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2002), and P. Nugent, Africa since independence: a comparative history (Basingstoke, 2004).
An excellent outline of modern demographic change is the World Bank™s Population
growth and policies in sub-Saharan Africa (Washington, 1986). Other major studies include
R. J. Lesthaeghe (ed.), Reproduction and social organization in sub-Saharan Africa (Berkeley,
1989); E. van de Walle, G. Pison, and M. Sala-Diakanda (eds.), Mortality and society in
sub-Saharan Africa (Oxford, 1992); and H. J. Page and R. Lesthaeghe (eds.), Child-spacing
in tropical Africa (London, 1981). R. Cassen and others, Population and development (New
Brunswick, 1994), treat the economic impact. For health, see R. G. Feachem and D. T. Jamison
(eds.), Disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (Washington, 1991).
J. D. Hargreaves, Decolonization in Africa (London, 1988), provides an outline, but the
subject is best studied in the collections of British of¬cial documents: S. R. Ashton and
S. E. Stockwell (eds.), Imperial policy and colonial practice 1925“1945 (2 vols., London, 1996);
R. Hyam (ed.), The Labour government and the end of empire 1945“51 (4 vols., London, 1992);
D. Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative government and the end of empire 1951“1957 (3 vols.,
London, 1994); R. Hyam and W. R. Louis (eds.), The Conservative government and the end
of empire 1957“1964 (2 vols., London, 2000); R. Rathbone (ed.), Ghana (2 vols., London,
1992); D. H. Johnson (ed.), Sudan (2 vols., London, 1998); M. Lynn (ed.), Nigeria (2 vols.,
London, 2001); and J. M. Lonsdale and D. W. Throup (eds.), Kenya (3 vols., forthcoming).
For comparison, see T. Chafer, The end of empire in French West Africa (Oxford, 2002).
The best general accounts of nationalism are T. Hodgkin, African political parties
(Harmondsworth, 1961), and A. Zolberg, Creating political order (Chicago, 1966). Case stud-
ies include C. H. Moore, Tunisia since independence (Berkeley, 1965); R. S. Morgenthau,
Political parties in French-speaking West Africa (Oxford, 1964); A. Zolberg, One-party gov-
ernment in the Ivory Coast (Princeton, 1964); J. R. Cartwright, Politics in Sierra Leone 1947“67
(Toronto, 1970); D. Austin, Politics in Ghana (London, 1964); R. L. Sklar, Nigerian political
340 Further reading


parties (Princeton, 1963); R. A. Joseph, Radical nationalism in Cameroun (Oxford, 1977);
F. Bernault, D´mocraties ambigu¨s en Afrique centrale: Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon: 1940“1965
e e
(Paris, 1996); C. Young, Politics in the Congo (Princeton, 1965); J. Marcum, The Angolan
revolution (2 vols., Cambridge, Mass., 1969“78); S. Geiger, TANU women (Portsmouth,
N. H., 1997); and D. A. Low, Political parties in Uganda (London, 1962). For the Zimbabwe
war, see T. O. Ranger, Peasant consciousness and guerrilla war in Zimbabwe (London, 1985);
D. Lan, Guns and rain (London, 1985); and N. J. Kriger, Zimbabwe™s guerrilla war (Cambridge,
1992). D. Anderson, Histories of the hanged (London, 2005), outlines the origins of Mau Mau
and B. Berman and J. Lonsdale, Unhappy Valley (London, 1992), chs. 11 and 12, analyse it in
depth. For personal accounts, see K. Nkrumah, Ghana (Edinburgh, 1957); O. Odinga, Not yet
uhuru (London, 1967); A. Cabral, Revolution in Guinea (revised edn, London, 1971); and the
biography of A. Adelabu by K. W. J. Post and G. D. Jenkins, The price of liberty (Cambridge,
1973). L. de Witte, The assassination of Lumumba (London, 2001), reconstructs a notorious
incident.
The best analyses of postindependence economic policies are D. K. Fieldhouse, Black
Africa 1945“1980 (London, 1986), and T. Killick, Development economics in action (London,
1978), which is excellent on Ghana. For Tanzania, see A. Coulson, Tanzania: a political
economy (Oxford, 1982), and the writings of J. K. Nyerere, especially Freedom and unity (Dar
es Salaam, 1966) and Freedom and socialism (Dar es Salaam, 1968). J. Rapley, Ivoirien capitalism
(Boulder, 1993), and T. Forrest, Politics and economic development in Nigeria (updated edn,
Boulder, 1995), analyse capitalist strategies. For North Africa, see R. Mabro, The Egyptian
economy 1952“1972 (Oxford, 1974), and M. Bennoune, The making of contemporary Algeria
(Cambridge, 1988). G. A. Nasser, Egypt™s liberation (Washington, 1955), can be supplemented
by J. Waterbury, The Egypt of Nasser and Sadat (Princeton, 1983). R. H. Bates, Markets and
states in tropical Africa (Berkeley, 1981), stresses the political character of economic policies.
The most incisive analyst of postcolonial African politics is J.-F. Bayart, The state in Africa
(trans. M. Harper, C. Harrison, and E. Harrison, London, 1993) and L™´tat au Cameroun
e
(Paris, 1979). T. M. Callaghy, The state-society struggle: Zaire in comparative perspective (New
York, 1984), and R. J. Rathbone, Nkrumah and the chiefs (Oxford, 2000), analyse contests
for control. Accounts of breakdown include P. Woodward, Sudan, 1898“1989 (Boulder,
1990); R. Buijtenhuijs, Le Frolinat et les r´voltes populaires du Tchad (The Hague, 1978); and
e
C. Geffray, La cause des armes au Mozambique (Paris, 1990). Nigeria has defeated everyone,
but see E. E. Osaghae, Crippled giant: Nigeria since independence (London, 1998), and J. de
St Jorre, The Nigerian Civil War (London, 1972). C. Clapham, Africa and the international
system (Cambridge, 1996), provides essential context.
D. Siddle and K. Swindell, Rural change in tropical Africa (Oxford, 1990), is a lucid intro-
duction. Analyses of food production and famine include J. Dr` ze and A. Sen, The political
e
economy of hunger (3 vols., Oxford, 1990“1); S. Devereux and S. Maxwell (eds.), Food security
in sub-Saharan Africa (London, 2001); M. J. Watts, Silent violence: food, famine, and peas-
antry in Northern Nigeria (Berkeley, 1983); and A. de Waal, Famine that kills: Darfur, Sudan
1984“1985 (Oxford, 1989) and Famine crimes: politics and the disaster relief industry in Africa
(Oxford, 1997). M. Leach and R. Mearns (eds.), The lie of the land (London, 1996), provide
an excellent introduction to the growing literature on African environmental history.


chapter 12
T. R. H. Davenport, South Africa: a modern history (5th edn, London, 2000), is a good outline
and C. H. Feinstein, An economic history of South Africa (Cambridge, 2005), is an outstanding
account. For the Rand Revolt, see J. Krikler, White rising (Manchester, 2005). D. Yudelman,
341
Further reading


The emergence of modern South Africa (Westport, 1983), traces state control. C. van Onselen,
Studies in the social and economic history of the Witwatersrand (2 vols., Harlow, 1982), analyses
social consequences. For labour migration and its impact, see F. Wilson, Labour in the South
African gold mines 1911“1969 (Cambridge, 1972); C. Murray, Families divided (Cambridge,
1981); P. Harries, Work, culture, and identity: migrant laborers in Mozambique and South
Africa, c. 1860“1910 (Johannesburg, 1994); T. D. Moodie with V. Ndatshe, Going for gold:
men, mines, and migration (Berkeley, 1994); and R. M. Packard, White plague, black labor:
tuberculosis . . . in South Africa (Pietermaritzburg, 1989). For agriculture, see T. J. Keegan,
Rural transformations in industrialising South Africa (Basingstoke, 1987); H. Bradford, A
taste of freedom: the ICU in rural South Africa 1924“1930 (New Haven, 1987); and C. van
Onselen, The seed is mine: the life of Kas Maine, a South African sharecropper 1894“1985
(New York, 1996). S. T. Plaatje, Native life in South Africa (reprinted, Harlow, 1987), is a
powerful critique.
W. K. Hancock™s masterly biography, Smuts (2 vols., Cambridge, 1962“6), is the best
account of Union and white politics. See also L. M. Thompson, The uni¬cation of South
Africa (Oxford, 1960). Segregation is anatomised in J. W. Cell, The highest stage of white
supremacy (Cambridge, 1982), and S. Dubow, Racial segregation and the origins of apartheid
(Basingstoke, 1989). For interwar nationalism, see (in English) D. O™Meara, Volkskapitalisme
(Cambridge, 1983). Coloured politics are described in I. Goldin, Making race (London,
1987), Indian politics in M. Swan, Gandhi: the South African experience (Johannesburg, 1985),
and modern African political origins in A. Odendaal, Vukani Bantu! (Cape Town, 1984);
P. Walshe, The rise of African nationalism in South Africa (London, 1970); and the innovative
W. Beinart and C. Bundy, Hidden struggles in rural South Africa (London, 1987). S. Dubow,
The African National Congress (Johannesburg, 2000), is a useful brief outline. Sources are
in T. Karis and others (eds.), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African
politics in South Africa (5 vols., Stanford and Pretoria, 1972“97). For interwar townships, see
E. Hellmann, Rooiyard (Cape Town, 1948); E. Mphahlele, Down Second Avenue (London,
1959); and D. Coplan, In township tonight: South Africa™s black city music and theatre (London,
1985). G. M. Gerhart, Black power in South Africa (Berkeley, 1978), describes the Youth
League.
The best account of the origins and collapse of apartheid is in H. Giliomee, The Afrikaners
(Cape Town, 2003). See also D. Posel, The making of apartheid (Oxford, 1991), and I. Evans,
Bureaucracy and race: native administration in South Africa (Berkeley, 1997). The destruction
of Sophiatown provoked T. Huddleston™s powerful Naught for your comfort (London, 1956).
T. Lodge, Black politics in South Africa since 1945 (London, 1983), is excellent, but the essential
account is N. Mandela™s ¬ne autobiography, Long walk to freedom (London, 1994). For the
PAC, see B. Pogrund, Sobukwe and apartheid (London, 1990).
T. Moll assesses economic growth after 1945 in N. Nattrass and E. Ardington (eds.), The
political economy of South Africa (Cape Town, 1990). For resettlement, see L. Platzky and
C. Walker, The surplus people (Johannesburg, 1985). F. Wilson and M. Ramphele, Uprooting
poverty: the South African challenge (New York, 1989), summarise a major research project.
S. B. Greenberg, Legitimating the illegitimate (Berkeley, 1987), analyses apartheid™s disinte-
gration, and J. Lelyveld describes it brilliantly in Move your shadow (London, 1986). S. Biko,
I write what I like (Oxford, 1978), expounds Black Consciousness. Youth culture is analysed
in C. Glaser, Bo-Tsotsi: the youth gangs of Soweto, 1935“1976 (Portsmouth, N. H., 2000).
A. Brooks and J. Brickhill, Whirlwind before the storm (London, 1980), describe the Soweto
uprising. C. Hermer (ed.), The diary of Maria Tholo (Johannesburg, c. 1980), is a vivid
¬rst-hand account. The township revolt produced two illuminating studies of violence:
G. Straker, Faces in the revolution (Johannesburg, 1992), and B. Bozzoli, Theatres of struggle
342 Further reading


and the end of apartheid (Johannesburg, 2004). The Truth and Reconciliation Commission™s
Report (5 vols., Cape Town, 1998) summarises a mass of evidence. For the ¬nal negotiations,
see P. Waldmeir, Anatomy of a miracle (London, 1997), and A. Sparks, Tomorrow is another
country (London, 1999). F. W. de Klerk, The last trek “ a new beginning (London, 1998),
presents his version.


chapter 13
Many works relevant here have been listed for Chapter 11 .
Structural adjustment began with World Bank, Accelerated development in sub-Saharan
Africa: an agenda for action (Washington, 1981). General accounts of implementation and
responses are T. M. Callaghy and J. Ravenhill (eds.), Hemmed in: responses to Africa™s economic
decline (New York, 1993), and N. van de Walle, African economies and the politics of permanent
crisis, 1979“1999 (Cambridge, 2001). For case studies, see E. Hutchful, Ghana™s adjustment
experience: the paradox of reform (Geneva, 2002); R. Reinikka and P. Collier (eds.), Uganda™s
recovery (Washington, 2001); and E. C. Murphy, Economic and political change in Tunisia: from
Bourguiba to Ben Ali (Basingstoke, 1999). For South Africa, see W. M. Gumede, Thabo Mbeki
and the battle for the soul of the ANC (Cape Town, 2005). Current statistics and international
thinking appear in the World Bank™s annual World development report (New York).
D. Rothchild and N. Chazan (eds.), The precarious balance (Boulder, 1988), analyses state
contraction. The World Bank™s Education in sub-Saharan Africa (Washington, 1988), World
development report 1993: investing in health (New York, 1993), and World development report
2000/2001: attacking poverty (New York, 2001) contain essential data. J. Ferguson, Expectations
of modernity: myths and meanings of urban life on the Zambian Copperbelt (Berkeley, 1999),
analyses urban malaise. There are two penetrating accounts by A. M. Tripp, Changing the
rules: the politics of liberalization and the urban informal economy in Tanzania (Berkeley, 1997)
and Women and politics in Uganda (Oxford, 2000). For ethnicity, see B. Berman, D. Eyoh,
and W. Kymlicka (eds.), Ethnicity and democracy in Africa (Oxford, 2004). K. R. Hope, Sr. and
B. C. Chikulo (eds.), Corruption and development in Africa: lessons from country case-studies
(Basingstoke, 2000) is an introduction.
Writing on late twentieth-century Christianity has focused chie¬‚y on pentecostalism.
B. Meyer, Translating the Devil: religion and modernity among the Ewe in Ghana (Edinburgh,
1999), is outstanding. See also R. I. J. Hackett (ed.), New religious movements in Nigeria
(Lewiston, N. Y., 1987), and P. Gifford, Christianity and politics in Doe™s Liberia (Cambridge,
1993) and Ghana™s new Christianity: pentecostalism in a globalising African economy (London,
2004). S. Ellis and G. ter Haar, Worlds of power: religious thought and political practice in Africa
(London, 2004), emphasise the centrality of religion in African cultures, as does J. Tonda,
La gu´rison divine en Afrique centrale (Congo, Gabon) (Paris, 2002). For witchcraft, see
e
P. Geschiere, The modernity of witchcraft: politics and the occult in postcolonial Africa (trans.
P. Geschiere and J. Roitman, Charlottesville, 1997), and A. Ashforth, Witchcraft, violence,
and democracy in South Africa (Chicago, 2005). M.-C. Diop (ed.), Le S´n´gal contemporain
ee
(Paris, 2002), contains fascinating chapters on popular culture.
M. Bratton and N. van de Walle, Democratic experiments in Africa: regime transitions in
comparative perspective (Cambridge, 1997), provide an overview of democratisation, but the
outstanding analysis is R. Ban´ gas, La d´mocratie a pas de cam´l´on: transition et imaginaires
e e ` ee
politiques au B´nin (Paris, 2003). Other case studies include F. Grignon and G. Prunier
e
(eds.), Le Kenya contemporain (Paris, 1998); D. W. Throup and C. Hornsby, Multi-party
politics in Kenya: the Kenyatta and Moi states and the triumph of the system in the 1992 election
(Oxford, 1998); and R. Bazenguissa-Ganga, Les voies du politique au Congo (Paris, 1997).
343
Further reading


Y. K. Museveni, Sowing the mustard seed: the struggle for freedom and democracy in Uganda
(London, 1997), is the autobiography of a key ¬gure.
R. P. Mitchell, The Society of the Muslim Brothers (London, 1969), traces the origins of
Islamic fundamentalism. Sayyid Qutb™s most in¬‚uential work was Milestones (English trans-
lation, Indianapolis, 1990). The interviews in F. Burgat and W. Dowell, The Islamic movement
in North Africa (2d edn, Austin, Texas, 1997), are perhaps the best introduction to funda-
mentalism in the Maghrib. For its sociology, see S. Ismail, Rethinking Islamist politics: culture,
the state and Islamism (London, 2003). For Tunisia and Morocco, see Murphy™s Economic
and political change in Tunisia and J. Ruedy (ed.), Islamism and secularism in North Africa
(Basingstoke, 1994). A. de Waal (ed.), Islamism and its enemies in the Horn of Africa (London,
2004), deals chie¬‚y with Sudan. The literature on Algeria is especially rich: H. Roberts, The
battle¬eld Algeria 1988“2002: studies in a broken polity (London, 2003); M. Willis, The Islamist
challenge in Algeria: a political history (Reading, 1996); and L. Martinez, The Algerian Civil War
(London, 2000). For Izala, see O. Kane, Muslim modernity in postcolonial Nigeria (Leiden,
2003).
The Ethiopian Revolution is well described in F. Halliday and M. Molyneux, The Ethiopian
Revolution (London, 1981); C. Clapham, Transformation and continuity in revolutionary
Ethiopia (Cambridge, 1988); J. Young, Peasant revolution in Ethiopia: the Tigray People™s
Liberation Front, 1975“1991 (Cambridge, 1997); D. Donham, Marxist modern: an ethnographic
history of the Ethiopian Revolution (Berkeley, 1999); and Dawit Wolde Giorgis, Red tears
(Trenton, N. J., 1989). For the aftermath, see W. James and others (eds.), Remapping Ethiopia:
socialism and after (Oxford, 2002). More destructive movements are described in C. Clapham
(ed.), African guerrillas (Oxford, 1998); S. E. Hutchinson, Nuer dilemmas: coping with money,
war, and the state (Berkeley, 1996), on Sudan; S. Ellis, The mask of anarchy: the destruction
of Liberia and the religious dimension of an African civil war (London, 1999); P. Richards,
Fighting for the rain forest: war, youth, and resources in Sierra Leone (Oxford, 1996); and
I. W. Zartman (ed.), Collapsed states: the disintegration and restoration of legitimate authority
(Boulder, 1995).
The outstanding analysis of the Rwandan genocide is contained in M. Mann, The dark
side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing (Cambridge, 2005), which also gives details of
relevant Web sites. For background, J. Vansina, Antecedents to modern Rwanda (Oxford,
2004), is essential. Among the many other accounts, see G. Prunier, The Rwanda crisis 1959“
1994 (London, 1995); M. Mamdani, When victims become killers: colonialism, nativism, and
the genocide in Rwanda (Kampala, 2001); and the testimonies collected in African Rights,
Rwanda: death, despair and de¬ance (London, 1994, and later editions). R. Dallaire, Shake
hands with the devil: the failure of humanity in Rwanda (London, 2004), is the personal
account of the United Nations commander. For Burundi, see R. Lemarchand, Burundi: eth-
nocide as discourse and practice (Cambridge, 1994). M. Nest, F. Grignon, and E. F. Kisangani,
The Democratic Republic of Congo: economic dimensions of war and peace (Colorado, 2006),
contains a remarkably lucid account of the Congolese wars. Africa south of the Sahara and
The Middle East and North Africa, both published annually in London by Europa Publica-
tions, come as close to the present as books can reasonably manage.
For fertility decline, see the articles cited in the notes. The account of AIDS is based on
J. Iliffe, The African AIDS epidemic: a history (Oxford, 2006), which contains a guide to further
reading. A good place to start is the biennial ˜Report on the global AIDS epidemic™ and the
annual ˜AIDS epidemic update™, both on the UNAIDS Web site (http://www.unaids.org).
Index




Aghlabid dynasty, 44, 51
Abbasid Caliphate, 44
agriculture
Abd al-Qadir, 172, 173, 199
in East Africa, 16, 35, 108, 112“13, 119, 190,
Abd el-Krim, 197, 199
191 , 222
Abdallah ibn Yasin, 46
in Egypt, 13, 45
Abdurahman, A., 280
in Ethiopia, 14, 58
Abeokuta, 154, 156, 160, 162
Green Revolution, 266
Abidjan, 298, 312
mechanisation, 225, 266, 275, 283
Abiodun, 146
in North Africa, 30, 31 , 32, 45, 166, 264
Abu Ishaq al-Saheli, 87
in Nubia, 14, 26
Abydos, 19
origins of, 12“16
Accra, 147
postcolonial, 261 , 264“6
Accra riots, 257
in southern Africa, 36, 119, 185, 274,
Achimota, 230
283
Act of Union (South Africa), 279
in West Africa, 15“16, 63“7, 76, 96, 142,
Action Group, 243, 258
150, 176, 222
Adamawa, 175
Ahmad al-Mansur, 74, 167
Addis Ababa, 171 , 306, 311
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim, 61
Adulis, 41
Ahmadu Lobbo, 178
Adwa, Battle of, 171 , 196
Ahmed Bey, 172
Afonso Mbemba Nzinga, 134, 139, 145, 159
AIDS see disease
African Association, 241 , 244, 256
Akan, 81 , 133, 147
African Church Organisation, 163
Akhenaten, 23
African National Congress (South Africa),
Akjoujt, 34
280“1 , 282“3, 291 , 302
Aksum, 41 , 56, 57, 61
African National Congress (Southern
Akwamu, 147
Rhodesia), 244
Akwapim, 160, 210, 223
African Political Organisation, 280
al-Azhar, 170
African Renaissance, 309
al-Bakri, 51 , 91
African Union, 309
al-Banna, Hasan, 238
Afrikaans language, 129, 185, 279
al-Idrisi, 69
Afrikaner Bond, 185, 279
al-Kanemi, Muhammad, 175
Afrikaner people, 129, 130, 180, 181 , 182,
al-Maghili, 94
278“80, 286; see also Cape Colony,
al-Masudi, 54, 103
Orange Free State, South Africa,
al-Suyuti, 94
Transvaal
al-Turabi, Hassan, 304
Afroasiatic languages, 11 , 63, 75
al-Yakubi, 45, 51
Agades, 75, 202
al-Zawahiri, Ayman, 304
Agaja, 143
Aladura churches, 235
Agaw languages, 57
345
346 Index


art, see rock art
Alexander the Great, 25
Arusha Declaration, 262
Alexandra, 277, 281
Asante
Alexandria, 25, 37, 40, 41 , 42, 61
British conquest, 155, 163, 196, 199, 200,
Algeria
202
disease, 167, 172
Christianity, 160
European settlement, 212, 224, 254
economy, 142, 147, 150, 151 , 154, 210,
French rule, 171 “2
211
fundamentalism, 304“5
gold, 147“8, 155, 211
independence, 254
and nationalism, 255, 258
nationalism, 238
response to abolition, 155, 157, 158
population, 166, 172
restored Confederacy, 208
postcolonial, 264, 292, 304
settlement, 88
Algiers, 164, 304
slave trade and state formation, 137,
Ali Bey, 168
147“8, 151 , 154
Ali bin al-Hasan, 55
Asimini, 151
Allada, 80, 148, 150
Assin, 147
Alliance High School, 230
Aswan, 27
Almohads, 47, 52
Attahiru, 201
Almoravids, 46, 51 , 52, 53
Augustine, Saint, 40
Alvares, F., 58
Australopithecines, 6“7
Alwa, 42, 56
Awash Valley, 7
Amaro, 161
Awdaghust, 51
Amazons, 149
Awolowo, O., 258
Ambaca, 159
Ayyubid dynasty, 47
Amda Siyon, 57, 60, 171
Azelik, 84
Amhara, 57, 171
Azikiwe, N., 232, 241
Amin, I., 271 , 290
Amr ibn al-As, 43
Baga, 133
Amun, 23“4, 26, 28
Bagamoyo, 53, 187, 188, 211
Anglo-Boer War, 197, 198, 278, 279
Bagauda, 64
Angoche, 105
Bagre society, 89, 90, 91
Angola, 136, 137, 139, 141 , 142, 143, 145, 149,
Bamako, 193, 196, 211
150, 151 , 152, 153, 154, 156, 158, 159, 164,
Bamba, Amadou, 209
197, 225, 256, 268
Bambara, 74, 145, 173, 178, 206
Anlo, 152
Bambatha Rebellion, 203
Antonine movement, 145, 159
Bambuk, 50, 51 , 73
Antony, Saint, 37
Bamileke, 221
Anyi, 70
Bamoum, 157
apartheid, 2, 273, 281 “7
bananas, 15“16, 108, 110, 112, 118, 222
Apedemak, 28
Banda, H. K., 300
Apuleius, 32
Bandiagara, 63
Arabi, Colonel, 195
Bangui, 311
Arawa, 98
Bannerman, J., 162
Archinard, L., 206
Bantu speakers
Arden-Clarke, C., 198, 254
expansion in East Africa, 16, 34“6, 108,
Arguin Island, 131
110
Arm´ e Islamique du Salut, 305
e
expansion in southern Africa, 35“6,
armies, see military
100“1 , 127
Arochukwu, 137, 237
347
Index


Biton Kulibali, 145, 179
expansion in West Africa, 16, 66“7
Biya, P., 299
languages, 16, 54
Black Consciousness, 285
religion, 125
Black Death, 2, 37, 47“9, 55, 68, 166
Banu Hilal, 46, 47
Blaize, R. B., 163
bao game, see mankala game
Bloc D´ mocratique S´ n´ galais, 255
e ee
Baoul´ , 201
e
Bloemfontein, 280
Bariba, 80, 93, 146
Blombos Cave, 9, 10
Barwe, 202
Bloodmen, 156
Basel Mission, 210
Blood River, Battle of, 182
Bauchi, 175
Bobangi, 137, 146, 151 , 158
Bawol, 144
Boilat, D., 162
Bayei, 113
Bonny, 138, 151 , 156, 161
Beatrix Kimpa Vita, 145
Bono Manso, 81
Bechuanaland, see Botswana
Borgu see Bariba
Begho, 81
bori cult, 91 , 176
Beit, A., 186
Borno, 51 , 69, 74“5, 77, 84, 85, 92, 97, 175,
Belgian Congo see Congo, Democratic
177
Republic of
Botha, L., 279
Belhadj, Ali, 305
Botha, P. W., 286
Bemba, 107, 108, 115, 119, 126, 247
Botswana, 197, 213, 259, 261 , 265, 271 , 302,
Benedictines, 232
309, 312; see also Tswana
Beni societies, 227
Bouak´ , 211
e
Benin kingdom, 66, 69, 78, 79“80, 86, 87,
Bourguiba, H., 238, 254, 269, 270
88, 89, 91 , 95, 98, 133, 139, 151 , 158, 159,
boys Dakar, 298
196, 206, 239
Braide, G., 234
Benin, Republic of, 299, 309; see also
Brand, J. H., 182
Dahomey
Brazzaville Conference, 242
Berbers
bridewealth, see family structure
ancient Libyans, 24, 25, 29
Bri` re de l™Isle, L.-A., 193
e
Christianity, 40
Britain
early history, 29“33
in East Africa, 189, 196, 200, 208
and European conquest, 172, 197
in Egypt, 169, 170, 195
Islam, 43, 44“5, 53, 144, 174
in Ethiopia, 171
language, 11 , 31 , 44, 63
and Second World War, 228
medieval dynasties, 45“7
in slave trade and abolition, 135, 153
and Moroccan state, 167
in southern Africa, 130, 181 “3, 185, 197,
pastoralism, 13
208
Saharan trade, 50, 51 , 52, 85
in Sudan, 196, 208
Berlin Conference, 195
in West Africa, 161 , 163, 195, 196, 207“8
Beta Israel, 57
see also decolonisation
Beti, 157, 230, 232
British South Africa Company, 198
Biafra, 269
Buganda, 110“11 , 114, 116, 119, 121 , 123, 126,
Bigo, 110
148, 152, 188, 189, 191 , 192, 199, 200,
Biko, S., 285
202, 203, 206, 229, 231 , 234, 240, 244
bilharzia see disease
Bugerere, 223
Bir Kiseiba, 13
Buhen, 26“9
Birimi, 15
Bujumbura, 311
Bismarck, O. von, 195, 197, 198
Bulawayo, 202, 211
Bito clan, 110, 111 , 112, 116
348 Index


in Nubia, 28, 56
Bundu, 144
origins of pastoralism, 12“13
Bunyoro, 110, 111 , 112, 116, 118, 122, 170, 188,
in Sahara, 13
189, 200
in southern Africa, 35, 36, 100, 101 “4, 118,
Bure, 52
123, 127, 179
Burmi, Battle of, 201
in West Africa, 15
Burns, A., 243
cattle-killing, 184
Burundi, 112, 113, 116, 117, 126, 190, 192, 208,
Central African Federation, 244, 256,
239, 258, 301 , 307, 308
259
Butua, 105
Central African Republic, 218
Buyoya, P., 307, 308
Ceuta, 131
Bwana Mkubwa, 123
Chad, 268
Bwiti cult, 237, 248
Chadli, Benjedid, 304, 305
Byzantium, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 46, 61
Chagga, 120, 187, 191
Chalcedon, Council of, 40
Cairo, 45, 48, 75, 166, 168, 169, 227, 230, 304
Chamber of Mines, 274
Calabar, 138, 154, 156, 158
Changamire, 105, 120
Caledon Code, 181
charity, 21 , 37, 59, 61 , 95, 236
camels, 32, 50, 83, 84, 177
Chewa, 120, 180, 230
Cameroun, 195, 255, 299
Chibinda Ilunga, 107, 115
cancer, see disease
Chibuene, 53, 54
cannibalism, 69, 138, 140
chiefs
canoes, 13, 83, 122
colonial, 205“9, 240“1
Cape Colony
and nationalism, 258, 259
British conquest, 130, 181 “3
postcolonial, 271
Dutch rule, 126“30
chikunda, 105, 121
franchise, 183, 185, 279
Chilembwe, J., 202, 205, 231
frontier, 130
Chinese labour, 278
liberalism, 183
Chinithi, 32
racialism, 129
Chiti Muluba, 115
responsible government, 185
Chokwe, 156
slave emancipation, 213
cholera, see disease
slavery, 128“9
Christianity
Trekboers, 130, 182
in colonial period, 232“5
Cape Town, 117, 122, 128, 129, 182, 185, 277,
in East Africa, 189, 235
278, 282
eclecticism, 159, 161 , 184, 233“4, 296
Cape Verde, 69
in Egypt, 37“8, 40, 43“4
capitalism (African), 177, 223“4, 291 ,
in Ethiopia, 41 , 56“62
306
independent churches, 163, 235, 296
Capuchin friars, 159, 160
in North Africa, 37“40, 44, 47
Carthage, 30“1 , 33, 34, 38
in Nubia, 41 “2, 56
Casablanca, 227
pentecostal, 297
cassava, 113, 142, 191 , 222, 247
postcolonial, 296“7
Cato Manor, 282
in southern Africa, 105, 130, 159, 181 ,
cattle
183“5
in East Africa, 14“15, 16, 34, 100, 109, 110,
in West Africa, 134, 145, 155, 158“61
118, 123, 191
Church Missionary Society, 189
in Egypt, 13
chwezi cult, 126, 191 , 234
in Ethiopia, 14
Circumcellions, 40
in North Africa, 13, 30, 32
349
Index


postcolonial, 265
civil war
in southern Africa, 34“6, 101 “3
Algeria, 305“6
as theme, 1 “4
Angola, 268, 309
in West Africa, 63“71 , 209, 223, 224, 265
Burundi, 308
coloured people (South Africa), 186, 277,
Chad, 268, 296
280, 282, 284, 286, 302
Congo, Democratic Republic of, 268, 309
communism, 238, 240, 255, 280, 300, 306
Congo, Republic of, 301
Communist Party of South Africa, 277,
Ethiopia, 306
278, 281
Liberia, 306
Conakry, 211
Mozambique, 268
Congo, Democratic Republic of, 195, 210,
Nigeria, 269, 302
218, 249, 251 , 252, 255, 261 , 268, 299,
Rwanda, 307
308“9
Sierra Leone, 306
Congo, Republic of, 298, 299, 301
Somalia, 306
Congo River, 16, 137
Sudan, 268, 296, 309
Congress of South African Trade Unions,
Uganda, 306
291 , 302
climate
Congress Youth League (South Africa), 281
in colonial period, 215, 246
Constantine, Emperor, 38
in East Africa, 116, 192
contraception
in Ethiopia, 58
in ancient Egypt, 20
in North Africa, 46
postcolonial, 253, 310
postcolonial, 266
in South Africa, 284
prehistoric, 12“13, 15
in West Africa, 70
in South Africa, 116, 179, 185
Convention People™s Party, 243, 244, 254,
in West Africa, 50, 52, 69, 177
257, 258
cloth
copper
in Central Africa, 104, 105, 123
in Central Africa, 105, 106, 122, 123, 212,
in colonial period, 221
225
in East Africa, 123, 187, 191
postcolonial, 260, 261 , 292
in Egypt, 48, 166, 221
prehistoric, 17, 20, 27, 29, 33“4, 36, 50, 84
in Ethiopia, 221
in South Africa, 127, 179
in North Africa, 45, 221
in West Africa, 138
in West Africa, 50, 64, 83, 86“7, 133, 136,
Coptic Church, 37, 40, 41 , 42, 43“4
138, 149, 153, 177, 221
corruption, 21 , 270, 295, 298, 301
cloves, 187
Cˆ te d™Ivoire, 196, 243, 255, 260, 261 , 263,
o
Cochoqua, 127
299, 301
cocoa, 209, 222, 223, 229, 260, 262, 263, 290
cotton, 28, 45, 83, 168, 169, 170, 209, 213,
coffee, 154, 222, 225, 260, 263, 290
222
Coillard, F., 215
coups, see military
colonial administration, 203“9
cowrie shells, 85, 106, 138, 151 , 152, 154, 174,
Colonial Development and Welfare, 229
177
colonisation of land
craft industry
and AIDS, 311 , 315
and Atlantic slave trade, 150
Bantu expansion, 16, 34“6, 100“1 , 108
in colonial period, 221 “2
consequences, 214, 222
in East and southern Africa, 122
cultural impact, 88“9, 99, 124
in North Africa, 166
in East Africa, 100, 108“9, 110, 112“15, 192,
in West Africa, 85“7, 154
223
Crowther, S. A., 160, 162
in Ethiopia, 56“9
350 Index


Destour, 238
currency
devaluation, 288, 290, 292, 293
in Central Africa, 106, 123
Dhar Tichitt, 15, 49
in East Africa, 54, 55, 104
Dia, 49
in Egypt, 22, 25
Diagne, B., 241
in Ethiopia, 41
diamond mining, 185, 186, 212, 261
in North Africa, 50, 52
Diata II, 68
in West Africa, 50, 82, 84, 85, 138, 154, 174,
Dinka, 170, 201
177
Diocletian, Emperor, 40
Cushitic speakers, 11 , 15, 16, 109, 111 , 120,
Diop, C. A., 26
124
Diouf, A., 313
disease
Daamat, 29, 41
AIDS, 296, 311 “15
Dagomba, 81 , 147
in ancient Egypt, 20
Dahomey, 80, 136, 137, 138, 143, 146, 148“9,
and Atlantic slave trade, 142“3, 152
151 , 154, 155, 158, 196, 199, 200, 207, 213,
bilharzia, 20
236, 241
cancer, 20
Dakar, 211 , 228, 298
cholera, 158, 167, 169, 172, 177, 192, 217,
Damergou, 178
294
Dan, 72
and colonial conquest, 215, 216“17
dance, 53, 61 , 64, 99, 124, 178, 191 , 227, 245
in East and southern Africa, 116“17, 192
Danquah, J. B., 242, 243
and food production, 12
Dar es Salaam, 211 , 311
gonorrhoea, 217, 218, 248
Dar Fertit, 170
Guinea worm, 68
Darfur, 170, 197
indigenous medicine, 58, 68, 89, 117
Dawud, Askiya, 78
in¬‚uenza, 217
De Beers, 186
leprosy, 20, 58, 68, 116, 248, 252
de Brazza, S., 195
malaria, 12, 20, 58, 67, 116, 118, 181 , 198,
de Gaulle, C., 253, 254, 255
248, 252, 294
de Klerk, F. W., 286
measles, 185, 252
de Souza, F., 153
modern medicine, 162, 193, 247“8, 251 ,
Debra Berhan, 61
294, 298, 313
Debra Libanos, 60, 62
plague, 43, 68, 116, 142, 166, 167, 169, 177,
debt, international, 260, 261 , 263, 276, 290,
217
292
poliomyelitis, 252
Decius, Emperor, 38
rinderpest, 216, 217, 274
decolonisation
smallpox, 20, 58, 68, 116, 117, 128, 140,
Belgium, 253, 255, 268
143, 158, 167, 169, 172, 177, 185, 192,
Britain, 237, 242, 243“4, 253, 254“5, 256,
215, 216, 247, 251
268
syphilis, 20, 68, 116, 117, 142, 217, 247, 252
France, 238, 242, 243, 253, 255
trypanosomiasis, 15, 68, 114, 192, 216“17,
in general, 253
247, 294
Italy, 238, 253
tuberculosis, 20, 117, 142, 248, 252, 274,
Portugal, 253, 255, 256
277, 294
De¬ance Campaign, 282
typhus, 117, 172
D´ ima, 235
e
in West Africa, 67“8, 176
Deir el-Medina, 22
yaws, 68, 116, 142, 217, 247, 294
democratisation, see postcolonial
see also Black Death
government
Do masquerade, 98
Denkyira, 147
351
Index


Islam, 43“4
Dogon, 64, 98, 223
Mamluks, 47“9, 164, 168
Donatist Church, 38“40, 44, 305
Ottoman rule, 164
Dongola, 42, 56
population, 166
dos Santos, J., 116
slavery, 56
Douala, 157, 158, 221 , 228
Egypt, modern
Dulugu, 173
British rule, 170, 195, 198
Dunama Dibalemi, 76
economy, 169, 209, 238, 263, 276
Durban, 35, 280, 281 , 282, 284, 285
Enlightenment, 169
Dutch
fundamentalism, 302
in Cape Colony, 126“30
Muhammad Ali, 168“9
in West Africa, 135, 145
nationalism, 195, 237
Dutch Reformed Church, 230
political independence, 237
Dyula, 85, 94, 157
population, 169, 248, 249, 264
Dzivaguru cult, 125
Ekpe society, 94, 156
Ekumeku resistance, 202
East London, 281
Ekwensi, C., 232
eclecticism, see Christianity, Islam, religion
El Mina, 133, 135
Ecole William Ponty, 230, 231
Engaruka, 113
economic development
Equiano, O., 140, 152
colonial, 193, 209“13, 214, 222, 228“9, 242
Eritrea, 196, 238, 306
postcolonial, 260“4, 288“93
Ethiopia
education
agriculture, 14
Bantu, 285
Christianity, 41 , 56“62
colonial, 224, 229“31
Era of the Judges, 171
in East Africa, 294
famine, 58, 216, 264
in Egypt, 168
Italian invasion, 239
female, 176, 231 , 246, 252, 310
languages, 11 , 41
Islamic, 95, 236
medieval history, 56“62
postcolonial, 293“4
modernisation, 171 , 239
in southern Africa, 184, 285
nineteenth century, 171
university, 230, 281 , 294
nobility, 59
in West Africa, 161
and partition, 197, 199
Egba United Board of Management, 162
political origins, 29
Egungun society, 92
Portuguese, 62, 159
Egypt, ancient
revolution, 305“6
agricultural origins, 12, 13, 17
see also Adwa, Aksum, Daamat
history, 17“26
Ethiopian Church (South Africa), 235
in¬‚uence in Africa, 2, 26, 29
Ethiopian People™s Revolutionary
language, 11
Democratic Front, 306
literacy, 5, 19, 23
ethnicity, 208, 227, 239“40, 271 , 295, 301 ,
in Nubia, 21 , 26“9
306, 307
population, 20
European settlement
religion, 17, 20, 22“4, 26
in East Africa, 212, 224
slavery, 22, 25, 27
in Egypt, 169
Egypt, medieval
in North Africa, 172, 212, 224
Christianity, 37“8, 40, 43“4
in southern Africa, 127, 128, 181 , 212, 224,
disease, 167
275
economy, 166, 168
evolution, human, 6“12
Fatimid rule, 45, 56
352 Index


Fipa, 107, 112
Ewostatewos, 60
¬rearms
Ewe, 80, 148, 230
in Central Africa, 121
Ewuare, 80, 98, 239
in East Africa, 187, 188, 189, 190
Eyadema, G., 299
in Ethiopia, 171
Ezana, 41
in general, 164, 193
in North Africa, 49, 164, 167, 168, 170,
Fagunwa, D. O., 232
172, 173
Faidherbe, L., 163, 193
and partition, 199
Falasha, 57
in South Africa, 127, 180, 181
family planning, see contraception
in West Africa, 74, 77, 133, 139, 144, 145,
family structure
147, 149
and AIDS, 312, 313
Firestone Company, 224
and Atlantic slave trade, 152
First World War, 215, 233
bridewealth, 245
¬shing, 10, 13, 14, 26, 106, 108, 122
and Christianity, 234, 246
Fon, 80
in colonial period, 244“6
football, 227, 245, 295
in East and southern Africa, 118“20, 191 ,
forced removals, 283
245
Fort Hare University College, 281
in Egypt, 22
Fourah Bay College, 161
in Ethiopia, 58
France
feminism, 246, 296
in Egypt, 168
in general, 1
and Great Depression, 228
and Islam, 246
in North Africa, 171 “3, 195, 197, 208
and labour migration, 274
and Second World War, 228“9
in North Africa, 245, 246, 295
and slave trade, 135
postcolonial, 252, 259, 295, 310
in West Africa, 161 , 162, 163, 193, 196, 199,
in West Africa, 69, 72, 96“9, 162, 163,
206“7, 208, 213
245, 246
see also decolonisation
famine
Freedom Charter, 282
and AIDS, 313
Freetown, 153, 162, 163
and Atlantic slave trade, 137
Frelimo, 257, 268, 271
in colonial period, 215“16, 247
Front de Lib´ ration Nationale, 238, 254, 304
e
in East and southern Africa, 115“16, 124,
Front Islamique du Salut, 305
185, 192, 216, 247, 267, 313
Frumentius, 41
in Egypt, 20, 45
Fulani jihad, 174“5
in Ethiopia, 58, 216, 247, 267
Fulbe, 73, 74, 144, 173“6, 178, 180, 205, 207
in North Africa, 45, 46, 167
fundamentalism, see Islam
postcolonial, 251 , 267
Funj, 56, 170
in West Africa, 68“9, 158, 177, 247, 267
Fustat, 52
Fang, 157, 237
Futa Jalon, 144, 150, 151 , 156, 157, 174, 196,
Fante, 150
207, 247
Fante Confederation, 162
Futa Toro, 73, 144, 174, 178
Faras, 42
Fatimid dynasty, 45, 51 , 52, 56
Gabon, 218, 248, 252, 255
Faye, J., 233
Gadda¬, M., 271
Fayum, 13
Gaetuli, 30, 32
fertility, see population
Gaha, 146
Fes, 44, 47, 75, 167, 257
Gambia, 154, 255, 259, 271
Fezzan, 30, 32, 50
353
Index


gonorrhoea, see disease
games, 190
Gordon, G., 170
Ganda, see Buganda
Gordon Memorial College, 230
Gao, 51 , 53, 73, 74
Gouro, 72
Garamantes, 30, 32, 50, 83
Gowon, Y., 269
Garcia II, 145
Graduates General Congress, 241
Gash Delta, 29
Great Depression, 157, 221 , 228, 276
Gaza, 180, 274
Great Kei River, 35
generational relationships
Great Trek, 182
age-sets, 120, 179
Griqua, 128, 181
and Christianity, 160, 184, 232, 245
Groundnut Scheme, 229
in colonial period, 244“5
groundnuts, 154, 155, 209, 213, 219, 260
in East and southern Africa, 120, 179
Group Areas Act, 282
in Egypt, 22
Groupe Islamique Arm´ , 305
e
in Ethiopia, 59
Growth, Employment, and Redistribution,
in general, 1
291
and Islamic fundamentalism, 305
Guinea, 255, 259
postcolonial, 298, 306
Guinea-Bissau, 255, 312
in West Africa, 97“9
Guinea worm, see disease
youth cultures, 298
gum, 154
youth gangs, 282, 295
Gumede, J., 280
youth and nationalism, 257, 259, 285“6,
287
Habyarimana, J., 307
Geniza, 45
Hafsid dynasty, 47
genocide, 301 , 307
Haile Selassie, 239, 305
Germany, 195, 196
Hambukushu, 113
Gezira (Somalia), 54
Hamdallahi, 178
Gezira scheme, 222, 226
Harar, 57, 61
Gezo, 155
Harare, 227
Ghana (ancient), 51 , 52, 53, 91
Harris, W. W., 234
Ghana (modern), 161 , 162, 163, 213, 242,
Hart, J., 161
243, 254, 259, 262, 290, 309
hati, 236
Gigthis, 32
Haukuzi, 113, 115
goats, 13, 34
Hausa, 11 , 63, 64, 68, 75“6, 77, 85, 87, 93,
Gobir, 174
95, 97, 98, 174“8, 207, 211 , 213
Gola, 213
Haya, 112
gold
Hehe, 190
Atlantic trade, 131 , 133, 155
Hekanakht of Thebes, 22, 265
in Central Africa, 54, 103“6, 211
Henrique, Bishop, 159
in Ethiopia, 57
herding, see cattle
in Nubia, 27, 28, 56
Herero, 215
Saharan trade, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51 , 52
Herihor of Thebes, 24
in South Africa, 197, 273, 283, 285, 291
Hertzog, J. B. M., 279
in West Africa, 50, 52, 53, 72, 79, 81 , 84,
Het Volk, 279
104, 147“8, 211
Hilarianus, 38
Gold Coast, see Ghana (modern)
Hinda clan, 112
Goncalo da Silveira, 105, 159
¸
Hofmeyr, J. H., 279
Goncalvez, A., 131
¸
Holy Ghost Fathers, 160, 233
Gondar, 171
Homo ergaster, 7
Gonja, 73, 84, 93, 147
354 Index


industry
Homo habilis, 7
in Egypt, 168, 229
honour, 4, 40, 60, 69, 76“7, 79, 86, 121 , 140,
postcolonial, 261 , 264, 290, 291
144, 152, 201 , 246, 286
postwar development, 229
horses
in South Africa, 276“7, 283, 284“5, 291 “2
in ancient Egypt, 21 , 25
see also craft industry
in Ethiopia, 59
in¬‚uenza, see disease
in North Africa, 30, 32, 50
informal sector, 295
in Nubia, 29
Ingombe Ilede, 105
in South Africa, 127, 180
Inkatha, 286, 287
in West Africa, 51 , 69, 75, 76“7, 80, 81 ,
Interahamwe, 307, 308
86, 176
International Monetary Fund, 288, 292, 293
Horton, J. A., 162, 163
Iraqw, 109, 119, 121 , 223
Houphouet-Boigny, F., 243, 270, 299
iron
Howieson™s Poort Industry, 9
in ancient Egypt, 25, 34
Hubbu, 157
in colonial period, 221
hunting, 10, 12, 13, 72, 89, 115, 118
in East Africa, 34“6, 112, 122, 191
Husuni Kubwa, 55
in general, 33“6
Hutu, 111 , 190, 233, 239, 258, 307“8
in North Africa, 31 , 34
in Nubia, 28, 29, 34
Ibadan, 156, 201 , 208, 214, 258
postcolonial, 261
Ibibio Welfare Union, 227
in southern Africa, 106, 122, 127, 179
Ibn Battuta, 53, 55, 68, 85, 94, 96, 98
status of ironworkers, 33, 53, 85, 112, 122
Ibn Khaldun, 44, 46, 48, 49, 56
in West Africa, 34, 49, 85, 138, 150, 154
Idris, King, 238
Iron and Steel Corporation (South Africa),
Idris, Sultan, 44
276
Idris Aloma, 74, 77, 78
irrigation
ifa divination, 91 , 94, 95, 160, 236
in Central Africa, 108
Ifat, 57
in East Africa, 113
Ife, 67, 79, 80, 87, 91 , 258
in Egypt, 19, 25, 48, 168
Ifriqiya, 43, 44, 45“6, 47
in North Africa, 32
Igbo, 50, 66, 79, 81 , 87, 134, 136, 137, 140, 143,
postcolonial, 266
150, 152, 154, 158, 160, 196, 201 , 202,
in Sudan, 222
205, 208, 230, 232, 258
in West Africa, 222
Igbo-Ukwu, 50, 79, 91
Isichei, E., 160
Ijaw, 138
Islam
Ijaye, 156
brotherhoods, 47, 92
Ijebu Ode, 80, 86, 200, 213, 232, 236,
and colonial rule, 235“6
258
in East Africa, 53“5, 189, 190
Ilesha, 258
eclecticism, 236
Ilorin, 86, 177
in Ethiopia, 57, 61 “2
Imbangala, 98, 145, 149, 156
fundamentalism, 231 , 238, 295, 302
Imvo Zabantsundu, 231
in North Africa, 42“9
independent churches, see Christianity
postcolonial, 297
Indians
in South Africa, 129
in East Africa, 187, 211
in West Africa, 49“53, 74, 75, 92“6,
in South Africa, 183, 281 , 282, 284, 286
144“5, 148, 155, 173“6, 178
Indirect Rule, 207“9, 239
see also Mourides, Qadiriyya, Sala¬yya,
Industrial and Commercial Workers
Tijaniyya
Union, 278, 280
355
Index


Katsina, 75, 86, 91 , 93, 94
Ismail, Khedive, 169, 170, 195
Katuruka, 34, 112
Istiqlal, 238, 257
Kaunda, K., 300
Italy, 196, 238; see also decolonisation
Kazembe, 108, 113, 121 , 126, 142
Itsekiri, 157, 159
Kenya, 196, 212, 224, 243, 251 , 252, 256, 260,
ivory, 27, 41 , 50, 53, 54, 57, 103, 104, 107, 154,
262, 300
179, 187, 188
Kenya African Union, 243
Ivory Coast, see Cˆ te d™Ivoire
o
Kenyatta, J., 256
Iyasus Mo™a, 60
K´ r´ kou, M., 299
ee
Kerma, 27“9
Jaja, 156
Kete, 82
Jameson Raid, 197, 201
Khama, 184, 200
Jehovah™s Witnesses, 224, 233, 235
Khami, 105
Jenne, New, 69, 73, 74, 81 , 86, 87, 94, 178,
Kharijites, 44, 46, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 305
196
Khartoum, 14, 188, 196
Jenne, Old, 49“50, 69, 86, 87
Khayr ed-Din, 172, 230
Jesuits, 159, 233
Khoikhoi, 10, 35, 117, 118, 123, 124, 126“30,
Jews, 37, 41 , 45, 47, 57, 61
181 , 183, 184, 185
Johannesburg, 277, 281 , 282, 284
Khoisan, see Khoikhoi, San
John of Ephesus, 42
Khufu, 24
Jola, 78, 85, 151 , 201 , 236
Kigali, 311
Jolof, 73, 144
Kikuyu, 109, 115, 191 , 212, 216, 224, 225, 231
Jugurtha, 31
Kikuyu Central Association, 240
Jukun, 79, 93
Kilwa, 55, 104“5, 114, 117, 187
Juno Caelestis, 32
Kimbangu, S., 234
justice, colonial, 205
Kimbanguist Church, 296
Justinian, Emperor, 40
Kimberley, 185, 186
Kimbu, 115
Kaarta, 173, 178
Kinjikitile, 202, 236
Kaba, 73
Kinshasa, 255, 298, 308, 311
Kabila, J., 309
kinship, see family structure
Kabila, L., 308
Kintampo culture, 15
Kabylia, 172, 226
Kisama, 151
Kadalie, C., 278, 281
Kitereza, A., 232
Kadero, 14
Kiwanuka, J., 233
Kaffa, 171
Koelle, S., 136“7
Kaggwa, A., 206, 231 , 240
kola, 72, 84, 147, 177
Kairwan, 43, 45, 46, 52, 221
Kololo, 181
Kajoor, 73, 83, 144
Kondeah, 151
Kalala Ilungu, 106
Kong, 211
Kalenjin, 108
Kongo, 68, 82, 90, 92, 97, 134, 136, 139, 142,
Kalonga, 107
143, 145, 151 , 158“9, 161 , 237
Kamba, 187
Kono, 72
Kampala, 311
Kontagora, 200
Kanem, 51 , 53, 69, 74, 76, 77, 78, 93
Korana, 128
Kano, 64, 75, 77, 78, 84, 87, 93, 175, 177,
Koumbi Saleh, 51
201 , 211 , 221 , 298
Kounta, 92, 174
Kano Chronicle, 75, 76, 77
Kpelle, 72
Karagwe, 112
Krio language, 162, 243
Kasanje, 149
356 Index


leprosy, see disease
Kru, 133, 214
Lesotho, see Sotho
Kruger, P., 197, 279
Lever Brothers, 210
Kuba, 69, 82, 84, 90, 94, 96, 98
Lewanika, 200, 240
kubandwa cult, 126
Lewis, S., 162
Kumasi, 147, 155, 157, 202, 210, 211
Liberia, 161 , 162, 163, 196, 197, 306
Kuruman, 183
Liberia Herald, 162
Kusayla, 43
Libreville, 16, 161
Kush, 27“9
Libya, 197, 201 , 215, 238, 253, 304
Kwaku Dua I, 155, 158
literacy
KwaZulu, 282, 287, 302
in ancient Egypt, 5, 19, 23
Kwena, 122
and Christianity, 183, 189, 229, 232“5
in East Africa, 230
labour
in Ethiopia, 29, 41
colonial demands, 203, 244
in general, 193, 231
migration, 154, 181 , 186, 214, 224, 225“6,
in North Africa, 31
233, 240, 245, 246, 248, 274
in Nubia, 28
postcolonial, 295
in West Africa, 89, 94“5, 134, 145, 147,
in South Africa, 181 , 182, 183, 186, 274,
155, 159, 232
276, 277, 278, 283, 285, 295
literature, 232
unemployment, 238, 285, 291 , 295
Livingstone, D., 108, 188, 191
Laetoli, 7
Livy, 30
Lagos, 154, 161 , 162, 163, 177, 210, 211 , 235
Loango, 87, 137, 146, 153
Lagos Weekly Record, 231
Lobengula, 201
Lalibela, 57, 62
Lobi, 223
Lamu, 53, 55, 186
locusts, 58, 68, 115, 120
land
LoDagaa, 89
in Central Africa, 105, 225, 265, 292
London Missionary Society, 183
in East Africa, 190, 206, 225, 241 , 265, 309
Longinus, 42
in Egypt, 20, 25, 169, 209, 263
Lovedale, 184
in Ethiopia, 59, 223, 265, 306
Lozi, 108, 113, 126, 181 , 183, 200, 214, 240, 259
and nationalism, 258
Luanda, 134, 135, 145, 149, 151 , 158, 161 , 188
in North Africa, 30, 31 , 45, 166, 212, 223,
Luba, 106“7, 112, 115, 120, 124, 126, 157, 188,
225, 264, 265
212
in South Africa, 130, 182, 183, 185, 274,
lubaale cult, 126
291
Lubumbashi, 227
in West Africa, 158, 223, 224, 265
Lugard, F., 207, 213, 214, 236
see also European settlement
Lumumba, P., 255, 308
language
Lunda, 107“8, 113, 120, 121 , 126, 149, 150, 154,
and ethnicity, 239
156
families, 10“12, 63
Lundu, 107, 125
origins, 10
Luo, 109, 114
see also Afroasiatic, Bantu, etc.
Luyia, 240
Latakoo, 122
Lebanese, 211
Maasai, 108, 122, 123, 190, 191
Lega, 81
Maba Jaaxu, 155
Lekhanyane, E., 235
Macaulay, H., 241
Lemba cult, 152
Macleod, I., 253
Leopard™s Kopje, 103
Madani, Abbasi, 305
Leopold II, 195, 198, 210
357
Index


Mauritania, 213, 259
Magdala, 171
Mawlay al-Hassan, 173
Mahdali, 55
Mawlay Ismail, 167
Mahdi (Sudan), 196, 199, 201 , 202, 206
Mbanza Kongo, 82, 84, 87; see also S˜oa
Mahrem, 41
Salvador
maize, 113, 118, 142, 179, 191 , 222, 223, 266,
Mbari houses, 250
274, 276
Mbegha, 109, 115
Maji Maji rebellion, 202, 215, 236
Mbeki, T., 291 , 302
Makerere College, 231 , 294, 299
Mbona cult, 125, 236
Makua, 107, 117
Mbundu, 149
Makuria, 42, 55, 56
Mbwila, Battle of, 145
Malan, D. F., 279, 281
measles, see disease
malaria, see disease
medicine, see disease
Malawi, 197, 198, 213, 244, 256, 300
Memnius Pacatus, 32
Malawi Congress Party, 256, 259
Menelik II, 171 , 196, 305
Mali (ancient), 52“3, 72“3, 76, 77, 81 , 85,
Mengistu Haile Mariam, 306
86, 92, 93, 94, 95, 99
Merimde, 13
Malik Sy, 144
Meroe, 28“9, 34
malnutrition, 12, 68, 247, 248, 252
Mfecane, 179“81
Mamadu Dyuhe, 157
Mfengu, 182, 185
Mambwe, 226
military
Mamluks, 47“9, 76
in ancient Egypt, 21 , 24
Mamprussi, 81
colonial armies, 199, 228
Manda, 54, 123
colonial conscription, 203
Mandara, 74
coups d™´ tat, 263, 268, 269, 270, 290, 298,
e
Mande, 52, 71 , 72“3, 87, 144
301 , 302, 305, 307
Mandela, N., 287
and democratisation, 299, 300
Mangbetu, 170

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