<<

. 9
( 9)



`Universities, graduates, and bene®ces in later medieval England', 106
Past and Present (1985) 28±61
Syme, Ronald, `Liberty in Classical Antiquity' in Aspects of American
liberty ± philosophical, historical and political, ed. American Philoso-
phical Society (Philadelphia, 1977) pp. 8±15
Thayer, James, A preliminary treatise on evidence at the common law
(London, 1898)
Thompson, Benjamin, `The statute of Carlisle, 1307 and the alien
priories', 41 Journal of Ecclesiastical History (1990) 543±83
Thompson, P., The history and antiquities of Boston (Boston, 1856)
Thrupp, Sylvia, The merchant class of medieval London, 1300±1500
(Chicago, 1948)
Timbal, Pierre-Clement, `Les Lettres de marque dans le droit de la
‚ Á
France medievale' in L'Etranger, part 2, (Brussels, 1958) pp. 108±38
‚‚
`La Vie juridique des personnes morales ecclesiastiques en France aux

‚die Á
XIIIe et XIVe siecles' in Etudes d'histoire du droit canonique de ‚es a
Á
Gabriel Le Bras (Paris, 1965) pp. 1425±45
Tully, James (ed.) Meaning and context, Quentin Skinner and his critics
(Oxford, 1988)
Ullmann, Walter, `The development of the medieval idea of sovereignty',
64 English Historical Review (1949) 1±33
Verlinden, Charles, L'Esclavage dans L'Europe me ‚vale, 2 vols. (Bruges,
‚die
1955)
Villers, Robert, Rome et le droit prive (Paris, 1977)

Viollet, Paul, Pre de l'histoire du droit civil francais (Paris, 1905)
‚cis Ë
Wahnich, Sophie, L'Impossible citoyen, l'e ‚tranger dans le discours de la
Re ‚volution francaise (Paris, 1997)
Ë
Wallace, Willard M., `Sir Edwin Sandys and the ®rst Parliament of James
I', PhD thesis, Univ. of Pennsylvania (1940)
Wallon, Henri, Histoire de l'esclavage dans l'antiquite ®rst published in
‚,
1847, reprinted with a bibliography by J. C. Dumont (Paris, 1988)
Watson, Alan, The making of the Civil Law (Cambridge, Mass., 1981)
`Morality, slavery and the jurists in the later Roman Republic', 42
Tulane Law Review (1967±8) 289±303
Roman slave law (Baltimore, 1987)
`Thinking property at Rome' 68 Chicago-Kent Law Review (1993)
1355±71
Watson, William, The clergy-man's law, or the complete incumbent
(London, 1701)
Whitehead, D., The ideology of the Athenian Metic (Cambridge, 1977)
Wormald, Jenny, `The creation of Britain: multiple kingdoms or core and
colonies?', 2 Royal Historical Society Transactions, 6th series, (1992)
175±94
`James VI and I: two kings or one ?', 68 History (1983) 187±209
Wright, J. R., The Church and the English crown, 1305±1334 (Toronto,
1980)
INDEX




abridgements Aungerville, Richard d' (bp. of
of statutes, 151 Durham), 62±3
of year book reports, 152 Azzo of Bologna, 4
Ad decorum, decretal (1206), 67
ad ®dem regis, 128±9, 134±5 Bacon, Francis (1561±1626), 179±88
ad ®dem utriusque, 138 Barthelemy, Jacques, 48
‚‚
Adam, John, 55 bastardy
advena, in Canon law, 112 to be tried by the jury, 112 (note)
advowsons, 70±1, 81 to be tried by the ordinary, 112,
Aetherstone. See Edston 121±2, 154
agent, wholesale trade with, 43±4 battle. See judicial combat
alien Bayeux, bishop of, 131
referring to birthplace, 148 Beaumanoir, Philippe de, 26 (note)
referring to ethical origin, 9±10 Bec-Hellouin, abbot of, 93
referring to personal legal status, 7, beginning of the law of alien status, 9,
149, 156, 196 12, 188±9 (Hale's version), 197 (no
alien priors/priories beginning), 206 (mythical
ability to hold lands, 96, 99, 153, 164 beginning), 209
letters patent issued to, 96±7 Belknap J, 110
permanent removal of lands from, Benet brothers (John, Simon,
99, 101 Stephen), 62
seizure of lands belonging to. See Bere and Cherministre, prebend of, 62
enemy status Bereford, William de (d. 1326) 110, 167
alienigena Beverley, burgesses of, 34
referring to foreign birth, 113 Billingsgate, London, tolls at, 26
referring to foreign ethnic origin, 148 birthrights of subjects. See equality
allegiance Blackstone, Sir William (1723±80), 4
as the bond of faith, 58±9, 142, Bodin, Jean (c. 1530±96), 202±9
171±2 body. See also ecclesiology
owed by the law of man, 179 king's two bodies, 181
owed by the law of nature, 179±80, mystic body politic, 5, 142, 144, 171,
198 176, 178, 195
Angli/Angligenae, 14, 120 (note), 148, natural body, 164
197 Boistard v. Cumbwell (1243), 131
Antwerp, merchants from, 32 bond
Aristotle, 203 of contractual faith. See homage
Aske, Robert, 157±8 of law (as in lex a ligando), 5±6, 178
Askham, Thomas de, 79 of political faith. See allegiance
attaint, 110, 141, 168 Boniface VIII, pope (1235±1303), 63

244
Index 245
Bonyn, Peter, 42 Coke, Sir Edward (1552±1634), 7, 91,
borough court, 39 179±88
bourgeois du roi, 48 Colchester, burgesses of, 27
Bracton Cologne, merchants of, 27, 35
on escheat, 129 common utility. See public interest
on feudal service when lords are at Constitutio Antoniniana (AD 212), 3
war, 138 Conti, Petrus de, 26
on homage, 128 contractual relationship, medieval, 84,
on personal status, 1 101. See also homage
on piepowder court, 29 Coram rege roll, 110
Bremen, merchants of, 32 Cornwall
Brilond, John, 42 county of, 108
Bristol, burgesses of, 36±7 earl of, 116
Britton, treatise (c. 1292), 2 corporation theory
Brown, Anthony, J., 169 early modern (by Plowden), 164
Brown, (®ctitious) Serjeant, 170 medieval, 60, 89
burgage tenure, 54±5 corpus mysticum. See body
cosinage, writ of, 110
Caen, abbot of, 96 Court Christian, 62, 82
Cambridge court of hustings of London, the, 38
burgesses of, 27 Crecy-Calais campaign, the (1346±47),

University, 73 120
Canon law curia domini (feudal lord's court), 130
on bastardy trial. See bastardy Cuylly, Ralph de, 93
on ecclesiastical jurisdiction, 112
on marriage, 112 damage, 100
on proceedings relating to bene®ces, Danes, 32
69±70 darrein presentment, writ of, 73±4
See also papal provisions dative priories, 90
Canonisation, 213 Daubeny, Elyas, 119
capital punishment, 39 Daubeny, Giles, 120
capitalis dominus. See mesne lord Daubeny, Ralph, 120
Carta mercatoria (1303), 37±41, 43±4 De idiomata, rule of papal chancery, 67
Carthusian order, 95 De natis ultra mare, statute (1351),
certi®cation of the ordinary. See 121±3, 143, 153±5, 210
bastardy death
Chancery, 52 in a foreign country, 167
Charles V, prince regent of France of a tenant, 107
(1356±60), king of France debt, action of, 39
(1364±80), 49 deed
children. See heirs as an action. See interpretation
Cistercian order, 95 sealed document executed abroad,
citizenship 117, 167
ancient, de®ned by Aristotle, 203 demesne, 105, 111
medieval. See mercantile liberties denization, so-called letters of, 45, 97,
modern, de®ned by Bodin, 203, 211 229
civis Denmark, merchants of, 32
in Roman law, 191 descent, proof of, 105±7
in medieval law, 34±5, 47 Devon, 108
Clement VI, pope (1342±52, b. 1291), Digest, 189, 221
75 dilatory plea. See exceptio
Cluniac order, 195 disinheritance. See escheat
Codi®cation, 213 distraint, 36, 130
Index
246
distress. See distraint fairs
divine law. See law of God at Chalon-sur-Sao Ãne, 24
Dodderidge, Sir John (1555±1628), 187 at St Giles in Winchester, 25
domicile, in Canon law, 112 at St Ives, 25
droit d'aubaine, 8 at York, 25
Du Cange, 50 feudal revenues from, 24
due process of law, 84 held in urban location, 24
piepowder court, 29±31
ecclesiastical bene®ces, conferment of, `fall' from the pristine condition, 12,
66 207±8
ecclesiastical courts. See Court felony. See escheat
Christian, Canon law Ferre, Guy, 116
ecclesiology, 210 feudalism, 13, 197, 205, 228
Edston (Aetherstone) in Warwickshire, ®at iustitia, ruat coelum, 70, 127
manor of, 93 ®deles, 14, 28, 148
Edward I, king of England, 63, 92, 94, ®delitatis connexio. See ®delity
119 ®delity, bond of
Edward III, king of England, 75, 88, contractual. See homage
96, 119, 120 political, 13, 102. See also ad ®dem
Egerton, Thomas (d. 1617, Baron regis
Ellesmere), 182±5 ®des, as safe-conduct, 28±9
Elizabeth I, queen of England, 159, Fiennes, Michael de, 138
176 ®nal concord (feet of ®ne), 55
Ellesmere, Lord Chancellor. See Fitzherbert, Sir Anthony (d. 1538),
Egerton 103, 152
enemy status Flaunville, Richard de, 93
dilatory exceptions based on. See Fleta (c. 1290), 2
exceptio foreign birth
seizures of lands based on, 72, 94±6 doubts arising from, 120
Englishry. See murdum of the king's children, 117
equality among subjects, 143, 186, 195 in the king's service, 118
escheat legal consequences of, 105, 113±16
by the king (`prerogative' escheat), foreign clerks
100, 133±4 ability to hold bene®ces, 66, 164
by the mesne lord, 132 attempted ban against, 83
due to the absence of heirs, 101, 111, polemical attacks against, 65
115±16 foreign merchants. See also
due to the tenant's wrongdoing, 101 merchants
escheators, king's, 107 ability to acquire lands, 54±5, 115
essoins, 30 ability to bring real actions, 56,
eternal law. See law of God 115
European perspective, 16 letters patent issued to, 41±2
exceptio (defence) foreign religious houses. See alien
dilatory, 17, 188 priors/priories
peremptory, 17 Fortescue, Sir John (d. 1479?), 5, 184
exegesis, 215 (note)
extranei, 36 Frampton, prior of, 96
eyres Franci/Francigenae, 14, 148, 197
of London (1220, 1230), 38 French Revolution, 8
of London (1321), 114±15 Furnaux de Bereford, John, 79
of Northamptonshire (1329±30), 115
Gaius, 2, 189±90, 221
Fairfax, (®ctitious) Serjeant, 170 Gascony, 142
Index 247
genesis of the State inquest. See also jury
Ãte,
according to Aristotle, 208±9 contrast with the enque 110
according to Bodin, 206±8 of the neighbours, 106±7
Glanvill requirement of ®rst-hand knowledge,
on grand assize, 106±7 108, 110, 168
on homage, 128 to be conducted by the king's
on `inheritance', 107 escheators, 108, 111
on judicial combat, 106 to be conducted by the ordinary. See
on villeinage, 1 bastardy
grand assize. See Glanvill to be held in a different county,
Gratia/gratiis, 142, 195 108±10
Great Britain, formation of, 176 to prove age, 108, 111
Great Schism, 87 to prove an event in a foreign
Grey, Catherine, 159 country, 114 (yes), 123 (no), 166±7
Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln (no)
(c. 1175±1253), 67±8 insider/outsider. See body, mystic body
Guines, 142 politic
Gutland, merchants of, 36 Institutes, 3
inter-disciplinary study, 17±18
Hale, Sir Matthew (1609±76), 92, 188 interpretation, theories of
Hales, John, 159±61 coherence, 214
Hanse merchants, 26±7 communication, 213, 226±7
Hat®eld, Thomas, 62 free play of meanings, 226
heirs historical context, 218±19
of the body, 115±16 intention of the author, agent,
born abroad, 116, 135 legislator, 216, 221±2
illegitimacy. See bastardy intention of the interpreter, 225, 227
staying abroad, 131 intertextual approach, 219±20
under age, 114 language as a system of signs, 213
Hengham, Ralph de (d. 1311), 111 meaning, 213, 218
Henry II, king of England, 105, 138 speech community, 213±14
Henry III, king of England, 91, system of meanings (semantic
112±13 structure), 217±18
Henry IV, king of England, 98 text interpretation as instrument of
Henry VIII, king of England, 85, 152, resource distribution, 215±16
157 texts as actions (`speech-act' theory),
Herle, J., 111, 139±40 221
Hethe, Nicholas de, 79 texts as remnants of actions, 222±3
homage ius ciuile, 189±90
con¯ated with ligeance, 139±40, 169, ius commune, 189
228 ius gentium. See law of nations
expressing contractual loyalty, 101, ius publicum/ius privatum, 192
128, 138, 171 ius sanguinis, 143, 151, 158±9, 163
Huy, merchants of, 26 ius soli, 143, 210
Ivry, abbot of, 96
incola, in Canon law, 112
indigena, 45, 97 James VI and I, king of Scotland and
inheritance England, 176
disabled by foreign birth, 116 Jews, 196
enabled by homage and ligeance, John, king of England, 91, 138
121±3, 139±40 judges
Innocent III, pope (c. 1160±1216), 67 as the law-®nder, 183±5
Innocent IV, pope (d. 1254), 68 as the law-maker, 182±3
Index
248
judicial combat, 105±6 as the essence of law, 178. See also
jury. See also inquest bond
de medietate linguae, 30±1, 38, 153 as the geographical embodiment of
jurors travelling to another county, political faith, 142, 178, 196
108±10 as a geographical tract, 138
jury trial and battle compared, 106 Littleton, Sir Thomas (d. 1481), 6, 149
introduction of trial by, 105 Lombards (money-changers), 196
Justinian, Roman emperor (527±65, b. London
483), 2, 222 customs documents of, 32±3
liberties of, 33, 47, 50
king's charter of protection, 119 loss of Normandy. See Normandy
king's Council, 132 lower Lotharingia, merchants of, 32
king's merchant (mercator noster), 45 Lubeck, 42
È
king's peace, 26 Lucca, Fornari de, 42
king's service, 118
Kirkby, John, bishop of Carlisle Machlinia, 154
(1332±52), 76 maim, appeal of, 6
Maitland, Frederic W. (1850±1906), 12,
Lateran Council, fourth (1215), 106 40, 86±7, 137, 197, 212
latini, 192 marriage
latini Iuniani, 192 certi®cation of the ordinary, 112
Lavagna, Frederick di, 68 as a feudal incident, 107, 116
law Marshal, William, ®rst earl of
law of God, 172, 198 Pembroke (d. 1219), 138
law of man, 172, 183 Martyn, Richard, 62
law merchant, 38 Merbode, Gerard, 42
law of nations (law of nature, law of mercantile liberties, 33, 37, 41
reason), 5, 172, 181, 198 merchants
legislative intention. See interpretation as city-dwellers, 42
legitimacy. See bastardy as travellers, 24
Leicester mesne lord (immediate lord), 133,
burgesses of, 35 135±7
earl of, 132 Mirror of justices (c. 1290), 2, 29
Lennox, Margaret of, 159±60 mixed-jury. See jury, de medietate
Leslie, John, bp. of Ross (1527±96), 169 linguae
Lettre de bourgeoisie, 48±50 modern State, birth of, 20
Lewes, prior of, 96 monastic endowments, 89
lex a ligando. See bond mort d'ancestor, writ of, 6, 105, 111,
liber homo. See civis 122
libere et integre, 56, 186, 194 murdum (murder ®ne), 15
libere et quiete, 27, 34 mystic body. See body
liberties of the Church, 65 myth, 206, 209
liberties of a city. See mercantile
liberties Nantes, merchants of, 36
liberty. See personal liberty Napoleon I, emperor of France
Liege, merchants of, 26 (1804±15, d. 1821), 8
Á
liege lord, 138 nationality
liege-homage, 58, 138 as the basis of the modern law of
ligaunce. See ligeance personal status, 8±9
ligeance, 137±43, 174 as different from national or ethnic
ambiguous meaning of, 139, 141, 150 origin, 8
between a tenant and his liege lord, natural law. See law
138. See also homage naturalisation. See denization
Index 249
neighbourhood. See jury Philip the Fair (Philippe le Bel). See
no time runs against the king, 72 Philip IV
Norman Conquest Philip IV, king of France (1285±1314,
having no impact on the law of alien b. 1268), 63, 94
status, 197 Philippe Auguste, king of France
personal legal distinctions resulting (1180±1223, b. 1165), 91, 138
from, 15 Picardy, merchants of, 26
Normandy piepowder court. See fairs
loss of, 12, 91, 197 Pilgrimage of Grace, 157
merchants of, 26 play of meanings. See interpretation
religious houses, 91 Plowden, Sir Edmund (1518±85), 153,
terrae Normannorum, 91±2, 133, 188 163±9
Northampton, church of St Peter, 62 Popham, Sir John (d. 1607), 183±4
Norway, merchants of, 32 populus, 5, 190, 196
Norwich postnati. See Scotsmen
borough court of, 33 Praemunire, statute (27 Edward III
customs document (c. 1340), 34 st. 1), 82
notary public, 62 precedents, reliance on, 161, 185, 188
Nova custuma (1303), 40 Premonstratensian order, 95
Prerogativa regis, 100, 133, 155
oath, 106, 148 prerogative escheat. See escheat
obedience/obeisaunce, 149±50, 162 presentment of a clerical candidate, 66
Old Tenures, 6 prima diuisio personarum, 1, 35. See
optima regula, 184 summa divisio personarum
ordeal, 105±6 primeval subjugation. See original
original submission, 179 (Bacon), 206 submission
(Bodin) private law. See ius publicum/ius
outlawry, 7 privatum
Oxford University, 73 proctors, 76
prohibition, writ of (against
papal provisions ecclesiastical court), 82
attempt to ban, 75±81 proof. See inquest
canonical enforcement of, 69±70 provisors
papal rescripts, 69 ousting of, 74
prejudicing lay patrons' patronage statute of provisors (25 Edward III
rights, 79±80 st. 4), 80
in respect of private churches, 71 public interest, 84±5, 102, 127
(note) public law. See ius publicum/ius privatum
Paris, John of, 60 Pynselegle, John, 55
Paris, Matthew, 67, 112 Pynson, Richard, 154
Passelew, Robert, 67±8
Pax Romana, 192 Quare impedit, writ, 71, 73
peregrini, 192 Quare non admisit, writ, 73
persona, 190±1 Quo warranto, 114
personal liberty
as analogous to spiritual liberation, Ramsey, abbot of, 25
142, 193±5 rape, appeal of, 6
as an ontological question, 194±5 Rastell, John (d. 1536), 155, 167
through absence of personal Rastell, William (d. 1565), 157
subjection, 192 ratio. See law
through political subjection, 161±2, regalian right, 72
192±4, 208, 210 register of writs, 108
petty assizes. See jury relief, as a feudal incident, 107, 116
Index
250
reprisal, 95, 98 (note) between insiders (subjects) and out-
resource distribution siders (aliens), 147, 186±7, 196, 204
material, 193, 215±16 Swansea, burgesses of, 27
spiritual, 193±4, 215 Swart, John, 53±7
Rex v. Philip de Beauvais (1321), 139
Richard II, king of England, 83 taboo, 200
right, writ of, 73 tenant-in-chief, 112, 118
Rouen, merchants of, 26 Tenures (c. 1450±60), 6, 149
royal prerogatives. See Prerogativa regis terrae Normannorum. See Normandy
texts. See interpretation
safe-conduct, 25±9 Thetford, prior of, 97
St Fromund, priory of, 62 Tiel, merchants of, 32
St German, 198±9 toleration. See personal liberty, as an
St Omer, merchants of, 36 ontological question
St Peter, church of. See Northampton Torksey, custumal of (c. 1238), 30
St Sophia, church of, 67 transcendental conception of law, 184,
Sandys, Edwyn, 182, 186 217
scot and lot, 34 Treaty of Falaise (1174), 138
Scotland Tudor, Margaret and Mary, 159
homage of Scottish kings to English Turre, Robert de, 62
kings, 28, 169±70
naturalisation of Scotsmen in union of the crowns of Scotland and
England, 169 England. See Scotland
Scotsmen after the accession of uniqueness of historical interpretation,
James I ( postnati), 178 227
Scotsmen as aliens in England, 169 universalist approach, 204, 206
Scotsmen as not aliens in England,
170 (note) vacancy of an ecclesiastical bene®ce, 166
Scrope, Geoffrey, 139 venire facias, writ of, 109
semantic structure. See interpretation Veyraco, William de, 62
Shardlow, Serjeant at law, 139 villeins, 2, 6
Shrewsbury, Ralph (bp. of Bath and vinculum juris. See homage
Wells, 1329±63), 78 voidaunce. See vacancy
singularity
of an act, 222 wager of law. See oath
of reception of a text, 223 war
slavery overseas campaigns, 118±19
ancient, 192 war-time seizures. See enemy status
early modern conception of wardship, 114, 119
servitude, 207±8 wholesale/retail trade of foreign
medieval, 3 merchants, 43±5
slaves as chattels, 200±1 Willelmi, Deutayutus, 41
slaves as persons, 202 William, king of Scotland, 138
soteriology, 210 William I, king of England, 197
sovereignty, 202, 207 writs
Stanton J., 140 executive, 104
staple court, 30±1 geographical limits, 111
statutes. See Table of statutes judicial, 103
Stuart, Mary, 160
year books (case reports), 74
Suderman, Hildebrand, 45±50
York, 34
summa divisio personarum
between freemen (liberi) and slaves Zacharie, Benedict, 50
(servi), 2, 52, 205 Zouche, archbishop of York, 76 (note)

<<

. 9
( 9)