuded f", fu" her pTaCliee of paTtieular atea,. You
cao uS<' rlx- Study (;u ide f<> help you J " ide which uoit> 10 "udy .od which .re.. of grammar to
revise io , .... Gcammar R..-iew. You cao ch"k your a",we" '0 ,.... prderi" e" re'..... Add"io ",,1
Exetc i",. and Study G o,J e in the l(ey. The l(ey ai,,, o;<>mmeots 00 ,,,,,,,, of , .... ao,wel"';. 1" ....Ip
you lind the infor mati"" l'OU need the re i, an InJ ex at , he back "f the b,˜>k,

How to use the book
It "nOl n"e'-ary ,,, work thro ugh ,he uoi" in order. If you know what ˜rammar I""nl> you
have difficulty with, go ' tra' gh" o ,he unit>, hd' deal with Ihem, U'In˜ ,he ('.oorent> <>T Index 10
help you lind the reieva", unit. If yo u th iok that it wou ld be u,efu l,o rev,,˜ more basi.
info,mat io" bef" .. you read , h. ref...nce material in a unit anJ J o th˜ exere'i,.., man ˜' units
hHe links ar rhe I>onom o f the , eferro",e page poiOling you ", Ihe ,ec,ion " f rhe Gramma r
R<1iiew where l'OU can lind Ihi,. In ,,,me units you will al", lind links I" the Gramma r Rniew
in the expl.na,i"n,; for eumple ' I"" GR :TIl r.

y"u edn u>< , he uoi" 10 a number of W'y' , You migitl >rudy rite explanation aold . xamples Ii",.
d" ,he e" ete"'" <>n ,he opl""i re p.˜e, check yo ur a o,we" ,n , he key, .nd Ihen I(˜ )k .gain at rhe
.-planation, if you made .ny mi. ,ak",. [I you IU" w.nr f<> pracri", dn drea 01 gram mar you
think yo u alreaJy know, yo u could do the exerei",. li" , .nd , hen "udy the e"pla od" on, lor
any you got wrong , You mighl of " )Ill'" ,i mpll' use the I>ook as. reference b<˜)k w"hout J oing
rhe exetci.., .

To the teacher
AJ,'˜ naJG,,,m,,,,,, m Uu ..... "'flUrn." ˜1f·.(uJy gramma' b"o k bu. ,.ach...., mijl,hl .lso
§nd """"lul l,,, .upplcmcn""II 'ot '''1'1'''"'''1\ ,fltLr d ."mom lu.:hing.

T˜ t..˜,k w,lI proNhly II< m..... ......h.1 1m •.1'0",10<1 10,,1 « ".len" In. rtfn.n"" and pro"-.",,,.
˜ Gra mma' Rn lCW "". ...1. , n., b. d , "I ,,,," l><...k ... ....!e ren q-.on ly <ttIi"" which p''''''''IS
.n.,"flI.ammar. Th i. w,lI he "",lui foo- ...U<lcn.. wno wi.h '0
boo.." kno wkJl';< on' nurn"', of
.""'... a p.rtKuLa • • ˜. boot,,« mov,,,,,,,," to 1M mon .J••ncN mo,...,.I," ,he umn.
S o .tt<mp( h• • """" m.<k to n.ok< ,Il< un," ."c ...d,n˜ to " .. tl of J,fh.ully. I" ..... J rou should
..Ira uni.... ,..." • ..., ",It..", 10 ,hr .,lld.... , hal you .r. foll......i"ll ",j<1> ,our "'OOent" 0' "
panicul•• diffiwltin ..i,...

llnt- .... mo."y way. in whl<h y"" m'llhl ..... tho hook .."h . d;..... You might, 10. cumplt.
˜ llor UpbnollOl'1' on tho Ion h.and p_ 01. unll, and the u."'i.... for d .."",,,,,m
pr˜ or .ct . hom .. m......1for ...-11 '''00,. Ah n.U1˜ly. you mog W3n' fO
hc&an w,. h,˜ ......,.... 3nd rd.... fO'˜ J h.anol P"1lit onl y w .....J..n.. art' ha˜,nr; probkm...
You <:oukl also .... p.>nk.",lar un•• or IVOUpo of un'" (, ,,,,h u ,,,,- on "met... or"fbr {tI,......
for ...If... udy if onoli...J....I .. uolm'. art' h.aw"'!t olli˜"'lIion..

n.r... .. a ... ci ...deL,.......J h can boe .,....J 10 p..md., p...ai<. .. of
....,˜............ of whor;h .
lVatnm..:lt poont< frum a numhtr <Ii ol.ttcnn< ""....

'" ·d˜ ...l,,,,,,,. 0/ Ad""""N G,..-". '" V... .. al... awalla...... I. hn no kty and ........
l.....n.n ˜ I'kk< '0 ""'" If wlIb ,˜" .....1m...

Advaoced E"9Ii˜ Grammar in U!>(' Srtond Edition
1/ you h.an al",aoly """,.I ,˜ fiN ...l,n" n ci Ad.",,,,,,,, G,..", " .. V you..-in ott..,..,.
.... 10< d'la˜ r ha Mn ....,....l oul
, h.. """ ...lm"". Thor """'" N.oc ...u 0/ lVa

01,,,, ...,n 10'0 a ...,ir........, ,"",,"'" .. ,boe ˜k , caill ol, ˜ G ramma, R..v "'I 01 tho
rtfco<noor J'IliIn h.a˜ br..n .1, _ ,ub.ran"ally. anol so """ """. h.a"" bttn
aoIJN. ..t"" of II.. ..˜' po.j\n h.a˜ ...."'<'Iy """ .....rei Of many """ q˜oon..

Thor hook is "","' a.a' Lobl< .."b or wir....... ' CD-RO M. On , '" CO· RO..t you " ';0 find
'""'" ..-...,..... on d of ,'" unol. lol,1tnC'nr iron> ,,,,- ,n hook ). -0......, a..., aka hundf'C'<h,
oI'nI '1......ion .. and ,.... un ma.... y<>Uf .....n ,nil. Thor CO-RO M can aka bt b<>ut;hr
in Use
Grammar review

Here is a summary o f common patterns to gether wit h exam ples o f verbs that are used
in thi s pattern. Note t hat man y verbs can be used in severa l different patterns, and that
so me o f the verbs given can be used just with an object, and may also be used
int ransitively (e.g. He failed to sto p, He failed the test, He failed).

F4 o T hey won't agree to pay for the dam age.
Verb + to-infinitive agree. aim. ask, decline, dema nd, fail, hesitate, hope , hurry,
mana ge, offer, plan , prepa re, refuse, want, wish
F5 o Stevens admitted stealing t he wallet.
Verb + -ing ad mit, avoid, cons ider, delay, deny, detest, dread, envisage,
feel like. fi nish, imagine, miss, recall, resent , risk, suggest
F. 0 Befor e we began eating/to eat my father th anke d
everyone fo r co ming.
Verb + to-infinitive or -ing begin, cease, continue, start
with little d ifference in
mea ning
F7 0 She came hurrying up the path to bring us the news.
F8 0 How did you come to bu y the car?

Verb + ro-infinirivc or -ing but co me, go on, mean. regret, remember, stop, try
with a difference in meaning
F. o My parents wou ldn't allow me to go to the part y.
a llo w, believe, cau se, co mmand, co nsider, enable, encourage,
Verb + object + to-infinitive
(= there must be an o bject) ent itle, force, invite, order, persuad e, show, teac h, tell, warn
FlO 0 I woul d hate (her) to give the job up.
Verb + (object) + to-infinitive hate, help , like. love, need, prefer, want, wish,
(= there may be an object )

F11 o T he police caught him driving without a licence.
catch, discove r, feel, find, hear, leave, notice, ob serve,
Verb + object + -ing
(= there must be an ob ject ) overhea r, see, spot
F12 0 I can't stand (him ) wearing a suit.
can't stand, detest, d islike, dread. envisage, hate , imagine,
Verb + (object ) + -ing
(= t here may be an ob ject) like, love. mind (in questions and negatives), miss, reca ll,
regret, remem ber, resen t, risk, start, stop
F1 3 0 She felt the m osquito bite/biting her.
Verb + object + bare feel, hear, notic e, ob serve. overhear, see, watch
infinitive or -ing, but t here
is sometimes a d ifference
. meaning.

act ive
In a n act ive clause or act ive sentence, the grammatical sub ject is the person or thi ng t hat performs the
action given in the ver b (e.g. Geoff wrote the book ). Com pa re PASSIVE.
adject ive
A wo rd that describes a noun te.g. a n interesting book) o r a pro no un (e.g. a red on e). G radable
adjectives ca n be used to say t hat a person or th ing has more or less of t his quality Ie.g. She's very
happy ), wh ile non-gradable ad jectives can't (e.g. It's impossible, We can't say ' It's very impossible' ).
Classifying adjectives say t hat something is of a pa rticular type (e.g. atomic. initial) . Emphasisi ng
adjectives stress how strongly we feel about something (e.g. complete nonsense}. Q ualita tive ad jectives
say wha t qualities a person or thing has (e.g. big, rich ). See also grad ing ADVERR'j and no n-grading

adjective phrase
A group of words where the main word is an adjective (e.g. it's extremely important; it wasn't strong
enough ).
A word that describes or gives more information (when, how, where. erc. l a bo ut a verb (e.g. He ran
quickly ), adjective Ie.g. a n extremely expensive ca rl. another adve rb (e.g. She did it llery easily). or
phrase (e.g. Th ey live ;ust across the road. ). Types of adver b inclu de : adve rbs o f ma nn er (e.g. slowly,
violently) which we use to say how something is do ne; con nect ing adverbs Ie.g. consequently, sim ildrly );
time adverb s (e.g. tomorrow, ,llrtady); place adverbs (e.g. upstairs, olltside); direct ion adverbs (e.g.
backwards , tl1fough ); com ment adve rbs (e.g. apparently, personally ) w hich we use to ma ke a comment
on what we a re saying; view point ad verbs (e.g. financially, politically ) w hich we use to make clea r fro m
what point of view we a re spea king; a d verbs of ind efinite freq uen cy (e.g. always, nel'l'r); degree adverbs
(e.g. completely, quite ) wh ich give info rmat ion a bo ut t he exte nt or deg ree o f so met hing; focus adverbs
(e.g. ;ust, el'en) which we use to focu s o n a pa rt icula r word o r ph rase. G radi ng adverbs (e.g. ex tremely,
l'ery) a re used w it h gradable ADJf.C11Vf.S. Non-grading adve rbs (e.g. com pletely, mainly ) a re used with
non-gradablc ADJECTIVf.S.
adverbia l
A word or gro up of words t hat says whe n, how, w here, etc. somethi ng ha ppens. They ma y consist of a n
ADVERB Ie.g. quietly), a I' RU ·OSITlO NAI. PHRASE (e.g. thr ough the door), a NOUN PIIRAS E (e.g. next we ek ),
or a n AOVf.RIIlAI. Cl. AlN:. (e.g. after Silt! left ).
adverbia l clau se
A type of subordi na te Cl.AUSf. tha t says when. how, w here, etc. so methi ng ha ppens (e.g. Before I went to
school this morning, I did my hom ework ).
affirmative se nte nce
A state ment (i.e. no t a quest ion) tha t is positive. not negative.
The person or thing that performs the action described in a verb. Usually it is the sub ject in a n active
clause a nd co mes after · hy...' in a passive clau se.
arti cle
The word the is the definite a rticle a nd the word a (an before vuwels ] is the indefinite arti cle. Wh en
there is no article before a noun we refe r to this as the zero article.
auxiliary verbs
The verbs be, have and do when the)' a re used with a main verb to fo rm questions. nega tives, tenses,
passive forms, etc. MOD Al. VF.RB\ are also auxiliary verbs.


clau se
A gro up of words that conta ins a verb. A cla use ma y be a com plete sentence or a pa rt o f a sentence. A
main cla use can exist as a sepa ra te sente nce, w hile a subordina te cla use ca nnot (e.g. If I see Ton)' at
wor k [= sub ord ina te cla use], I'll invite him over this evening 1 =main clau se /). Types o f cla use include:
since-cla use (e.g. I ha ven't seen him since we left schoo l); th at-clau se (e.g. She sa id that she was
thirsty ); wh-claus e (e.g. I asked Sand ra where she was going). it-clau se (e.g. It 's not surprising tha t
you ' re feelin g co ld ); w hat-clause (e.g. What I want to do is buy a bett er co mpute r); if-clau se (e.g. If
you leave now , you'll be home by 10.00); whether-clause (e.g. You have to ta ke the exam whether you
want to or not ); to-infinitive clau se (e.g. To become a docto r ta kes yea rs of st udy ); present parti ciple
H ng) clau se (e.g. Feeling hungry, I we nt into t he kitch en ); past pa rticiple f-ed ] clau se (e.g. Built during
the 1950s, t he buildin g is now in need of repair ); bein g + past participle (-cd ) cla use (e.g. Being
unem ployed, To m had a lot of t ime on his ha nds); ha ving + pa st parti cip le (-ed) clau se (e.g. Having
seen the do cto r, I went stra ight ho me). See also CO N D1110 N AL CLAUSE, NO :-.l-FINITE CLAUSE, RELATIVE

cleft se ntence
A sentence in w hich focus is given to eit her the subject or ob ject using a pattern beginn ing 'It...' [e.g. It
was my bro ther who lent me the money) or ' Wha t...' (e.g. Wh at you need is a ho lida y).
compleme nt
A word or phrase th at fo llows a LIS KING VERB and desc ribes the SUBJEC (e.g. Lind a is a lawyer) or
OBJEC (e .g . I found the food inedible ). A compleme nt ma y also be an ADVERBIAL or PREPOSm ONAL
PH RASE wh ich com pletes the mea ning of a verb. Some ve rbs need a com pleme nt (e.g. T he disease
o riginated in Britain; 'T he disease ori ginated ' would be inco mplete).
A co mpo un d noun consi sts of two o r more words toge t her used as a noun (e.g. a language schoo l). A
compound ad jective con sists o f two o r more words together used as a n adjec tive (e.g. Th ey were we/l-
co ndit iona l
A co ndit ional clau se usua lly starts w ith 'if', but other pa tterns a re possible (e.g. Had it not rained,
England wo uld ha ve won ). A co nditional sentence contains a co nd itional clause. A d istinct ion ca n be
made bet ween real co ndit ionals, w hic h suggest that th e sit ua tion is or was t rue, or ma y have been or
ma y beco me tr ue (e.g. If she ma kes a promise, she keeps it ) and unr eal co nditio na ls, w hich suggest
t ha t the sit ua tion is imaginary or unt rue (e.g. If yo u had asked me, I wo uld ha ve helped ).
conj unction
A wo rd such as and , but, if, while, after, because wh ich con nects words, phr ases, o r cla uses in a
sentence. Co mpa re SENTENCE CONNECTO R.
counta ble
A countable noun ca n be both singula r an d plural (e.g . cuplcltps ). An uncounta ble nou n doesn't have
a plural form (e.g. electricity, but not 'electr icities' ).
decla rativ e se ntence
A decla rati ve sente nce is a sta tement. In a decla rati ve sente nce the subject is followed by the verb.
det e rm iner
A word tha t goe s in front of a no un to ident ify w ha t the noun refers to (e.g. this, some, the, a/an,
each, all, my ). Possessive determine rs (also called po ssessive adjectives) a re words such as my, your
a nd their.
direct speec h
Speec h tha t is w ritt en using the exact word s of the spea ker, without an y change s. Compa re REPORTE D

Gloss a ry

dynam ic ver b
A verb tha t describes an act ion (e.g . walk, throw ). Com pa re STATE VERB.
impera tive
An impera tive clau se uses the bar e 1˜ F1NmVE for m o f a ver b fo r such things as giving o rde rs a nd
making suggest ions (e.g. Go 10 bedt s.
infin itive
The form o f a verb t hat usually goes after 'ro' , The form can be eithe r the to-infinitive (e.g. to sing, to
eat ) or the bare infinitive Ie.g. sing, eat ).
intransitive verb
A verb that doesn 't ta ke a n obj ect (e.g. She sm iled ). Compare TRAl"SmVE \'E RB.
invers ion
tha t the verb comes before the subject (e.g. Up wenl the balloon ).
Changing t he usual wo rd o rder \0

linking verb
A verb (e.g. be, become. appear ) that con nects a with its

moda l ve rbs
A grou p of verbs (can. could, dare, may, might. must, need, ought to. shall, should , will, would. uSt'd
to ) t hat give info rmation a bo ut such things as poss ibility, necessity, an d obligation. Semi-modal verb s
(ought to, used to, need, dare. had better. bare (got ) to, be able to ) have similar mea nings to moda l
non- affirm ative
Referring to a lack of pos itive, affirmat ive mea ning; for example, in most q uestions a nd nega tives.
However, quest ions which expect a pos itive re ply a re affirmative. Th e term s ' no n-asse rtive ' and
'asse rtive ' a re so metimes used fo r ' no n-af firma tive ' a nd 'a ffirma tive ' .
non - finit e clau se
A cla use w ith a non -finite VERB; either a to- infinitive form (e.g . I wa nt to leave soon ), a n -ing (present
participle) form (e.g. I caught him stealing my camera), or -ed (past pa rt iciple) form (e.g. We clea red up
the mess feft after the IJarty ).
A word that refers to a perso n, place, t hing, qua lity, etc. A collective nou n refe rs to a gro up of people
or things (c.g. aud ience, crowd , herd). See also COUNTABI.E NOUN.
noun phr ase
A group of words where the mai n wo rd is a noun (e.g. I've been talking to the woman across the road;
We spoke to several small children ).
The direct object is the pers on o r th ing affec ted by the act ion of the verb (e.g. I put the 1 ok
[= direct ob ject ) back on [he shelf) . T he indirect ob ject is the person or th ing who benefits fro m the
actio n or who receives something (e.g. I ga ve my mother [= ind irect ob ject ] some flowe rs
[= direct ob jecrj}. Compa re SUBJ ECT.
Th e present part iciple is the -ing fo rm of a verb te.g. walking, singing, eating ) used. for exam ple. in
continuous tenses. Th e past partic ip le is the -ed form of a verb (e.g. walked, SJng, eatm ) used. fo r
exa mple. in perfect tenses. A participl e ad jecti ve is one formed fro m the present or past pa rticiple of a
verb (e.g. the ca ndidates dppl ying, a brok en plate). A participle clause has a present participle o r past
pa rticiple verb form (e.g. Feeling unu'ell, he went to bed; The person appointed to the post wi ll have a
difficul t job to do).

22 1
Glossa ry

parti cle
An adverb or preposition tha t follows a verb in TWO - WORD VERBS and T IIR EE-WO RD VERBS {e.g. What
time d id yo u get in? [in =adverb]; I flicked through the magazine [t hro ugh =preposition]; She looks
up to her mother (up =adverb, to =preposirionj].
In a pass ive clause or passive sentence, the grammatica l subjecr is the perso n or thing tha t experiences
th e effect of the action given in the verb (e.g. T he book was written by Geoff). Compare AcnVE.
A performative is a verb whic h states the action that is performed when a speaker uses the verb (e.g. I
promise I' ll do it to morro w; I apologise ).
phrasal verb
A verb together with a follo wing ad verb and/or a preposition that has a single mean ing (e.g. set off.
look up to ). Compare ' I ran across Tanya at the co ncert' (= met unexpectedl y; a phrasal verb) an d 'She
ran across the road' (= a PREPOSITIO NAL VERB).
Th e possessive form of a noun ends in either -'s Ie.g. Mark 's car ) or -s' (e.g. the girls' changing roo m).
A wo rd such as in, on, or lJy t hat co mes befo re a noun, pronoun, noun phrase or -ing form (e.g. in
M arch, above my uncle's head, by investing ).
prepositional phrase
A gro up of words that con sists of a PREPOSITIO N an d its pr epositional object (a nou n, pro noun, noun
phrase o r -ing form ) (e.g. behind our house, across it ).
preposit ional verb
A verb an d a following preposition (e.g. believe in, consist of, look after). Co mpare PII RASAL VERB.

A word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase. Prono uns inclu de personal pronouns (e.g. I ,
she, me ), reflexive pronouns (e.g. myself, herself), possessive pronoun s (e.g. my, mine, your , yOllrs),
an d REI.ATIVE PRO NOUNS (e.g. wh o, which ).
A word or phrase t hat goes befo re a noun or noun phrase to ta lk abo ut the qua ntity of something
[e.g. a little water, man y of the women in the room ).
A wh-qu esrion begins with a WH -WOR D (c.g. Where are you going?). A yes/ no questio n is one that can
be answered with 'yes' or 'no' (e.g. Do )'ou like coffee?). An echo que stion repeats part of a previous
utterance and asks for a repetition of all or part of it (e.g. ' I' m moving to Alaska .' ' You 're moving
where?' ). We can ask an ind irect question by putti ng it int o a subordinate CLAUSE beginning with a
WH-WORD o r with if or whether (e.g. Can yo u tell me where you live?).

relat ive clause
A kind of subordinate C1.AUSF. that describes a no un tha t co mes before it in a ma in CLAUSE. A defining
relative clause says which person o r th ing is being talked a bout (e.g. A friend who lilies in London is
getting mar ried ). A non-defi ning relative clause gives more information abo ut the noun (e.g. M y
bicycle, whi ch I've left outside your house, is over 20 years old). A nom inal relative clause begins with
a WH -WORD or whatever, when ever, etc. an d functions as a NOUN PHRASE in a sentence (e.g. What 1
need now is a long, hot bat h). A reduced relative clause usually begins with an -ing (present parti ciple)
or -ed (past participle) form and has a similar meani ng to a relative clause (e.g. I mer the peop le living
in ou r old hou se 1= ...who live in our old hou se], T he new rules on ly affect peopl e born before 1950
[= ...who were born befor e 1950 ]).

relative pronoun
A pronoun such as who, wh ich, or that which is used at t he begin ning o f a relative clau se.
relative word
and ot hers (e.g. whereby, wh y ) that ca n begin a

reported speec h
Speech tha t is reported wit hout using the exact wo rds of the speaker. Sometimes called ' ind irect speech'.
reporti ng clause Et repo rted clause
A statement that reports wha t people think or say is oft en div ided into a reporting clause and a
reported clause (e.g. She said 1= reporting clause] that the building was unsafe [= reported clause j).
reporting verb
th at describes what people say or think (e.g. ask, claim, say).
A verb used in a REPO RTING ctAUSE

sentence connector
A word or phrase th at shows a connection between two separate sente nces (e.g. M y car isn't very
comforta ble. Hoioeoer, it's very cheap to ru n.: T he house is large and has a beaut iful ga rden. What 's
more, it's very close to the srano n.). Compare CONJUN CTION.
simple sentence
A sentence co nsisting of one clause.
state verb
A verb tha t is used to describe a state (e.g. believe, think ) ra ther tha n an action. Co mpare DYNAMIC

The persoll or th ing that docs the action o f the verb [e.g. Tom my went hom e). Compa re O BJ ECr.

T he subjunctive is a set o f verb for ms used ma inly in ra ther formal English to talk about possibilities
rather than facts. Th e present subjunct ive uses the base form of t he verb (e.g. We suggest tha t she leave
immediately) an d the past subjunctive uses were (e.g. If I were you, I'd go home now).
tran sitive verb
A verb that takes an object (e.g. She was holding a bunch of flowers). Compare !!"'frn ANSm VF. VERB.

t wo- word verbs Et three-word verbs
Verbs tha t are co mmonly used with a particular PARTICLE (adverb or preposition ) are referred to here as
two-wor d verbs (e.g. She look ed afte r her elde rly parents). Verbs that are co mmonl y used with two
particular particles (adver b + prepo sition ) are referred to here as three-word verb s Ie.g. He luuk ed up to
his older brothers). See also I' REPOSITIO NAI. VERB and PHRASAL VERB.
A finite verb has a tense (e.g. She waited; She is waiting for y o u'. N on-finite verb form s arc INFlNmVE
(e.g. He came to see me) and PA RTIClPI.E for ms (e.g. Shout ing loudly, I was able to mak e myself hea rd;
Built in 1980, the tower is still the tal lest const ruction in Europe).
verb phrase
A group o f word s co nsisting of une or more verbs (e.g. gives, is giving, has been giving ).
wh-wo rds
A group of wo rds (who, wh om , wh ose, where, when, wh y, how ) that a re used in Wh - QUESTIO NS.

with and with out -ly 142
ad jective + -ingl lhat1:lausd
see ,,1 com para tive fo rms;
ala n, the, and zero article lo-inflnilivdwh1:la usc 140
˜( ncra hsati tlns about da˜..n of il + linking verb + ad iect ive (+ to- supe rlative forms
infinitive) 140 ad vice 40, 78
Ih inl': 90
il + mak e + adjcaive (+ to- a f!irmalive semences 2 19. 22 1
geogra phical area s 90
inflnirivd -ingl tha H lause) 140 agem 2 1'J
holida ys, seasons, da ys o f the
.....eek, and f˜tiV3 ls 94 Yr oJl$o passive forms
position o f
agreernen r, suh ject and verb
io hs/joh lit b 91 addinonal exe rcise 238
mean s o f tr an sport and hefu relafter nou n 132 d.1 usc. as sub jC\. : 80
co-ordinated nuun v phrases. as
com mcnica uon 94 class ifying ad jecnves 132
em phasis ing adjectives 132
n,l m ("l of people 92 su bject 112
nouns both cou ntable and collective noun s 80
grammar review 2 16
with linking verbs 132 com plex subject 80
ullI;ounlab l(' 90
˜alnJIrd;ucd words joinnl by qualiearive ad jectives 132 tktermi llCTS 82
red uced relative cla uses 132 how lha cb"'heft + belhave 82
pr eposition 94
items joined by (either) ••. o r or
spn:ific I 'ffSU S gene ral 94 stu dy guide 248-49
with s upe rlative aJ ja."'ti,"("l 92 types of 2 t 9 (neithal .•• no r 82
˜ also compa ra tive fo rm s;
wilh there + M 190 mc:.asurcmcnl1am<lU nl/ ttu:.a nril)',
t hin˜ wit h s i n˜uJa r verb 84
compound ad jecrives, pa n id pk
that are ueiq ce 90
nameVlitks ending in ˜ 110
this, in srones and ink" 92 adjectives; supe rlative fo rms
ti˜ of day a nd nil4h1 94 adve rbial clauses no uns end ing in ·s 84
addit ion.al exe rcise 138 suh j«t, posiliun of 80
alan and o ne
IhCTe + bclhave 82
ahhrrvial ion s 88 con tra st s 164
C'x pr˜Si(HlS defininon o f 2 19
in numhc-r u3mil y
/q whar -cla uce, ;u suhiC\.t 80
:.all (00 . whole, every, each
8H st udy guide 250
o ne •••olhcr/ ano lhcr pattern 8S len ses in 21 7 time ex pressions 102
o f time 158
pa nkular. hUI unspecified " 'ho lcJrn lirt , hefort no uns 102
adverbial ph ra ses, as com plemen t amt lllMan d between 1711
pc-l'w nl,hinw'evC'OI 88
with p""''oC'!Osivcs 811 amounts 104
:.a ny su som e and :.any
before singuJ. co unta ble no uns
u adverbials
8H adverb as 2 19 apost rn phl". fnr p<lSsessivcs 2 10
before .....wchlcon«lm3nr S 88 adverbial clause as 2 19 a n icks
abb reviations 1111 dt'finit inn tlf 2 19 additional e xercise 235-36
inve rsion afte r neg ative 200
ahilify dl·finili" n Ilf 2 19
he able 10 30 no un phrase as 2 19 gramm a r review 2 11
stu dy guide 245-46
ca n/co uld 30,34,204.105 participle clauses 116, 118
see also al an, the, and aero arti cle
acade mic wrilinlt prepositional phrase as 2 19
few and lill ie 104 adverbs a ux iliary ver bs 2 19
a nd adjectives, use of 2 16 in inversion l 'JlI
may 34
l ea \' in ˜ words ou t afte r 128
de finition of 219
much (of). many (uf) 100
he as ma in verb ill previous
formation of 142
preJlt" ilion al phra ses 114
participle adjecti ves in -ed,
such th.n, ltl introd uce ,I result cla use/sente nce 1211
ad ve rbia l fo rm of 142 have as ;l\l xiliary + don e 1211
' 62
panicles 222
act ive (1'1"$ 11$ pa ssi ve ) fo rm s 44, moda l au xilia ry + dulbc 128
46,48, 2 19, 224 ph rasal verbs 222 more tha n one au xiliar y 128
position of
aJ Ji n!\ information no a uxiliar y 1211
conjuncrion v 174 add itiona l ex ercise 238 su bstit ute do 1211
noun phr;lSl:s 1 12,1 14 aft er objec t 148 negative quest io11s 54, 207
sun..tilute sO an d no r 12 4
prepositional phrase'> 114 com ment adv erbs 150. 156
see oJlso mod;, l verbs
connecting adverbs 150
senrence con necrors 174
degree adve rbs 150, 154
ad jectives
and ad verbs, usc o f 142. 2 16 foc us adverbs 154 B
frequenc ad ver bs 148. I SO, 152
J ctlnilio n of 2 19 hare in!initive 22 1
lo ng ad verh ials 1411 b..-i nM+ pasl parti ciple cla use 220
easily confused 2 16
bet ween and among 178
gradahle and non-grada ble 134 and meaning 148
more tha n o ne ad,'crhial 148
borh senses 136
o rder of events 150 C
d ass il),ing ad Jn :t is'n 136
ca n ˜ ah ihty ; perrmssion;
diffe ren t senses 136 pla ce an d direction adverbs 150.
good andllovdy and/nice and ... pos si"ilily
cha nge, prO(˜s o f 42
time ad verbs 150 ,1 52
+ grada ble ad jective 136
' choos ing' verbs. 611
view po int adverbs 150
gra mm3r review 2 16
more an d mo re + ad jectiv e 136 pre posinooal phu,ses. ad verh ial dnsifying adjectives 132. 134 ,
nat ionality a din;tiv˜ 136 136, 21 ,}
usc o f 142
q u.!lira tive adjectives 136 stud )' guide 2 48 -49 da usn
p.:I ttt' ms 3fter linki ng ver bs ty pes o f 2 19 de finilion o f 220

srudy guide 247 prlosc nt perfect co ntinuous/preMont very, 100 154
types o f 220 perfect 12 determine rs 220
cleft sente nces 196, 220 will/would 32 gr ammar review 2 11-12
clima te 90 condi nonal clauses study guid e 24 5-46
collective nouns 1\0 22 [
, direct obj ect SR,22 1
definition of 220
colon 174, 226 real and un real cond itio ns see also comple me n t; oh jC(t;
colour ad jectives 122 2 17- 1S,220 rra nsinv e/in rra nsinv c verbs; verb
real conditionals, tenses in 20,
co mma 226 com pleme nrarion
co mment adverbs 150, 156 , 219 166, 16S, 172 , 21 8 dire ct speech 220
comp arative fm ms 2 17 direction ad verbs 150, 152, 19R,
unreal co ndi t ionals, tenses in 166,
ad jectives with corn parn nve/ 170, 172 , 21 8 2 19
super lat ive meaning 144 co nd itiona l se n tences 22 0 d isapp ro val 168
com pa rative adjec tives, linking 'dislikingt verbs 60
conjunctions 174
with ao.\ 136 sentence connecto rs 174 dista nce 104
mo re + o ne-syllable adject ive 144 conjunctions du, afte r negativ e adv erbinls 20 0
sec also auxiliary ve rbs;
more/l ess + rwo-syllahle ad jectives additiona l exe rcise 23 8-9
con ditions 174
144 substitution
on e-syllable ad jectives an d ddini tion o f 22 0 d ynamic ver bs 22 1
adverbs + -er 144 no un phrases, adding info rm at io n
phrases and cla uses to I 12 E
-cd cla u ses see past part iciple
as + adjecti ve + alan + nou n reasons and resu lts 174
each see all (of), whole, every, eac h
146 study guid e 250
as + adjective/ad verb as 146 timc 174 ,2 17 echo q uestions 54,222
go so/as far as + to-infinitive connecting adverbs 150, 2 19 em phasising ad jectives 132, 2 19
every sn' all (of), who le, every , each
146 conrrasriug
Il:SS + adjective + tha n 146 alt hou gh, though, while and exceptions 182
as liul d few as 146 whils t, with particip le clauses excla ma tion ma rk 226
as m uch/many as 146 cxpccrurions 40
nnr + ad jccrivc/ ad vcrb + eno ugh although and thou gh 164
+ to -infinitive 146 conju nctio ns 174
so + adjective/ad verb + as + to- even tho ugh and even if 164 festiva ls 94
intinirive 146 senre ncc connec tors 174 few, little, koss, and few er
so + ad jl"(.1:ivel advl.'rb + that- (a) few, (a) little, ;15 pronou ns
in spill' o f the fael tha t 164
clause 146 wh ile/ whereas 164 1114
sufficiently + adjective 146 the few , the lin k + noun, as 'nor
while/ whilsl 164
too + ad jective + alan + no uo could sec a bility; pe rm ission; enough ' [04
146 possibility; rqlurting; unrea l past few + person al prono uns 104
100 + ad jec tive/ adverb + to- few and little, as informal
'ountabldun'o unta ble noun s
intinirivc 146 definiti on of 220 alternatives 104
see also few, little, less, and fewer gene ralisat ions ab out classes of less (th'ln) and fewer (Ihan) 104
com plaining 12 a little, as informal ale-m auv e
things 90
complcmcur grammar review 209 104
with therc + be 190
aJ verbial phrases as 220 what few/w hat lirrlc, as ' rhe sma ll
sec also alan, the, and zero a rticle; (num b... /a mount )' I G4
definition of 220 r
fewer see few, lillie , less, and fewer
and linki ng verbs 42, 220, 221 alan an a n ne; agre ement, subject
and object 22 0 a nd verb; all (of), whole, every, finite verbs 223
ea ch; few, linle , less, an d fewer; focu s adverbs 154 , 2 19
prep<Jsitiona l phrase as 220
and subjec t 220 mu ch (o f), many (o f), a 101 of, fo,usiug
transitive/intransitive verbs 56 lots (o f); o n e and o nes; SOOle fro nti ng, fo r emp has is 198
see <115" verb compleme nta tion and any it-cla uses 196
compo und adjectives 138, 220 cr uic ising 12 wh-cla uscc 196
w ha r-clnuses I ˜6
might/ could + have + paSI
compo und no uns
counta ble compo und nou ns 1\6 parlkiple 34 frequency ad ver bs
de finition of 220 negative ques tions 54, 207 wit h ha ve 10 36
gra mma r review 21 0 wilVwo uld , usc o f 32 indefirure frequency 2 19
pasl conti nuous with 4
hyphen ated phrases, b fore noun s
86 posit io n of 14S, ISO, 152
nn un + nou o 1\6 present connnuous wi th 4
dash (-) 174
no un + preposition + nou n 1\6 days o f the w e k 94 fuJI stop 226
on e wo rd, sepa ra te wo rds, futur e continuous
dec lara tive sen te nces 220
hyphenated 210 defining rela tive clauses 222 arranged even ts/activities 22
plural forms !i6 grammar review 204
see <llso relative clauses
posses sive form s !i6 detinue article 2 19 imagining what is hap pening
set'also a/ au, the, a nd zero article
two- an d three-word verbs, nouns around no w 22
related to 86 degree adver bs 2 I 9 pa rtic ular po int in futu re, relat ing
conclusi ons, dr awing m uch, very m uch 154 sta rt o f event to 22
grammar review 205-6 repeatcdlr egula r events 22
wi th owing 10 160
must 36, 74 posi lio n of 150, 154 willin gness, avo idin g 22

il + verb . obj ect • ro-in finuivc
future events a fter certai n verbs 172
addi tiona l exercise 23 I a fter prepo sition 172 clau se 192
he abou t to + infinitive 24, 26 il + verb + that -clause 191
in clau se act ing as subject or
he goin g In + infinitive 20, 166, il + verb + In-infinitive cla use 192
complement 172
noun + ad jective + as 10 wh et her
203 no t as a lternative to noun as
be to + mfinuive 24 172 subject 191
co mmo n phrases fo r ta lking about possihiliries, talki ng a bou t 172 wh ere subjec t is to-infi nitive , that -
clau se, wh-clause or -ing clause
16 repo rt ing yes/ no questions 64
gramma r review 20 3-4 hd ore to-in finitiv e 171
past a nd present co ntinuo us for wheth er ... or not 171 it-clauses 4 8, 196, 1 20
intent io n II if-clauses 120
p ossibility, can/ co uld 30 J
afte r wou ld/wo uld like lJO
futu re events 24 jo hs/jo h t ides 92
present conti nuous for 20
inve rsio n instead nf 19K
gra mmar review 20 4
sho uld, were, had, and o mission
info rmal arran gement s 22 L
less St'e few, little, I ˜s, an d fewer
present sim ple fo r of if 168
co ndino na l clauses 20 without mai n clauses 168 lin king veri'S
adjective patterns with UH, 140,
see also co nd it iona l clauses
fixed events 20
gra mm ar rev iew 20 3 imagina ry sit uations 31, 1 18 16'
if· cla uses 24 impe rative clauses 42, 166, 1 2 1 beco me and get 41
' be oming'verbs 42
supposc/s upposjng/w har if ... indefinite a rt icle 1 19
20 see ateo alan, the, and zero article 'bei ng'verhs 42
indirec t obje ct 58, 11 1
rime clause s 20 a nd complem ent 42, 11 0, 1 21
see <1150 o bject; verb
rea l co nditio na ls 166 go and ru m 41
'sITming' verbs 42
seen f W IIl t he past complementation
be supp osed 10 2 8 indirect questio ns 22 2 stu dy guide 242-43
inte nt io ns 26 see <llso reportin g supe rl.lIives 144
indirec r speech 113
re porting 28 little see few, lin k , less, a nd few er
see IllsfJ reporting
wa s/ were to + infinitive 211
wa s/w ere to have + past in tinirive for ms 11 1 M
ma in clauses
inst rucrion s 24 , 166, 196
particip le 28
definition o f 22ll
shall/shan'r ucrsus will/won'! 26 gra m ma r review 1 04-5
if-clau ses, without ma in clauses and relative clau se 11 2
stu d}' guide 24 1
verbs + tu-infinirive, for intenti ons ma nne r; ad verbs o f 148, 2 19
26 intent io ns 26, 7H ma y see possibility
will + infinitiv e 203 inrcrru pred past actions/events 8 might see possibility; un real past
will and be go ing ro 18, 20 int rans itive ver bs see mod a l ver bs
futu re perfect rransirive/in rmnsinve verbs ad ditiona l exercise 23 1-32
and futu re pe rfect co ntin uo us 22 introducing new mpic 196 au xilia ry verbs 2 19
passive fnrm 22 4 IIIV CrSIO n definition o f 21 1
future sim ple 22 4 additio nal exe rcise 139 gra mmar review 204-6
with pcrforrnanves 2
adve rbs u f direc tion of moveme nt

G repllr ling to repo n ed cla use,
gene ralisations 90 a fter negative adv erbials 200 summary of cha nges 74
slUd˜' gu ide 241
geog ra phical areas 90 a fter neither and nor 20 0
glossary 2 19-23 a fter lime adve rbs 151 much (of), many (o f), a lot of, lOIS
going 10 see will and be goin g 10 fro m ing, for em phas is 19H (o f)
grada blc adjecnves 1.14, lJ6, 2 16, with here co mes, there g ill 'S 19H mu sl
instea d of if-clau ses 198
219 dr awi ng concl usions 36
with so + ad jective 1 00
gr ading ad verhs IJ 4,2 19 form al rules, reg ulat ion, and
with suc h + be, for emphasis of warnings ,16
H extent/ degree 200 an d hav e (got) to 36, 205-6
have (got) 10 36, 205 -6 with as and th a n, in com par isons must/m ust n't , in repo rt ing 74
having + past particip le (-cd) cla use nccd tn't ], don't have In , mustn'l
62, 116, 220 o f verb and subjec t 21 1 206
hol idays 94 irregu la r verbs 117-18 pro posing future arrangements 36
however 174
il is/ wa s no there is/ was no

' names, of people 80, ˜2
-ing (preSt'n t part ici ple) form as ohlect of verb 194 na rrative 64
gra mma r review 21 4- 15 orting with passive for ms 50 na tionality adjectives 1.16
no n-finite cla uses 22 1 with view poin t ver bs 194 necessity 205-6
prepositiona l object 222 it, irnrod ucm ry need
red uced relative clauses 221 ill formal writt en English 311
to foc us attenti on on se ntence
cle ment 192
see <llso partici ple ad jectives: ver b need(n 'I), don 'I have 10 , mu sm 'r,
ir + he + adjective/ nou n 192 don 'I need 10 38, 206
co mplc menra riou
il + verb + obj ect + that-cla use
if, in co mp arison cla uses 168 as ordi nar y t 'erSlf 5 moda l verb 38
if and whet her 192 in qu estions 38

negat ive qu estions 54, 207 add itiona l exercise 230-31
newspape r writing participle adjectives 22 1 inten tio ns not carried o ut 10
be to + infinilive, fo r events likely -ing and -ed forms, as a dj ecrives ordering past even ts 10
rep ort ing pas t events 10
to happen 24 13'
participle clau ses, use of 112 a fter nou ns, redu ced rela nves 138 review o f use o f 16
past perfect co ntin uous, use of 14 in com pound adjectives 138 tim e cla uses 6
no, nonetof], and nor any 911 with mu ch, very mu ch 154 past perfect continuo us
position of 138
nominal rela tive clauses 108 ,222 add itio na l exercise 230-3 1
see also relat ive clauses that/those before 138 gr amma r revie w 203
non-a ffirma tive mea ning 22 1 pa rticiple clau ses inte nt ions not ca rried ou t 10
non -defining relative cla uses ac tive and pass ive in noun phrases past pe rfect and past continuous
for ad ding infor mation 106 112 ac riviry in progr ess recently
versus finished 14
definition of 222 wi th adverb ial meani ng 116
pa rticiple clauses, use o f instead cont rasting 164 number of times so mething
of 112 defini tion of 221 ha ppen ed 14
having + participle, and timing of
prepositional ph rases 114 part icula r past time, relati ng
wh ose, claus es with lOll action 116 events to 14
set' also relative clause s im plied subject, and subject of review of use of 16
sta te verbs 14
non -finite cla uses 221 ma in cla use 116
non-finite ve rbs 22 3 not, posit ion of 116 pa st sim ple
with ow n subjec t 116
nou-grada ble adjectives 134 , 1.16, gra mmar review 202
use of pre positions with 118
2 16,2 19 passive for m 22 4
paruclples 221
non-gradi ng adv er bs 134 , 2 19 and pa st con t inu ous 4, ll, 10, 16
an d past per fect 10 ,1 6 , B0-3 1
noun phrases pan icles 188,222
ad ding inform ation to 112 and present perfect 6, 230
passive fo rms 222
conj unc tions 112 active pattern s 44,46 past subjunctive 22 3
namel y, use of 112 addit ional exe rcise 2_12-33 as il were 170
particip le cla uses 112 ag ent, o mission of 411 unreal conditionals, were in if-
'appoin tin gt verhs 44
prepos itiona l phrases 114 clause 170
'giving' verbs 44 wer e, fur imagi nary situations
th at is, use o f 112
ro-infinuive cla uses 112 gramma r review 206 - 7 170
complements 42 it-clause as s ubject o f 48 were, in comparisons 170
dl'li nilion of 22 1 ' Iiki ng/wa nti ng' verbs 46 perfect fo rms 16
mod al verbs 224
nom ina l relative clauses 222 performarive verbs
no uns ' naming' verbs 44 definition of 22 2
additional exercise 234 - .15 re po rting with 50 present sim ple 2
definition of 22 1 study guide 242-43 permiss ion 34, 38, 204
'te lling' ver bs 44
study guide 245 co uld, be allo wed to 30
see also co mpound nouns; tenses 224 pe rso na l pron ouns 222
countable/uncou nta ble no uns topic emp hasis 48 pc rr.uading 54
rra nsinve two- an d three-word
num ber exp ressions !Ill phrasa l verbs
verbs 44 definition of 222
o verbs wirh related nouns 48 word order 188
see also two- anJ thr ee-word
object past contin uous
and complement 220 verbs
with adv erbs of frequ en cy 4
definit ion of 22 1 place ad verbs 2 19
as/when/while 158
pos it ion o f in two - and th ree- g ra mmar review 203 possessive de termine rs 22 0
word verbs 188 passive fmm 224 po ssessive n ouns 2 ID- I I, 222
transitive verbs 223 past perfect con tinuous, and pas t pos sessive pron ouns 210, 222
see also transit ive/intra nsitive perfect 14 pos sibility
and past simpl e 8, 16
verbs: verb com plementation ca n and co uld 30, 34
intentions not ca rried our 8, 10
obligations 40, 206 gramma r review 204
offers 18, 72 , 166 , 204-5 in nar ratives 8 may and might 34 , 205
one and ones past events in succes sion 8 predictions 18
with co untable noun s 122 past events over sa me period 8 preferences 170
inc lus ion o f 122 prepos ition alo bjects 5 8, 222
repea ted past action s K
not used afte r nouns used as past pa rtic iple t-ed) 220,221 preposi tion al phrases
a djec tives 122 gra mmar review 2 15 as co m pleme nt 220
definit io n of 222
omission o f 122 non -finite clause 22 1
with possessive det ermin ers 122 red uced relative clause 222 prepositio nal verbs 222
see also pa rt iciple adjec tives. see also phrasal verb s; I W O - and
referring ro people 122
seealso alan and on e participle cla uses thr ee-word verbs
opi nions 62 past perfect prepositio ns
or ders 24,72, 78 grammar review 203 add itional exercise 23 9
orga nisations, nam es of 80 passive for m 224 af ter no uns 186
org anising information 25 1 past perfect contin uous, and pas t af ter verbs 184
ou ghl to sce should and ought 10 co n rm uous 14 defini tion o f 22 2
and past simple pa rticles 222

type s o f 222
ph rasal verbs 222 relat ive pronouns
of place 17S definit ion of 222, 223
purposes an d results
of pos ition and movem ent 176 in order /so as + to-infi nitive 162 omi ssion/inclusion of 106,1 10,
reason s, giving 160 in order thai an d so that 162 1'0
in relativ e clau ses 110 so + adjective/ adverb + that-clau se as subject/object o f relative clause
sllldy guide 25 I 146 106
of time 180 suc h that. in suc h a way th at, relative words 223
present and past time, review 16, such ' .. tha t 162 a/t he reason why/tha t 108
zzs nomin al relative clau ses. with
who/what 108
present co ntinuo us Q
qualirarive adjectives 132, 136, 219
with ad verbs of frequency 4 what ever. whoe ver, whichever
for futu re events 20, 22, 204 qua mi fiers 108
gram ma r revie w 202 definition of 222 when , wher eby, wher e, why 108
inte n tio ns 26 grammar review 2 1I . 2 12- 13 whose, cla uses with 10 8
passive form 224 stud )' guid e 245-46 reported speech 223
and present simpl e 2,4,16 with an d without 'o f' 2 12, 21 3, reporting 64
addirionul exe rcise 234
present part iciple (-ing) 220, 221 214
quantity expressio ns 1l4, ss gra mm ar review 209
see also participle ad jectives;
modal auxili ari es 74
see also so me and any
participl e clau ses
q uestio n form s 225
pr esent perfect negative form s 64
gramma r review 202- .1 gramma r review 207 of ferslsuv.gest ions/orders/
pas sive form 224 indi rect questions 222 intent ions/requcsts 72
no nega tive que stions 54
a nd past sim ple 6, pas sive forlll s 44
study guide 242-43 punc tuation for 226
and present pe rfect cont inuous
12,1 6, 230 with that-clauses 54 q uestions 64
real cond it ionals 166 types of 222 quotation s 64
see also w h-q uc
pr esen t pcrfIXt continuous stions; yes/ no study gu ide 24 4
gr ammar review 20.1 re use cho ice in 70
q uestions
pas sive form 224 qu est ion mark 226 that-claus e 66. 72, 76
question tags 207 usin g ad jectives 76
a nd present perfect
usin g no uns 76
ac tivities in progr ess un til quotation ma rks 226
recently 12 repo rtinwrcported clause s 64,72
definition of 223
additiona l exe rcise 230
conclusions fro m what can he past tenses 70
real con dinonals
seen/heard etc, 12 if-clau ses 166, 168 present suh jun<:t ive 78
repo rting verbs 64, 22J
recently com ple ted ev ents 12 real and unreal con ditions
2 17- 18, 220
repeated I't'rSIIS on e-off ac tivit ies requests
12 tenses in 20. 166, 168. 172 , 2 1l! grammar review 204-5
res ult s of circ umstances/activities un less and if not 172 j f-cla uscs
12 reasons reporting 72, 78
review of use s of 16 cleft sentences 196 will and be jloinjl to 18
co n junctions 174
sit ua tio ns existin g until present
12 prepositions I IH, 160 S
sente nce con nec tors 174 seaso ns 88 , 94
presen t simple
reduced relati ve cla uses 1.12, 138,
con te n ts of hook s/films etc. 4 sem i-colon 174
m semi-mo al verbs 22 I
fo r fut ure eve nts 20, 24, 166,
172,203 gram mar review 204-6
sec also relative clauses
gra mmar review 20 2 reflexive pronoun s see also mod al verbs
intent io ns 26 de finitio n of 222 sen se verb s 30
for emp hasis 120
newspape r head lines 4 sen te nce con nec tors 174. 223
passive form 224 short answe rs 124
for mality 120
phrases intro ucin g news 4 grammar review 2 15
d should a nd ought to
he supposed to 206
and present co ntinuo us 16 incl usio n/omission o f, with some
verbs 120 expect ations 40
immeJi'lc y 4
in verb + o bject + ad jective ha d bencr, in spoken English 40
life co m me ntaries 4
ohli galiol1s1rccommend,ltions 40
men tal sta tl's 2 com ple m en t structu re $6
perfcrmanve verbs 2 regret 170 qaestions/rcqu cst s fo r
sta le verbs 2 co nfirmatio n or advice 40
relanve clauses
add ition al exe rcise 236-37
reul co nd itio na ls 166 regr et/cri ticism 40
defining 106, IOH, 112.222
tim e cla uses 6 should and sha ll 40
present subjuncnve n, 223 definition of 222 sim ple se ntences 223
sim ple versus continuous form s,
gram mar review 2 14
present tenses, in re pon ing and
s u m mar ˜' of uses of 16
reported clau ses 70 nominal 108, 22 2
product nam es 92 non -dcfinm g 106, 108,1 12, 114, since and for 12, 14
zzz since-c lauses 220
promises IS
pronouns prepositions in 110 some a nd any
reduced 132, 138, 222
definiti on of 222 with hefore 96
study guide 24 7-48 slUdy guide 247 ' appro ximately' 96
28 6
Ind ex

study guide 243-44
with com pa risons 96 wh -, to-infinitive or -ing cla use
su mma ry o f commo n pat terns
general sratemcnrs ab out wh ole 190
' Ihinki ng'verbs .10, 60 20 7-R
classes of t hin gs 96
verb + -iug or bare infinitive 60
gr ammar review 2 11-12 three-wor d verbs SCI' two- and
verb + objec t + hare infinitive 60
with negative words 96 three-word verbs
ve rb + object + to -infinitive 62
non -affirmative co nte xts 96 nm e adverbs 2 19
nun-specific, u n s pL˜ i fi ed Ihings 96 verb + object/po ssessive + ing 60
time clauses
ve rb + pr eposition + obje t + to-
odure plural a mi uncountable conjunCiio ns 174 c
tenses in 2 17 infinitive 62
no uns 96
verb + ttl ha ve + pa st partici ple
slro ng and weak forms 96 times, o f day and night 94
rirles, of newspape rs, books, films
unknown/unim porra nr person or 62
verb + to (preposition) + in˜ 60
th ing % '0
St'e aim transitive/in tr ansitive
stall: verbs 2, 12, 14,1 66 , 223 to-infinitive
subject with co me and g ro w 42 verbs
definiriun uf 220
an d com plement 220 verb phrases 22 3
leavi ng out 130
definition of 223 verbs 22 1, 223
it-cla use as 4S with linking verbs 140 viewpoint adverbs 156, 2 19
non-finite cla uses 22 1
passive, uses of 4S
placement o f long 4S no un phrases, add ing informa tion W
wh-clauvcs 220
relative pronou ns as 106 ttl 112
whu ur what as 52 focusing 196
sec ulsfJ verb comple mcmarion
sec a/so ag rcvmcnn invers ion tra nsitive/int ra nsit ive verbs 56 with linking verbs 140
verbs wit h 611
suhiu nctive 223 gra mmar review 207
past 170 im plied objec t ,S6 wh-q uesrion s 52,222, 223
present 7!l intrans itive verbs 56, 22 1 auxili ary verb 54
su bordmarc clauses 220,222 passives, gra m mar review 206 how J nJ wh at 52
see .lIm adverbial clauses; rela tive transiti ve or int ransit ive verbs 56 repo rting 64
tran sitive verbs 56, 223
cla uses with that -cla uses 54
t wo- and thr ee-word verbs, word
substitution wha t 52
10, for to-in finlrive clau se 130 Imle r 188 which 52
additional exercise 237 sec u1 ve rb co mplemen tati on
so who 52
do 128,200,207,2 16 two - and three-word verb s whum .52
do so and such 126 definition of 223 whose 52
see u/so negati ve questio ns
so and nor 124 particle in 222
stud y guide 247-48 posit ion of prepos itions in 110 wh-words 222, 223
suggestions 54, 72, 7R, 20 7 word orde r 111 8 whar-clauves 80, 196 , 220
superla tive forms whether Sl'C if a nd whether
the + ad jective with -eSI 144 whet her-clauses 220
the + mos t + adjective 144 uncertainty 76 whole SI'C all (of), whole , every .
of + plural no un phrase, a fter un chan ging states 12 eal:h
will, would and used ttl
u ncounta ble nouns see
superlative 144
in + singula r nou n ph rase, af te r churac rcns ric behaviou r/ha bits .12
co ulltabldunClluma ble nouns
supe rlati ve 144 un less and if nor 172 conc lusions/ass urn ptionv 32
adjectives with alan, the, a nd zero unrea l co nd itiona ls crit icism .12
article 92 bu t fur 166 gra m mar re view 20 4-5
most + ad jcl:t ivd aJ vcr b 144 if + past sim ple 166 repeated eve nts in past 32
noun + o f which I 10 rea l and unre al conditions unreal pas r situa tions 32
n z-rs.zzo willa nd he loIoiolol lO
T unlt:ss and if nu t 172 he lIoin).: to + go/com e 20
co nd ition al se ntences III
we re in if-clause 166, 170
grammar review 202-4 de cisions 18
unreal pas t
might/co uld have + pasr participle
stu dy guide 240-4 1 forrna lityJinformali ty 18, 20
that-cl ause 22 0
s offcrslrequ estsl prOlllises 18
would have + paw participle 32 ,
passive semen....es 48 plarmeJll ikcl y events 18,20
zis pr edic tions III
reporting 66, 72, 76
should in 7ll used to willingness 22
wh-q ucstio ns with 54 gram mar revie w 204-5 works of art 92
the sec ala n. the, and zero oni dc would SCI' if-clauses; will. would
repea ted eve nts in past 32
ther e + he in rep ortin g 74 and used to
cha nge of topic , rupic Known to
lisreuer/ reader 190 V
verb com plcmc mation ycs/no quest ions 64 , 222
ir nroducmg topics 190
noun fo llowing, ag reeme nt of be additional exercise 233-34 sec also qu est ion forms
wit h 190 dire ct a nd indi rect oblects 5 R
no un fo llowi ng, indefinite/ non- negative for ms 62
specific mea ning of 190 preposi tiona l obje ct, with for/ IO zero article 2 19
with nouns followed by that-, see also ala n, the, and zero article
Index of lexical items
availa ble 132
alert 144 appeal 62
sz, <) 4, ave rage 1.16
alik e 132. 144 appear 2. 42. 46. 62.
alan Nil, 'JO. 146 ,
avoid 46.207.208
190 , 21 <,1 , 220 alive 132 124.132. 140. 164.
awake 1.12, 227
a hit 134 .all 110. 220 190. 192. 207
a bit o f 104 awa rd 44. 58
.all (o f) H 102. 21 2. 2 13
2. apply 62
all of .asudden 4 applying 13H awa re 42. 132. 140. 144
a fe w (0 1) 2 14
all o ver 176 appoint 44 away 19S
a hnle (0 1) 2 14
.1 101100 Nl. 100, 2 1.J a ll the same 174 awful 134. 140
appreciat e 46. 154. 10 2
a w k...-a rd 140
a n umber o f 82, 110 allqtalion 76 approve 60
allhe ma jo ri l)' o f lil appro\'r of 60. I IUI
allege 50. 62

alleged 138 argue 66 . 194
ahililY 186
argu˜ abo ut/fm/ with 184 b ahy ', bedroom 86
all˜oo ly 142
able 140
back 198
about IS4 .alloc.alO:d 138 arg ument 76
bole!. to back 94
ari se 227
a l1o••, 46. 58. 62. 20 8
.above 176
bold 140
almO'u 102.134. 150. arms tra de 86. 90
above a ll 174
a˜ 1 from 120 bald 41
lS 4 ann}' 80
alone 132. 144. 154 arrange 46. 62. 68 ha n 186
absolur e 132
arres t 107 ha rdy 96. 200
ahwluldy 134 .alonl/; 176. 198
a lw 174 an, fnlilial 116 base on 56
ahusive 76
a˜ 144. 146. 15 8. 174.
a hcrna tiliC' 194 be 41, 128. 130, 132.
academic J36
altern atively 174 140.1 64. 219. 227
;l C'"CV1 124, 194
a˜ a conKqurnce 174
alth ough 118. 164.1 74 he able 10 30. 130. 204 .
"'o:d dcol 194
a˜ a resuh 174
altoget her 154
ac d im ;u i'>e 120
.alway, 4. 36. 150 av a rule 150 abo ut 10 24.26
accoe dmg 10 156
avif 170 be afraid 124
accou m for 111 11 amaze 192
allo wed 10 30. 104
a, it were 170 be
ache 202 a mazed 78. 140
amalNla malin˜ 216 a, lon g a, 174 bou nd T 26
admowlc:Jl{c 2. 50, 66
a mazeme nt 186 a˜ man y 146 cenain 124
ack rsowledgemcm 76
amazing 140 a\ much 146 be due to 26
acr..." 176
ambition 186 av soon a, 6. 20. 174 going 10 18. 20. 166.
act o n IRII he
a\ thou˜h 170 l03
amonK 171:1
active 144
a mo ng o the r Thing, 171:1 be likely 34
ada mant 7b a, 10 68. 76. 171
as ...d l 174 on the brink of 26
among others 178
adap t 60, 12 0
be on the point of 26
a mongst 178 as ha med 132. 140.144.
adapt ed 4 2
amo unt of 100 on th e licrge of 26
addrc.... hoo k lUi IS'
˜ u prmed to 211. 190.
amused 78 aside 1112 be
ad here to 56
ad jU\ l 60 and 112.1 74.220 ask 44.46. 56. 58.62. 66.
admir ati,," 186 611. 71. 78. I .lO. 20 11 be sure to 26. 124
a" lI:r y 76. 134. 140
ad mire 1.˜ 4 a nnounce 44. 50. 58.66 a sk aho ut/afler/for/ uf he til 24
beach 90
ad mit 2, SH 60, 62 , M,

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