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Index




Note: Locators for illustrations appear in italics.

A-Group 186, 183--6 Capeletti Cave 166, 176
Abkan industry 183 Columnata 92--4, 119, 136,
Abu Simbel, Egypt 166, 186, 187 137
Acacus, Libya 152, 217 Erg Tihodaïne 56, 76
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry 170 Mechta el Arbi 119, 137
Acheulean technocomplex 39, 52--5, Oued Guettara 166, 176
Tachengit 56, 76
60--2, 63, 81, 86--90
artefacts 66, 71, 76 Taforalt 119, 136, 137
Adamawa languages 8 Tamar Hat 119, 136
Addi Gelemo, Ethiopia 229 Tassili 178, 179
Adrar Bous, Niger 119, 132, 132, 150, Terni¬ne 56, 78, 80
Timgad 220
166, 177, 177
Adulis, Eritrea 227, 229 Wadi Saoura 76
Adwuku, Ghana 119, 129 Algeria/Tunisia
Afalou bou Rhummel, Algeria 119, 136 Relilai 119, 136, 137
A¬kpo, Nigeria 119, 129, 166, 198 Ali, Sultan of Songhai 278
African Homo erectus, see Homo ergaster al-Mas™udi 290
Afroasiatic languages 6, 7, 205 Almoravids 277
Afyeh, Egypt 166, 184 Alwa, Sudan 227
Agadez, Niger 234 Amanzi, South Africa 56, 73
Agordat, Eritrea 166, 204 amazonite 182
Ain Hanech, Algeria 56, 78, 79 Amekni, Algeria 148, 152, 153
Aïr, Niger 177, 234 Amhara 285
Akan 237, 276 Amharic language 8
Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt 195 Ammotragus lervia (Barbary sheep) 136,
Akira, Kenya 166 150, 167, 168
Akjoujt, Mauritania 234 anatomically modern people, see Homo
Aksum, Ethiopia 166, 203, 227, 229--30, sapiens
Angola 117, 256
285, 286
Akyekyemabuo, Ghana 237 Ben¬ca 256
al-Bakri 275 Dundo 119
Albany industry 101, 105 Musolexi 123
Alexander the Great 221 Aniba, Egypt 166
Alexandria, Egypt 221, 227, 232 Ankole 292
Algeria Anqqer Baahti, Ethiopia 119, 125
Afalou bou Rhummel 119, 136 Anthropoidea 20
Ain Hanech 56, 78, 79 ˜Apollo 11 Cave™, Namibia 104, 111, 112,
Amekni 148, 152, 153 119
Bir el Ater 119, 131, 132 aqueducts 219

369
Index
370

Arabic language 8, 223, 285 Austronesian languages 269
written records 275, 279, 288--90 Awash Valley, Ethiopia 24, 26, 29, 33,
Arabs 223--4, 227 32--4, 56, 65, 62--5, 119, 122
arboriculture 202, 245 Awdaghast, Mali 241
architecture axes 197--8, 246
brick construction 186, 190 See also handaxes
circular houses, C-Group 185
clay construction 154, 299 Bachwezi 292
monuments 185, 202, 230, 243, Badari, Egypt, pottery 166, 188, 189
Bahr el Ghazal, Sudan 284
285
oval houses 187 Ballana Culture 226
rectangular houses, A-Group 184 Bambandyanalo, South Africa 257, 286,
shelter bases 40, 41, 70 297
stone construction 151, 299--301, 304, Bambata Cave, Zimbabwe 82, 119, 272
Bambata industry 99, 108--9, 124, 272
306
stone walls 287, 297, 302, 303, Bambata ware 272
Bambuk, Guinea 240, 276, 278
305
wattle and daub construction 199 bananas 167, 169, 202, 259, 290
wooden-walled construction 200 Bantu languages 8, 202, 256, 261--5, 269,
Ardipithecus ramidus 24, 26 284, 290, 291--7, 303--7
Arkin, Sudan 119, 139 distribution 263
Arlit, Niger 166, 177 Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) 136,
artefacts, lithic 150, 167, 168
classi¬cation of 17 Baringo, Lake, Kenya 24, 68, 123
de¬nition 19 barley 149, 167, 184, 187--9, 195, 203, 204
See also specific industries and tool types Batalimo, Central African Republic 245
Asante 280 pottery 246, 248
Asselar, Mali 166, 179 beans 258, 297
Aterian industry 132, 131--4, 143 Begho, Ghana 237, 278, 279, 280
Atwetwebooso, Ghana 237 Beli, Nigeria 56, 75
australopithecines 39, 45 Bemba 295
Australopithecus 33, 44, 49 Ben¬ca, Angola 256
See also Paranthropus spp. Benin, Nigeria 278, 282, 283, 283
Australopithecus aethiopicus, see Berbers 176, 216, 218--20, 224, 277
Paranthropus (Australopithecus) Berenike, Egypt 227, 232
aethiopicus Besaka, Lake, Ethiopia 166, 204
Australopithecus afarensis 27--9, 33, 35, 37, Beta Giyorgis, Ethiopia 228
bibliographic guide 310
44
Australopithecus africanus 27, 28, 30, 30, Bigo, Uganda 286, 293
Bingerville, Ivory Coast 129
31, 42, 44--5
Australopithecus anamensis 27 Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea 166,
Australopithecus bahrelghazali 42 198, 246
Australopithecus boisei, see Paranthropus Bir el Ater, Algeria 119, 131, 132
(Australopithecus) boisei Bir Kiseiba, Egypt 166, 173
Australopithecus garhi 29, 34 Bir Sahara, Egypt 119, 134
Australopithecus robustus, see Paranthropus Bir Tarfawi, Egypt 119, 133
(Australopithecus) robustus Blackburn, South Africa 306
Index 371

Blinkklipkop, South Africa 270 Burundi 123
Blombos Cave, South Africa 101, 102, Bushman Rock, South Africa 105,
102, 270 119
Bodo, Ethiopia 87 Bushmen, see San
bone artefacts 34, 46, 46, 102, 105, 107, Buvuma Island, Uganda 119, 125
Bwana Mkubwa mine, Zambia 286,
137, 200
See also harpoons 295
Bonobo 19 Bweyorere, Uganda 286, 293
Boomplaas Cave, South Africa 101, 102, Byneskranskop, South Africa 270
Byzantines 223
105, 119, 270
Border Cave, South Africa 97, 100, 105,
C-Group 185, 204
119, 143
Borkou, Chad 166, 177 camels 178, 207, 217, 224, 278
Bornu 278, 279 Cameroon 121, 197, 200, 244, 245, 260
Bos primigenius 136, 139 Bouar 166, 202
Bosumpra Cave, Ghana 166, 198 Njuinye 119, 128
Botswana 105, 256, 273, 286, 297, 305 Nkang 166, 202
Toutswe 261 Obobogo 245
Tsodilo 119 Shum Laka 119, 128--30, 162, 166, 201
Bouar, Cameroon 166, 202 Canarium 202
bow and arrow 92, 106, 143, 152 Canarium schweinfurthii 245, 248
breccia 42 cannibalism 101
Broederstroom, South Africa 258 canoes 200, 278
Broken Hill Mine, Kabwe, Zambia 56, 72, Cape coastal pottery 271
Capeletti Cave, Algeria 166, 176
70--2, 74, 87, 97, 119
bronze 218, 238, 239, 283, 283 Cape Three Points, Ghana 166, 198
Bubalus antiquus 151 Capra 168
Buganda 292 See also ovicaprids
Buhaya, Tanzania 251 Capsian industries 136, 137, 138
Buhen, Egypt 166 Cap Vert, Senegal 128
Buia, Eritrea 56, 65 Carthage, Tunisia 218, 219
bulrush millet (Pennisetum) 167, 180, 195, Casablanca, Morocco 56, 77--8
Casamance Estuary, Senegal 166, 198
200, 257, 258
Bunyoro 292 cassava 167
burial customs Cat¬sh Cave, Egypt 148, 156
cremation 208 Catopithecus 20
interment 106, 154, 187, 238--40, 296, cattle
breeds of 179, 199, 260, 285, 297, 303
298
interment in burial mounds 186, 243, cultural role of 256
depicted in rock art 176, 205, 205,
276
interment in cemeteries 136, 149, 183, 307
oxen 176, 307
185
interment under cairns 210 See also herding
interment under tumuli 276 caucasoid physical type 212
tombs 191, 192 cavalry 279
Burkina Faso 200 Cave of Hearths, South Africa 56, 73, 97,
Rim 119, 129, 234 99, 102, 104, 119
Index
372

Central African Republic 244 Comoro Islands 269, 289
Batalimo 245, 246, 248 Congo 121
Nana Mode 244 Madingo-Kayes 248
cereals 167, 176, 182, 195, 198, 203, 207, Pointe Noire 248
Tchissanga 248
254
cultivation of 11, 176, 179, 204, 258 Congo, D. R. 121, 248--9, 250, 254,
deliberate selection of 170 295
over emphasis in archaeological Gombe Point 119, 120, 166, 248
interpretation 149, 169--70 Imbonga 248
in Phoenician colonies 219 Ishango 148, 158, 159, 161
southern limit for 268 Kamoa 56, 70
wild 150, 156, 165 Katanda 119, 120
See also specific grains Katanga Province 254, 294
Chad 75, 183, 200 Katoto 254
Borkou 166, 177 Kay Ladio 248
Koro Toro 237 Kipushi mine 286, 295
Chad, Lake 133, 150, 225, 237, 241 Maluba 248
Chalbi Lake, Kenya 207 Matupi 119, 120
Charaman industry 72, 81--4 Ngovo 166
chariots 217, 217 Sakuzi 248
chert 139 Sanga 254, 286, 295, 296
Chewa 295 Senga 33, 42
chickpeas 204 Congo Basin 284, 295--7
Chifumbaze complex 252, 249--61, Congo River 202
copper 189, 214, 217, 219, 244, 254, 301
263--9, 296
pottery 255 alloys 276, 281 (See also bronze)
Chiwondo, Malawi 42 casting 215
Christianity 220, 221, 227, 230, 285 cross ingots 258, 295, 296, 303
chronology 24 mining and smelting 189, 234, 295,
Chyulu, Kenya 286 305
classi¬catory system for fossils 16--18, 30 sources 282
cleavers 54, 53--5, 63, 76, 79 cores 55
client relationships 266 Cornelia, South Africa 56, 73
climate ¬‚uctuations 76, 94, 131, 133, cotton 297, 298
cowpeas 199, 254, 258, 297
149--50
acceleration of evolution during arid craft specialisation 189, 240
conditions 24, 26, 86 crescent adzes 153
dry and warm 77 cultivation of plants 147, 156, 166, 165--7
wet and cool 70, 83, 89, 108, 207 evidence of cereal cultivation 176,
coins 229, 290, 301 179, 204
Endybis 230 indigenous crops 11, 167, 168, 170
Septimius Severus 220 socio-political importance of 168
silver 288 See also farming; ¬‚oral remains
Coldstream Cave, South Africa 111, Cushitic languages 8, 205, 211--12, 228,
119 229, 233, 287
Columnata, Algeria 92, 119, 136, 137 Cyperus rotundus 147
Columnatan industry 136 Cyrene, Libya 219
Index 373

D. R. Congo, See Congo, D. R. Eastern Oranian industry 134--6
Dabba, Libya 119 ebony 183
Dabban industry 134, 135, 139 Eburran industry 125, 126
Daima, Nigeria 160, 166, 200, 201, 237, Edfuan industry 140
Edward/Rutanzige, Lake 158
243
Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt 150 Egypt 4, 13, 133, 186--9, 192, 190--5,
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 119, 232 221--4
Dar es Soltan, Morocco 134 Abu Simbel 166, 186, 187
Debeira West, Sudan 228 Afyeh 166, 184
Deir el Bahari, Egypt 166 Alexandria 221, 227, 232
dentition 27, 28, 29 Aniba 166
Developed Oldowan industry 61--2, 78, Badari 166, 188, 189
Berenike 227, 232
84--6
See also Oldowan industry Bir Kiseiba 166, 173
Dhar Tichitt, Mauritania 166, 179, Bir Sahara 119, 134
Bir Tarfawi 119, 133
180
Die Kelders, South Africa 101, 101, 270, Buhen 166
Cat¬sh Cave 148, 156
273
Diepkloof, South Africa 270 Dakhleh Oasis 148, 150
Digitaria sp. 154 Deir el Bahari 166
Dikbosch, South Africa 270 dynasties 185, 189, 190, 193--5, 221
division of labour, gender and 170 Esna 148, 149
Djourab Desert 24 Fayum 148, 166
DK site, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 40, 41, Fayum Depression 21, 93, 152, 187,
48 195
DNA studies 95, 163 Hamamiya 166, 189
See also genetic research Helwan 166, 188
dogs 187 Hierakonpolis 166, 189
Doian industry 126 Jebel Sahaba 148, 149, 162
domestication of animals 13, 175, 176--7, Kharga Oasis 148, 150
Kom Ombo 148, 149
193, 270
See also farming; specific animals Kunkur Oasis 148, 150
domestication of plants, see cultivation Merimde 166, 187
of plants Nabta Playa 148, 150, 166, 173
donkeys 168, 187 Nakada 166, 189
Doornfontein, South Africa 270 Pre-Dynastic 182, 188, 188
Doornkloof, South Africa 115 Qasr Ibrim 148, 224, 227
Drimolen, South Africa 47 Qena 119, 139
Dryopithecus 22 Sodmein Cave 166, 176
Dufuna, Nigeria 166, 200 This 166, 189
Duinefontein 2, South Africa 73 Wadi Kubbaniya 119, 140, 147, 148
Dundo, Angola 119 Egyptology 190
Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) 198, 199, 202,
Early Khartoum, see Khartoum, Early 245, 248
earthworks 282 eland 114
East Africa 29, 122--7, 206--12, 291--2 Eland™s Bay, South Africa 270
coast 274, 288--91 Ele Bor, Kenya 148, 160, 166, 207
Index
374

Eleusine (¬nger millet) 167, 182, 195, 203, Laga Oda 119, 125, 126
Lalibela 166, 204, 285, 286, 287
251, 258, 297
El Geili, Sudan 166, 183 Melka Kunture 56, 65, 119, 124
El Guettar, Tunisia 119, 133 Omo 148
El Hobagi, Sudan 227, 227 Omo-Kibish 119
©lites, rise of 256 Omo Valley 33, 36, 36--8, 39, 49, 122,
El Khril, Morocco 166, 176 157
el-Maharaqa, Sudan 226 Porc Epic 119, 124
Elmenteitan industry 208 Tigray 228
Elmolo 158 Turkana, Lake 24, 27, 32, 34, 61,
El-Oualedji, Mali 243 156--9, 206
Endybis (Aksumite king) 230 Yeha 227, 229
Engaruka, Tanzania 286, 287 ethnoarchaeology 10, 114
Enkapune ya Muto, Kenya 119, 125, 126 Europeans
enset 13, 167, 203, 204 settlers 307--8
entoptics 116 traders 274, 280
Epipalaeolithic industry 92 voyagers 279
Epi-Pietersburg artefacts 97 evolution, accelerated during arid
Equatorial Guinea climatic conditions 24, 26, 86
Bioko Island 166, 198, 246 Eyasi, Lake, Tanzania 119, 124
Equus, South Africa 270 Ezana, King of Aksum 226, 230
Eragrostis tef (teff) 167 Eze Nri 238
Erg Tihodaïne, Algeria 56, 76
Eritrea 124, 205 Fakhurian industry 140
Adulis 227, 229 Falls Rock, Namibia 270
Agordat 166, 204 Faras, Sudan 227, 227, 228
Buia 56, 65 farmers, interaction with
Matara 227, 229--30 hunter-gatherers 266
Esh Shaheinab, Sudan 166, 181, 182 farming 169, 171, 186--9, 195, 208
Esna, Egypt 148, 149 archaeological evidence for 169, 170
Ethiopia 32--4, 124, 203--6, 228--32, 285--7 See also cultivation of plants;
Addi Gelemo 229 domestication of animals
Aksum 166, 204, 227, 229--30, 285, 286 faunal remains 38, 40, 50, 107, 154,
Anqqer Baahti 119, 125 157--9, 260
Awash Valley 24, 26, 29, 33, 32--4, 56, assumption of hunting and 50, 67, 88,
65, 62--5, 119, 122 99
Besaka, Lake 166, 204 hunting and 134
Beta Giyorgis 228 Fauresmith industry 74
Bodo 87 Fayum, Egypt 148, 166
Gadamotta 119, 124 Fayum Depression, Egypt 21, 93, 152,
Gadeb 56, 66 187, 195
Genda Biftu 205 Fezzan, Libya 176
Gobedra 119, 125, 126, 126, 166, 204 ¬gurines 256
Gorgora 119, 126 ¬nger millet (Eleusine) 167, 182, 195, 203,
Hadar 33, 32--4, 36, 49 251, 257, 297
Kidane Mehret 228 ¬re, hominids™ use of 49, 70, 89
Konso 56, 62 ¬shermen 307
Index 375

¬sh-hooks 181, 182 Ghana, Kingdom 240, 240, 275--7
¬shing 105, 151, 153, 154, 157--60 Gikuyu 293
¬‚ax 167, 184, 187 giraffes 173, 174
¬‚oral remains 70, 107, 140 glass 232, 288
See also cultivation of plants beads 239, 256, 258, 282, 290, 293,
Florisbad, South Africa 74, 94, 97, 119 298, 301, 308
fonio 196 glottochronology 9
food-production, see farming goats 187, 260
fossils See also ovicaprids
classi¬catory systems 16--18, 30 Gobedra, Ethiopia 119, 125, 126, 126,
dating of 45 166, 203
See also specific species Gogo Falls, Kenya 166, 211
fowl, domestic 168, 260 Gogoshiis Qabe, Somalia 119, 127
FxJj50 site, Kenya 60 Gokomere/Ziwa tradition 254
gold 214, 240, 241, 258, 276, 290, 291,
Gabon 121, 201, 247 298, 297--8, 299, 301, 305
Ogoou© 166 Gombe Point, D. R. Congo 119, 120, 166,
Ogooue River 247 248
Oveng 247, 247 Good Hope, Cape of 307
Gadamotta, Ethiopia 119, 124 Gorgora, Ethiopia 119, 126
Gadeb, Ethiopia 56, 66 gorilla 30, 31
Gajiganna Complex 200 gourds 208
Gambia 243 grasses 149, 154, 165, 200
Gambia River 83 grave goods 106, 111
Gamble™s Cave, Kenya 119, 126, 126 See also burial customs
Gao, Mali 278, 278 gravestones 107
Garamantes 217 Great Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe 286, 299,
gazelles 50, 133 300, 299--302
Gedi, Kenya 286, 289, 291 Greek colonies 218, 219
Ge™ez language 229 Greek language 221, 223, 229
Genda Biftu, Ethiopia 205 grindstones 110, 149, 150, 155, 171, 182
gender Grotte de l™Ours, Morocco 78
division of labour and 170 Grotte des Littorines, Morocco 78
sexual dimorphism and 16, 27, 88 ground beans 297
genetic research 5, 142, 143, 161, 163--4, Guinea 83, 128, 129
Bambuk 240, 276, 278
168
See also DNA studies guinea fowl, domestic 168
Ghana 83, 129, 133, 237, 279 Guli Waabayo, Somalia 119, 127
Adwuku 119, 129 Gumanye phase 299
Akyekyemabuo 237 gums 232
Atwetwebooso 237 Guruhuswa, Kingdom 302
Begho 237, 278, 279, 280 Gwisho, Zambia 110, 110, 119, 162
Bosumpra Cave 166, 198
Cape Three Points 166, 198 Hadar, Ethiopia 33, 32--4, 36, 49
Kintampo 166, 199, 200 Hafun, Somalia 232
Ntereso 166, 199 Hagfet et Tera, Libya 119, 135
Volta River 75--7 Halfan industry 139, 140
Index
376

Hamamiya, Egypt 166, 189 Homo heidelbergensis 53, 65, 65, 72, 72,
hammerstones 158 74, 87, 124, 142
handaxes 53, 54, 63, 76, 79, 81 Homo helmei 97, 142
See also axes Homo rhodesiensis 71
Hangklip, South Africa 56, 73 Homo rudolfensis 29, 30, 38, 42
Hargeisan industry 125 Homo sapiens 19, 20, 30, 31, 96, 97, 122,
Harmony, South Africa 286, 305 124
harpoon-¬shing adaptation 159--60 Homo sapiens, archaic 53, 65, 72, 72, 87
harpoons 120, 145, 151, 153, 155, 156, Homo sapiens sapiens 11, 20, 139, 142,
158, 157--9, 181, 182 160--4
Harts River, South Africa 74, 75 See also physical types
Ha Soloja, Lesotho 104, 119 Hope¬eld, South Africa 56, 74, 87
Haua Fteah, Libya 119, 133, 134, 135, horn 46, 232, 290
hornfels, see lydianite (hornfels)
138, 166, 175
Hausa 279 Horn of Africa, land-bridge with Arabia
Hawston, South Africa 270 51
Hebrew language 8 horses 178, 217, 224, 278--9, 307
Helwan, Egypt 166, 188 Hottentots, see Khoi
herders 169, 208, 210, 307 Howieson™s Poort, South Africa 101
herding of animals 147, 149, 166, 167, Howieson™s Poort industry 97, 99, 100--1,
168, 170, 187, 206--12, 271--3, 298, 102, 103, 105, 143
human, de¬nition 19, 20
301, 305--7
See also domestication of animals human sacri¬ces 283
Herodotus 192, 216, 218, 221 hunter-gatherers 10, 93, 107, 150, 266,
Hierakonpolis, Egypt 166, 189 271--2, 307
hieroglyphic script 190, 191 interaction with farmers 266
Himyaritic script 229, 229 hunting 136, 153
hippopotamus 38, 50 continuation after development of
hoe-like implements 197--8, 201 herding 177, 260
Holocene geological period 173 distinct from herding 271--3
home-bases 50 faunal remains and 134
hominids, evolution of 19, 20--32 faunal remains and assumption of 50,
1.7--1.5 million years ago 52--3, 67, 88, 99
Hyksos 193
86--90
5--2.5 m years ago 1, 10 Hyrax Hill, Kenya 209
bipedal development 26--7, 34, 35
classi¬cation of 21 Iberomaurusian, see Oranian
expansion into Eurasia 51 ibn Battuta 290
family tree 23, 23 Ibo 238
post-Acheulean/Sangoan period 91--6, Ife, Nigeria 240, 278, 281, 281--4
Igbo Ukwu, Nigeria 238--9, 240
142
hominoids 19, 21 Ileret, Kenya 166, 206
Homo 28, 49, 53 Imbonga, D. R. Congo 248
Homo erectus 17, 29, 86--90 Imbonga ware 248
Homo ergaster 17, 19, 29, 39, 47, 53, 60, Ingombe Ilede, Zambia 286, 301
iron 214--16, 219, 228, 232--4, 235--6, 240,
61, 78, 80, 86--90
Homo habilis 20, 29, 33, 38, 39--47, 49, 87 244, 245--9, 258, 305--6
Index 377

smelting 214, 215, 215, 224--5, 248 Kansyore ware 211
smelting furnaces 5, 236, 236, 247, Kaposwa industry 110
Kapthurin, Kenya 56, 68, 119
295
Iron Age 6 Kapthurin Formation 123
irrigation 219, 287, 303 Kapwirimbwe, Zambia 254
Isenya, Kenya 56, 68 Karari industry 39, 60, 61, 84
Ishango, D. R. Congo 148, 158, 159, 161 Karkarichinkat, Mali 166, 179
Isimila, Tanzania 56, 70 Kassala, Sudan 166, 204
Islam 223, 224, 254, 275--9, 285, 288 Kasteelberg, South Africa 270, 272
ivory 183, 218, 229, 232, 238, 243, 256, Katanda, D. R. Congo 119, 120
Katanga Province, D. R. Congo 254,
290, 298
Ivory Coast 198 294
Bingerville 129 Katoto, D. R. Congo 254
Ivuna, Tanzania 286, 293 Katuruka, Tanzania 251
Iwo Eleru, Nigeria 119, 128--9, 162, 166, Kay Ladio, D. R. Congo 248
KBS site, Kenya 36, 38, 50, 51, 60
198
Kebibat, Morocco 119, 133
Jakkalsberg, South Africa 270 Kenya 233, 251, 287
Jebel et Tomat, Sudan 224, 227, 232 Akira 166
Jebel Irhoud, Morocco 119, 133 Baringo, Lake 24, 68, 123
Jebel Moya, Sudan 224, 227, 233 Chalbi Lake 207
Jebel Sahaba, Egypt 148, 149, 162 Chyulu 286
Jebel Uweinat, Libya 166, 173, 174 Ele Bor 148, 160, 166, 207
Jenne, Mali 278, 278 Enkapune ya Muto 119, 125, 126
Jenne-Jeno, Mali 166, 203, 234, 241, 242 FxJj50 site 60
Jos, Nigeria 56, 76, 119 Gamble™s Cave 119, 126, 126
Jos Plateau, Nigeria 75, 128, 235 Gedi 286, 291
Gogo Falls 166, 211
Kabambian phase 295 Hyrax Hill 209
Kabwe, Zambia, See Broken Hill Mine, Ileret 166, 206
Kabwe, Zambia Isenya 56, 68
Kadero, Sudan 166, 182 Kanapoi 33
Kagera River 81, 119 Kapthurin 56, 68, 119
Kalabsha, Nubia 193 KBS site 36, 38, 50, 51, 60
Kalahari Desert 106, 121 Kilombe 56, 68
Kalambo Falls (Tanzania--Zambia border) Kinangop 119
Kinangop Plateau 56, 68
56, 69, 68--70, 71, 81, 83, 117, 119,
Koobi Fora 29, 30, 33, 38, 56, 60, 61
123
Kalemba, Zambia 106, 108, 109, 119 Kwale 252--4
Kalundu, Zambia 260 Lamu Archipelago 288, 289
Kamabai, Sierra Leone 166, 198 Lemek 166, 210
Kamba 293 Lopoy 148, 158
Kamoa, D. R. Congo 56, 70 Lothagam 24, 33, 148, 161
Kanapoi, Kenya 33 Lowasera 148, 157, 157, 158
Kanem, Kingdom 241, 275, 278, 279 Lukeino 24
Kansanshi mine, Zambia 286, 295 Lukenya Hill 119, 124--5, 127
Kansyore, Uganda 166 Malindi 286, 289, 290
Index
378

Kenya (cont.) Kisalian period 295
Manda 286, 288, 289 Kisese, Tanzania 119, 125, 127
Maringishu 166, 208, 209 Klasies River Mouth, South Africa 98,
Muguruk 81, 119, 123 99, 99, 101, 101, 111, 119
Nariokotome 39, 56, 60 Klipfontein, South Africa 115
Narosura 166, 208 Klipplaatdrif, South Africa 56, 73
Nderit 166 Kom Ombo, Egypt 148, 149
Nderit Drift 119, 126, 208 Kondoa, Tanzania 119, 127
Njoro River Cave 166, 208 Konso, Ethiopia 56, 62
North Horr 166, 207, 207, 227, Koobi Fora, Kenya 29, 30, 33, 38, 56, 60,
61
233
Olorgesailie 56, 66, 66--8, 289 Koobi Fora Formation 35, 37
Shanga 288 Kordofanian languages 7, 8
Stable™s Drift 210 Koro Toro, Chad 237
Turkana, Lake 24, 27, 32, 34, 61, Kourounkorokale, Mali 148, 152
Kromdraai, South Africa 33, 44, 46
156--9, 206
Urewe 252 Kulal, Mount 157
pottery 250, 250--1 Kumbi Saleh, Mauritania 241, 276, 278
West Turkana 33 Kunkur Oasis, Egypt 148, 150
Yala Alego 119, 123 Kush 186, 195, 221, 224
Kenya Capsian industry, see Eburran Kwale, Kenya 252--4
industry Kwale ware 252--4, 293
Kenyapithecus 22 KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa
Kerma, Sudan 166, 185, 186, 194 97, 103, 115, 257, 297, 306
Khami, Zimbabwe 286, 302
Kharga Oasis, Egypt 148, 150 Laetoli, Tanzania 27, 33, 32--4, 35
Khartoum, Early, Sudan 148, 153--6, 162 Laga Oda, Ethiopia 119, 125, 126
pottery 154, 155, 156 (See also wavy Lalibela, Ethiopia 166, 204, 285, 286,
line pottery) 287
Khartoum, Sudan 139, 154, 155, 181 Lamu Archipelago, Kenya 288, 289
Khoi 8, 162, 212, 270 land-bridge, between Horn of Africa and
KhoiSan languages 7, 8, 114, 145, 212, Arabia 51
land-snail 136
270, 273, 304, 307--8
Khor Musa, Sudan 119, 139 Langebaan, South Africa 101, 101
Khormusan industry 139, 140 languages
Kibiro, Uganda 286, 293, 293 classi¬cation of 7, 17
Kibish Formation 122 development of 88, 89, 144, 172
Kidane Mehret, Ethiopia 228 distribution 7
Kilombe, Kenya 56, 68 families 163
Kilwa, Tanzania 286, 288, 289, 290, 301 individual identity and 2, 6
Kinangop, Kenya 119 See also linguistics; specific languages
Kinangop Plateau, Kenya 56, 68 ˜Late Stone Age™ 91, 92
Kinshasa, Plain 117 Lelesu, Tanzania 252
Kintampo, Ghana 166, 199, 200 Lemek, Kenya 166, 210
Kintampo industry 199 leopard lairs 45
Kipushi mine, D. R. Congo 286, 295 Leopard™s Hill, Zambia 109, 119
Kisale, Lake 295 Leopard™s Kopje industry 297
Index 379

Lesotho 105 Lowasera, Kenya 148, 157, 157
Ha Soloja 104, 119 pottery 158
Moshebi 104, 119 Luangwa pottery tradition 294, 294
Sehonghong 99, 104, 119 Luangwa Valley, Zambia 83, 119
Levalloiso-Mousterian industry 131--4, Luba 296
Lukeino, Kenya 24
135, 139
Levallois technique 57, 57, 140 Lukenya Hill, Kenya 119, 124--5, 127
Liberia 237 Lungwebungu pottery tradition 294
Libya 131, 133, 176, 216 Luo 287
Acacus 152, 217 Lupemban industry 104, 108, 117--22,
Cyrene 219 123, 123, 124, 139
Dabba 119 Lydenburg, South Africa 258, 259
Fezzan 176 lydianite (hornfels) 74, 102
Hagfet et Tera 119, 135
Haua Fteah 119, 133, 134, 135, 138, Maasai 287
Macedonians 221
166, 175
Jebel Uweinat 166, 173, 174 Madagascar 269, 289
Ti-n-Torha 148, 150, 152 Mahilaka 269
Uan Afuda 148, 150 Madingo-Kayes, Congo 248
Uan Muhuggiag 166, 176 Maghreb 176, 216
Libyan Pre-Aurignacian industry 135 magnetic polarity 25
Libyco-Capsian industry 138, 175 Mahilaka, Madagascar 269
life-style maize 167
of early Homo 50--1, 145 Majabat al-Koubra, Mauritania 276
hunter-gatherers 10 Makapansgat, South Africa 33, 44--7
Oranian 136--8 Makgwareng, South Africa 286, 305,
Sahara herders 177 306
sedentism and 11 Makwe, Zambia 119, 265
Limerock, South Africa 270 Makwe, Zimbabwe 113
Limpopo Valley 297--8 Malagasy culture 269
linen 184, 189 Malawi 252, 254, 255, 267, 294
linguistics 3, 8--9, 163--4, 205, 211--12, Chiwondo 42
Mwanganda 119, 120
264, 274
See also languages; specific languages Nkope 260
literacy 1, 13, 289 Uraha 33
lithic raw materials 66, 67, 86, 87, 100 Malawi, Lake 42
amazonite 182 Malebo (Stanley) Pool, Congo/D. R.
chert 139 Congo 117, 119
lydianite (hornfels) 74, 102 Mali 128, 234, 240, 243, 278, 277--9
obsidian 125, 207 Asselar 166, 179
quartz 128 Awdaghast 241
lithic technology, see stone-tool El-Oualedji 243
technology Gao 278, 278
loanwords 9, 290 Jenne 278, 278
Lopoy, Kenya 148, 158 Jenne-Jeno 166, 203, 234, 241, 242
lost wax process 238, 239 Karkarichinkat 166, 179
Lothagam, Kenya 24, 33, 148, 161 Kourounkorokale 148, 152
Index
380

Mali (cont.) Middle Stone Age 91, 92
Oueyanko Valley 166, 198 millet 175, 241, 290
Outeidat 148, 152 bulrush millet (Pennisetum) 167, 180,
Tilemsi Valley 179, 200 196, 200, 257, 258
Timbuktu 276 ¬nger millet (Eleusine) 167, 182, 195,
Malindi, Kenya 286, 289, 290 203, 251, 257, 297
Maluba, D. R. Congo 248 See also sorghum
Manda, Kenya 286, 288, 289 Miocene geological period 21, 21--2
Mande 277--9 Mirabib, Namibia 270
Manekweni, Mozambique 301 Mogadishu, Somalia 289, 290
manioc 167 Mogador, Morocco 218
Mapungubwe, South Africa 257, 286, Montagu Cave, South Africa 54, 56, 73,
298, 298, 299 97, 101, 119
Maringishu, Kenya 166, 208 moon-god 229, 229
pottery 209 Morocco 131, 176
Massinissa, King 219 Casablanca 56, 77--8
Masvingo, Zimbabwe 299 Dar es Soltan 134
Matara, Eritrea 227, 229--30 El Khril 166, 176
material culture, parameters of 4 Grotte de l™Ours 78
Matola, Mozambique 254 Grotte des Littorines 78
Matola ware 252, 257 Jebel Irhoud 119, 133
Matopo Hills, Zimbabwe 116, 272 Kebibat 119, 133
Matupi, D. R. Congo 119, 120 Mogador 218
Mauritania 240 Sale 119, 133
Akjoujt 234 Sidi Abderrahman quarry 78, 80
Dhar Tichitt 166, 179, 180 Thomas quarry 78
Kumbi Saleh 241, 276, 278 Moshebi, Lesotho 104, 119
Majabat al-Koubra 276 Mossel Bay, South Africa 101
Tegdaoust 241, 276, 277, 278 Mousterian industry 131, 139
Mechta-Afalou physical type 134, 136, Mozambique 252
Manekweni 301
138, 161
Mechta el Arbi, Algeria 119, 137 Matola 254
Mejiro, Nigeria 119, 129 Sofala 286, 289, 291
Melka Kunture, Ethiopia 56, 65, 119, 124 Vilanculos Bay 288, 289
Merimde, Egypt 166, 187 Mpongweni, South Africa 114
Meroe, Sudan 224--6, 227, 230 Msuluzi/Lydenburg tradition 257
Meroitic languages 225, 226 Muguruk, Kenya 81, 119, 123
Meroitic temple, Naqa, Sudan 225 mules 217
Meroitic wares 232 Mumba, Tanzania 119, 122
Mesolithic industry 92 Mumbwa Cave, Zambia 108, 119
Mesopotamia 190 Musa, ruler of Mali 278
Messina, South Africa 286, 305 Musolexi, Angola 123
metallurgy 214--16, 227, 234, 244, 247, Mwanganda, Malawi 119, 120
Mwulu™s Cave, South Africa 104, 119
258
microliths, see stone-tool technology,
mode-5 Nabta Playa, Egypt 150, 166, 173
Middle Palaeolithic 92 Nachikufan I industry 109
Index 381

Nachikufu, Zambia 119 Dufuna 166, 200
Nachukui Formation 35, 39 Ife 240, 278, 281, 281--4
Nakada, Egypt 166, 189 Igbo Ukwu 238, 239
Nakada wares 188, 189 Iwo Eleru 119, 128--9, 162, 166,
Nakuru, Lake 148 198
Naletale, Zimbabwe 286, 302, 303 Jos 56, 76, 119
Namibia 104, 269--73, 305 Jos Plateau 75, 128, 235
˜Apollo 11 Cave™ 104, 111, 112, 119 Mejiro 119, 129
Falls Rock 270 Nsukka 235
Mirabib 270 Old Oyo 278
Snake Rock 270 Oyo Ile 280
Nana Mode, Central African Republic Rop 119, 129, 130
Samun Dukiya 236
244
Napata, Sudan 224, 227 Tada 278, 282
Naqa, Sudan 225 Taruga 236, 236
Nariokotome, Kenya 39, 56, 60 Udo 283
Narosura, Kenya 166, 208 Yelwa 237
Nasera, Tanzania 119, 124, 127 Zenebi 119
Nderit, Kenya 166 Zenebi Falls 128
Nderit Drift, Kenya 119, 126, 208 Niger River 133
Nderit ware 207, 209, 209, 210 Nile Valley 58, 81, 224
Ndutu, Lake, Tanzania 62, 87 12,000 to 8000 years ago 152--6
neanderthals 95, 133 20,000 to 11,000 years ago 147
negroid type people 162, 212 beginning of farming 181--3, 186--9,
Nelson Bay Cave, South Africa 101, 101, 195
development of literacy 13
105, 270
Neolithic 6, 172 post-Acheulean period 138--41
Neolithic of Capsian tradition 176 Nilo-Saharan languages 7, 8, 160
Ngaloba, Tanzania 122 Nilotic languages 8, 211, 233, 284, 287,
Ngovo, D. R. Congo 166 292
Ngovo group 202, 248 Njoro River Cave, Kenya 166, 208
Nhunguza, Zimbabwe 286, 301, 302 Njuinye, Cameroon 119, 128
Niger Nkang, Cameroon 166, 202
Adrar Bous 119, 132, 132, 150, 166, Nkope, Malawi 260
Nkope tradition 254
177, 177
Agadez 234 Nok culture 235, 235--6
Aïr 234 noog 167, 203
Arlit 166, 177 North Africa 4, 77--81, 131--8, 141, 147,
Tamaya Mellet 148, 152 216--20, 223
Niger-Congo languages 8 North Horr, Kenya 166, 207, 207, 227,
See also Bantu languages 233
Nigeria 83, 129, 197, 237--40, 245, 280--4 Nsenga 295
A¬kpo 119, 129, 166, 198 Nsukka, Nigeria 235
Beli 56, 75 Ntereso, Ghana 166, 199
Benin 278, 282, 283, 283 Nthabazingwe, Zimbabwe 286,
Daima 148, 160, 166, 200, 201, 237, 297
Ntusi, Uganda 286, 293
243
Index
382

Nubia 57, 140, 154, 185, 186 Ounanian points 150, 152
A-Group 186, 183--6 Outeidat, Mali 148, 152
C-Group 185, 204 Oveng, Gabon 247, 247
See also Sudan ovicaprids 168, 175--7, 195, 260, 270
Nubian industry 57, 152 See also goats; sheep
nut-grass 147 oxygen isotopes 25
Nyanga, Zimbabwe 286, 302, Oyo Ile, Nigeria 278, 280
304
panicum 182
Oakhurst Complex 105, 110 Paranthropus (Australopithecus) aethiopicus
Obas of Benin 283 27, 38, 39
Obobogo, Cameroon 245 Paranthropus (Australopithecus) boisei 17,
obsidian 125, 207 28, 30, 38, 39, 53, 62
ochre 102, 102, 107 Paranthropus (Australopithecus) robustus 17,
Ogoou©, Gabon 166 28, 44, 46, 53
Ogooue River, Gabon 247 pastoralists 169, 208, 210
oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) 198, 199, 202, See also herders
Pastoral Neolithic complex 208
245, 248
Oldowan industry 34, 38--9, 47--8, 60, 64, Pemba, Tanzania 288, 289
Peninj, Tanzania 56, 65
66
See also Developed Oldowan industry Pennisetum (bulrush millet) 167, 180, 196,
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 30, 33, 40, 48, 200, 258
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea 232, 288, 290
56, 63, 119
archaeological sequence 64 petits tranchets 121
artefacts 61--2, 125 petroglyphs, see rock art
faunal remains 40 Phalaborwa, South Africa 286, 305
fossil remains 39--42, 62, 124 pharaohs 191, 194, 194
See also DK site, Olduvai Gorge, See also Egypt, dynasties
Tanzania Phoenician colonies 218
Olifantspoort, South Africa 286, 305 Phoenicians 218--19
Oligocene geological period 21 physical types 160--3
Olorgesailie, Kenya 56, 66, 66--8 ancestral African 162
Olorgesailie Formation 68 caucasoid 212
Omo, Ethiopia 148 Mechta-Afalou 134, 136, 138, 161
Omo-Kibish, Ethiopia 119 negroid 162--3, 212
Omo Valley, Ethiopia 33, 36, 36--8, 39, proto-Mediterranean 161, 176
phytoliths 197, 202
49, 122, 157
On the Origin of Species (Darwin) 16 Pietersburg industry 102, 104, 108
oral traditions 1, 3, 9, 274, 275, 276, Pietersburg (presently Polokwane),
South Africa 102
279--80, 283, 287, 302
Oranian industry 135--8 pigs 187
Oromo 287 plant foods, see cultivation of plants
Orrorin tugenensis 24 Pleistocene geological period 21, 32, 42,
Osiris 191 121
ostriches 133, 137, 138, 138 Plettenberg Bay, South Africa 93
Oued Guettara, Algeria 166, 176 Pliocene geological period 21, 24, 32, 42
Oueyanko Valley, Mali 166, 198 Pointe Noire, Congo 248
Index 383

pollen 70, 120, 149, 251 Ptolemy, C. 222
analysis 169 Ptolemy I, ruler of Egypt 221
Polokwane (formerly Pietersburg), South pumpkin 236, 258
Africa 102 Punt, Land of 194, 205, 206
Pomongwe Cave, Zimbabwe 82, 99, 108, pygmies 266
pyramids 191, 193
110, 119
population 55, 87, 140, 142, 265
Porc Epic, Ethiopia 119, 124 Qadan 149, 162
Portuguese 284, 291, 302 Qadan industry 149
post-Acheulean/Sangoan period 93, Qarunian industry 152
Qasr Ibrim, Egypt 224, 227
96--110, 116--22, 124, 128--30, 141--6
sites 119 Qayrawan, Tunisia 223, 223
potassium/argon dating method 32, 35 Qena, Egypt 119, 139
pottery quartz 128
Badarian 188, 189 Qustul, Sudan 226, 227
Bambata ware 272
Batalimo 246, 248 Ra 191
Cape coast 271 radiocarbon dates 6, 69, 92, 156, 170,
Chifumbaze complex 255 180, 216
Early Khartoum 154, 155, 156 calibration of 6
¬gurines 256 Ramesses II, Pharaoh of Egypt 186
Imbonga 248 Rao, Senegal 276, 278
Kansyore ware 211 Redcliff, Zimbabwe 108, 119
Kwale ware 252--4, 293 Relilai, Algeria/Tunisia 119, 136, 137
Leopard™s Kopje 297 Rendille 287
Lowasera, Kenya 158 Rhapta, Tanzania? 232
Luangwa tradition 294, 294 rhinoceros
Lungwebungu tradition 294 horns 232
Maringishu ware 209 rice 13, 167, 196, 203, 234, 241, 245
Matola ware 252, 257 Rift Valley 22, 24, 32--4, 125
Meroitic wares 232 Rift Valley pottery 209
Nakada 188, 189 Rim, Burkina Faso 119, 129, 234
Nderit ware 207, 209, 210 river deposits 58
origin of 159--60 roads 219
with pointed bases 271, 271 Robberg industry 99, 101, 105
Rift Valley 209 rock art 111--16, 127, 150, 267, 307
roulette-decorated 233, 292 age estimates 177
Tana tradition 288 depicting animals 112, 113, 114, 115,
sites 289 151, 173, 174, 176, 179, 205, 205,
terracotta ¬gures 235, 235, 280, 281 217, 217, 307, 308
terracotta heads 258, 259, 281 depicting people 116, 178, 267
Urewe ware 250, 250--1 ethnographic interpretation of 114,
wavy line 151, 153, 154, 156 145
Pre-Aurignacian industry 134 non-representational designs 116, 117,
Proconsul 22 267, 268
proto-Mediterranean physical type 161, sites 166
Roman empire 220, 219--20, 221
176
Index
384

Rooidam, South Africa 56, 74 Rao 276, 278
Rop, Nigeria 119, 129, 130 Saint Louis 166, 198
Rose Cottage Cave, South Africa 103, Sine Saloum 243
Tiemassas 129, 130
119
roulette-decorated pottery 233, 292 Senga, D. R. Congo 33, 42
Ruanga, Zimbabwe 286, 301 Septimius Severus, Emperor of Rome
Rusinga Island 22 220
Rutanzige, Lake, see Edward/Rutanzige, serpents 116
Lake sexual dimorphism 16, 27, 88
Rwanda 123, 250, 292 Shabona, Sudan 148, 154
shamans, trances 114, 116, 145
Saggai, Sudan 148, 155 Shamarkian industry 152, 154, 156
sagittal crest 28 Shanga, Kenya 288, 289
Sahara 76--7, 131--8, 141, 147--52, 156, Shaqadud, Sudan 148, 155
sheep 187, 260, 270, 307
172--5, 176--81
Saint Louis, Senegal 166, 198 Barbary sheep 136, 150, 167, 168
Sakutiek industry 125 See also ovicaprids
Sakuzi, D. R. Congo 248 shell 107, 176, 181, 182, 199, 276
Sakwe, Zambia 268 Shirazi dynasty 290--1
Sale, Morocco 119, 133 Shona 300, 302
salt 218, 276, 293, 293 Shum Laka, Cameroon 119, 128, 162,
Salumano, Zambia 256 166, 201
Samun Dukiya, Nigeria 236 Shungura Formation 35
San 8, 107, 114, 127, 145, 270 Sibudu Cave, South Africa 103, 103,
Sanga, D. R. Congo 254, 286, 295, 119
sickles 171
296
Sangoan industry 52, 58, 82, 83, 81--4, sickle-sheen 149, 198
Sidi Abderrahman quarry, Morocco 78,
92, 108, 117, 123, 124, 128
Sango Bay, Uganda 119 80
Sanhaja 277 Sidi Okba mosque 223
Sao sites 237 Sidi Zin, Tunisia 56, 79
scavenging 50, 88, 99 Sierra Leone 128, 129, 237
Schroda, South Africa 256, 257, 286, Kamabai 166, 198
Yagala 166, 198
297
Scott™s Cave, South Africa 270 Yengema 119, 129
Seacow Valley, South Africa 270 Silozwane, Zimbabwe 267, 267
Sebekian industry 149 silver coins 288
Sebilian industry 149 Sine Saloum, Senegal 243
seeds, impressions of 169, 177, 181, 182 Singa, Sudan 119, 122
Sehonghong, Lesotho 99, 104, 119 Singida, Tanzania 119, 127
Semitic languages 8, 205, 228, 229, site names xvi
site types
285
Semliki River 42 butchery locations 50, 88
Semna, Sudan 166, 185 home bases 50
Senegal 83, 198, 199, 234, 237, 243 tool-manufacture locations 88
Cap Vert 128 Situmpa, Zambia 256
Casamance Estuary 166, 198 Sivapithecus 22
Index 385

skins 218, 229, 290 Duinefontein 2 73
slave trade 218, 243, 278, 290 Eland™s Bay 270
small stock, see ovicaprids Equus 270
Snake Rock, Namibia 270 Florisbad 74, 94, 97, 119
Soba, Alwa 227, 227 Hangklip 56, 73
socio-political organisation 9, 13, 107, Harmony 286, 305
Harts River 74, 75
149, 189
Sodmein Cave, Egypt 166, 176 Hawston 270
Sofala, Mozambique 286, 289, 291 Hope¬eld 56, 74, 87
Somali 287 Howieson™s Poort 101
Somalia 124, 205, 287 Jakkalsberg 270
Gogoshiis Qabe 119, 127 Kasteelberg 270, 272
Guli Waabayo 119, 127 Klasies River Mouth 98, 99, 99, 101,
Hafun 232 101, 111, 119
Mogadishu 289, 290 Klipfontein 115
Zeila 285, 286 Klipplaatdrif 56, 73
Somali languages 212 Kromdraai 33, 44, 46
Somme Valley, France 52 KwaZulu-Natal Province 97, 103, 115,
Songhai empire 8, 278, 278 257, 297, 306
sorghum 167, 175, 180, 182, 195, 196, Langebaan 101, 101
Limerock 270
196, 241, 251, 254, 257, 258, 297,
Lydenburg 258, 259
306
See also millet Makapansgat 33, 44--7
Sotho 305, 306 Makgwareng 286, 305, 306
South Africa 4, 42--7, 73--4, 252, 258, Mapungubwe 257, 286, 298, 298, 299
Messina 286, 305
267, 269--73, 297, 305--7
Amanzi 56, 73 Montagu Cave 54, 56, 73, 97, 101, 119
Bambandyanalo 257, 286, 297 Mossel Bay 101
Blackburn 286, 306 Mpongweni 114
Blinkklipkop 270 Mwulu™s Cave 104, 119
Blombos Cave 101, 102, 102, 270 Nelson Bay Cave 101, 101, 105, 270
Boomplaas Cave 101, 102, 105, 119, Olifantspoort 286, 305
Phalaborwa 286, 305
270
Border Cave 97--101, 105, 119, 143 Pietersburg (presently Polokwane) 102
Broederstroom 258 Plettenberg Bay 93
Bushman Rock 105, 119 Rooidam 56, 74
Byneskranskop 270 Rose Cottage Cave 103, 119
Cave of Hearths 56, 73, 97, 99, 102, Schroda 256, 257, 286, 297
Scott™s Cave 270
104, 119
Coldstream Cave 111, 119 Seacow Valley 270
Cornelia 56, 73 Sibudu Cave 103, 103--6, 119
Die Kelders 101, 101, 270, 273 sites 32, 45
Diepkloof 270 Spoegrivier 270
Dikbosch 270 Steenberg 270
Doornfontein 117, 270 Sterkfontein 30, 33, 44--7, 56, 73
Doornkloof 115 Strathalan Cave 105, 119
Drimolen 47 Swartkrans 33, 44, 46, 46
Index
386

South Africa (cont.) Arkin 119, 139
Taung 33, 42, 43, 74 Bahr el Ghazal 284
Three Rivers 73 Debeira West 227, 228
Tortoise Cave 270 El Geili 166, 183
Tzaneen 254 El Hobagi 227, 227
uKhahlamba/Drakensberg mountains el-Maharaqa 226
Esh Shaheinab 166, 181, 182
112, 113, 257, 306, 307, 308
Vaal Valley 58 Faras 227, 227, 228
Western Cape 115 Jebel et Tomat 224, 227, 232
Wilton 119 Jebel Moya 224, 227, 233
Witkrans 270 Kadero 166, 182
Wonderboompoort 56, 73 Kassala 166, 204
Wonderwerk 56, 74, 97, 111, 119 Kerma 166, 185, 186, 194
South Arabian culture 228 Khartoum 139, 154, 155, 181
spearpoints 98 Khartoum, Early 148, 153--6, 162
spears 218 pottery 154, 155, 156 (See also wavy
spices 232 line pottery)
Spoegrivier, South Africa 270 Khor Musa 119, 139
squash 258 Meroe 224--6, 227, 230
Stable™s Drift, Kenya 210 Napata 224, 227
states Naqa, Meroitic temple 225
early formation 240 Qustul 226, 227
trade and 274, 295 Saggai 148, 155
Steenberg, South Africa 270 Semna 166, 185
stelae 185, 205, 226, 230, 231 Shabona 154
Sterkfontein, South Africa 30, 33, 44--7, Shaqadud 148, 155
Singa 119, 122
56, 73
stone-tool technology 11, 12, 18, 57, 57, Tagra 148, 154
Wadi Halfa 56, 81, 119, 139
85
mode-1 36, 38, 46, 47--8 (See also Wadi Howar 138, 183
Oldowan industry) Wun Rok 227, 232, 284, 286
mode-2 53, 75, 92 (See also Acheulean See also Nubia
technocomplex) Sudanic languages 8, 266
mode-3 92, 97--100, 101, 106, 108, 124, Swahili 269, 290, 291
Swartkrans, South Africa 33, 44, 46,
129, 131--4
mode-4 93, 126, 132, 134, 145 46
mode-5 93, 92--4, 100--1, 104--6, 109, Swaziland 252
Systema Naturae (Linnaeus) 16
110, 109--10, 120, 125, 126, 130,
128--30, 134--6, 145, 182, 232
post-Acheulean/Sangoan Taba Zikamambo, Zimbabwe 286, 297
developments 142--3 Tachengit, Algeria 56, 76
transition from mode-3 to mode-5 Tada, Nigeria 278, 282
Taforalt, Algeria 119, 136, 137
105, 122
strandlopers 307 Tagra, Sudan 148, 154
Strathalan Cave, South Africa 105, 119 Tamar Hat, Algeria 119, 136--8
Sudan 224--8, 232--3, 284 Tamaya Mellet, Niger 148, 152
Alwa 227 Tana ware 288, 289
Index 387

Tanda, Zimbabwe 304 Three Rivers, South Africa 73
Tanzania 127, 212, 251, 293 Tiemassas, Senegal 129, 130
Buhaya 251 Tighenif, Algeria, see Terni¬ne, Algeria
Dar es Salaam 119, 232 Tigray, Ethiopia 228
Engaruka 286, 287 Tilemsi Valley, Mali 179, 200
Eyasi, Lake 119, 124 Timbuktu, Mali 276
Isimila 56, 70 Timgad, Algeria 220
Ivuna 286, 293 tin mines 305
Katuruka 251 Ti-n-Torha, Libya 148, 150, 152
Kilwa 286, 288, 289, 290--1, tool making 44, 47--51, 88
tools, de¬nition 19
301
Kisese 119, 125, 127 Tortoise Cave, South Africa 270
Kondoa 119, 127 Toutswe, Botswana 261, 286
Laetoli 27, 33, 32--4, 35 Toutswe tradition 256, 297
Lelesu 252 trade centres 278, 298
Mumba 119, 122 trade routes 224
Nasera 119, 124, 127 traders 240, 288--91
Ndutu, Lake 62, 87 trances of shamans 114, 116, 145
Ngaloba 122 transhumance 176, 216
Olduvai Gorge 30, 33, 40, 41, 39--42, trumpets 280
tsetse ¬‚ies 203
48, 56, 61--2, 63, 64, 119, 124,
Tshangula, Zimbabwe 109, 119
125
Pemba 288, 289 Tshangula industry 99, 109
Peninj 56, 65 Tshitolian industry 121
Rhapta? 232 Tsodilo, Botswana 119
Singida 119, 127 Tswana 256, 306
Uvinza 286, 293 Tuareg 277
Taruga, Nigeria 236, 236 Tunis, Tunisia 224
Tassili, Algeria 178, 179 Tunisia 176, 216
Taung, South Africa 33, 42, 43, Carthage 218, 219
El Guettar 119, 133
74
Tchissanga, Congo 248 Qayrawan 223, 223
teff 167, 203 Sidi Zin 56, 79
Tegdaoust, Mauritania 241, 276, 277, Tunis 224
Turkana, Lake, Ethiopia/Kenya 24, 27,
278
Tenerean industry 177 32, 34--9, 61, 156--9, 206
Terni¬ne, Algeria 56, 78, 80 Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt
terracing 304 195
terracotta Tuthmosis III 194, 194
¬gures 235, 235, 280, 281 Twickenham Road, Zambia 286, 294
heads 258, 259, 281 Twin Rivers, Zambia 108, 117, 119
textiles Tzaneen, South Africa 254
cotton 297, 298
linen 184, 189 Uan Afuda, Libya 148, 150
Thandwe, Zambia 265 Uan Muhuggiag, Libya 166, 176
This, Egypt 166, 189 Ubangian languages 8, 266, 284
Thomas quarry, Morocco 78 Udo, Nigeria 283
Index
388

Uganda 250, 287, 292 wood artefacts 70, 71, 73, 107, 110
Bigo 286, 293 Wun Rok, Sudan 227, 232, 284, 286
Buvuma Island 119, 125
Bweyorere 286, 293 X-Group 226
Kansyore 166 Xhosa 306
Kibiro 286, 293, 293
Ntusi 286, 293 Yagala, Sierra Leone 166, 198
Sango Bay 119 Yala Alego, Kenya 119, 123
uKhahlamba/Drakensberg mountains, yams 13, 130, 167, 169, 170, 196, 197,
South Africa 112, 113, 257, 306, 202--3, 245
Yeha, Ethiopia 227, 229
307, 308
Upper Palaeolithic industries 93, 134 Yelwa, Nigeria 237
Uraha, Malawi 33 Yengema, Sierra Leone 119, 129
urbanism 241, 279, 280 Yoruba 279, 281
Urewe, Kenya 252
pottery 250, 250--1 Zaghawa 243
Usno Formation 35 Zagwe dynasty 285
Uvinza, Tanzania 286, 293 Zaïre, See Congo, D. R.
Zambezi River 59
Vaal Valley, South Africa 58 Zambezi Valley 106, 256
Vandals 220, 223 Zambia 108--10, 117, 252, 258, 265, 267,
vegetation patterns 227 294
vegetation patterns, modern 227 Broken Hill Mine, Kabwe 56, 72, 70--2,
Venda 305 74, 87, 97, 119
Victoria, Lake 22, 52, 123, 211, 250, 251 Bwana Mkubwa mine 286, 295
Victoria Falls, Zambia/Zimbabwe 56, 59 Gwisho 110, 119, 162
Vilanculos Bay, Mozambique 288, 289 Ingombe Ilede 286, 301
Volta River, Ghana 75 Kalambo Falls 56, 69, 68--70, 71, 81,
83, 117, 119, 123
Wadi Halfa, Sudan 56, 81, 119, 139, 148 Kalemba 106, 108, 109, 119
Wadi Howar, Sudan 138, 183 Kalundu 260
Wadi Kubbaniya, Egypt 119, 140, 147 Kansanshi mine 286, 295
Wadi Saoura, Algeria 76 Kapwirimbwe 254
wagons 307 Leopard™s Hill 109, 119
warthog 133 Luangwa Valley 83, 119
wavy line pottery 151, 153, 154, 156 Makwe 119, 265
West Africa 75, 128--30, 195--203, 234, Mumbwa Cave 108, 119
Nachikufu 119
240, 240, 244--5, 278, 279, 284
Western Cape, South Africa 115 Sakwe 268
West Turkana, Kenya 33 Salumano 256
wheat 167, 184, 187--9, 195, 203 Situmpa 256
Wilton, South Africa 119 Thandwe 265
Wilton industry 106, 109 Twickenham Road 286, 294
Witkrans, South Africa 270 Twin Rivers 108, 117, 119
Wonderboompoort, South Africa 56, 73 Zambia/Katanga Copperbelt 254, 295
Wonderwerk, South Africa 56, 74, 97, Zande 284
Zanzibar 232, 289
111, 119
Index 389

Zeila, Somalia 285 Nhunguza 301, 302
Zenebi, Nigeria 119 Nthabazingwe 297
Zenebi Falls, Nigeria 128 Nyanga 302, 304
Zenj 290 Pomongwe Cave 82, 99, 108, 110,
Zimbabwe 108--10, 252, 254, 258, 273, 119
Redcliff 108, 119
297, 299
Bambata Cave 82, 119, 272 Ruanga 301
Great Zimbabwe 299, 300, 299--302 Silozwane 267, 267
Khami 302 Taba Zikamambo 297
Makwe 113 Tanda 304
Masvingo 299 Tshangula 109, 119
Matopo Hills 116, 272 zimbabwe 299
Naletale 302, 303 Zulu 306

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