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Ovambo people, 297“8
Ovimbundu, 81“2, 274, 277 Qadiriyya brotherhood, 64
Oyo empire, 66, 73“4 Qaeda al-, 354, 380
quinine, 75
Padmore, George, 245 Qwaqwa, 291
Pakistan, 215
palm-oil, 74, 75, 87, 150 Rabih, 135“6
Pan-African Conferences, 244“59 Radama I, of Imerina, 101“2
Pan-African Freedom Movement of East radio/television/¬lm, 373“4
and Central African (PAFMECA), railways, 148, 197“8
234, 242, 254 British, 153, 157“8
Pan-Africanism, 180, 246“56, 299 in Congo, 122, 155
Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC, South in Egypt, 45
Africa), 245, 283, 288“90 French, 150
pan-Islamic movement, 183 Rainilaiarivony, 102, 140
Park, Mungo, 69 Ramaniyya brotherhood, 10
pastoralists, 14, 219, 237“8, 314“15 Ranavalona III (Imerina), 102, 140
Patriotic Front (PF) (also ZANU/PF), Rassemblement D´ mocratique Africaine
e
Zimbabwe, 281 (RDA), 251“64
Peters, Carl, 101 Rawlings, Jerry, 335“6, 360
Philip, John, 112 R´ union, 91
e
Plaatje, Solomon, 205 Revolutionary United Front (RUF), 351
Index 401

Rhodes, Cecil, 127, 140“1, 143“5, 155 Sara people, 315
Rhodesia, Northern, 157, 256, 259 Sara-Wiro, Ken, 362
in Central African Federation, 269“72 Sarraut, Albert, 177
see also Zambia Saudi Arabia, 313, 352“3
Rhodesia, Southern, 127, 143, 157, 223 Sauer, J. W., 202
in Central African Federation, 269“73 Savimbi, Jonas, 274“5, 279, 339“40
declaration of independence, 279“82 Say, 131
university in, 221 Schreiner, W. P., 204“5
see also Zimbabwe Sebetwane, 107, 111
Rhodesia, white settlers in, 175 Second World War, 211, 213“16, 236,
Rhodesia Front party, 272 284“5
Rif war, 188 Sekukuni, 115
Rio de Oro, 238“9, Senegal
see also Western Sahara France and, 76, 119, 149“51, 177“8
Roberto, Holden, 269“75 independent, 310
Roosevelt, Franklin, 214 Islam in, 165
Rostow, Walter, 323 nationalist movement in, 179“80
Royal Niger Company, 134“6, 151 parliamentary democracy and, 360
Rozvi kingdom, 30“2 radio/television in, 374
Ruanda-Urundi, 171, 261“2, Senghor, L´ opold S´ dar, 213, 250“1,
e e
see also Burundi kingdom; Rwanda 310
kingdom September 11, 2001, 354, 378“80
rubber, 87, 153, 156 settlers, European
Russia (also Soviet bloc), 53, 62, 180, British, 111“14, 127, 140, 157“8
231 Dutch, 29“30
in Afghanistan, 353 see also Afrikaners
Ethiopia and, 316“17, 342 French (colons), 58, 158, 184“7
independent African countries and, German, 157
234, 236, 239, 241, 242, 253, 263, Portuguese, 143, 158
274, 277, 278, 282, 287, 299, 310 Shaba province, 83, see also Katanga
Somali and, 340 Shaka, 105“6
Rwanda kingdom, 24“5 Shangane, 293
genocide in, 343 Sharpeville, 289, 290
independent, 264“5, 376 Shilluk kingdom, 39
Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) Shoa, region of Ethiopia, 10, 37, 47, 50
Ryckmans, Pierre, 221“2 Shona (Mashona) people, 160, 162,
270
Sadat, Anwar, 311, 355 Sidi Ahmad Tijani, 10
Sahara desert, trade across, 3 Sierra Leone
Saharan Arab Democratic Republic, 239 Britain and, 17, 68“70, 134, 151
Said, Seyyid, of Zanzibar, 92“4 civil war in, 351“2
Salazar, Dr, 268, 276 economic growth in, 376
Salisbury, Lord, 127“8 independent, 249“50
salt, trade in, 3, 10, 83 media in, 373“4
Samori, 131, 134, 149, 151, 252 nationalism in, 179
Sankara, Thomas, 337 Sikonyela, 107
Sankoh, Foday, 351“2 Silveira, Gonde, 31
San people, 30, 103, 112 Sisulu, Walter, 288
Sanusiyya brotherhood, 60“1, 64, 135“6, Sithole, Ndabaningi, 270, 272, 281, 282
195“6, 198, 236“7 Slave Coast, 66, 72“3
402 Index

slave trade South African Republic, 200“4,
Atlantic, 15“7, 71“2, 75, 81, 89 see also Transvaal
East Coast, 39 South African Students™ Organisation
Eastern Central Africa, 91“2, 95 (SASO), 294“5
Madagascar and, 33 Southern African Development
Sahara and Egypt, 3, 7, 12, 52, 61 Community (SADC), 376
smallpox, 30 Southern Nigeria, British Protectorate,
Smith, Ian, 272“3, 280“1 153
Smuts, J. C., 201, 205“7, 285 Southern Rhodesia. See Rhodesia,
Sobhuza I (Swaziland), 108 Southern
Sobhuza II (Swaziland), 297 South Ndebele (Homeland), 291
Sobukwe, Robert, 288 South-West Africa
socialism in African states, 180, 230, Germany and. See German
244, 257, 278, 306, 328, 331, 333, South-West Africa
353“4 South Africa and, 297“9
Soglu, Nic´ phore, 361
e see also Namibia
Sokoto, 53, 67 South-West African People™s
Solanke, Ladipo, 180 Organisation (SWAPO), 277, 298“9
Somalia, Republic of, 165, 235, 317“18 Soviet bloc. See Russia; Russia (also
Somaliland Soviet Bloc)
British, 197“8, 233 Soweto, 294
declared independent, 342 Spain, 68, 78“81, 311
economic recovery in, 343 Morocco and, 136
French, 197, 233 North Africa and, 53
internecine ¬ghting in independent, Speke, J. H., 44, 94, 98
342“3 Spinola, General, 276
Italian, 197“9, 236 Stack, Sir Lee, 193
Somali people, 197, 235“6, 340 Stanley, H. M., 86“9, 98, 122
Songhay empire, 13, 15 Stanley, Oliver, 217“18, 223
Soshangane, 111 Steenkamp, Anna, 112
Sotho (Basuto) people, 110“11, 114“16, Stel, Simon van der, 29
291 Stevens, Siaka, 334
Sotho-Tswana, 28“9, 107, 116 Strasser, Valentine, 351
Soudan (French), 149“55, 165, Strijdom, J. O., 285
see also Mali Suakin, 37, 49
South Africa, 171, 211, 223, 269“75 Sudan
apartheid in, 285“95 agriculture in, 330
economic growth/downturn in, Anglo-Egyptian Condominium in,
290“1 193“4
end of apartheid in, 299“302, 320“2 civil war in, 313“14
GDP in Egypt and, 37“41, 45“7
gross national per capita income, 369 France and. See Fashoda
HIV/AIDS in, 371“2 independent, 229“32, 307
independent African states and, Islam in, 46“7, 165
204“5 under Khalifa, 44, 47
nationalism in, 216 under Mahdi, 46“7
raid into Angola, 278 nationalist movement in, 45“7
world war and, 284“5 radical Islam in, 356“8
Zimbabwe and, 367“8 reconquest of, 44, 47
South African Party, 207 university in, 221
Index 403

Sudan, Republic of, civil war in, 356“8 Timbuktu, 60
Sudan People™s Liberation Army, 356“8 occupied by France, 131
Suez Canal, 43, 45, 230“1 Tippu Tip (Muhammad bin Hamed),
British garrison in zone of, 226, 229, 85“6, 96, 100
230 Togo, 308
sugar, cultivation of, 27, 43 French/British mandates and, 171
Swahili, 31, 33, 78“80 Germany and, 127, 157
Germany and, 137“8, 161 part joined to Ghana, rest
penetration of interior by, 26“7, 51, independent, 253
83“5, 89“96, 99 Tolbert, William, 334
summit of power in East Africa, Tondibi, battle of (1591), 13
99“101 Torodbe, Fulbe clan, 14, 64
Swahili language, 86, 97, 258 Toubou people, 315
Swazi kingdom, 29, 105, 108 Toumbalaye, Fran¸ ois, 315
c
Homeland, 293 Tour´ , S´ kou, 252, 305
ee
Swaziland Transkei, 290
British Protectorate, 201, 203, 205, Homeland, 291“3
295“6 Transvaal, 114“15, 200“2, 204, 288“9,
independent, 296“7 see also South Africa
Tripoli, 7, 52“3, 55, 60“1
Tabora, 94“6, 98 Italy and, 135“6
Taliban, 353, 380 Tripolitania, 195, 196, 237
Tambo, Oliver, 288, 320 Trusteeship Territories, 215, 233,
Tanganyika 253“4
British mandate over, 171 tsetse ¬‚y, 26
Germany and. See German East Africa Tshombe, Moise, 252“64, 308
independent, 259 Tsiranana, Philibert, 265“6, 310
nationalist movement in, 251“4, Tsonga people, 111, 293
256“9 Tsvangirai, Morgan, 366“7
see also Tanzania Tswana (Bechuana) people, 115, 116,
Tanganyika African National Union 291
(TANU), 257“8 HIV/AIDS in, 371
Tanzania, 137, 305“6, 310, 325 Tuareg people, 15, 135“6
HIV/AIDS in, 372 Tunis, 7, 52, 55, 61“2
lack of development in, 370 Tunisia
Tarkwa, 153 France and, 224
Tasawa, 69 independent, 310
Taw¬q, of Egypt, 45, 126 nationalism in, 190, 239“40
Taylor, Charles, 349“51, 380 radical Islam in, 354“5
tea, as cash crop, 330 radio/television in, 374
Teke (Bateke), 87 Turkey, 52, 192, 195,
Tell al-Kabir, battle of (1882), 45 see also Ottoman empire
Tembu people, 114“5 Turnbull, Sir Richard, 258“9
Tete, 80“1 Turnhalle Alliance (Namibia), 298“9
Thami al-Glawi, 238 Tutsi people, 261“2, 264“5, 343“7
Theodore of Ethiopia, 49“50
Thuku, Harry, 181 Ubangi-Chari. See Oubangi-Chari
Tigre, region of Ethiopia, 44, 47, 50, 233, Uganda
340 Britain and, 137, 157“8, 161“3, 221
Tijaniyya brotherhood, 10, 56, 64, 67 HIV/AIDS in, 372
404 Index

Uganda (cont.) terrorist attack on embassy of,
independent, 257, 259, 307, 312“13 356
nationalist movement in, 257 western Africa and, 326
parliamentary democracy and, universities, 10, 184, 221, 235, 253
363“4 Upper Volta
Uganda People™s Congress, 257, 259 France and, 149, 150, 251
Ujiji, 83, 94 independent, 253
Umar. See al-Hajj Umar independent as Burkina Faso, 337,
Uniao Nacional para a Independˆ ncia
˜ e 371, 374
Total de Angola (UNITA), 273, 275, Urabi Pasha, 126
277, 279, 298 Usuman dan Fodio, 64, 67
Unilateral Declaration of Independence
(Rhodesia), 273 van Bilsen, A. A. J., 260
Union Mini` re, 263
e Venda people, 293
Union of South Africa, Act of (1910), Vereeniging, Peace of, 201
204“5 Verwoerd, Hendrik, 286“7, 300
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Vichy regime, France, 214
Russia; Russia (also Soviet Bloc) Vili kingdoms, 21
United Arab Republic (Egypt), 231 Volta dam, Lake Akasombo (Ghana),
United Gold Coast Convention, 246 218
United Nations Economic Commission Vorster, John, 280, 295, 300
for Africa, 375
United Nations (UN) Organisation, Wadai, 11“12, 60, 61
206, 215“16, 230, 237, 239, 258, Wade, Abdoulaye, 360
304 Wafd party, Egypt, 193“4
Congo (Za¨re) and, 263“4
± Wagadugu, 150
Libya and, 358, 359 Wahhabi movement, 36, 64
Mozambique and, 366 weapons. See ¬rearms
Namibia and, 297“9 Welensky, Roy, 269“72
Rhodesia and, 279 West African Students™ Union, 180
Rwanda and, 346, 348 Western Sahara, 239, 354
Sierra Leone and, 351 Wichale, Treaty of (1889), 50, 102, 138
Somalia and, 342“3 Wilson, Woodrow, 171
Trustee Council of, 20, 221, 253“4, Wingate, F. R., 192
297 World Bank, 296, 326, 335, 337, 348,
United Party (South Africa), 207, 285, 364, 375“6
287 World Cup, 374“5
United States of America, 78, 215,
217 Xhosa people, 28, 114“15, 202, 291,
African nationalism and, 215“16, 231, 293
264, 277
Algeria and, 354 Yao people, 95
Ethiopia and, 316, 342 Yatenga, 150
in Horn of Africa, 234 Yirga triangle, 340
Morocco and, 354 Yoruba people, 15, 66, 73“5, 162, 249,
North Africa and, 239 308
renewed interest in Africa, 380“1
Somalia and, 318, 342“3 Zaghlul Pasha, 194
southern Africa and, 278 Za¨re (Congo), 325, 327, 335, 346,
±
terrorist attack on, 354, 378“80 see also Congo (Belgian)
Index 405

Zambia, 23, 305, 310, 336“7, 365, 372 Zimbabwe
Zanzibar HIV/AIDS in, 372
Britain and, 92“4, 100“1, independent, 327, 366“7, 377
137 see also Rhodesia, Southern
independent, 259“60 Zimbabwe African National Union
see also Tanzania (ZANU), 280, 281
Zaria, 13 Zimbabwe African People™s Union
zawiya (religious centres), 60 (ZAPU), 270, 280“1
Zeila, 44“5 Zulu people, 29, 105“7, 114“17
Zenawi, Meles, 340 Homeland, 291
zeriba system, 40“1 Zwangendaba, 111

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