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prime order r, e : G1 — G1 ’ G3 is a bilinear map and H2 : G3 ’ {0, 1}n is
ˆ
a hash function.
In Gentry™s CBE scheme, an entity A™s private key consists of two com-
ponents. The ¬rst component [sC ]PA (i) is time-dependent and is issued as
a certi¬cate to A on a regular basis by a CA. Here sC is the CA™s private
key and PA (i) ∈ G1 is derived from hashing certain parameters, including
A™s public key [sA ]P and the current time interval i. The second component
[sA ]PA is chosen by A and kept private. Here, PA ∈ G1 is derived from A™s
identifying data. So A™s private key is the sum [sC ]PA (i) + [sA ]PA , a time-
dependent value that is only available to A if A is certi¬ed in the current time
interval. Now, to encrypt a message M for A, an entity selects t at random
from Z— and sets:
r

C = [t]P, M • H2 (ˆ([sC ]P, PA (i))t · e([sA ]P, PA )t ) .
e ˆ
Notice that [sC ]P is available to encrypting parties as a public parameter of
the CA, while PA (i), PA can be computed from A™s public information and
[sA ]P is A™s public key. Decryption by A is straightforward if A has [sC ]PA (i).
For if C = U, V , then A can compute:
e(U, [sC ]PA (i) + [sA ]PA ) = e([t]P, [sC ]PA (i)) · e([t]P, [sA ]PA )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
= e([sC ]P, PA (i)) · e([sA ]P, PA )t .
t
ˆ ˆ
Notice that the private key [sC ]PA (i) + [sA ]PA used here can be regarded
as a two-party aggregate signature in the scheme of [40]. The second private
component [sC ]PA (i) acts as an implicit certi¬cate for relying parties, one
that a relying party can be assured is only available to A provided that A™s
certi¬cate has been issued for the current time period by the CA. The security
of CBE depends critically on the CA binding the correct public key into A™s
X.7. APPLICATIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURES 247

implicit certi¬cate in each time period. Thus (quite naturally), the initial
registration of users and their public keys must take place over an authentic
channel and be bootstrapped from some other basis for trust between A and
the CA.
This approach can signi¬cantly simplify revocation in PKIs. For notice
that there is no need to make any status checks on A™s public key before
encrypting a message for A. So there is no requirement for either Certi¬cate
Revocation Lists or an on-line certi¬cate status checking protocol. However,
the basic CBE approach of [146] does have a major drawback: the CA needs
to issue new values [sC ]PA (i) to every user in the scheme in every time pe-
riod. A granularity of one hour per time period is suggested in [146]; this
substantially adds to the computation and communication that take place
at the CA for a PKI with even a small user base. The basic CBE approach
can be regarded as e¬ectively trading simpli¬ed revocation for an increased
workload at the CA. A number of enhancements to the basic CBE approach
are also presented in [146]. These reduce the work that must be carried out
by the CA.
A security model for CBE is also developed in [146], and Gentry goes
on to show that the CBE scheme described above, but modi¬ed using the
Fujisaki“Okamoto technique [128], meets the de¬nition of security for the
scheme, provided that the BDH problem is hard. It is clear that similar ideas
to Gentry™s can be applied to produce certi¬cate-based signature schemes. A
scheme of this type was developed in [192].
Al-Riyami and Paterson [9] proposed another new model for supporting
the use of public-key cryptography which they named certi¬cateless public-
key cryptography (CL-PKC). Independently, Chen et al. [73] proposed sim-
ilar ideas in the context of signatures and group signatures. The key feature
of the model of [9] is that it eliminates the need for certi¬cates, hence the
(somewhat clumsy) adjective “certi¬cateless.”
Pairings are used to construct concrete CL-PKC schemes in [9]. As in
[146], an entity A™s private key is composed in two stages. Firstly, an identity-
dependent partial private key [s]QA = [s]H1 (IDA ) is received over a con¬den-
tial and authentic channel from a trusted authority (called a key generation
centre, KGC).18 Secondly, A combines the partial private key [s]QA with a
secret xA to produce his private key SA = [xA s]QA . The corresponding pub-
lic key is the pair XA , YA = [xA ]P, [xA ]Q0 , where Q0 = [s]P is a public
parameter of the system. The certi¬cateless encryption (CL-PKE) scheme of
[9] is obtained by adapting the IBE scheme of Boneh and Franklin [39] and
operates as follows in its basic form. To encrypt a message for A, an entity

18
This partial private key [s]H1 (IDA ) is identical to the private key in the IBE scheme
of Boneh and Franklin. It can also be regarded as a BLS signature by the TA on A™s
identity, and hence as a form of certi¬cation, though one that does not involve A™s public
key.
248 X. CRYPTOGRAPHY FROM PAIRINGS

¬rst checks that the equality
e(XA , Q0 ) = e(YA , P )
ˆ ˆ
holds, then selects t at random from Z— and sets:
r

C = [t]P, M • H2 (ˆ(QA , YA )t ) .
e
It is easy to see that, to decrypt C = U, V , A can use his private key
SA = [xA s]QA and compute M = V • H2 (ˆ(SA , U )).
e
Notice that, in this encryption scheme, A™s public key need not be sup-
ported by a certi¬cate. Instead, an entity A who wishes to rely on A™s public
key is assured that, if the KGC has done its job properly, only A who is in
possession of the correct partial private key and user-generated secret could
perform the decryption. Because there are no certi¬cates, Al-Riymai and
Paterson [9] were forced to consider a security model in which the adversary
is allowed to replace the public keys of entities at will. The security of the
scheme then rests on the attacker not knowing the partial private keys. Secu-
rity against the KGC is also modelled in [9], by considering an adversary who
knows the master secret s for the scheme, but who is trusted not to replace
the public keys of entities. The security of the encryption scheme in [9] rests
on the hardness of a new problem generalising the BDH problem:
Generalized Bilinear Di¬e“Hellman Problem (GBDH Problem):
Given P , P1 = [a]P , P2 = [b]P and P3 = [c]P in G1 with a, b and c selected
uniformly at random from Z— , output a pair
r

e(P, Q)abc
Q, ˆ
where Q ∈ G1 .
Al-Riyami and Paterson [9] also present certi¬cateless signature, key ex-
change and hierarchical schemes. These are obtained by adapting schemes of
[164, 312, 147]. CL-PKC supports the temporal re-ordering of public and
private key generation in the same way that ID-PKC does, thus it can be
used to support work¬‚ows of the type discussed in Section X.7.1.2.
CL-PKC combines elements from ID-PKC and traditional PKI. On the
one hand, the schemes are no longer identity-based: they involve the use of
A™s public key, which is no longer simply derived from A™s identity. On the
other hand, CL-PKC avoids the key escrow inherent in ID-PKC by having
user-speci¬c private information involved in the key generation process. CL-
PKC does not need certi¬cates to generate trust in public keys; instead, this
trust is produced in an implicit way. This would appear to make CL-PKC
ideal for systems where escrow is unacceptable but where the full weight of
PKI is untenable.
There is a close relationship between the ideas in [146] and [9]. It is
possible to convert CL-PKE scheme into a CBE scheme: if A™s identity in
the CL-PKE scheme is extended to include a time period along with the
public key, then the CL-PKE scheme e¬ectively becomes a CBE scheme. On
X.7. APPLICATIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURES 249

the other hand, if one omits certain ¬elds from the certi¬cates in a CBE
scheme, one obtains an encryption scheme that is functionally similar to a
CL-PKE scheme. Di¬erences do remain: in the strength and scope of the two
security models developed in [146] and [9], as well as in the technical details
of the schemes™ realizations.

X.7.3. Applications and Implementations. In this section we provide
brief notes on recent work putting pairings into practice or using pairings in
the broader context of information security.
A number of authors have examined how pairings can be put to use to en-
hance network security. Kempf et al. [197] described a lightweight protocol
for securing certain aspects of IPv6. The protocol adds identity-based signa-
tures to router and neighbour advertisements, with identities being based on
IP addresses. Khalili et al. [198] combined identity-based techniques with
threshold cryptography to build a key distribution mechanism suitable for
use in ad hoc networks.
Appenzeller and Lynn [10] proposed using the NIKDS of Sakai et al. [284]
to produce identity-based keys for securing IP packets between hosts. Their
approach adds security while avoiding the introduction of state at the network
layer, and so provides an attractive alternative to IPSec. However, it can
only be used by pairs of entities who share a common TA. On the other hand,
Smetters and Durfee [315] proposed a system in which each DNS domain runs
its own IBE scheme and is responsible for distributing private keys to each
of its hosts (or e-mail users). Inter-domain IPSec key exchanges and e-mail
security are enabled by extending DNS to give a mechanism for distributing
IBE scheme parameters. In [315], a protocol of [70] is used to provide an
alternative to IKE (IPSec Key Exchange) for inter-domain exchanges while
the NIKDS of Sakai et al. [284] can be used to set up IKE in pre-shared key
mode for intra-domain communications. The protocol resulting in the latter
case in [315] is similar to a protocol proven secure in [47].
Dalton [94] described the particular computing and trust challenges faced
in the UK™s National Health Service and studied the applicability of identity-
based techniques in that environment.
Waters et al. [345] modi¬ed the IBE scheme of Boneh and Franklin
[39] to provide a solution to the problem of searching through an encrypted,
sensitive audit log. In the scheme of [345], a machine attaches a set of
IBE-encrypted tags to each entry in its log, each tag corresponding to a
single keyword W . The “identity” used in the encryption to produce a tag
is the string W , while the plaintext encrypted is the symmetric key that
was used to encrypt the entry in the log (plus some redundancy allowing
the plaintext to be recognized). The TA for the IBE system acts as an
audit escrow agent: when an entity requests the capability to obtain log
entries containing a particular keyword, the TA may provide the private key
[s]H1 (W ) matching that keyword. Now the testing entity can simply try to
250 X. CRYPTOGRAPHY FROM PAIRINGS

decrypt each tag for the log entry. When the correct tag is decrypted, a key
allowing the entry to be decrypted results. A more theoretical and formal
approach to the related problem of searchable public-key encryption (SPKE)
can be found in [37]. One of the three constructions for an SPKE scheme
in [37] is based on pairings, speci¬cally, it is again an adaptation of the IBE
scheme of Boneh and Franklin.
Currently, we know of at least one company, Voltage Security, that is ac-
tively developing and marketing identity-based security systems. Their prod-
ucts include secure e-mail and ¬le encryption applications. An early identity-
based secure e-mail demonstrator, implementing Boneh and Franklin™s IBE
scheme, is still available from
http://crypto.stanford.edu/ibe/download.html
at the time of writing. Routines for Weil and Tate pairing computations are
built into a number of software libraries, including Magma.

X.8. Concluding Remarks
We have seen in this chapter how pairings have been used to build some
entirely new cryptographic schemes and to ¬nd more e¬cient instantiations
of existing primitives. Although we have not been exhaustive in our coverage,
we trust that the breathless pace of research in the area is apparent. What
might the future hold for this subject, and what are the most important
questions yet to be tackled?
The techniques and ideas used in pairing-based cryptography are very
new, so it is hard to envisage where they will be taken next. The applications
in topics like intrusion-resilient encryption and cryptographic work¬‚ows are
so surprising (at least to the author) that accurately predicting an answer to
the ¬rst question seems fraught. One might expect the rate of publication of
new pairing-based schemes to slow a little and a period of consolidation to
occur. On a more theoretical note, the subject is rife with random oracles and
ine¬cient reductions. Removing these whilst keeping the full strength of the
security models and obtaining practical schemes should keep cryptographers
busy.
We suggest that much more work above and below the purely crypto-
graphic level is needed.
As Section X.7.3 illustrates, techniques from pairing-based cryptography
are beginning to have an e¬ect on other domains of information security.
Attempts at commercialization will provide a true test of the applicability
of what on paper seem like very neat ideas. Identity-based cryptography is
certainly interesting, but it still has much to prove when measured against
traditional PKIs. One topic we have not addressed here is that of intellectual
property and patents. This may become a major factor in the take-up of the
technology, in the same way that it was for elliptic curve cryptography in the
last decade and public-key cryptography before that.
X.8. CONCLUDING REMARKS 251

Below the cryptographic level, more work on the fundamental question of
understanding the hardness of the BDH problem (and the associated deci-
sional problem) seems essential. While the relationships to the CDH problem
and other problems in related groups are well understood, this is of course
not the whole story. Pairings also give new relevance to “old” problems,
for example, evaluating the performance of discrete logarithm algorithms in
¬elds of small characteristic for concrete parameters. One might also worry
about relying too much on the extremely narrow class of supersingular curves
for constructing pairings. This is akin to the days before point counting for
curves of cryptographic sizes became routine, when CM curves were suggested
as a way of proceeding. It is interesting to note that recent constructions for
curves with prescribed embedding degrees (as described in Chapter IX) also
rely on CM methods, while it is known that the embedding degree of a random
curve of a particular size will be very high. The challenge to computational
number theorists is evident.
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SUMMARY OF MAJOR LNCS PROCEEDINGS 271

Summary of Major LNCS Proceedings
For ease of reference we include here a table listing the main conference
proceedings and the associated LNCS volume numbers. This includes all
conferences in the relevant series which were published by Springer-Verlag
and not necessarily those just referenced in this book.
Year Crypto Eurocrypt Asiacrypt CHES PKC ANTS
2004 3027 2947 3076
2003 2729 2656 2894 2779 2567
2002 2442 2332 2501 2523 2274 2369
2001 2139 2045 2248 2162 1992
2000 1880 1807 1976 1965 1838
1999 1666 1592 1716 1717 1560
1998 1462 1403 1514 1431 1423
1997 1294 1233
1996 1109 1070 1163 1122
1995 963 921
1994 839 950 917 877
1993 773 765
1992 740 658
1991 576 547 739
1990 537 473
1989 435 434
1988 403 330
1987 293 304
1986 263
1985 218 219
1984 196 209
1982 149
Author Index

Abdalla, M., 12, 50 Dahab, R., 93
Dalton, C.R., 249
Adleman, L., 142, 144
DeMarrais, J., 142, 144
Al-Riyami, S.S., 247, 248
Denef, J., 132
van Antwerpen, H., 230
Dent, A., 32
Appenzeller, G., 249
Desmedt, Y.G., 242
Arbaugh, W.A., 249
Deuring, M., 105
Atkin, A.O.L., 103
Diem, C., 231
Dodis, Y., 240
Balasubramanian, R., 192, 208, 209
Dupont, R., 211, 219
Balfanz, D., 249
Durfee, G., 249
Barreto, P.S.L.M., 205, 206, 211, 215
Duursma, I., 208
Bellare, M., 12, 26, 41, 50, 240, 241
Dwork, B., 132
Blake-Wilson, S., 241
Bleichenbacher, D., 8, 26, 74
Eisentr¨ger, K., 206
a
Boldyreva, A., 233
Elkies, N., 103
Boneh, D., 8, 42, 194, 195, 202, 215, 218,
Enge, A., 143, 144, 147, 211, 219
219, 221“233, 235, 239, 240, 244, 247,
249, 250
Flassenberg, R., 144
Boyd, C., 241
Fouquet, M., 113
Boyen, X., 234, 239
Franklin, M., 202, 215, 218, 219, 221“229,
Brezing, F., 211
235, 240, 244, 247, 249, 250
Brier, E., 88
Frey, G., 151, 185, 189, 197
Brown, D., 31
Fujisaki, E., 225, 237, 247
Bull, L., 233
Burmester, M., 242 Galbraith, S.D., 205, 208, 242
Garefalakis, T., 192
Canetti, R., 32, 238, 239 von zur Gathen, J., 131
Cantor, D.G., 136 Gaudry, P., 113, 115, 121, 132, 144, 147,
Carls, R., 115 148, 152, 156
Cha, J., 228 Gauss, F., 136
Chaum, D., 97, 230 Gentry, C., 233, 235, 237, 246, 247, 249
Chen, A.H., 246 Gerhard, J., 131
Chen, L., 234, 241 Gerkmann, R., 132
Chen, X., 247 Gligor, V.D., 246
Cheon, J.H., 122, 123, 228 Goldreich, O., 32
Chevallier-Mames, B., 94 Goldwasser, S., 23, 26, 41
Ciet, M., 94 Goubin, L., 84
Cocks, C., 210, 221 G¨rel, N., 132
u
Coppersmith, D., 205, 231
Coron, J.-S., 84, 85 Hahn, S.G., 122, 123
Halevi, S., 32, 238, 239
Couveignes, J.-M., 103
273
274 AUTHOR INDEX

Mao, W., 241
Harley, R., 103, 113, 115, 127, 128, 131,
148, 156 Maurer, U,, 8
Harrison, K., 205 Menezes, A., 10, 197, 198, 200, 241
Herranz, J., 232 Messerges, T.S., 84
Hess, F., 152, 189, 191 Messing, W., 106
Hopkins, H.J., 242 Mestre, J.-F., 115, 132
Horowitz, J., 235 Micali, S., 23, 41
Howgrave-Graham, N, 8, 26 Micciancio, D., 26
Huang, M.-D., 142, 144 Miller, V., 196, 201
Mironov, I., 233
Izu, T., 206 Miyaji, A., 209, 240
Moenck, R.T., 131
Johnson, D., 241
Montgomery, P., 93, 206
Joux, A., 42, 202, 203, 215, 218, 220, 221,
Morain, F., 211
223, 242
M¨ller, V., 144
u
Joye, M., 88, 90, 94
Nakabayashi, M., 209
Karatsuba, A., 103
Nalla, D., 242
Kasahara, M., 215, 218, 220, 222, 228,
Naor, M., 230, 237
234, 237, 240, 241, 249
Nguyen, K., 193, 202
Katz, J., 238“240, 249
Nguyen, P., 8, 26, 42
Kedlaya, K.S., 129, 132
Kempf, J., 249
Ofman, Y., 103
Khalili, A., 249
Ohgishi, K., 215, 218, 220, 222, 228, 234,
Kim, H.Y., 122, 123, 205
237, 240, 241, 249
Kim, J.H., 122, 123
Okamoto, T., 197, 198, 200, 225, 237, 247
Kim, K., 232, 247
van Oorschot, P., 142
Koblitz, N., 99, 104, 133, 192, 208, 209
Kocher, P., 72, 73
Palacio, A., 233, 240
Kohel, D., 115, 201
Park, J.H., 122, 123
Kudla, C., 241
Park, J.Y., 122, 123
Paterson, K.G., 241, 247, 248
Lagrange, J.-L., 136
Paulus, S., 144
Lang, S., 210
Pieprzyk, J., 233
Lauder, A., 132
Pinch, R., 210
Lauter, K., 206
Pointcheval, D., 22
Law, L., 10
Pollard, J., 142, 148
Lee, H.-S., 208
Lee, P.J., 240
Qu, M., 10
Lercier, R., 103, 126, 132
Quisquater, J.-J., 90, 232“234
Liardet, P.-Y., 90, 91
Libert, B., 232“234
R¨ck, H.-G., 141, 185, 189, 197
u
Lichtenbaum, S., 185
Rabin, M.O., 41
Lin, C.-Y., 232
Racko¬, C., 41
Liu, S., 242
Reddy, K.C., 242
L´pez, J., 93
o
Rivest, R., 23
Lubicz, D., 126, 132
Rogaway, P., 12, 41, 50, 241
Lubin, J., 105, 106
Rubin, K., 208
Lynn, B., 194, 205, 206, 211, 228“235,
249
S´ez. G., 232
a
Malone-Lee, J., 233, 234 Safavi-Naini, R., 232, 233
AUTHOR INDEX 275

Sakai, R., 215, 218“220, 222, 228, 234, Wolf, S., 8
237, 240, 241, 249 Wright, P., 72
Satoh, T., 103“132
Yi, X., 241
Sch¨nhage, A., 103
o
Yum, D.H., 240
Schoof, R., 103
Yung, M., 240
Scott, M., 205, 206, 211
Serre, J.-P., 104“106, 132 Zhang, F., 232, 233, 242, 247
Shacham, H., 194, 229“233
Shamir, A., 218, 221, 228
Shanks, D., 137
Shim, K., 241
Shoup, V., 31, 57, 61, 62, 64, 233
Shparlinski, I., 8, 26, 201, 242
Silverberg, A., 208, 235, 237, 249
Silverman, J.H., 184, 191, 198, 212
Simon, D., 41
Skjernaa, B., 113, 122“125, 129, 130
Smart, N.P., 8, 26, 57, 90, 91, 152, 240,
241
Smetters, D.K., 249
Soldera, D., 205
Solinas, J., 10
Stein, A., 143, 144
Steinfeld, E., 233
Stern, J., 22
Stinson, D., 28
Strassen, V., 103
Susilo, W., 233

Taguchi, Y., 122“125, 129, 130
Takagi, T., 206
Takano, S., 209
Tate, J., 105, 106, 132, 185
Th´riault, N., 148, 149, 156
e
Thiel, C., 144

Vanstone, S., 10, 197, 198, 200
Vaudenay, S., 27
V´lu, J., 110
e
Vercauteren, F., 114, 122, 132
Verheul, E., 194, 203, 215, 216, 221, 226,
227, 233

Wan, D., 132
Wang, H., 233
Warinschi, B., 233
Washington, L.C., 184
Waterhouse, W.C., 199
Waters, B.R., 249
Weil, A., 136, 153, 185
Weng, A., 211
Wiener, M., 142
Subject Index

abelian variety, 151 BSGS, 18, 142
active attack, 64
canonical lift, 105“108, 116“117
on a device, 69, 71“72
Cantor™s algorithm, 136, 140
adaptive chosen ciphertext attack, see CCA2
CBE, 246“248
addition formulae
CCA, 16, 46, 48, 50, 51, 64“66, 74, 224,
dummy operations, 91“92
225, see also CCA1 and CCA2
indistinguishable, 88“92
CCA1, 46, 64
uni¬ed, 88“89
CCA2, 13, 14, 46, 48, 61, 64
Advanced Encryption Standard, see AES
CDH problem, 47, 48, 50, 202, 228“230,
advantage, 44
232, 233, 237, 250
AES, 12
Certicom, 4
aggregate signature, 233
Certi¬cate-Based Encryption, see CBE
AGM, 115“121
Certi¬cateless Public Key Cryptography,
algorithm, 119“120
see CL-PKC
univariate, 120“121
Certi¬cation Authority, 218
anomalous attack, 141
chosen ciphertext attack, see CCA
ANSI, 18
chosen plaintext attack, see CPA
ANSI X9.62, 4, 174
CL-PKC, 247“249
ANSI X9.63, 4
CM method, 209, 210
Application protocol data units, 71
cofactor Di¬e“Hellman, 9
Artin“Schreier
collusion resistent, 220
construction, 164
complexity-theoretic, 47
equation, 125“128, 154
computational Di¬e“Hellman problem, see
extension, 153, 155, 176
CDH problem
operator, 164
conorm, 152
Baby Step/Giant Step, see BSGS conversion function, 5, 24, 26, 29, 32, 33
BDH problem, 202, 203, 218, 219, 221, correlation analysis, 76
222, 224, 226, 228, 234, 237, 238, CPA, 45, 46, 64
241, 242, 247, 250 cryptographic hardware, 69“71
generalized, 248 cryptographic work¬‚ow, 244“246, 248
benign malleability, 14, 15, 61 curve validation, 18
bilinear Di¬e“Hellman problem, see BDH cyclotomic polynomial, 210
problem
bilinearity (of modi¬ed pairing), 217 Data Encapsulation Mechanism, see DEM
binary tree encryption, 238 data origin authentication, 9
black box groups, 8 DBDH problem, 202, 218, 234, 238, 239
blind signature, 97 DDH problem, 47, 50, 55“58, 202, 229,
230
BLS short signature, 229“232
Boneh“Franklin encryption scheme, 222“ decision bilinear Di¬e“Hellman problem,
226 see DBDH problem
277
278 SUBJECT INDEX

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