<<

. 9
( 9)



important part of oneself being corrupt and unhealthy. A central aspect
of my argument, however, is that this conclusion does not imply that one
should never, for example, escape from prison or take what does not belong
to one. Such conclusions must await resolution of the second issue: how to
determine which actions are virtuous.
The de¬nitive answer to the determining questions lies in knowledge of
the Forms. The very best sorts of people can have knowledge of the Forms
for themselves; those who cannot, if they are fortunate enough to live in
a Kallipolis, can listen to those (the philosophers) who do know. So the
Forms are the keys to resolving determining questions, while harmony in
the tripartite soul answers the aiming question of why one should commit
to virtue above all. Between these two issues lies the commitment to the
supremacy of virtue.
The idea that the type of actions we perform repeatedly becomes habitual
and thereby affects and effects the type of characters we have is a plausi-
ble and rather persuasive, if controversial, view.1 So too I imagine is the
idea that the condition of our souls or characters is more signi¬cant, eth-
ically, than the condition of our bodies or possessions. These are ideas
that are central to Aristotle™s ethics and the contemporary work in virtue
ethics inspired by him. I have tried to bring out in this book the extent
to which these concepts originate in and are central to Plato™s dialogues as
well.

1 Doris (2002) raises questions about the truth of character-based ethics in general. See Kamtekar
(2002) for a critical assessment.
284 Aiming at Virtue in Plato
In the end, however, the metaphysics of Forms is a promissory note “
the Forms are where the content of virtue is, if you are a philosopher who can
apprehend them “ and a dubious one at that. The course of education that
generates a philosopher is not accomplished by a reading of the dialogues,
no matter how sophisticated. Experts in Plato™s metaphysics do not know
the Form of Justice or the Form of the Good, of course. At best they have
views about what knowledge of such Forms must be like, for example, a
sudden, ineffable ¬‚ash of intuition or, on other accounts, an articulable set
of propositions.
In any case, Plato™s full-blown metaphysics, while critical for his ethical
project if my argument is correct, is nevertheless obviously not tenable
for contemporary philosophers. We do not believe that there is a Form of
Justice that explains the justice of token just actions, the knowledge of which
would enable one to know which token actions are just and which unjust. A
fortiori we do not believe that there are certain specially trained people who
in fact have the knowledge of these objects. So Plato™s promissory note that
Forms are where the de¬nitive answers to our determining questions lie is
not satisfactory for us or, we might imagine, for the frustrated Cleitophon.
Before abandoning them altogether, however, I hope that this book
indicates the signi¬cance of the problems in ethics that Forms are supposed
to solve. If all of the right actions have something in common, what is it?
Unsatisfying though it is, if these essences existed and you could know them,
then you would have knowledge of what right actions have in common.
Further, once we reject the existence of Forms the reading of the dialogues
I have defended should show that we need something to replace them in
order to answer determining questions in a knowledgeable way. Without
philosopher-kings or any divine sign we are thrown back to the condition
of Socrates and Crito in the Crito. Perhaps this is a reasonable and tenable
position. Committed explicitly, particularly in dif¬cult and morally weighty
situations, to doing the virtuous thing above all, we should have the humility
to realize that we do not have knowledge in the de¬nitive sense that would be
had by knowledge of Forms, and so must be open to following the argument
that seems upon re¬‚ection best to us. Even if this were the position left
us, it could have, as I suggest in the Introduction, signi¬cant and positive
effects on the virtue of our actions if we avoided having “one thought too
few” by keeping SV in view and combined that with avoiding the sort of
“moralizing” that prematurely takes determining questions to be settled.
It may be useful simply to point to how this way of understanding Plato™s
ethics compares with Aristotle. Unsurprisingly, Aristotle also holds that it
is never right to do wrong and that no aim ought to trump doing the right
Epilogue 285
thing. Why does he think one should be moral? His move is similar to
Plato™s but appeals to what, on his view, human beings (or, more accurate
to Aristotle™s own account, men) are by nature. This explains why we
ought to be committed to virtuous action above all and not to pleasure, for
example, or honor. When it comes to answering determining questions,
Aristotle does not, of course, appeal to Forms. Rather, for Aristotle, the
content of virtue is going to come from a proper upbringing. This account,
unlike Plato™s, can seem far more plausible to us.2
Finally, I hope that the reading of Plato™s ethics I offer may contribute
somewhat towards countering the detrimental trend, particularly among
the relatively well-educated populace, of shying away from the idea that
doing the right thing ought to be our supreme aim, even without having
a de¬nitive way of determining what the right thing to do is. I think that
politics would be bene¬cially affected were societies and nations to commit
in a Socratic way to SV and, while not believing in philosopher-kings and
their objects of knowledge, retain a more Socratic humility about their
knowledge of the content of virtue. Finally, it would help the quality and
clarity of our political discourse to be clear about whether the question at
issue is an aiming question “ for example, “Is our survival (as individuals
or even as a nation) more important than our doing the right thing?” “ or
a determining question “ for example, “Is our surviving in some situation
an instance of doing the right thing?” This distinction, as Plato sees, makes
all the difference.
2 See Vasiliou (2007) for details.
Bibliography




Adam, J. (1891) Plato: Crito (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
(1902) Republic of Plato (2 vols.) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Allen, R. E. (1980) Socrates and Legal Obligation (Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota).
Annas, J. (1981) An Introduction to Plato™s Republic (Oxford: Oxford University
Press).
(1993) The Morality of Happiness (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
(1999) Platonic Ethics, Old and New (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).
Anton, J. P. and Kustas, G. L. (eds.) (1971) Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy
(Albany: State University of New York Press).
Archer-Hind, R. D. (1894) The Phaedo of Plato, 2nd edn (London: Macmillan and
Co).
Barney, R. (2004) “Callicles and Thrasymachus,” in E. N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2004 Edition), <http://plato.stanford.edu/
archives/fall2004/entries/callicles-thrasymachus/>.
Benson, H. (ed.) (1992) Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates (Oxford: Oxford
University Press).
(2000) Socratic Wisdom (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Beversluis, J. (2000) Cross-Examining Socrates (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press).
Bobonich, C. (2002) Plato™s Utopia Recast (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Bostock, D. (1990) “The Interpretation of Plato™s Crito,” Phronesis 35: 1“20.
Brandwood, L. (1976) A Word Index to Plato (Leeds: W. S. Maney and Son, Ltd.).
Brickhouse, T. and Smith, N. (1989) Socrates on Trial (Princeton: Princeton
University Press).
(1993) “Review of Vlastos,” Ancient Philosophy 13: 395“410.
(1994) Plato™s Socrates (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Broadie, S. (1991) Ethics with Aristotle (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Brown, E. (2000) “Justice and Compulsion for Plato™s Philosopher-Rulers,” Ancient
Philosophy 20: 1“17.
(2004) “Minding the Gap in Plato™s Republic,” Philosophical Studies 117: 275“302.
Brown, H. (1992) “The Structure of Plato™s Crito,” Apeiron 25: 67“82.
Burnet, J. (ed.) (1900“7) Platonis Opera (5 vols.) (Oxford: Oxford University Press).


286
Bibliography 287
(1924) Plato: Euthyphro, Apology of Socrates, Crito (Oxford: Oxford University
Press).
Burnyeat, M. F. (1971) “Virtues in Action,” in Vlastos (1971a), 209“34.
(1980) “Aristotle on Learning to Be Good,” in Rorty (1980), 69“92.
(1987) “Platonism and Mathematics: A Prelude to Discussion,” in Graeser (1987),
213“40.
(1999) “Culture and Society in Plato™s Republic,” Tanner Lectures on Human
Values 20: 217“324.
(2000) “Plato on Why Mathematics is Good for the Soul,” in Smiley (2000),
1“81.
Butler, J. (1999a) “The Arguments for the Most Pleasant Life in Republic ix: A
Note Against the Common Interpretation,” Apeiron 32: 37“48.
(1999b) “On whether Pleasure™s Esse is Percipi: Rethinking Republic 583b“585a,”
Ancient Philosophy 19: 285“98.
(2002) “Justice and the Fundamental Question of Plato™s Republic,” Apeiron 35:
1“17.
Chappell, T. D. J. (1993) “The Virtues of Thrasymachus,” Phronesis 38.1: 1“17.
(2000) “Thrasymachus and De¬nition,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy
18: 101“7.
Cleary, J. J. and Gurtler, G. M. (eds.) (2000) Proceedings of the Boston Area Collo-
quium in Ancient Philosophy xxvi (Leiden: Brill).
Cooper, J. (1975) Reason and Human Good in Aristotle (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press), reprinted 1986 (Indianapolis: Hackett Press) (page refs. to
latter).
(1977) “The Psychology of Justice in Plato,” American Philosophical Quarterly
14: 151“7, reprinted in Cooper (1999a), 138“49 (page refs. to latter).
(1984) “Plato™s Theory of Human Motivation,” History of Philosophy Quarterly
1: 3“21, reprinted in Cooper (1999a), 118“37 (page refs. to latter).
(ed.) (1997) Plato: Complete Works (Indianapolis: Hackett Press).
(1999a) Reason and Emotion (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
(1999b) “Socrates and Plato in Gorgias,” in Cooper (1999a), 29“75.
Cross, R. C. and Woozley, A. D. (1964) Plato™s Republic (London: St. Martin™s
Press).
Dahl, N. (1991) “Plato™s Defence of Justice,” Philosophy and Phenomenological
Research 51: 809“34, reprinted in Fine (2000), 689“716 (page refs. to latter).
DeFilippo, J. (1991) “Justice and Obedience in the Crito,” Ancient Philosophy 11:
249“63.
Dodds, E. R. (1959) Plato: Gorgias (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Doris, J. (2002) Lack of Character: Personality and Moral Behavior (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press).
Dover, K. (1974) Popular Greek Morality in the Time of Plato and Aristotle (Oxford:
Oxford University Press).
Engstrom, S. and Whiting, J. (eds.) (1996) Aristotle, Kant, and the Stoics
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
288 Bibliography
Everson, S. (ed.) (1990) Companions to Ancient Thought i. Epistemology
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
(1998a) “The Incoherence of Thrasymachus,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philos-
ophy 16: 99“131.
(ed.) (1998b) Companions to Ancient Thought iv. Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press).
Ferrari, G. R. F. (1989) “Plato and Poetry,” in Kennedy (1989), 92“148.
(2003) City and Soul in Plato™s Republic (Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag).
Fine, G. (1990) “Knowledge and Belief in Republic v“vii,” in Everson (1990),
85“115.
(1992) “Inquiry in the Meno,” in Kraut (1992a), 200“26.
(1993) On Ideas (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
(1996) “Nozick™s Socrates,” Phronesis 96: 233“44.
(ed.) (2000) Plato (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
(2004) “Knowledge and True Belief in the Meno,” Oxford Studies in Ancient
Philosophy 27: 41“81.
Foster, M. B. (1937) “A Mistake in Plato™s Republic,” Mind 46: 386“93.
Frede, M. (1992) “Plato™s Arguments and the Dialogue Form,” Oxford Studies in
Ancient Philosophy, suppl. vol.: 201“19.
Freeman, S. (1994) “Utilitarianism, Deontology, and the Priority of Right,”
Philosophy and Public Affairs 23.4: 313“49.
Gallop, D. (trans.) (1997) Plato: Defence of Socrates, Euthyphro, Crito (Oxford:
Oxford University Press).
Gauthier, D. (1986) Morals by Agreement (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Gerson, L. P. (2003) Knowing Persons: A Study in Plato (Oxford: Oxford University
Press).
Gifford, M. (2001) “Dramatic Dialectic in Republic Book i,” Oxford Studies in
Ancient Philosophy 20: 35“106.
Gill, C. (1996) Personality in Greek Epic, Tragedy, and Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford
University Press).
Goldman, A. I. (1986) Epistemology and Cognition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press).
Gonzalez, F. (1996) “Propositions or Objects? A Critique of Gail Fine on Knowledge
and Belief in Republic Virtue,” Phronesis 41: 245“75.
(2002) “The Socratic Elenchus as Constructive Protreptic,” in Scott (2002),
161“82.
Gosling, J. C. B. (1968) “D»xa and D…namiv in Plato™s Republic,” Phronesis 13:
119“30.
Gosling, J. C. B. and Taylor, C. C. W. (1982) The Greeks on Pleasure (Oxford:
Oxford University Press).
Graeser, A. (ed.) (1987) Mathematics and Metaphysics in Aristotle (Bern: Haupt).
Griswold, C. (ed.) (1988) Platonic Writings/Platonic Readings (London:
Routledge).
Grote, G. (1875) Plato and Other Companions of Socrates (3 vols.) (3rd edn) (London:
Murray).
Bibliography 289
Halliwell, S. (1993) Plato: Republic 5 (Warminster: Aris & Phillips).
(2002) The Aesthetics of Mimesis (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Harris, E. M. (2000) “Open Texture in Athenian Law,” Dike 3: 27“79.
(2001) “How to Kill in Attic Greek,” in E. Canterella and G. Th¨ r (eds.),
u
Symposion 1997: Vortr¨ ge zur griechischen und hellenistischen Rechtsgeschichte
a
(Cologne and Vienna: Bohlau Verlag), 75“87.
(2002) “Did Solon Abolish Debt-Bondage?” The Classical Quarterly 52: 415“30.
Harte, V. (1999) “Con¬‚icting Values in Plato™s Crito,” Archiv f¨ r Geschichte der
u
Philosophie 81: 117“47.
Heinaman, R. (1995) Aristotle and Moral Realism (London: University College
London Press).
(2002) “Plato™s Division of Goods in the Republic,” Phronesis 47: 309“35.
Henderson, T. Y. (1970) “In Defence of Thrasymachus,” American Philosophical
Quarterly 7: 218“28.
Herman, B. (1981) “On the Value of Acting From the Motive of Duty,” Philosophical
Review 90: 359“82, reprinted in Herman (1993), 1“22 (page refs. to latter).
(1993) The Practice of Moral Judgment (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press).
Hooker, B. and Little, M. (eds.) (2000) Moral Particularism (Oxford: Oxford
University Press).
Hourani, G. (1949) “The Education of the Third Class in Plato™s Republic,” The
Classical Quarterly 43: 58“60.
(1962) “Thrasymachus™ De¬nition of Justice in Plato™s Republic,” Phronesis 7:
110“20.
Inwood, B. (1987) “Professor Stokes on Adeimantus in the Republic,” in Panagiotou
(1987), 97“103.
Irwin, T. (1977) Plato™s Moral Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
(1979) Plato™s Gorgias (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
(1986a) “Socratic Inquiry and Politics,” Ethics 96: 400“15.
(1986b) “Coercion and Objectivity in Plato™s Dialectic,” Revue Internationale de
Philosophie 40: 49“74.
(1992) “Socratic Puzzles,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 10: 241“66.
(1994) “˜Say What You Believe,™” in Irwin and Nussbaum (1994), 1“16.
(1995) Plato™s Ethics (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Irwin, T. and Nussbaum, M. (eds.) (1994) Virtue, Love and Form: Essays in Memory
of Gregory Vlastos (Toronto: Apeiron).
Kahn, C. (1983) “Drama and Dialectic in Plato™s Gorgias,” Oxford Studies in Ancient
Philosophy 1: 75“121.
(1989) “Problems in the Argument of Plato™s Crito,” Apeiron 22: 29“43.
(1996) Plato and the Socratic Dialogue (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Kamtekar, R. (1998) “Imperfect Virtue,” Ancient Philosophy 18: 315“39.
(2002) “Situationism and Virtue Ethics on the Content of our Character,” Ethics
114: 458“91.
(2004) “What™s the Good of Agreeing? Homonoia in Platonic Politics,” Oxford
Studies in Ancient Philosophy 26: 131“70.
290 Bibliography
Keeley, E. and Sherrard, P. (trans.) (1975) C. P. Cavafy: Collected Poems (Princeton:
Princeton University Press).
Kennedy, G. A. (ed.) (1989) Cambridge History of Literary Criticism i. Classical
Criticism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Kerferd, G. B. (1947) “The Doctrine of Thrasymachus in Plato™s Republic,” Durham
University Journal 40: 19“27.
(1981) The Sophistic Movement (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Kirwan, C. (1965) “Glaucon™s Challenge,” Phronesis 10: 162“73.
Klosko, G. (1981) “The Technical Conception of Virtue,” Journal of the History of
Philosophy 19: 95“102.
Kraut, R. (1984) Socrates and the State (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
(ed.) (1992a) The Cambridge Companion to Plato (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni-
versity Press).
(1992b) “The Defense of Justice in the Republic,” in Kraut (1992a), 311“37.
Lane, M. (1998) “Argument and Agreement in Plato™s Crito,” History of Political
Thought 19: 313“30.
Lear, J. (1992) “Inside and outside the Republic,” Phronesis 27: 184“215, reprinted
in Lear (1998), 219“46 (page refs. to latter).
(1994) “Plato™s Politics of Narcissism,” in Irwin and Nussbaum (1994), 137“59.
(1998) Open Minded: Working out the Logic of the Soul (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press).
Lesher, J. H. (1987) “Socrates™ Disavowal of Knowledge,” Journal of the History of
Philosophy 25: 275“88.
Louden, R. and Schollmeier, P. (eds.) (1996) The Greeks and us: Essays in Honor of
Arthur W. H. Adkins (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Lovibond, S. and Williams, S. G. (eds.) (1996) Essays for David Wiggins: Identity,
Truth, and Value (Oxford: Blackwell).
Mabbott, J. D. (1937) “Is Plato™s Republic Utilitarian?” Mind 46: 468“74, reprinted
with revisions in Vlastos (1971b), 57“65 (page refs. to latter).
Malcolm, J. (1981) “The Cave Revisited,” The Classical Quarterly 31: 60“8.
McDowell, J. (1979) “Virtue and Reason,” The Monist 62: 331“50.
McKim, R. (1988) “Shame and Truth in Plato™s Gorgias,” in Griswold (1988),
34“48.
McPherran, M. (1996) The Religion of Socrates (University Park: Penn State
University Press).
McTighe, K. (1984) “Socrates on Desire for the Good and the Involuntariness of
Wrongdoing: Gorgias 466a“468e,” Phronesis 29: 193“236, reprinted in Benson
(1992), 263“97 (page refs. to latter).
Miller, M. (1996) ˜“The Arguments I Seem to Hear™: Argument and Irony in the
Crito,” Phronesis 51: 121“37.
Moravcsik, J. (1971) “Reason and Eros in the ˜Ascent™-Passage of the Symposium,”
in Anton and Kustas (1971), 285“302.
Morrison, J. (1977) “Two Unresolved Dif¬culties in the Line and Cave,” Phronesis
22: 212“31.
Bibliography 291
Murphy, N. R. (1951) The Interpretation of Plato™s Republic (Oxford: Oxford Uni-
versity Press).
Nehamas, A. (1975) “Confusing Universals and Particulars in Plato™s Early Dia-
logues,” Review of Metaphysics 29, 287“306, reprinted in Nehamas (1999),
159“75 (page refs. to latter).
(1982) “Plato on Imitation and Poetry in Republic x,” in J. M. E. Moravcsik and
P. Temko (eds.), Plato on Beauty, Wisdom, and the Arts (Totowa, NJ: Rowman
and Little¬eld), 47“78, reprinted in Nehamas (1999), 251“78 (page refs. to
latter).
(1986) “Socratic Intellectualism,” in J. Cleary (ed.), Proceedings of the Boston
Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy ii (Lanham, MD: University Press of
America), 275“316, reprinted in Nehamas (1999), 27“58 (page refs. to latter).
(1988) “Plato and the Mass Media,” The Monist 71: 214“34, reprinted in Nehamas
(1999), 279“99 (page refs. to latter).
(1998) The Art of Living (Berkeley: University of California Press).
(1999) Virtues of Authenticity (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Nightingale, A. (1995) Genres in Dialogue (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press).
Nozick, R. (1981) Philosophical Explanations (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press).
(1995) “Socratic Puzzles,” Phronesis 95: 143“55.
Nussbaum, M. (1986) The Fragility of Goodness (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press).
Ober, J. (1998) Political Dissent in Democratic Athens (Princeton: Princeton Uni-
versity Press).
O™Meara, D. J. (ed.) (1985) Platonic Investigations (Washington, DC: Catholic
University Press of America).
Pakaluk, M. (2000) “Review of Roslyn Weiss™ Socrates Dissatis¬ed,” Bryn Mawr
Classical Review 2000.06.25.
Panagiotou, S. (ed.) (1987) Justice, Law, and Method in Plato and Aristotle
(Edmonton, Alberta: Academic Printing and Publishing).
Pappas, N. (1995) Plato and the Republic (London: Routledge).
Parry, R. (1996) Plato™s Craft of Justice (Albany: State University of New York Press).
Pelling, C. (1990) Character and Individuality in Greek Literature (Oxford: Oxford
University Press).
Penner, T. (1987) “Socrates on the Impossibility of Belief-Relative Sciences,” in
J. Cleary (ed.), Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy
iii (Lanham, MD: University Press of America), 263“325.
Price, A. W. (1989) Love and Friendship in Plato and Aristotle (Oxford: Oxford
University Press).
Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Reeve, C. D. C. (1988) Philosopher-Kings: The Argument of Plato™s Republic
(Princeton: Princeton University Press).
(1989) Socrates in the Apology (Indianapolis: Hackett Press).
292 Bibliography
(2003) “Plato™s Metaphysics of Morals,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 23:
39“58.
Roochnik, D. (1986) “Socrates™ Use of the Techne-Analogy,” Journal of the History
of Philosophy 24: 295“310.
(1996) Of Art and Wisdom (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press).
Rorty, A. O. (1980) Essays on Aristotle™s Ethics (Berkeley: University of California
Press).
Rudebusch, G. (1999) Socrates, Pleasure, and Value (Oxford: Oxford University
Press).
Rutherford, R. B. (1995) The Art of Plato (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press).
Sachs, D. (1963) “A Fallacy in Plato™s Republic,” Philosophical Review 72: 141“
58, reprinted in N. Smith (ed.) (1998) Plato: Critical Assessments (London:
Routledge), 206“19 (page refs. to latter).
Santas, G. (1979) Socrates: Philosophy in Plato™s Early Dialogues (London:
Routledge).
Scott, D. (1995) Recollection and Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press).
(1999) “Platonic Pessimism and Moral Education,” Oxford Studies in Ancient
Philosophy 17: 15“36.
(2000) “Metaphysics and the Defence of Justice in the Republic,” in Cleary and
Gurtler (2000), 1“20.
Scott, G. (ed.) (2002) Does Socrates Have a Method? (University Park: Penn State
University Press).
Segvic, H. (2000) “No One Errs Willingly: The Meaning of Socratic Intellectual-
ism,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 19: 1“45.
Shorey, P. (trans.) (1930) Plato: The Republic (2 vols.) (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press).
Silverman, A. (2002) The Dialectic of Essence: A Study of Plato™s Metaphysics
(Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Slings, S. R. (1999) Plato™s Clitophon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
(ed.) (2003) Platonis Respublica (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Smiley, T. (ed.) (2000) Mathematics and Necessity: Essays in the History of Philosophy
(Proceedings of the British Academy 103) (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Sosa, E. (1991) Knowledge in Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Stokes, M. (1987) “Adeimantus in the Republic,” in Panagiotou (1987), 67“96.
(1997) Plato: Apology of Socrates (Warminster: Aris & Phillips).
(2005) Dialectic in Action: An Examination of Plato™s Crito (Swansea: The Classical
Press of Wales).
Tar´n, L. (1985) “Platonism and Socratic Ignorance,” in O™Meara (1985), 85“110.
a
Tarrant, H. (2000) Plato™s First Interpreters (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).
Unger, P. (1968) “An Analysis of Factual Knowledge,” Journal of Philosophy 65:
157“70.
Vasiliou, I. (1996) “The Role of Good Upbringing in Aristotle™s Ethics,” Philosophy
and Phenomenological Research 56.4: 771“97.
Bibliography 293
(1999a) “Conditional Irony in the Socratic Dialogues,” The Classical Quarterly
49.2: 456“72.
(1999b) “Socratic Principles, Socratic Knowledge,” Philosophical Inquiry 21: 43“
60.
(2002a) “Socrates™ Reverse Irony,” The Classical Quarterly 52.1: 220“30.
(2002b) “Disputing Socratic Principles: Character and Argument in the
˜Polus Episode™ of the Gorgias,” Archiv f¨ r Geschichte der Philosophie 84.3:
u
245“72.
(2007) “Virtue and Argument in Aristotle™s Ethics,” in S. Tenenbaum (ed.)
(2007) Moral Psychology: Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and
Humanities, xciv (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi), 35“76.
Vlastos, G. (ed.) (1971a) The Philosophy of Socrates (Garden City, NY: Anchor
Books).
(ed.) (1971b) Plato II (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books).
(1971c/1981b) “Justice and Happiness in the Republic,” in Vlastos (1971b),
reprinted with additional note in Vlastos (1981a), 111“39, 425“7 (page refs.
to latter).
(1974) “Socrates on Political Obedience and Disobedience,” The Yale Review 63:
517“34, reprinted in Vlastos (1995), 30“42 (page refs. to latter).
(1981a) Platonic Studies (2nd edn) (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
(1983) “The Socratic Elenchus: Method is All,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Phi-
losophy 1: 27“58 and 71“4, revised and reprinted in Vlastos (1994), 1“37 (page
refs. to latter).
(1985) “Socrates™ Disavowal of Knowledge,” Philosophical Quarterly 35: 1“31,
revised and reprinted in Vlastos (1994), 39“66 (page refs. to latter).
(1991) Socrates, Ironist and Moral Philosopher (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).
(1994) Socratic Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
(1995) Studies in Greek Philosophy ii. Socrates, Plato, and their Tradition
(Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Weiss, R. (1985) “Ignorance, Involuntariness, and Innocence: A Reply to Kevin
McTighe,” Phronesis 30: 314“22.
(1998) Socrates Dissatis¬ed (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
White, J. (1996) “Plato™s Crito: The Authority of Law and Philosophy,” in Louden
and Schollmeier (1996), 97“133.
White, N. (1984) “The Classi¬cation of Goods in Plato™s Republic,” Journal of the
History of Philosophy 22: 393“421.
Whiting, J. (2002) “Eudaimonia, External Results, and Virtuous Actions,” Philos-
ophy and Phenomenological Research 65.2: 270“90.
Williams, B. (1976) “Persons, Character and Morality,” in A. O. Rorty (ed.)
The Identities of Persons (Berkeley: University of California Press), 197“216,
reprinted in B. Williams (1981) Moral Luck (Cambridge: Cambridge Univer-
sity Press) (page refs. to former).
Wolfsdorf, D. (2004) “Socrates™ Avowals of Knowledge,” Phronesis 69.2: 75“ 142.
Woolf, R. (2000) “Callicles and Socrates: Psychic (Dis)harmony in the Gorgias,”
Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 18: 1“40.
294 Bibliography
Woozley, A. D. (1979) Law and Obedience: The Arguments of Plato™s Crito (London:
Duckworth).
Worman, N. (2008) Abusive Mouths in Classical Athens (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press).
Yu, J. (2000) “Justice in the Republic: An Evolving Paradox,” History of Philosophy
Quarterly 17.2: 121“41.
Zeller, E. (1922) Die Philosophie der Griechen ii.1 (Leipzig: O. R. Reisland).
Zeyl, D. (1980) “Socrates and Hedonism: Protagoras 351b“358d,” Phronesis 25: 250“
69, reprinted in J. Anton and A. Preus (eds.) (1989) Essays in Ancient Greek
Philosophy iii (Albany: State University of New York Press), 5“25 (page refs.
to latter).
Index locorum




Aristotle 23a“b, 244
Metaphysics (Met.) 23a5“6, 40
1025a30-4, 251 23c, 106
Nicomachean Ethics 24d1, 67
(NE ) 25b ff., 65
1095a17“20, 6 25d10, 49
1095b3“8, 226 26a4, 43
1105a28“33, 194 28b, 55
1145b28, 144 28b ff., 62
1146a5“7, 257 28b3“5, 126, 215
1147a29“31, 57 28b5“9, 24, 32
1152a6“8, 257 28c9, 25
1177b26“27, 173 28d, 128
28d“e, 72
Plato 28d1, 25
Alcibiades 1 28d4“5, 25
113d, 28 28d6“10, 25, 32
Apology (Ap.) 28d7“30b4, 125
17b 28d8“10, 72
17b5, 110 29a4“b6, 41
17c4, 49 29b, 27, 34, 128, 243
17d3, 49 29b1“7, 37
18a4“5, 48 29b2, 41
18a5, 110 29b6“7, 26, 32, 36
18b2“5, 49 29b7“9, 32, 34
19a, 48 29c“d, 41
19d8, 28 29d ff., 27
20c1, 40 29d7“30a2, 41
20c1“3, 29 29d9, 62
20d“e, 99 29d9“e2, 40
20d5“e2, 40 29e“30b, 30
20d9“e2, 30 30a, 142
20e, 105 30a2, 67
20e1, 40 30c“e, 48
21b4“5, 29, 31 30c8“d5, 171
21d4“6, 37 30d, 33
21e5, 67 30e, 8
22a, 94 31c“32a, 237
22d, 142 31c ff., 51
22d1“4, 30 31d3“4, 51
22d6“e1, 29 31d6, 54

295
296 Index locorum
Plato (cont.) 410b4“6, 1
Apology (Ap.) 410c“d, 1
31d6“32a2, 54 Crito (Cr.)
32a ff., 26 43b10“11, 49
32a4 ff., 86 44c“d, 64
32a8, 248 44c2“3, 67
32c, 26 44e1, 56, 64
32c8“d3, 26 44e4, 57
32d, 221 45a1, 62
32e2, 49 45a1“2, 57
32e2“33a1, 55 45a2, 95
32e4, 67 45a6“b5, 59
34c ff., 48 45a6“b7, 59
34c3“4, 48 45b5, 59
34d4“5, 49 45b7“c4, 60
34d8“35d2, 48 45c5“8, 60
34e4, 49 45d6, 61
35a8, 62 45d6“7, 61
35c2, 95 45d6“8, 64, 77
35c5, 95 45d8“46a2, 64
36b“c, 33 45e1, 61
36d2, 34 45e1“2, 64
36e2, 34 45e2, 61
37a5“6, 34 45e6, 61
37b2“8, 34 46a3“4, 62, 64
37b3“5, 61 46a4“7, 62
37c“38a, 60 46a6, 64, 95
37c ff., 89 46b ff., 69
37c5“6, 89 46b1“4, 63
37d4, 49, 89 46b3“6, 65
37d4“5, 50 46b4“6, 46, 63
37e3“4, 89 46b5“c1, 64
38a3, 89 46b6, 65
38b6“9, 59 46b8, 64
38c1, 49 46c1, 87
38c1“7, 50 46c7“48b4, 64
38c6“7, 49 46c7“8, 64
39b2, 49 46e2, 64, 65
40a5“6, 52 46e3“47a2, 69
40b, 52 47a2, 64, 65
40c2“3, 54 47a5, 64
41c“d, 41 47b9“10, 66
Charmides (Ch.) 47c1“6, 66
157d, 138 47c8“48a5, 69
158e, 138 47c9“10, 25
158e“159a, 138 47d“48a, 253
158e6“159a8, 140 47d1“2, 65
159c, 138 47d4“5, 66
165b4“c2, 30 48a3, 66
166c7“d6, 30, 35 48a3“4, 70
170c ff., 102 48b, 135
174b, 102 48b“50a, 71
176c“d, 138 48b4, 65
Cleitophon (Cleit.) 48b5“6, 67, 90
407a7, 1 48c2“6, 68, 71
Index locorum 297
48c6“d5, 72 52e3, 49
48d5, 83 52e5“6, 86
48d6, 65 53a“54b, 78
48e4, 95 53a2“3, 87
48e5, 73 53a6, 95
49a“d, 76 53a8 ff., 85
49a“e, 26 53a8“54b1, 78
49a4“6, 72 53b2“4, 90
49a7“8, 72 53b5, 88
49b8, 72 53c4“5, 89
49c, 169 53d8, 89
49c2, 72 53d8“e1, 49
49d2“3, 108 53e, 89
49d6, 73 54b2, 95
49d9, 73 54b2“5, 182
49e1, 65 54b2“8, 85
49e4, 65 54b3, 67
49e6, 73 54c8, 74
49e6“7, 85 54d1, 95
49e6“50a2, 79 54d2“7, 65
50a ff., 23 Euthydemus (Euthyd.)
50a“54c, 46 272e, 52
50a“54d, 23 273d8“9, 138
50a4“5, 73 275a1, 160
50a6, 64 275a6, 217
50a7, 58 275b3, 217
50a9“b2, 74 278d2, 160
50b1, 76 278e, 6
50b2“5, 75 278e“282d, 160
50b3, 76 282d2“3, 160
50b5, 76 282d6, 160
50b7, 75 283c4“5, 34
50c1“3, 76 288d“292e, 160
50c4“6, 79 290c, 161
50c9“51c3, 78 290e“291a, 161
50d1“3, 80 291b4 ff., 161
50d4, 81 291c4“5, 102
50d7, 81 292d, 162
50e1, 81 292e, 140, 161
50e2“4, 82 296e8“297a1, 34
50e9, 83 297a, 189
51a4, 84, 85 Euthyphro (Eu.)
51a5, 74 2b, 153
51a6, 84 2c“3a, 159
51b4, 83 3a7“8, 150
51b6, 83 4a2“3, 149
51b7“9, 83 4a11“b2, 147
51c5, 65 4a12, 159
51c6“53a7, 78, 84 4b, 138
51d1, 84 4b ff., 138
51d5“6, 86 4b4“6, 147
51e, 95 4b7“c3, 148
52b, 87 4c3“d5, 146
52b1, 86 4d1“3, 149
52c1“3, 87 4d8“9, 149
52c3“d3, 87 4d9“e1, 147
298 Index locorum
Plato (cont.) 448d9, 95
Euthyphro (Eu.) 449a, 105
4e, 138 449b“d, 93
4e“5a, 153 449c3, 93
4e2, 159 452d5“8, 102
4e3, 152 452e, 102, 103, 107
4e4“8, 35 454a6“b1, 98
4e5, 159 454b5“7, 98
5a7“c5, 31 454b7, 101
5c8“9, 140 454c“455a, 99
5d, 143 455a5“6, 99
5d“e, 138 455b5, 100
5d8“e2, 154 455d2“4, 100
6a1“5, 154 456a1“3, 101
6c9“d6, 155 456a7“8, 101
6d“e, 47, 176 456b, 102
6d9“e1, 141, 155 456b1, 102
6e3“6, 141, 155 456b3, 102
7a, 155 456b6“c7, 103,
7d1“2, 156 107
8b1“2, 156 456c“457c, 104
8b7“9b3, 157 456c7, 104
9a3“4, 149 456d1, 104
9b2, 159 456d4, 104
9c“9d5, 158 456d8, 104
9c4, 146 456e3, 104
9e, 143 456e4, 104
9e5“7, 159 457b2, 104
10a ff., 193 457b3, 107
10d, 148, 175, 206 457b6, 104
11a, 178 457c, 94
12e5“8, 223 457c1, 104
13e10, 146 459c3“5, 107
14c, 143 460a3“4, 104
15c12, 31 461a7“b2, 105
15d5“6, 149 462b ff., 110
15d6, 149 462b“466a, 94, 133
15e“16a, 31 462b11“c2, 105
Gorgias (Gor.) 462c, 110
447a1“4, 91 462c7“8, 110
447a7“8, 105 462c8 ff., 111
447b1“3, 94 462c10“d2, 39
447b6, 95 462d8“e4, 110
447b9“c4, 93 462e6“463b1, 94
447c“d, 106 463c3“6, 39
447c1, 109 463d, 96
447c1“2, 102 463d1, 110
448a ff., 115 463d4, 110
448a“e, 109 463d5, 121
448a2“3, 105 463e1, 111
448c, 106 463e3“4, 111
448c“e, 110, 111 464a, 216, 252
448c4, 109 464a1“b1, 111
448c9, 109 464a1“3, 112
448d“e, 93 464a3“6, 112
Index locorum 299
464a7“8, 112 484b“c, 120
464b ff., 111 484c, 128
464b2, 111 484c ff., 91, 120
465a, 52 484c4“d1, 123
465a1, 111 484d, 129
465a1“2, 134 484d1“2, 123, 125
465a2“6, 133 484d2“7, 123
466a, 112 485a“e, 131
466a“468e, 113 485c7“d1, 125
466e9“12, 113 485e6“486a1, 125
466e13“467a1, 114 486a“b, 124
467c“468e, 116 486a1“2, 123
467d, 113 486a5, 125
467e, 109 486b, 125
468c4, 113 486b2“4, 126
468e, 114, 115 486c1“2, 124
468e ff., 110 486c2, 124
468e“469a, 114 486d1, 124
469b, 116 487c, 105
469b10, 114 488b, 128
469c, 115 488b ff., 173
469c“e, 115 488c“490b, 128
469c1“2, 171 489d, 126
470b“c, 115 489d“e, 132
470c4“5, 115 490a ff., 187
470c5, 115 490b“491d, 128
470e, 115 491b, 126
470e9, 125 491b4, 125, 126
472e, 152 491e ff., 131
473a, 116 491e5“6, 129
473b8“9, 115 492a1“2, 129
474c, 114 492d“e, 129
474c ff., 62 494b“d, 131
474c5“6, 119 494d ff., 277
474c7“8, 119 494e7“8, 130
474c8“d2, 121 495a5“c2, 130
479e ff., 152 495a5“6, 132
480a“481b, 110, 152 495b1, 132
481a5“481b1, 170 497b, 96
481b“c, 106, 120 497b5, 96
481b5, 117 499b, 132
481d5“6, 105 499b4“8, 132, 133
482c5, 121 499e1“2, 133
482d“e, 118 500a ff., 96
482e4“5, 118 500a4“6, 133
483a ff., 117 500a5“501c5, 94
483a5“8, 118 501a4“b1, 133
483a7“8, 119, 124 501b“c, 134
483b ff., 121 501c8, 96
483c6“d2, 119 502e, 134
483c8“d2, 119 503b, 100
483d“484c, 131 504d, 100
483e2, 119 504d5, 134
484a, 119 504d5“6, 134
484a ff., 131 504d7“9, 134
300 Index locorum
Plato (cont.) 186c2“4, 30
Gorgias (cont.) 186c5“d3, 217
504d9, 134 186d8“e2, 30
505b, 135 187a“b, 52
505c5, 96 190b7“c2, 38
506b, 96 190c3“7, 140
506c“509d, 96 190e, 143
507a“b, 223 192d, 143
507b, 136 200e2“5, 30
507d1, 136 Laws
508e“509a, 135 643c7, 225
508e6“509a7, 35 Meno
509a, 127 71a“b, 38
509a4“6, 31 71a“c, 31
509e2, 136 71c, 29
510a ff., 190 72b“73c, 176
511b“513c, 135 80d, 31
511c ff., 103 80d ff., 13
511c“513c, 96 87e“89a, 160
512e, 135 97a ff., 244
513c3“6, 97 97a“98d, 53
513d7“8, 134 98a, 227
514a“515b, 133 98a“b, 52
516b, 96 99a“b, 52
517b“519d, 96 99b7“9, 217
517e ff., 101, 102 100a1“2, 217
519d“e, 96 100a6“7, 217
523a, 96 Parmenides (Parm.)
523a“527d, 96 127c, 95
524d ff., 216 Phaedo (Phd.)
524d6, 136 68c“69c, 233
525a1“2, 136 74b“75d, 226
527b5, 136 Phaedrus (Phdr.)
527c, 110 252e5, 217
527c4“6, 97 253a4, 217
527d5“e7, 97 253b6, 217
Hippias Major (HiMa) 267c“d, 176
286c5“d7, 38 Protagoras (Pr.)
286d“e2, 31 310e, 139
304d“e, 31 312c1“4, 39
304d5“e3, 38 312e, 139
Ion 321d5, 185
531a, 91 322b7, 186
Laches (La.) 323c“324c, 152
178a, 139 323c“324d, 115
179d7, 138, 217 327a3“4, 217
179e, 139 333c, 189
180a4, 217 339b5, 32
180c4, 217 351b ff., 92, 161
182c2, 217 356a“c, 164
185e, 139, 142 357a5“6, 162
185e“186b, 133 357d, 162
185e1, 217 360e6“361a3, 31
186a“b, 52 361c2“3, 165
186b8“c5, 30 361c5, 140
Index locorum 301
Republic (Rep.) 343c8, 187
Book 1 343d“e, 187
327c, 167 343d2, 186
327c12, 188 344a1, 187
327c14, 167 344b5“c2, 280
328d2“5, 168 344b7, 187
330d8, 225 344c5“6, 184
330e3, 225 344c7, 185
331c“d, 177 344d, 168, 182
331c1“8, 167 344d7“e3, 182
331e“332a, 177 345a“b, 188
331e2, 168 345a4, 208
331e3“4, 168 345b3“4, 182
331e7“332a6, 169 345b8“c1, 182
332a9“10, 169 345c“347d, 187
332b7“8, 169 345c1, 186
332d5“6, 169 345c1“2, 182
335b“d, 189 345e ff., 200
335b“e, 170 347b6“e2, 183
335b2“3, 170 347e, 184, 187, 191
335c1“2, 171 347e2“4, 183
335e5“6, 170 347e7“348a3, 188
336a, 171 348a7“b7, 188
336a9“10, 171 348c2“e4, 199
336d1“2, 176 348c12, 177, 187
336d3, 176 348e, 39
337a, 176 349a, 189
337e, 31 349a“350d, 189
338a, 140 350c“d, 189
338c, 173 350d3, 189
338c“339c, 179 350d4“6, 189
338c2“3, 177 350d9“e1, 190
338c2“4, 173 350e2“3, 190
338d, 173 352b, 191
338e4, 174 354a“b, 184
339a2“4, 177 354a13“c3, 191
339a5, 183 354b6, 39
339b4“7, 178 354c2, 39
339b5“7, 184 Book 2
339c10, 174 357a5“b2, 188
339c10“11, 174 357b4“8, 197
339d, 178 357b7“8, 197
339d1“3, 178 357c6“7, 200
339e1“8, 178 357d1, 200
340a“c, 178 357d1“2, 200
340b6“8, 179 358a, 200
340c6“7, 179 358a1“3, 199
340d“341a, 180 358a4, 198
340e4“341a4, 179 358a4“6, 200
341a, 182 358a5, 200
343a, 173 358b4“7, 201, 203
343b ff., 173 358b6“7, 200
343b“344c, 182 358c1“2, 203
343c1“d1, 186 358c6, 221
343c3“4, 184 358d, 188
302 Index locorum
Plato (cont.) 379a1, 230
Book 2 (cont.) 379a5“6, 222
358d2“3, 196 379b ff., 220
358d3, 201 380b1, 220
358d3“6, 202 380c, 220
358d5“7, 201, 202 382a“d, 245
358e2, 203 382b1“4, 246
358e4“5, 204 383b, 223
359a, 204, 205 383b5, 223
359a2, 204 Book 3
359a5, 203 386a, 220, 222
359a7“b1, 200 386a“388e, 220
359b4“5, 203 386a1“2, 222
359c, 210, 274 386a1“4, 234
359c1“3, 207 386a6, 222
360b4 ff., 207 387d1“2, 223
360b8, 208 388b“d, 223
360c1, 208 388e“389a, 222
360c2, 208 388e“389d, 220
360c5, 221 388e9, 222
360d2, 221 389a, 223
360d4, 208 389d“392a, 220
361c4, 203 390a ff., 221
361e, 208 390b“c, 223
361e2, 221 390d2, 223
362a4“7, 206, 208 390d7, 223
362b3, 208 390d7“e1, 223
362b4, 208 390e, 223
362b4“5, 208 392a, 223
362c4, 208 392a“c, 223
364a ff., 210 392a3“9, 222
365c“d, 210 392b7, 224
366a, 209, 210 392b8“9, 224
366e“367a1, 210 392c, 259
367a7“8, 221 392c1“4, 224
368d“369a, 218 392d ff., 216
372d, 215 395c3, 216
374b, 216 395c6, 216
375e, 236 395d2, 216
376c4“5, 215 395e“396e, 218
376e, 234 398a1“6, 234
376e4, 219 398e1, 216, 229
377a ff., 222 399b8, 225
377a11“b2, 216 399c3, 225
377b2, 230 399d“e, 234
377c1, 219 400a1, 225
377c3“5, 219 400c8“10, 225
378a ff., 227 400d10“e3, 187
378b1“2, 234 401a7“8, 225
378d5, 234 401b, 234
378e, 222 401b3“d2, 218
378e“392c, 218 401d4“402a4, 226
378e1“3, 219 402b“c, 229, 230, 231, 259
378e5“6, 219 402b9“c8, 226, 228
379a, 223 402c, 249
Index locorum 303
404e4, 225 456d, 234
410a2“4, 238, 265 463b, 280
412a“414b, 234 468a6“8, 265
412b“414b, 234 473c ff., 235
412c13, 235 473c6“d11, 266
413c“414a, 235 473d, 267
414b“415c, 235 473e5“474a4, 235
416b“c, 259 474b4“c3, 236
416b5“c1, 231 475d, 236
Book 4 475e1, 236
421b3“7, 261 476a, 228
429c“430c, 262 476a5“8, 228, 269
430a“c, 219 476a11, 236
430b, 233, 266 476c, 237, 242
430b3“5, 262 476c“d, 241
430c, 267 476d7“e2, 242
431c“e, 280 476e“480a, 236, 240
431d“432a, 234, 236 477a, 240
434a“b, 233 479a, 237
434d4, 225 479e“480a, 241
434d7, 225 479e1“5, 241
434e3, 225 Book 6
435d, 258 484c6“d3, 269
441b4, 225 493e2“494a1, 237, 239,
441e, 247 242
441e“442d, 247 495a“b, 237
441e3“4, 254 496a“e, 237
442a4“b3, 247 496c, 259
442b ff., 221 498a4, 226
442c, 247 498c5“8, 237
442c4“7, 254 498d“499a, 237
442c4“8, 262 499c“500a, 239
442d“443b, 224, 248 499d“500a, 238
442e1, 248 499d10“500a7, 238
443b1“2, 249, 254 500d4, 225
443c1, 248 500d4“8, 270
443c4“5, 249 501b1“7, 270
443c9“d1, 249 501d1“3, 239
443c9“444a2, 263 503e, 235
443e“444a, 271 503e3, 235
443e1“2, 247 505a, 230, 243
443e2“3, 249, 252 505b“c, 277
443e4“444a2, 250 505c, 132, 273
444a, 271 506c, 243
444b, 252 508e ff., 271
444c2“4, 252 509a, 273, 277
444c11“d1, 252 509a1, 225
444d7“10, 254 509c, 271
444d12“e1, 252 Book 7
444e3“5, 252 515a5, 244
444e7“445a4, 253 517c4“5, 271
445a“b, 231, 252 517d8, 271
445a9“b4, 254 519c8, 230
Book 5 519d ff., 270
450a, 168 519e1“520a2, 261
304 Index locorum
Plato (cont.) 586e, 279
Book 7 588b“590a, 196
520c, 271 590c7“d6, 266, 279
520e1, 270 590d6, 280
522a, 226, 235 591b3“7, 252
522a4“5, 226 591e2, 225
522c, 219 Book 10
534b3“6, 227 597e, 217
534c4“5, 272 597e3“4, 229
540a4, 272 599b“600e, 133
540a9, 272 599c6“7, 217
540e1, 67 599c7“d2, 217
Book 8 599d3“4, 217
543c4“6, 257, 268 599d5“6, 217
543c5, 272 600c3“6, 217
544b4, 272 600d6, 217
544d, 273 603c5“9, 216
554a2, 67 606a“c, 216
Book 9 606a5, 226
580a, 273, 274, 279 611d7, 225
580c“583b, 276 612b, 213
580d“581c, 261, 262 612b ff., 201, 209
581c8“d3, 276 614b7, 225
581e6“582a2, 276 614d2, 225
582a, 277 614e5, 225
582b2“6, 278 Symposium (Symp.)
582c7“9, 278 215b ff., 16
583b“587c, 278 Theaetetus (Tht.)
583b6, 278 148e“151d, 31
585b11“c2, 279 150a6, 67
General index




Achilles, 25, 223 Archelaus, 115
actions aretˆ, see virtue
e
determining virtuous, see under determining Aristotle, 4, 5, 75, 177, 251, 257, 284
question and eudaimonism, 5“6
synonymy of virtuous, just, right, and ¬ne, 2, and the practical syllogism, 57
24 on habituation, 17, 283
unjust as harmful to soul (see also habituation on virtuous action, 194
principle; soul), 32“3 avowal of knowledge (Socratic), see under
virtuous (see also determining question; Socrates
habituation principle; justice; virtue), as
done for their own sake, 44“5; as objective, Barney, R., 174
18; as bene¬cial to the soul (see also under Benson, H., 14, 27, 30, 32, 36, 37, 52, 244
soul), 33, 96, 195“7; vs virtuous character, Berry, T., 83
see under virtue Beversluis, J, 65, 102, 103, 110, 147, 149, 152, 153,
Adam, J., 200, 249 170, 174, 186, 189
Adeimantus, 190, 237“40 Bobonich, C., 231, 233, 240, 243, 255, 261, 263,
on injustice, in Rep. 2 (see also under 265
Glaucon), 209“10 “Book 5 argument” (Rep. 476a“480a), see under
aiming deliberation, 6“8, 47, 69“71, 72 Republic
role of external goods in, 7, 22, 71 Bostock, D., 78, 79, 85
aiming/determining distinction, 1“4, 9“10, 17, Brickhouse, T. and Smith, N., 5, 29“31, 35, 49
36, 40“1, 58, 68“71, 133“4, 145“59, 161, 172, Brown, E., 226, 233, 257, 268
183“4, 186, 189, 213“15, 232, 233, 268“9, 277 Brown, H., 56, 60
and eudaimonia, 5“6 Burnet, J., 147, 249
signi¬cance of, 42“5, 50, 51, 285 Burnyeat, M. F., 215, 229, 268, 271
aiming principle (see also supremacy of virtue), Butler, J., 273, 278
1“3, 50, 171“2
supremacy of virtue as, 24“7, 56, 72“3, 172, Callicles, 24, 91, 93, 109, 117“32, 134“5, 158, 159,
213“15, 232, 259, 282 164, 170, 174, 180“1, 187, 205, 224, 274
aiming question, 3, 169, 183, 189, 193“4, 219“24, and Gorgias and Polus, 117“18, 134“5
259“61, 266, 267, 268, 271, 272, 282 and hedonism, 128“32
Allen, R. E., 56, 157 and Thrasymachus, see under Thrasymachus
Annas, J., 5, 21, 55, 167, 174, 183, 192, 209, 249, and shame, 130“2, 190
250, 251, 274 as skeptic, 7, 10“13
Apology, 7, 24“30, 32“5, 36, 40“1, 46“52, 171, as unpersuaded by Socrates, 96“7
243, 244, 282 attitude of towards SV, 120“1, 125“8
consistency with Crito, 47, 60, 87, 89 on appetite grati¬cation, 118, 122, 126, 128“32,
parallels with Gorgias, 125“8 134“5, 197, 208, 275
appetite, see under soul, appetitive part of on excellence, 117, 118
appetite grati¬cation, see under pleasure; on harm and bene¬t, 118, 126, 127“8, 134“5
hedonism; Callicles on natural justice, 118“22, 123“8

305
306 General index
Callicles (cont.) and external goods, see under determining
on naturally superior person, 123, 131“2, 173 deliberation
on nature vs convention (law), 118“22, 129“31 and moralizing, 17, 58, 170
on philosophy, see below under protreptic of as raised by SV (see also under SV, problem for
on Socrates™ argument with Polus, 118“21 agent), 44, 68, 213“15, 283
protreptic of, 122“7 Forms as answer to, see under Forms;
Cavafy, C. P., 223 philosopher-kings
Cave, image of in Republic, 243“4 in general, 9, 14, 47, 137“45, 168“9, 175, 183,
Cephalus, 167“8 272
Chairephon, 105“6 in the here and now, 9, 37“8, 46“7, 50“6, 58,
Chappell, T. D. J., 174, 175“7 70“1, 138“45
character (see also under virtue; justice; soul), and dialectic, 227, 257
appearance, 16 dialogues (see also under speci¬c dialogue titles)
Charmides, 95, 102 distancing effect of, 19
citizens of the Kallipolis (Republic) “early” or “Socratic,”, 10“11, 91“2, 137
non-philosophers, see under non-philosophers inner/outer frames of, 19“20, 74, 168,
philosophers, see under philosopher-kings 188, 190, 230, 232, 237, 242“4, 245, 260,
Cleitophon, 1, 35, 179“80 277
Cleitophon, 1, 3, 4, 38, 160, 237, 243, 245 of de¬nition, 9, 36, 100, 137“45, 169, 170“2,
and determining questions, 67, 140, 193, 213, 258“9, 269
266, 267, 284 Plato™s choice of, 19“20
and Thrasymachus, 178“82 disavowal of knowledge, see under Socrates
conventionalism, 174“5, 179, 185, 204“6 divine sign (of Socrates), 12, 23, 51“6, 63, 237,
and determining questions, 18, 179, 205 244, 259
Cooper, J., 99, 104, 109, 122, 124, 129, 131, 233, and determining questions, 37, 40, 46, 51“6,
250, 255, 263 214, 284
courage, of auxiliaries, 262 and knowledge, 52“3
craft, see techne as moral expert, 54
Crito, 7, 23, 46“8, 56“90, 157, 169“72, 182, 214, Dodds, E. R., 35, 91, 109, 115
220, 253, 284 Doris, J., 283
consistency with Apology, see under Apology Dover, K., 48
Crito, 108
and SV, 61“2, 63, 68 education
character of, 59 “musical” (mousikˆ ), 216“32
e
on Socrates™ escape, 56“63, 64“5 of guards in Rep., 215“32
Cross, R. C. and Woozley, A. D., 274 of philosopher-kings in Republic, 226“7, 229,
235, 257
daimonion, see divine sign elenchus
DeFilippo, J., 74, 78, 83 positive effect of, 15, 41
de¬nition problem of (see also “What is F?” question),
priority of, see priority of de¬nition 14“15
Socratic, see under “What is F?” question; eudaimonia, 4“6, 66“7, 195
Socrates eudaimonist framework, 5, 6, 282
desire “to have more,” see under pleonexia and Republic, 195, 273“5
determining deliberation, 7“8, 9, 47, 68“71 Euthydemus, 102, 104, 160“2, 189
determining principle, 3“4 aiming/determining distinction in, 161“2
in the here and now, see under determining Euthyphro, 145“59, 220, 272
question Euthyphro, 107, 175, 212“13
role of external goods in, 7, 22“3, 59, 68“71 and determining questions, 150“9
determining question (see also under “What is and SV, 150“9
F?” question; divine sign; dialogues of as fundamentalist, 9, 159
de¬nition; philosopher-king), 3, 4, 11, 12, as moralizer, 9, 157, 159
68“71, 121“2, 127, 133“6, 160“5, 180“2, vs other interlocutors, 145
193“4, 217“32, 247“53, 257“9, 265“7, Everson, S., 173, 174, 175“6, 179, 184“5
268“72, 283“4 excellence, see virtue
General index 307
Ferrari, G. R. F., 216, 228 Gosling, J. C. B., 240
Fine, G., 13, 52, 240, 241, 244 Gosling, J. C. B. and Taylor, C. C. W., 161
Form(s) (Platonic) (see also under Grote, G., 65, 78
philosopher-king), 12, 217, 226“32, 235, Grube, G. M. A., 147
237, 239“46, 249, 255“8, 279 guards (in the Kallipolis), education of, see under
as answers to determining questions, 213, education
268“72, 283“4
beliefs about, 242“4, 246 habituation principle, 17“18, 66, 135“6,
knowledge of, see under philosopher-king 193, 196, 213, 215“25, 249, 250“3, 266“7,
of Justice, see under justice 270, 283
of the Good, 40, 250, 256, 271“2, 284 Halliwell, S., 216
Socrates™ disavowal of knowledge of, 40, 230, happiness, see eudaimonia
231, 243“6, 259 Harris, E. M., 48, 146
vs sensibles, 227“9 Harte, V., 57, 68, 69“71, 73, 74, 78,
Foster, M. B., 195 85
fundamentalism (see also under Euthyphro) hedonic calculus (“art of measurement”), 4,
moral, 9 162“5, 275
hedonism (see also under Callicles; pleasure;
Gallop, D., 147 Protagoras), 2, 94, 127, 128“32, 161“5, 187,
Gauthier, D., 204, 205 273, 277
Gifford, M., 167, 168 and determining questions, 18, 128, 162“5,
Glaucon, 185, 188, 190, 198“211, 221“32, 180“1, 275“6, 277
264 psychological, see under Protagoras
on injustice, in Rep. 2, 198, 203“11, 212“13, 253, Heinaman, R., 196, 197, 199, 200, 201“2
273“5 Herman, B., 2, 44
classi¬cation of goods of, see under good(s), Homer, 217“18
tripartite classi¬cation of Hourani, G., 174
Gonzalez, F., 160, 161, 240
good(s) Iliad, 25
as depending on knowledge, 160 imitation (mimˆsis), 216“19
e
external (see also under aiming deliberation, incontinence, 42“3, 163“5, 258, 262
determining deliberation), 5, 7, 59, 108“9, denial of, 10, 163“5
124, 212 of non-philosophers, see under
for its own sake, see good in itself non-philosophers
for the soul (see also soul as locus of harm and Socrates™ own, see under Socrates
bene¬t), 253“4, 273“5, 276, 279“81, injustice (see also under actions; Callicles;
283 Glaucon; justice; soul, effect of actions on;
Glaucon™s classi¬cation of, see below under Thrasymachus)
tripartite classi¬cation as a good in itself, 202“3, 207“8, 253,
in itself, 113, 114, 195“201, 253“4 273“5
material, 195 as existing independently of justice, 185“6,
of the body, 113 204
of the soul, 108 as harm to the soul, 32“3
three kinds of (of the soul, of the body, and as objective, 185“6
material), 16, 58, 108, 195 bene¬ts of, 116
tripartite classi¬cation of, in Rep. 2, 194“201 doing vs suffering of, in the Crito, 74, 83
Gorgias, 36, 169, 171, 214, 216, 252 Thrasymachus on, see under Thrasymachus
and the “outer frame,”, 96, 97, 100, 106, 123 inner frame, see under dialogues
Gorgias, 93, 94“6, 98“108, 109“12, 252 Inwood, B., 209
and moral expertise, 98“100 irony
and soul as locus of harm and bene¬t, 108, “conditional,”, 28, 29, 40, 99, 145
111“12 “reverse,”, 33, 34, 48
and SV, 102, 104“8, 134 Irwin, T., 5, 27, 36“7, 60, 97, 111, 132, 134, 142,
historical, 102 161, 189, 192, 195, 197, 199, 205, 233, 250,
Plato™s portrayal of, 105“8 258, 260, 263
308 General index
justice (see also virtue; injustice; see also under moral psychology, 2“4, 143“5
Callicles; good; Thrasymachus) and moral epistemology, 2“4, 272
act-centered vs. agent-centered, accounts of, moralizing, 15, 17, 58, 157, 170, 220,
see under virtue 284
as conventional (see also under de¬nition of, 9
conventionalism; Thrasymachus), 185“6, moral rules, see determining principles
205“6, 280 Morrison, J., 228
as a good in itself, 201“3 motivation (motive) (see also under supremacy
as “doing one™s own,”, 247“9, 254“5 of virtue; philosopher-king), 43“5,
as harmony in the soul, 247“58, 260, 263“6, 256“8
273“5 purity of, 44“5
as objective, 206 mousikˆ, see under education
e
as requiring wisdom, 263“5 Murphy, N. R., 274
Form of, 206, 250, 251“2, 255, 256, 260, 264,
269, 271, 284 Nails, D., 95
in the person, 218, 232, 247“59, 266, 276 nature/convention (nomos/phusis) distinction (see
in the city, 219, 247“9, 263“5, 266 also under Callicles; conventionalism;
of non-philosophers, see under Thrasymachus), 118“22, 129“31
non-philosophers and the better/worse distinction, 119“22
“principle about,”, 108, 113“16, 119 Nehamas, A., 14, 154
justi¬cation Nietzsche, F., 18
internalist vs. externalist theories of, 53“4, 244 “Noble Lie,” the,, 235“6, 239, 260
Plato on, 53, 244 non-philosophers (in the Kallipolis)
abilities of, 233“46
Kahn, C., 65, 78, 79, 130“1, 161 and incontinence, 265
Kamtekar, R., 233, 234, 237, 238“40, 246, 255, and Socratic wisdom, 214, 232, 233, 243“6,
259“60, 261, 285 265“7, 277“8
Kerferd, G. B., 174 and true belief, 53“4, 214, 265“7, 279
knowledge (see also under justi¬cation; Forms; as committed to SV, 214, 233, 259“60, 261,
philosopher-kings), 52“4 266“7
as requiring an account, 52“3 as just, 263“5
Kraut, R., 56, 58, 72, 74, 76, 78, 80, 268, 274, 278 as led by reason, 232, 261“6, 278
Nussbaum, M., 92
Lane, M., 23, 57
“Laws”, the (in the Crito), 74, 95 Ober, J., 75, 80, 131
and determining questions, 73, 74, 77 outer frame, see under dialogues; Republic
and SV, 84, 85, 90
argument of, 23, 56“7, 74“9, 85, 87“8, 90 Parry, R., 142
as laws in general, 75, 80“1 particularism, 22
as sharing Socrates™ values, 68, 87, 89, 90 persuasion (see also under Gorgias; protreptic;
Lear, J., 216 rhetoric; Socrates), 99
Lesher, J. H., 28 Phaedo, 206
philosopher-king(s)
Mabbott, J. D., 195 and determining questions, 53“4, 214, 217,
“make more/most of” (“attach the highest value 227, 230“1, 257, 259, 264, 266, 267, 268“72,
to”, poiein peri pleionos/pleistou), 55, 67“9, 284
90, 182 and incontinence, 257“8
Mann, W., 237 and knowledge of Forms, 53“4, 214, 217, 227,
McDowell, J., 274 230“1, 242, 250, 257“8, 264, 268“72,
McPherran, M., 157 279“80, 283
Miller, M., 57, 68, 78 as justi¬ed to rule (see also under “Book 5
mimˆsis, see imitation
e argument”), 236“40
moral epistemology, see under moral psychology education of, see under education
moral expertise (see also techne-knowledge of motivations of, 256“8
virtue; divine sign; philosopher-king), 40, obligation to rule of, 230, 271“2
65, 141“2 virtue and wisdom of, 233, 255“8, 266, 267
General index 309
philosophers vs non-philosophers in the genuine (philosophical), 98, 110, 133“6
Kallipolis (see also under non-philosophers), Plato™s attitude towards, 100
214, 232, 234“44, 251, 277“80 power of, 102“5, 106, 109“10, 124
Plato (see also under dialogues, inner/outer ring of Gyges, 207“8, 212
frames), 18 Roochnik, D., 142
and developmentalism Rudebusch, G., 161
and doctrines, 20“1
and rhetoric, see under rhetoric Sachs, D., 248
and Socrates™ trial, 59 Santas, G., 56
methodological approach to, 18“20 Scott, D., 231, 250, 268
pleasure (see also hedonism), 213 Segvic, H., 113
in Republic 10, 273“81 Shorey, P., 188, 226, 231, 233, 250
pleonexia (see also under Callicles; “sight-lovers” (see also under non-philosophers),
Thrasymachus), 123“4, 127“8, 131, 185, 187, 236“44
210, 274 argument against, see under Republic, “Book 5
Polemarchus, 167“72, 183, 188, 237, 239, 240, argument”
243, 245 Silverman, A., 271
Polus, 32, 93, 108“19, 120, 158, 159, 170 skepticism/skeptic
and Callicles, 117“18 ancient, 7
and the “principle about justice,”, 113“16 moral, 7“8, 9“10
and just actions, 110, 117, 134 slavery, in the Kallipolis, 245
and understanding of soul, 66“7, 108“17, Slings, S. R., 167, 249
134 Socrates
and “What is F?” question, 110, 111 age and personal references of, 49“51, 60, 89
as skeptic, 10 and acting in the here and now, 46“7
priority of de¬nition, 15, 29“31, 32, 36“9 and criticism of Athenians, 40“1, 214
Protagoras, 4, 161“5, 189 and de¬nition (see also “What is F?”
aiming/determining distinction in, 163“5 question), 175“8
hedonism in, 161“5, 275 and deliberation (see also under determining
psychological hedonism in, 162“5 deliberation/aiming deliberation), 50“1, 58,
Protagoras, 115 68“71
on injustice, 185 and his commitment to SV, 23, 24“7, 39“41,
protreptic (see also under Callicles; Cleitophon; 42“3, 51, 56, 63, 68“71, 90, 108, 135, 164,
persuasion; Socrates, supremacy of virtue, 214, 233, 282, 284
defense of), 160“1 and own relationship to incontinence,
42“3
reason, see under soul, rational part of and paci¬sm, 25
recollection, theory of, 14, 270 and persuasion, 1, 95“8, 167, 190
Reeve, C. D. C., 26, 161, 175“6, 180, 192, 202, and rhetoric, 94“8, 110“12, 133, 135
228, 236, 246, 250, 261, 263 and the “What is F?” question, 12
Republic, 10, 12, 53“4, 104, 135, 143, 184, 192“3, argumentative burden on in Republic, 212“13
213“15 as a sophist, 49, 51
“Book 5 argument” of (476a“480a), 236“44, as following the argument that seems best, 46,
246, 255, 263, 265, 277 63, 64, 65
from perspective of “outer frame,”, 219, 223, as gad¬‚y, 8, 41
237, 242“4, 245, 262 as good man, 41
vs “earlier” dialogues, 21, 166, 214“15, 224, as knower on externalist theories (see also
266, 267 under justi¬cation), 53“4
vs Gorgias, 98 as possibly doing wrong, 26, 40“1, 42,
rhetoric (see also under Gorgias; persuasion; 65
Socrates), 109“13 attitude towards sophists, 93
as a techne, 98 avowal of knowledge, see under supremacy of
as moral/ethical expertise, 100, 104 virtue
as potentially misused, 102“5, 106 disavowal of knowledge of, 10“11, 13“14, 15,
as superordinate techne, 102“4 27“32, 35“6, 40, 127, 134, 151, 159, 163, 214,
criticism of, 110“12, 133, 135 258“9, 283
310 General index
Socrates (cont.) and the priority of de¬nition, 38“9
divine sign of, see divine sign argument for, 13, 14, 66, 92, 96, 127, 135“6,
historical, 2, 19 170“1, 187“91, 195, 256, 259“61
ignorance of, see above under disavowal of as aiming principle, see under aiming
knowledge of; below under on awareness of principle
own ignorance as explicit aim, 2“3, 24“7, 283
intellectualism of, 10“11, 42“3, 143“5 as limiting condition, 2“3, 26, 72, 169, 283
on awareness of own ignorance (“Socratic as setting problem for agent, 9, 44, 139“40,
wisdom”) (see also under non-philosophers), 194, 283
37, 41, 159, 266, 267, 277“8 begging as violation of, 48, 49
on denial of incontinence (see also above under commitment to, 8“9, 13, 42“5, 62“3, 135, 138,
intellectualism of; see also under 164, 194, 233, 256, 284
incontinence, denial of), 10, 43, 163“5 defense of, see above under argument for
on harm and bene¬t, 121“3 formulations of, in the Crito, 72
on hedonism, 135 gods as adhering to, 220
on virtue as knowledge, see above under motivation for committing to, 43“5, 193,
intellectualism of, denial of incontinence; 259“61, 282“3
see also virtue necessary conditions for understanding, 108,
refusal of to enter politics, 51“6 117
wisdom of, see above under on awareness of regulating one™s conduct by, 23, 27, 48, 51,
ignorance 55“6, 62“3
Socratic deliberation, see under Socrates Socrates™ avowal of knowledge of, 13, 14, 27“8,
Socratic wisdom, see under Socrates, on 31“6, 214, 220, 259
awareness of own ignorance; Socrates™ commitment to, see under Socrates
non-philosophers violations of, 40“1
sophists, 28, 30, 32 SV, see supremacy of virtue
soul (see also under actions; education; good;
habituation principle; virtue), 15“18 techne (-ai), 29, 133
appetitive part of, 255“8, 261“2 -analogy, 141“2
effect of actions on, 193“4, 195“7, 216, 219“20, as potentially misused, 104
260“1, 264 -knowledge of virtue, 29, 40, 102, 163
as independent locus of harm and bene¬t, 16, temperance, in the Kallipolis, 234“6, 240
33, 66, 108“17, 127, 136, 170“1, 195“7, 252, Thrasymachus, 39, 172“91, 204“5, 237, 243, 245,
283 274, 275, 278, 280
Greek concept of, 15“18 as compared to Callicles, 122, 173, 174“5,
harmony in, see under justice 180“1, 187, 190
incomparable value of, 16“17, 33, 66, 69, 92, as conventionalist, 174“5
252 as rejecting subjectivism about advantage,
justice in, see under justice 179“82
rational part of, 254“8, 261“6, 279“80 as skeptic, 7, 10“11
spirited part of, 255“8, 261“2 character of, 185“6
tripartite division of, 10, 12, 143, 247“58, defense of injustice of, 182“7, 280
261“2, 266, 276“7, 283 immoralism of, see above under defense of
spirit, see under soul, spirited part injustice
Stokes, M., 56, 57, 209 on justice, 173“5, 177“82
supremacy of survival (SS), 2, 3, 135 on rejection of SV, see above under defense of
as explicit aim, 2 injustice of
as limiting condition, 2, 3 on techne/craft, 179“80, 182
supremacy of virtue (SV), 2“4, 24“7, 169“72, on the nature of de¬nition, 175“8
271, 282 Thucydides, 83
and agent™s motivation, 42“5
and politics, 8 upbringing, see education; habituation principle
and purity of motive, 44“5
and Socratic intellectualism, 42 virtue (see also under actions, virtuous; justice;
and the moral skeptic, 7“10 habituation principle; soul), 1, 266
General index 311
act-centered vs agent-centered accounts of, 11, Vlastos, G., 5, 14, 27, 29“30, 32, 65, 78, 79, 83,
140“5, 192“4, 249 113, 189, 233
and Socrates, see under Socrates Vogt, K., 238
as appetite grati¬cation, see under Callicles
as objective, 18, 276 weakness of will, see incontinence
as a supreme aim, see supremacy of virtue Weiss, R., 25, 56, 57, 59, 73, 75, 78, 87
as knowledge (of goods and evils), “What is F?” question (see also determining
143“5 question in general; dialogues of
as state vs action, 4, 10“13, 140“5, 171“2, de¬nition), 9, 27“8, 100, 137“45, 153“9,
192“4, 247“54, 258“9 167“72, 174“5, 269
determination of, see determining question, inability of anyone to answer, 141“5
determining deliberation White, J., 56, 60, 76, 86
full/genuine (see also under philosopher-king), Whiting, J., 44
233 Williams, B., 8“9
knowledge of in general, 47 wisdom (see also under justice; philosopher-king;
of non-philosophers, see under Socrates; soul, rational part), connection of
non-philosophers with justice, 263“5
of philosophers, see under philosopher Wittgenstein, L., 18
-king Wolfsdorf, D., 27, 29“31, 32
political/demotic, 266, 267 Worman, N., 191
slavish, 266, 267
supremacy of (SV), see supremacy of Yu, J., 270
virtue
teachability of, 29“31 Zeller, E., 228
unity of, 15 Zeyl, D., 134, 161

<<

. 9
( 9)