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. 7
( 7)






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Franco, Daniele (Bank of Italy), Rome, June 3, 1999.
Giovannini, Elio (CGIL-Metalmeccanici, retired), Rome, June 3, 1999.
Giustina, Vittorio (Centro Studi CISL), Florence, February 17, 1999.
Grammicia, Giorgio (legal consultant), Rome, June 24, 1999.
Livi Bacci, Massimo (demographer, University of Florence), Florence, September
25, 1998.
Mariani, Isidoro (Con¬ndustria, retired), Rome, June 24, 1999.
Roscani, Bruno (CGIL-Pensionati), Rome, November 12, 1998.
Saraceno, Chiara (sociologist, University of Turin and member, National Commis-
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Settimi, Pino (pensions consultant), Rome, September 28, 1998.



Netherlands
van Aartsen, Wim (Dutch Senior Party [ASP]), Weert, June 19, 2000.
Balkenende, Jan Peter (Prime Minister, CDA party leader), The Hague, June 7,
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Cuyvers, Peter (Netherlands Family Council), The Hague, May 22, 2000.
de Jong, Henk (CNV-Senioren), Utrecht, May 18, 2000.
Lokhorst, Bert (Dutch League for 50+ers [ANBO]), Utrecht, June 2000.
Quispel, Yvonne (National Of¬ce against Age Discrimination), Utrecht, June 23,
2000.
van Suijdam, Danielle (CNV), Utrecht, May 18, 2000.
van der Veen, Romke (historian, University of Twente), Enschede, June 6, 2000.

201
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Vlek, Ruud (political scientist, University of Amsterdam), Amsterdam, June 2, 2000.
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217
Index




ABW (Dutch Unemployment CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal),
Assistance Act), 131 84, 86“87
active labor market policy, 4, 24, 108, CGIL, 96, 130, 132, 136, 160, 161,
119, 131“133, 135, 137 174. See also unions, Italy
agricultural workers, 94, 96, 99, 135, child care, 15, 21, 26, 35, 48, 70
161, 173 Christian Democracy, 4, 8, 12, 42, 47,
AKW (Dutch General Family 68, 86, 87, 103, 164, 165,
Allowance Act), 81. See also 190“191. See also CDA; DC;
family allowances KVP
Amato, Giorgio, 161 and family allowance spending,
ANF (assegno per il nucleo familiare), 73“75, 77“78, 81“83
102. See also family allowances and unemployment bene¬ts
AOW (Dutch General Old-Age spending, 109, 133“135
Pensions Act), 146“148, 151, CIG (Italian short-time earnings
153“154, 169, 171 replacement program),
ARP (Dutch Protestant Reform Party), 114“115, 116, 120, 124,
79, 83 129“130, 137
Australia, 23, 26, 33, 34“36, 39, 65, CIGS, 114, 118, 120, 122, 130,
181, 182 137
Austria, 4, 16, 23, 32, 38, 39, 185, 192, CISL, 96, 170. See also unions, Italy
195 clientelism, 12, 185, 187“188
de¬ned, 63
Belgium, 4, 16, 25, 38, 47, 52, 62, 64, and family allowances, 89
82, 122, 181, 192, 202 measurement, 63“65
Berlusconi, Silvio, 162 and occupationalism, 65“67
Beveridge plan, 11, 62, 94, 186 and pensions, 172“179
and unemployment bene¬ts,
Canada, 6, 26, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38, 55, 127“128, 131“133, 135
64, 65, 181, 182 CNEL (Italian National Council on
Catholic Church, 47, 80, 91, 93, 104, Labor and the Economy), 155,
156 160, 172, 177


219
Index

employers, preferences for social policy,
CNV, 153. See also unions,
49“50, 75, 93, 96, 129“130, 152,
Netherlands
156. See also Con¬ndustria
Commissione di Indagine sulla
ENSR (elderly-nonelderly spending
Povert´ , 100, 101
a
ratio), 4, 5, 29“33, 35“36, 38,
Commissione Nazionale per i Problemi
39, 45
della Famiglia, 100“101
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, 4, 41, 54, 68,
concertation, 12, 54, 68, 74, 77, 78, 97,
108, 164
101, 165
European Monetary Union, 196
Con¬ndustria, 91, 93, 96, 130“131,
154, 157, 159, 173
familialism, 42, 46“49
corporatism, 53“55, 165
family allowances, 1, 2, 4, 21, 35, 36,
43, 47, 70“107
D™Alema, Massimo, 136, 199
1960s-1980s
D™Aragona Commission, 12, 13, 94,
Italy, 71, 77“78, 89“90, 96“105
154, 172
Netherlands, 13, 71, 77“79, 81,
DC (Italian Christian Democratic
84, 86“87
Party)
1990s
and family allowances, 92“95, 98“99,
Italy, 89, 90
103, 104“105, 106
Netherlands, 89
and old-age pensions, 167, 172“173,
indexation of, 86“87, 96“97, 98,
174“177
105
and unemployment policy, 109“110,
interwar period
128, 130“133, 135
Italy, 90, 91“92
Denmark, 24, 31, 38, 39, 50, 70, 71,
Netherlands, 79“80, 88
197
origins
depillarization, 83“84, 86, 131
Italy, 12, 70“73
Dini, Lamberto, 162
Netherlands, 12, 70“73, 78“79
disability bene¬ts, 21, 30, 87, 115,
World War II to 1960
117“119, 122, 125, 127, 137,
Italy, 92“96
152
Netherlands, 78, 81, 82“83, 88
Disoccupati Organizzati, 133
family lobbies, 75, 104
Drees, Willem, 85, 129, 165, 168,
fascism
169
and family allowances, 90, 91“92
DS (Democratici di Sinistra),
and old-age pensions, 159, 167,
68
175
Dutch Family Council, 87
Ferrera, Maurizio, 128
Finland, 38, 50, 197
early retirement, 16, 25, 30, 31,
FNP (Federazione Nazionale
116“117, 119, 121, 122, 127,
Pensionati), 170. See also
137, 145, 149, 150, 159,
pensioners™ unions
161“163
FPLD (Fondo Previdenza Lavoratori
education spending, 24, 26“27, 30,
Dipendenti), 161, 173
31, 32
France, 16, 20, 28, 62, 64, 70, 75, 82,
elderly, as voters, 44“46, 75, 78, 103,
122, 185
168“171


220
Index

KVP (Dutch Catholic People™s Party),
generational accounting, 17“19
83, 84, 86
Germany, 4, 16, 25, 28, 34, 38, 47, 60,
62, 122, 185, 191
Lama, Luciano, 132
Gorrieri, Ermanno, 89, 97, 99
lavori socialmente utili (socially useful
Greece, 6, 16, 24, 26, 32, 39, 64, 122,
jobs), 119
181, 185

Manow, Philip, 10
health care spending, 25, 27“29, 30“32
Mares, Isabela, 52
housewives, Dutch association of, 87
massimale (ceiling on total wage bill),
housing policy, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 30,
92, 93, 96, 97
33, 36, 39, 48, 97, 112
Militello, Giacinto, 162
housing tenure, 37
minimum pension, Italy, 118, 121,
147“148, 154“156, 170
ILO (International Labor Of¬ce), 62,
minimum wage, 80, 81, 105, 115, 116,
132, 158“160
121, 137, 142, 147, 152, 153
INCA (Istituto Nazionale Confederale
mobility allowances (indennit´ di
di Assistenza) 136 a
mobilit´ ), 114
indexation a
Mussolini, Benito, 92
of family allowances, 86“87, 96“98,
105, 106
New Zealand, 26, 32, 39, 65, 74
of pensions, 148, 152, 155, 169
Norway, 1, 26, 74
of unemployment bene¬ts, 112
NVV, 82“83. See also unions,
of wages, 101, 106
Netherlands
inequality, 49, 54, 148, 151, 180, 181,
182
O™Higgins, Michael, 36, 39
infant mortality, 28
occupational health and safety bene¬ts,
INPS (Istituto Nazionale della
26
Previdenza Sociale), 91, 93, 98,
occupational social policies, 10“11, 14,
103, 118, 136, 160, 162“163,
66
167, 174, 177
and age orientation, 60“62, 185“186
intergenerational equity, 2, 3, 15, 19,
de¬ned, 56“58
47, 53, 198, 199
and family allowance spending,
intergenerational transfers, 16, 19
76“78, 103“107
Ireland, 8, 26, 32, 39, 44, 50, 181, 191,
origins of, 59“60
192
and pension spending, 163, 172,
178“179
Japan, 4, 8, 11, 16, 23, 27, 31, 38, 39,
Orloff, Ann, 55
47, 48, 64, 74, 181, 185, 197
jobs programs, 119, 126. See also JWG;
Pampel, Fred, 44, 54, 55, 71, 73,
lavori socialmente utili
75
JWG (Dutch Youth Work Guarantee
parental leave, 70
Act), 116
PCI (Italian Communist Party), 95,
128, 130, 132, 135, 164, 167,
van Kersbergen, Kees, 4, 47, 74
174, 175, 176
Klomp´ , Margo, 84, 86
e


221
Index

PPR (Dutch Radical Party), 86
(P)DS (Italian Democratic Party of the
pronatalism, 80, 91, 92
Left), 164
PSI (Italian Socialist Party)
pensioners™ parties, 168“170, 198“199
and family allowances, 95, 99, 104
pensioners™ unions, 168, 169“171, 198,
and unemployment policy, 110, 128,
199
164, 167, 172, 175, 176
pensioni d™anzianit´ (seniority pensions),
a
PvdA (Dutch Labor Party), 83, 129,
150, 151, 160“163, 167, 169,
134, 152, 164, 166, 168
170, 175. See also early
retirement
Quadragesimo anno, 47
pensioni sociali (social pensions), 146,
155, 173
Rerum novarum, 47, 79, 81, 91
pensions, 34, 76, 149, 161
retirement age, 18, 30, 117, 126,
disability, 30, 61, 71, 117, 118, 121,
149“151, 158“163, 166“168,
145, 149, 153, 159, 166
169, 175, 178
early retirement, 145; see also pensioni
RWW (Dutch Unemployment
d™anzianit´ ; VUT
a
Assistance Act), 131“132. See
indexation, 148, 152, 155, 169
also unemployment assistance
old-age, 2, 4, 15, 21, 31, 60, 61, 139,
bene¬ts
140, 164, 189
Italy, 118, 145, 149, 155, 170, 186,
Sarpellon, Giovanni, 100
187
Scandinavia, 10, 16, 24, 25, 28, 32, 39,
Italy, minimum, 118, 121,
50, 52
147“148, 154“156, 170
self-employed, 13, 66, 70, 78, 79, 130,
Italy, seniority, see pensioni
131, 135, 146, 147, 148, 154,
d™anzianit´ a
171, 172, 175, 185, 187
Italy, social, 146, 155, 173
in agriculture, 66, 85, 90, 97, 106,
Netherlands, 71, 83, 145, 149,
130
151, 153, 186, 187
and family allowances, 86, 88, 91, 96,
private supplementary, 142“143,
103, 106“107
148, 150, 151, 153, 154, 156,
seniority pensions, Italy. See pensioni
166
projections, 65, 172, 177 d™anzianit´
a
SER (Dutch Socio-Economic
reform, 35, 52, 97, 103, 155,
Council), 85, 164
156“158, 159“160, 161, 168,
social democracy, 48“49, 165“167,
169“171, 172
191
Pierson, Paul, 44, 46, 55, 62, 76, 169,
and family allowance spending,
193, 197
73“74, 77
pillarization, 84
and pensions, 168
policy drift, 190, 193
and unemployment bene¬ts, 108,
policy feedbacks, 46, 55, 62, 189, 199
133“134
Portugal, 1, 6, 16, 24, 28, 32, 47, 64,
Social Democratic Party, Netherlands.
122, 181
See PvdA
poverty, 1, 2, 20, 43, 60, 61, 82, 89, 91,
social minimum
92, 94, 96, 100“103, 145, 151,
Italy, 12, 150, 154, 155, 167, 172, 174
155“156, 180“184


222
Index

extended unemployment bene¬ts,
Netherlands, 12, 116, 118, 146,
116, 119, 145, 149, 159, 166
150“154, 166, 169, 171, 178
for ¬rst-time job-seekers, 24, 108,
social pensions, Italy. See pensioni sociali
115, 116, 119, 121, 124, 125,
socially useful jobs. See lavori
126, 127, 133, 136
socialmente utili
unions, 10, 12, 42, 53, 60, 66
solidarity tax, Italy, 148
Italy, 12, 90, 91, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99,
Spain, 16, 26, 32, 38, 39, 64, 92, 185
102, 104, 105, 108, 109, 114,
Sweden, 8, 24, 26, 38, 39, 50, 52, 58,
128, 130, 132, 133, 135, 136,
74, 82
155, 156, 157, 160, 161, 163,
164, 165, 167, 168, 170,
tax expenditures, 16, 20, 33“36, 39, 71
172“174, 176
tax system, 14, 33“36, 65, 79, 85, 89,
Netherlands, 12, 80“82, 84, 85“87,
94, 106“107, 109, 130, 131, 171,
104, 107, 108, 118, 129, 164,
172, 174, 178, 181, 185,
166
186“189, 195
United Kingdom, 33, 34, 35, 60
Thelen, Kathleen, 12, 55, 56, 196
United States, 1, 16, 24, 26, 27, 31,
Thomson, David, 8, 15, 39, 44
32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39,
trattamenti speciali, 115. See also
46, 64, 181, 182, 185, 195,
unemployment bene¬ts
197
UIL, 172. See also unions, Italy
van Rhijn Commission, 81, 85, 94,
unemployment, 3, 13, 22, 48, 56, 91,
151
100, 110“113, 117, 118, 122,
Veldkamp, G. M. J., 84, 86
124
VUT, 117. See also early retirement
long-term, 1, 115, 116, 118, 119,
125, 126, 131, 132, 134, 137,
wage supplements, 77, 79, 81, 82, 88,
149, 188
92, 94, 105, 188“189
of older workers, 109, 116, 124“125,
WAO (Dutch Disablement Insurance
126“127, 133, 136
Act), 117. See also disability
partial (short-term), 97, 114, 118
bene¬ts
youth, 108, 116, 124“127, 131“133,
welfare. See ABW; ANF; pensioni sociali
136“137, 159
Wennemo, Irene, 74, 75
unemployment assistance bene¬ts, 115,
Wilensky, Harold, 44, 45, 73, 75
118, 121, 126, 127. See also
Williamson, John, 44, 45
RWW
WIW (Dutch Job Seekers
unemployment bene¬ts, 2, 4, 13, 21,
Employment Act), 119
24, 25, 29, 30, 35, 47, 48, 108,
WW (Dutch Unemployment
172, 190; see also trattamenti
Insurance Act), 112
speciali; WW; WWV
WWV, 112
bene¬ts for partial (short-term)
unemployment, 113; see also
Youth Work Guarantee Act,
CIG; CIGS; mobility
Netherlands, 119
allowances




223
Other Books in the Series (continued from page iii)

Valerie Bunce, Leaving Socialism and Leaving the State: The End of
Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia
Daniele Caramani, The Nationalization of Politics: The Formation of National
Electorates and Party Systems in Europe
Kanchan Chandra, Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic
Headcounts in India
Ruth Berins Collier, Paths toward Democracy: The Working Class and Elites
in Western Europe and South America
Donatella della Porta, Social Movements, Political Violence, and the State
Gerald Easter, Reconstructing the State: Personal Networks and Elite Identity
M. Steven Fish, Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics
Robert F. Franzese, Macroeconomic Policies of Developed Democracies
Roberto Franzosi, The Puzzle of Strikes: Class and State Strategies in Postwar
Italy
Geoffrey Garrett, Partisan Politics in the Global Economy
Miriam Golden, Heroic Defeats: The Politics of Job Loss
Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements
Merilee Serrill Grindle, Changing the State
Anna Grzymala-Busse, Redeeming the Communist Past: The Regeneration
of Communist Parties in East Central Europe
Frances Hagopian, Traditional Politics and Regime Change in Brazil
Gretchen Helmke, Courts under Constraints: Judges, Generals, and Presidents
in Argentina
Yoshiko Herrera, Imagined Economies: The Sources of Russian Regionalism
J. Rogers Hollingsworth and Robert Boyer, eds., Contemporary Capitalism:
The Embeddedness of Institutions
John D. Huber and Charles R. Shipan, Deliberate Discretion? The
Institutional Foundations of Bureaucratic Autonomy
Ellen Immergut, Health Politics: Interests and Institutions in Western Europe
Torben Iversen, Capitalism, Democracy, and Welfare
Torben Iversen, Contested Economic Institutions
Torben Iversen, Jonas Pontussen, and David Soskice, eds., Unions,
Employers, and Central Banks: Macroeconomic Coordination and
Institutional Change in Social Market Economies
Thomas Janoski and Alexander M. Hicks, eds., The Comparative Political
Economy of the Welfare State
Joseph Jupille, Procedural Politics: Issues, In¬‚uence, and Institutional Choice
in the European Union
Stathis Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War
David C. Kang, Crony Capitalism: Corruption and Capitalism in South Korea
and the Philippines
Junko Kato, Regressive Taxation and the Welfare State
Robert O. Keohane and Helen B. Milner, eds., Internationalization and
Domestic Politics
Herbert Kitschelt, The Transformation of European Social Democracy
Herbert Kitschelt, Peter Lange, Gary Marks, and John D. Stephens, eds.,
Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism
Herbert Kitschelt, Zdenka Mansfeldova, Radek Markowski, and Gabor
Toka, Post-Communist Party Systems
David Knoke, Franz Urban Pappi, Jeffrey Broadbent, and Yutaka
Tsujinaka, eds., Comparing Policy Networks
Allan Kornberg and Harold D. Clarke, Citizens and Community: Political
Support in a Representative Democracy
Amie Kreppel, The European Parliament and the Supranational Party System
David D. Laitin, Language Repertoires and State Construction in Africa
Fabrice E. Lehoucq and Ivan Molina, Stuf¬ng the Ballot Box: Fraud,
Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica
Mark Irving Lichbach and Alan S. Zuckerman, eds., Comparative Politics:
Rationality, Culture, and Structure
Evan Lieberman, Race and Regionalism in the Politics of Taxation in Brazil
and South Africa
Pauline Jones Luong, Institutional Change and Political Continuity in
Post-Soviet Central Asia
Doug McAdam, John McCarthy, and Mayer Zald, eds., Comparative
Perspectives on Social Movements
James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds., Historical Analysis and
the Social Sciences
Scott Mainwaring and Matthew Soberg Shugart, eds., Presidentialism and
Democracy in Latin America
Isabela Mares, The Politics of Social Risk: Business and Welfare State
Development
Isabela Mares, Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Unemployment
Anthony W. Marx, Making Race, Making Nations: A Comparison of South
Africa, the United States, and Brazil
Joel S. Migdal, State in Society: Studying How States and Societies Constitute
One Another
Joel S. Migdal, Atul Kohli, and Vivienne Shue, eds., State Power and Social
Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World
Scott Morgenstern and Benito Nacif, eds., Legislative Politics in Latin
America
Layna Mosley, Global Capital and National Governments
¨
Wolfgang C. Muller and Kaare Strøm, Policy, Of¬ce, or Votes?
Maria Victoria Murillo, Labor Unions, Partisan Coalitions, and Market
Reforms in Latin America
Ton Notermans, Money, Markets, and the State: Social Democratic Economic
Policies since 1918
Roger Petersen, Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and
Resentment in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe
Simona Piattoni, ed., Clientelism, Interests, and Democratic Representation
Paul Pierson, Dismantling the Welfare State? Reagan, Thatcher, and the
Politics of Retrenchment
Marino Regini, Uncertain Boundaries: The Social and Political Construction
of European Economies
Lyle Scruggs, Sustaining Abundance: Environmental Performance in
Industrial Democracies
Jefferey M. Sellers, Governing from Below: Urban Regions and the Global
Economy
Yossi Shain and Juan Linz, eds., Interim Governments and Democratic
Transitions
Beverly Silver, Forces of Labor: Workers™ Movements and Globalization since
1870
Theda Skocpol, Social Revolutions in the Modern World
Regina Smyth, Candidate Strategies and Electoral Competition in the Russian
Federation: Democracy without Foundation
Richard Snyder, Politics after Neoliberalism: Reregulation in Mexico

David Stark and L´ szlo Bruszt, Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics
and Property in East Central Europe
Sven Steinmo, Kathleen Thelen, and Frank Longstreth, eds., Structuring
Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis
Susan C. Stokes, Mandates and Democracy: Neoliberalism by Surprise in Latin
America
Susan C. Stokes, ed., Public Support for Market Reforms in New Democracies
Duane Swank, Global Capital, Political Institutions, and Policy Change in
Developed Welfare States
Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious
Politics
Kathleen Thelen, How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in
Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan
Charles Tilly, Trust and Rule
Joshua Tucker, Regional Economic Voting: Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia,
and the Czech Republic, 1990“1999
Ashutosh Varshney, Democracy, Development, and the Countryside
Stephen I. Wilkinson, Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic
Riots in India
Jason Wittenberg, Crucibles of Political Loyalty: Church Institutions and
Electoral Continuity in Hungary
Elisabeth J. Wood, Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent Transitions in
South Africa and El Salvador
Elisabeth J. Wood, Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador

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