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349
Index




Abbas, Mahmoud 60 ascending anachronism 33, 200
Abu El-Haj, Nadia 164, 165, 166, 167, 179, attachment
180, 184, 186 need for 85
Adamson, Ian 165 theory of 23“4
Afrikaners attenuated pluralism 192, 222“3
Battle of Blood River 237“8 Avruch, Kevin 18, 19, 28
celebrating the battle 261 Ayodhya 38, 76“9, 168
main messages from 261 and Hindu humiliation 78
narrative of 260 and Hindu nationalism 76, 78
Great Trek 237“8
centenary celebrations 240“1 British role in Palestine 57“8
historical narrative 38, 236“41 Barcelona
identity 236“7 1992 Olympic Games 12“13
see also Voortrekker Monument Catalanization 147
Agha, Hussein 60 Catalan versus Spanish reactions 150“1
Akenson, Donald Herman 49, 97, 98, 239, contentious symbolic issues 146, 147
260 inclusive symbolic displays 149
Alpher, Yossi 189, 190 role of King Juan Carlos 148, 149“50,
ancient hatreds 19, 23, 61, 200 152
Angelini, Alessandro 255, 275 ˜˜war of the flags™™ 146, 148
Apprentice Boys of Derry 101, 102, 117, Bar-Kay, Gabriel 153
119, 120, 124 Bar-On, Daniel 271
relief of Derry parades 118, 121 Barth, Frederic 19
Arafat, Yasser 58, 59, 60, 188, 189 Basques 11, 133
archeology Bates, Robert 14, 21, 37, 44, 60, 323“7
and emotional linkage 168 Bauberot, Jean 192, 222“3, 196, 200
and European nationalism 66 Belfast Agreement 5, 116 see also Good
and mutual denial 164“9 Friday Agreement
and political claims 154“90, 188 Ben-Dov, Meir 182
attribution of meaning to objects 51, 164, Benvenisti, Meron 155“6, 166“7, 169, 179,
166, 168 184, 185, 325
underlying logic of 160 Bergman, Anni 23
in Jerusalem™s old city 167“8 Berlin, Ira 310
Muslim fears concerning 165 Berman, Phyllis 190
political legitimation 164, 165 Bernbeck, Reinhard 33, 160
problematic aspects 160, 168 Black, Brian 292, 299
archeology of memory 259, 269 Black, Peter W. 18
Armstrong, Karen 163“4, 169, 177, 191“2 Blakey, Michael L. 283, 311

350
Index


Bleich, Erik 220 Chebel d™Apollonia, Ariane 205, 219, 220
´
Blight, David W. 47, 281, 307, 308 Cherifi, Hanifi 209, 217, 218, 222
Bloody Sunday 118 Chidester David 162“3
Bohlin, Anna 275 Chinese protests over Japanese textbooks
Bouzar, Dounia 217, 218, 222 312
Bowen, John R. 191, 193, 222 chosen glory 49, 71, 252, 254
Bowlby, John 22, 318 chosen trauma 48“9, 71, 76, 240, 134
Boyle, Kevin 91, 92 clash of civilizations 20
Brecke, Peter 84, 320, 324 Cohen, Abner 20“1, 23, 64“5, 73“4, 221,
Brewer, Marilynn 318 245, 306
Brown, Roger 37, 85, 318 Cohen, Raymond 19, 169
Brubaker, Rogers 19, 203 collective memories 2, 5, 21, 33“4, 67
Bruce, Steve 97 and mobilization in District Six 269
Bruner, Jerome S. 39 and physical objects 41
Bryan, Dominic 6, 7, 8, 89, 103, 110, 114, and memorialization 224
121, 122, 123, 226, 280, 286 changes over time 305
Bryson, Lucy 286 and regime transformation 228“9
Buckley, Anthony D. 85, 89 changes in 35
Buntman, Fran Lisa 254, 256 emotional significance of 35“6, 97
linkage to political narratives 256
biographical strategy 256“7
Cairns, Ed 35
grassroots strategy 259
Camp David (1978) 54
see also uses of the past
Camp David (2000) 55, 60
commemorative ceremonies 36
Campbell, Donald T. 22, 32, 38, 42, 80
competing narratives, see narratives,
Catalan identity 11, 133, 137, 138, 143, 151,
competing
153
Confederate battle flag conflicts see South
and ethnic boundaries 143
United States, Confederate battle
and vulnerability 145
flag conflicts
as Europeans 144, 319
conflict
changes in over time 153
and cultural differences 21
compatibility with Spanish identity 143,
and identity 22“4
144
cross-cultural differences in 4
distinctiveness and 1992 Olympic Games
deescalation of 13, 115
conflicts 142, 145“51
escalation of 28“9, 110
non-racial character of 143
psychocultural aspects 4
Catalan narrative 137, 138
see also ethnic conflict; psychocultural
Catalonia
dramas
and Europe 152
conflict management
and language conflict 9“13
and cultural expression and enactment
as a bilingual region 141
312
as a historical nation 139
and emotions 126
as a nation without a state 151
constructive 3, 13, 26, 133“4, 137, 144
background to the conflict 136“40
cross-cultural differences in 4
cultural expressions 10
good-enough 85
language and political autonomy 10“11
ineffective 112
relationship with Madrid 11
conflict mitigation 3, 4, 26“7, 28“9, 86, 317
Catalan language 9
and inclusive narratives and rituals 82, 317
as a high status language 142
and third parties 124“5
in education 138, 141, 142
as a two level game 84
˜˜normalization™™ 136“44
leveraging cultural enactments and
repression of 139“40
expressions 325“8
revival of 10
mechanisms of 83
Catholic Church™s use of 140
role of civic leaders 125
Cesari, Jocelyn 191
conformity pressure 38“9
Chabal, Patrick 19
Connerton, Paul 35, 36, 67, 224“8, 261

351
Index


Conversi, Daniele 11, 133, 140, 144, 152 de Silva, Kingsley 132
Coombes, Annie E. 235, 244, 248, 250, 255 Derry (Londonderry) 8“9
Coski, John 281, 283, 284, 286, 288, 289, Bogside Residents™ Association (BRG)
291, 292, 295“6, 296“305, 306, 308 118, 119, 120
Coughlan, Reed 23 negotiations over parades 119“20, 121
Crabtree, Charlotte 40, 41“2 see also paradess in Northern Ireland
Crain, Robert 125 descending anachronisms 33, 65, 66
Crampton, Andrew 225, 243 Deutsch, Morton, 145
cultural contestation 2“3, 17“18, 63 Devine-Wright, Patrick 34, 35
and conflict mitigation 26“7 Dew, Charles B. 282
and identity 17 DiGiacomo, Susan M. 167
and organization 64 District Six Museum 252, 254“5, 260,
as a resource in conflict 20“1 268“75
participation in 63 emotionally central exhibits 270“1
cultural enactment 2, 21“2 large map 271
as political statements 88 memory cloth 271
as a strategy for recovering from trauma street signs 270“1
256 grassroots strategy 269
examples of 21 land restitution 275
cultural expressions 2“4, 3, 6 mobilization of memory for claim making
and conflict management 26“7, 165 269
and emotions 16, 19, 84, 88 narrative of 256, 277“8
and ethnic conflict 13“17 outsiders as witnesses and learners 275
and political action 315 symbolic reappropriation of community
as causes 3, 28 275
as exacerbaters or inhibiters 3 Dlamini, Nsizwa 252, 254, 261, 263, 264
as reflectors 3, 28 double minority perspective 15
construction and reframing of 16“17 Doughty, Kristin Conner 252
forms of 2, 3“4 Drumcree see Portadown stalemate
inclusive vs. exclusive 27 Dumper, Michael 156, 169, 170, 177, 178,
in Northern Ireland 5“6 179, 180, 181
supplement, not substitute, for Dunn, Ross E. 40, 41
negotiations 317
cultural festivals 89 Edwards, Ruth Dudley 120
as sites of conflict 64, 67, 72“4 Ehlers, Anton 252, 254, 260, 263
cultural identities, see identity Eller, Jack David 18, 19, 21, 23, 40, 41,
cultural performance, 2, 66“71, 72“85, 316 135
as a strategic political act 1998 Elon, Amos 168
see also cultural enactment Engelhardt, Tom 41
culture 2, 3, 5, 17“21 ethnic conflict 1“2
and ethnic conflict 18“19, 312“28 and cultural expressions 13“17
and institutions 325“6 explaining 10
cultural practices 2 and identities 1“2, 13, 17, 28
and interests 1, 5, 13, 28“9
intensity of 9, 15
D™Andrade, Roy G. 18
ethnicity 168, 169
Daniel, Jean 209, 212
conceptions of 19“20, 23, 37, 66, 160, 321
Darby John 89, 92, 94
constructivism 191, 192
Davis, Richard 77, 78
Dayan, Moshe, and religious rights in
Farren, Sean 88“116
Jerusalem 53, 179
Fawcett, Clare 66, 164, 165
Dayan, Yael 68“9, 324, 327
Feldblum, Miriam 192
Deacon, Harriet 254
Ferguson, Andrew 301
de Klerk, F. W. 84
Fernando, Mayanthi 212, 218
Delmont, Elizabeth 231, 236, 240, 241, 242
festivals, see cultural festivals
Delport, Peggy 270


352
Index


flags, as a trigger of conflict 284“6 Fredericks, Terrence D. 255
emotional intensity of 284“6 Freedman, Jane 204, 218
Figueiredo, Rui J. P. 14, 21, 37, 44, 324, 327 Friedland, Roger 57, 58, 78, 79, 154, 162,
France 163, 169, 177, 180, 184, 187, 188,
1989 affaire de foulard 191“2, 205“8 189, 324
political fallout from 208
2004 legislation banning headscarves 214 Gahng, Tae Joonh 130, 141, 142, 143
implementation of 214“16 Geertz, Clifford 2, 20, 66“7, 271
competing narratives 192, 217 gestures of compensation 251
hard Republicanism 52, 193, 195, 197, Gibson, James L. 229, 230“1, 233, 278, 279
201, 210, 222 Giliomee, Hermann 236
soft Republicanism 193, 195, 197, 201, Gillespie, Gordon 286
210, 222 Girshick, Paula 252, 254, 260, 261, 263
Muslim narrative 192, 195, 201 Glock, Albert 165, 166
conflict management efforts of HCI Good Friday Agreement 5, 14, 90, 91, 95,
209“10 112
conflict over reaction to Pope John Paul Gopin, Marc 26, 189
II™s death 313 Gorenberg, Gershom 156, 179, 181, 182, 183
conflict over Muslim headscarves in Gouws, Amanda 229
public schools 191“223 Greenberg, Jay R. 22
and images of colonialism 208 group threat 21, 63
background 204“5 Grundlingh, Albert 244, 248
conflict over construction of mosques Guibernau, Montserrat 136, 143
204 Gulliver, Phillip H. 321
conflict over issue definition 197 Gunther, Richard 11, 151
emotional intensity of 192, 205
headscarf as an ambiguous and charged
Hacker, Andrew 312
symbol 195, 196, 216, 218, 222
Hadden, Tom 91, 92
in the 1990s 208“9
Halbwachs, Maurice 34, 36“7
Islamic fundamentalism as a symbol
Halevi, Yossi Klein 189
206, 211
Hamber, Brandon 230
multiple motives for wearing
Hall, Michael 165
headscarves 217“18
Handler, Richard 135
renewed intensity of, 2001“04 210“14
Hardin, Russell 24
Stasi Commission 213“14
Hargreaves, Alex G. 203, 219, 220
issues and recommendations 213“14
Hargreaves, John 12, 139, 143, 144, 146,
French feelings of vulnerability 206, 219
147, 149, 150, 151
identity, competing images of 217“23
Harris, Leslie M. 310
immigration 196, 203“4
Hassner, Ron 156, 162, 177, 179, 180, 187,
la±cite (secularism) 192“4
¨´
189, 190
Muslims, in France
Hayner, Priscilla B. 278
diversity among 195“6, 209, 212, 218
Hecht, Richard 57, 58, 78, 79, 154, 162,
feelings of vulnerability 207, 219
163, 169, 177, 180, 184, 187, 188,
le mouvement beur 205
189, 324
˜˜model Muslims™™ 212“13
Heymans, Riana 237, 242
nation building in 199“200
Hobsbawm, Eric 198
rejection of subnational identities 200“1,
holidays, see rituals
220
Holsti, Ole R. 44
perspectives of Muslims in 204, 211, 219,
Horowitz, Donald 22, 23, 66, 160, 200, 203
221
Horwitz, Tony 292, 306
rioting in Muslim suburbs in 2005 191
Howell, Signe 22
within group diversity 197
Hume, John 97, 99, 119, 120, 124
see also psychocultural dramas in France
humiliation, of the group 37, 75, 76, 78
Franco, Francisco Gen. 10, 14“15, 139
Huntington, Samuel 20, 21
Fraser, T. G. 6, 7, 89, 101, 102, 104, 117,
hurting stalemate 83
118, 119, 122

353
Index


identity 1“2, 5, 14“15, 23, 123, 161 Jarman, Neil 6, 7, 67, 71, 88, 103, 113, 114,
and conflict 22“4 117, 121, 122, 125, 321
and conflict mitigation 26“7 Jeffrey, Keith 103
and contested cultural expressions 16“17 Jerusalem
and psychic development 23 archeological tunnel conflict 156“7
and emotional framing 312 as a microcosm of larger conflict 187, 190
and interests 14 Christian sites and conflict 163“4
and institutions 20 Church of the Holy Sepulcher 169
and political claim making 160 fusion of political and religious claims
and sacred sites 64, 161“4 159, 180, 189“90
and vulnerability 85 Muslim“Jewish conflict over holy sites
complexity of 50 169“82
cultural and social identity 3, 9, 85 historical context 170“81
dynamics of, 22“3 within community differences 169
expressed through physical objects 162, 163 mutual feeling of victimization 169, 180
see also linking objects Temple Mount/ Haram al Sharif 154, 170
folkloric vs. pragmatic modernist conflict over 49-55, 60
conceptions 153 Islamic construction conflict 157
in Catalonia 11, 14 Jewish access and prayer 177
indicators of 127, 197 Jewish fears 159, 182, 183
in France Jewish narrative about 154, 155
and the headscarf conflict 200“1 Muslim access after 179, 309
development of 33“4 Muslim fears 52, 181“2
in Northern Ireland 14 Muslim narrative about 155
inclusive vs. exclusive 11, 13 mutually exclusive access rules 156
read backwards 123 thwarted attack on Islamic sites 313
threats to 27, 28, 30, 37“8 Western Wall 52, 180
Ignatieff, Michael 144 regulations regarding Jewish prayer at
implementing agreements 95“7, 121 57, 178, 179
inclusiveness and conflict management site for civil-religious ceremonies 180
318“20 see also mutual denial, in Jerusalem™s old
and reconciliation 320“5 city
echo effect of inclusive gestures 326 Jervis, Robert 43, 110
expressed through language 322“3 Juan Carlos (King) 11, 12
expressed through holidays and
ceremonies 323“4 Kada, Saida 217, 218
invented holidays 323“4 Kalyvas Stathis N. 320
expressed in the symbolic landscape 324“5 Kapferer, Bruce 132
need for multiple identities 319 Kaplan, Robert 19, 23, 200
Ingle, David W, 285 Karklins, Rasma 128
interests 1, 5, 84 Kastoryano, Riva 195, 203, 205, 220, 222
and identities 14 Kathrada, Ahmed 265
framed by culture 315 Katz, Elihu 68“9, 324, 327
invented traditions 198 Kaufman, Stuart J. 15, 34, 44
IRA 7, 8, 93“4, 96, 103 Keating, Michael 136, 144
hunger strikes 96“7, 98“9 Kelly, James 102
weapons decommissioning 95 Kelly, Graine 117, 119, 124“5
Israeli-Jewish narrative 50“6 Kelman, Herbert 15, 27, 43, 45, 86, 123,
exile and return 50, 51“2 187, 190
settlements 54 Kenney, Mary Catherine 89
Jewish identity as contested 51 Kertzer, David I. 26, 63
Israeli wars 16, 53, 54 Khalidi, Rashid 56“7
Kibble, Steve 230
Jacobson, Matthew Frye 66 Kirshenblatt-Gimblett Barbara 67
Jamal, Amal 60 Kimmerling, Bruce 52, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61


354
Index


Kohl, Phillip L. 66, 164, 165, 168 Lustick, Ian 178“9, 180, 181
Kriesberg, Louis 26, 84, 124, 320
Krog Antjie 230, 278 MacGinty, Roger 320, 326
Kruger, Cecilia 235, 236 Maclure, Jocelyn 134
Kucklick, Henrika 165 Mahler, Margaret S. 23
Kuran, Timur 39“40 Malley, Robert 60
Kymlicka, Will 86, 131, 141, 202“3, Mandela, Nelson 46, 84, 230, 233, 234, 246,
221“2 251, 254, 256“9, 265, 266, 268
Marschall, Sabine 251, 252, 254
Martinez, J. Michael 291, 299
Laitin, David 9, 20, 21, 40, 41, 129, 130,
Marvin Carolyn 285, 289, 294“5
136, 142, 145“51, 320, 322, 323, 327
Masquerade politics 64“5
Lane, Christel 70“1
McCartney 286
Layne, Valmont 270, 275
McClure, Elaine 6, 103
language
McDonogh, Gary 138, 140
and constructive conflict management,
McEachern, Charmaine 271
323
McGarry, John 95
and identity 127, 130“1, 322
McIntosh, Gillian 122
and public education 128
McKay, Susan 97
and political control 131
McPherson, James M. 282
decisions regarding official languages
McRoberts, Kenneth 141, 143
127“8, 128“9
media events 68“9
laws in India 129
Meir, Golda 58, 158, 159
proficiency as a job requirement 130
memory, see collective memories
use in France 128
Meskell. Lynn 79, 164, 165
language conflict 132“3
Migdal, Joel S. 52, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61
Lehman, John F. 32
Minkley, Gary 231
Leveau, Remy 204, 205, 213, 219
Minow, Martha 230
Levine, Marc V. 135, 136
Mires, Charlene 309, 310
LeVine, Robert 18, 19, 22, 32, 38, 42, 80
Mitchell, Stephen A. 22
Leib, Jonathan 284“6, 292, 293, 299
Mohammed cartoon conflict 314“15
Levinson, Sanford 225, 229, 289, 291“4,
Monk, Daniel Bertrand 57, 58, 164, 169,
295“6, 299, 325
170“7, 178
Lieux de memoire 35
´
Montville, Joseph 46, 123, 304
Linenthal, Edward T. 40, 41, 162, 163, 225,
Moodie, T. Dunbar 33, 236, 240“1
226, 227“8, 233, 252, 281, 289, 297,
monuments and memorials
325
as a source of conflict 289, 296“303
linking objects 64, 161
as linkage mechanisms 226
see also monuments and memorials as
transformation of 225, 226“7, 228
linkage mechanisms
strategies of in South Africa 233
Linz, Juan 11, 151
inclusion versus exclusion 225
Little Bighorn Battlefield 227“8
see also Southern United States, conflicts
challenges to the dominant narrative
over Richmond™s symbolic landscape
227“8
Morris, Benny 51“2, 57
changing the narrative 247
Moruzzi, Norma Claire 206
Litvak, Meir 159
multilingualism, and bilingualism 127, 131,
Little, David 132, 133
138, 151
Londonderry, see Derry
Mulvihill, Robert F. 88, 92, 124
Long, William J. 84, 320, 324
museums as sites of conflict 64
Lorcerie, Francoise 197
and narratives 67
Lost Cause narrative see Southern United
mutual acknowledgment 27, 47, 61“2, 120,
States, Lost Cause narrative
121, 126, 152, 190
Loyal Orders, see Parades in Northern
absence of 99
Ireland, Loyal Orders; Orange Order
as symbolic and ritual action 320, 325
Lucy, Gordon 6, 103
mutual denial 17, 61, 90, 154
Ludden, David 78

355
Index


in Jerusalem™s old city 158, 159, 182“5, in Oklahoma City 40
184 linking past and present in sacred sites
see also archeology, claim making, and 163
mutual denial of small nations without a state 132, 136,
152
politics of narrative control 225, 325
Nan, Susan A. 117, 119, 125 ritual reenactment of 123
narratives 2, 4, 5, 19, 224, 315“16 uses of history in 187“8
analysis of 31 Nash, Gary B. 40, 41, 309
and cultures 40 nationalism
and peacemaking 44“7 and national narratives 197
and performance 63“87 shared culture and history 197
and tourism 231 and religious identities 50
as explanations 31“2 civic versus ethnic 46, 144
as reflectors of conflict 42“4, 156, 316 nations
as exacerbaters or inhibiters of conflict as a social construction 198
42“4, 316 nations as changing entities 198
as causes of conflict 42“4, 163, 316 non-conterminous with states 198
changes in 38, 40“1, 46“7, 94, 124, 315 national vs. immigrant minorities 202“4
competing 4, 6, 10, 15“16, 30“62 Ncome Memorial Museum 252“4, 255“6,
and the American Civil War 16 259“60, 260“4
in Northern Ireland 90, 91, 99“101 and Zulu nationalism 263“4
in Jerusalem 154 difficulty of new narrative construction
in France 192 277
constructed nature of, 5, 33“4 Legacy Project initiative 261
drawing lessons from 61 goal of inclusiveness and reconciliation
for Afrikaners 261 263“4
for Protestants in Northern Ireland 98 Zulu interpretation of the battle 263
eternal lessons 61 Neu, Joyce 46
emotional significance of 37, 40, 45“6, Nic Craith, Mairead 15
224“5 Noelle-Neumann, Elizabeth 39
in South African transition 256 Nora, Pierre 35, 36, 163, 187
features 32“42 Nordmann, Charlotte 195, 196, 222
expression of collective memories 34“6 ´
Noiriel, Gerard 203
enactment of 40, 41“2, 78 North, Peter 9, 110
ethnocentrism and moral superiority Northern Ireland 5“9, 15, 88“126
claims 42 absence of shared holidays 323
evolution of 40“1, 45 background to the conflict 91“5
existence of multiple within-group Catholic identity in 6
narratives 39“40 Catholic narrative 6
fears and threats to identity 37“8 Catholic opposition to Loyal Order
metaphors and lessons 32“4 parades 8“9, 110, 112
selectivity 36“7, 60, 99 conflict mitigation in 96, 97
emphasis on in-group conformity and divisions within each community 94
externalization of responsibility 38“9 Loyalists 94
good enough 309 marching season 103
increased complexity and conflict marking the Battle of the Boyne 6, 103,
mitigation 320 123
inclusive vs. exclusive 3 marking the Battle of the Somme 6, 103
inclusive account of struggle 251 Nationalists 94
in Israel-Palestine 16, 48“62 power sharing agreement 95
see also Israeli-Jewish narrative; Palestinian Protestant narrative 6, 97“9
narrative sacred images 104
in Northern Ireland 16 Republican and Unionist murals 118
Catholic narrative 95“7 Republicans 94
Protestant narrative 97“9 ˜˜the troubles™™ 92“4, 117

356
Index


Unionists 94 paradox of inclusiveness 318“19
see also parades in Northern Ireland peacemaking, and peacebuilding 26“7
Northern United States physical objects and identity, see archeology
conflict over race 309“11 and political claims
slavery in New York, 310“11, 312 pilgrimage 74“9
Philadelphia and George Washington™s as a total process 75
slave quarters 309“10 as inclusive ritual 75
Northrup, Terrell 2, 15 as religious and political activity 76
Notting Hill Carnival 64“5, 73“4 fusing culture and politics 74
Noyes, Dorothy, 153 in the US Civil Rights struggle 76
mobilizing sentiment and action 75“6,
78
O™Leary, Brendan 95
Pine, Fred 23
O™Malley, Padraig 94, 96
PLO 54
Orange Order 101, 102, 111“17, 126
Pollack, Susan 33, 160
and parade conflicts 7“8, 9, 88“117, 124,
Posner, Daniel N. 18
126
Pressman, Jeremy 60
parades and political resistance 116“17
Prince, K. Michael 284, 289, 291, 293, 294,
Oslo Agreement, 55, 59, 315
298, 299“300
Prosalendis, Sandra 166, 269, 325
Paige, Karen Eriksen 209, 212 Pundak, Ron 60
Paige, Jeffrey M. 209, 212 psychic threat 4
Palestinian identity 56 psychoanalytic theory and identity 22
and Israeli citizenship 58 psychocultural analyses, strengths and
Palestinian narrative 56“60, 159 weaknesses of 27“8, 315“16
al-Nakba and 16, 56, 307 psychocultural dramas 2, 17, 25“6, 65,
expressions of resistance in 57, 58 79“82, 123, 133, 181, 316“17
feelings of vulnerability 56“7 and holy sites 185“90
First Intifada 59 and the invocation of emotions 159, 161
Land Day 59 difficulty of redressive action 185,
heroic images of resistance 58“9 defined 79“80
reactions to Zionist claims 56“7 in Northern Ireland, 112, 117
refugee issue 56, 58, 60 in Catalonia 145“51
parades in Northern Ireland 6“9, 88“126 in Jerusalem™s old city 154, 156“9, 160,
and emotional engagement 89 177, 186
as contentious performances 88, 110 in France over Muslim headscarves in
as conflict exacerbaters 116 public schools 191, 192, 195, 204“16,
bands in 6 217
contentiousness of 77 difficulty of redressive action 210
crucial elements 104 in South Africa 244
Derry/Londonderry and ritual in the US around race 284, 291, 299
redefinition 117 psychocultural interpretations 4, 24“5
disputes over 89 psychocultural narratives, 24“5, 127
as psychocultural dramas 89, 94, see also narratives
101“21 Pujol, Jordi 10, 11, 140, 143, 147
emotions evoked for Catholics 89
emotions evoked for Protestants 89
´
linking culture and politics 122 Quebec
Loyal Orders 29, 88 as a small nation without a state 136
participation in 89 background to the conflict 134
Portadown stalemate 7“9, 111“17 Charter of the French Language 135
transformation in the political meaning of language conflict in 130, 136
116“17 language and nationalism in 134“6
Parades Commission in Northern Ireland Quiet Revolution 135
6“7, 8, 88, 104“10, 111“17, 119, referenda on independence 136
125“6 ˜˜the conquest™™ 134

357
Index


race, in the US Robben Island 254, 256, 260, 264“8
constructive dialogue, 286“9, 295, 307 biographical narrative style 265, 277
around flags, statues and murals 284, emotional availability 268
288, 292“9 narrative of ˜˜survival of the human spirit™™
black needs 307 256, 265, 268
common emotions 307 non-racial narrative of resistance 266
difficulty of 283 outreach programs 267“8
unfinished mourning 307 symbol of past oppression 265
white needs 307 Roe, Michael D. 35
social and emotional separation 314 Roller, Elisa 140, 141
O. J. Simpson, competing narratives 281, Roy, Beth 30, 161, 281, 315
283 Ruane, Joseph 91“2
see also Northern United States; Southern Rudolph, Lloyd I. 77, 314
United States Rudolph, Suzanne Hoeber 77, 314
Raiffa, Howard 48
Ranger, Terrence 198
Sacred days
Rassool, Ciraj 231, 255, 256“7, 259, 264,
for Protestants in Northern Ireland 103
269, 270, 271, 275, 325
for Afrikaners 239
reconciliation 82“5
sacred landscape and sacred sites 46, 64
as relationship change 84, 320
sacred sites and sacred space 324“5
as symbolic and ritual action 84“5, 321
contestation over 162
dramatic gestures of 321
defined 162
and acknowledgment 321“2
freezing a narrative in time 246
limits of in post-Civil War US 308“9
power of 162
timing of and inequality between groups
redefined in South Africa 260“75
321
shared 226
Richmond, see Southern United States,
vulnerability of 162“3
Richmond™s symbolic landscape
see also identity and sacred sites
rituals 2, 23, 26, 42, 45“6, 66“71
Sadat, Anwar, visit to Jerusalem 59, 61
and acknowledgment 65, 82“5
Sa™di, Ahmad 56, 188
and conflict reframing 86
Saffran, William 201, 202
and daily routines 72
Sapire Hilary 244, 248
and holidays 41
Sarkozy, Nicholas 191, 206, 211
and new regimes 70“1
Savage, Kirk 47, 289, 291, 297“8, 305“6
and political opposition 69
Schweder, Richard 18
and reconciliation 82“5
Scott, Joan 192, 196, 208
and redressive mechanisms 123“4, 146
Sells, Michael 38, 169
and the state 68, 69
Shanks, Hershel 164
as mechanisms of redress 81
Shaw, Julia 79, 164
as models for reality 66“7
Shragai, Nadav 158, 179, 183, 188, 189,
as models of reality 66“7
190
audience for 68
Shulman, Stephen 144
changes in 122
Sicherman, Harvey 32
degree of commitment to 72
Siege of Derry 103
inclusive vs. exclusive 3, 27, 65, 66, 85, 86,
Silberman, Neil Asher 164, 167, 168
121“2
Silverstein, Paul 191, 192, 196
invented 67
Smith, Anthony D. 23, 33, 37, 38, 42, 44,
in the Soviet Union 70“1
138, 164, 168, 200
ritual participation and affective
Smith, M. Brewster 39
connections 63, 66, 67, 71, 86
Smith, Tina 270
and in-group solidarity 63
Snyder, Jack 47
redefinition of 90“1, 117, 120, 121
Soboul, Albert 70
repetition and collective memories 67,
social drama 78, 80“2
114
transformation of 80“2
suspending daily routines 72
Sole, Carlotta 320
see also narratives, enactment of

358
Index


South Africa 17, 38 Ku Klux Klan 285, 289, 294“5,
1990“94 transition 229“30, 278“9 296“303
African National Congress (ANC) 229, inclusive versus exclusive identities and
236, 254, 265 narratives 275, 286, 295“6, 305
apartheid era symbols 231“2 Lost Cause narrative 280, 281“2
Apartheid Museum 251“2, 277 construction of 281
Blood River Battlefield 252, 254 impact on behavior 282
conflict over renaming Pretoria 313 slavery and the war 281, 282
enlarging the symbolic landscape 251“79 Richmond™s symbolic landscape 289,
Great Trek Centennial pilgrimage 75 296
Hector Peterson Museum 252, 277 conflicts over 288, 296“305, 303
impact of cultural expressions 255 Arthur Ashe statue 292, 299
inclusiveness of post-apartheid narratives bridge renaming 300“1
and discourse 255, 258, 279 Hope in the Cities 304“5
heritage sites and the political transition Lee mural 294, 299“300
28“9 Lincoln statue 301“3
narratives 17 Museum of the Confederacy 303“4
need for acknowledgment of the past 276 Tredegar Iron Works Museum 304
new national narrative, common elements expanding 291, 298, 299
276“7 slavery 307
inclusionary, non-racial vision 230, as a cause of the Civil War 281, 308
233, 277 within-group differences 294, 312“28
paternalistic side 277 see also psychocultural dramas, race in the
politics of memory and memorialization US; race in the US, constructive
224 dialogue about
transforming monuments and memorials Spain
233“50 post-Franco transition 127, 140, 145, 151
addition 233 Spanish Civil War, 9, 139
appropriation 233“4 Spanish identity 44
modification 233, 234“6 Sparks, Alistair 27, 43, 292, 306
see also Afrikaners, Nelson Mandela, spiral of silence 39
Voortrekker Monument Sri Lanka 325
Second Anglo-Boer War 239 language conflict in 132
Truth and Reconciliation Commission state rituals, see rituals and the state
(TRC) 83, 230“1, 269, 278, 279 states building nations 198“9
unresolved post-trauma issues 278 public education and nation building
Southern United States 199
changing symbolic landscape 305“6 shared narrative about the past 200
competing narratives 307 Stephan, Albert 11, 151
intensity of 282 Stern, Daniel N. 22
common elements 308 Stern, Paul 22
Confederate battle flag symbolic landscape, 15, 27, 101, 111, 122,
as a racially charged symbol 286, 295“6 124
competing narratives about 289, 291 and collective memories 228
white flag defenders 286, 289, 295, and competing narratives 255
297 modifications as denial 184“5
conflicts over 26, 281, 286“95 radical alteration of 251“2
black protests 289 see also sacred sites and sacred space
in Alabama 289 symbols 2, 23, 26, 45
in Georgia 285, 289, 294“5, 296 and new regimes 70“1
in Mississippi 289, 292, 297, 306 contextually defined meanings 123
in South Carolina 288, 291, 295“6, inclusive vs. exclusive 3, 27, 86, 152, 154
298 limits to their impact in conflict 90“1
expansion of 293, 299 ritualization of 64
intense emotions around 284, 286, 295 emotional power of 64
and mutual denials 286, 295 shared 101, 188

359
Index


Tajfel, Henri 37, 85, 318 Waddell, Eric 135
Tambiah, Stanley 132 Wagner, Christine 73
Thomas, Elaine 192, 212 Walker, Brian 98
Thompson, Leonard 33, 35, 239 Warner, W. Lloyd 73, 226
time collapse 34, 187 Waskow, Arthur 190
Todd, Jennifer 91“2 Wasserstein, Bernard 169, 178, 179
transitional objects 23 Waters, Mary 23
Tetreult, Chantal 191, 192 Weber, Eugen 33, 128, 199“200
Trigger, Bruce 168 Weeden, Lisa 19
Turner, Victor 25, 65, 75, 76, 79, 80“2, 83, Wessels, Andre 231
86, 123, 146, 210, 217, 314 Wichert, Sabine 92
Weingast, Barry 14, 21, 37, 44, 324, 327
White, Robert 39
United Nations partition plan for Palestine
Whyte, John 94
53
Willis, Roy 22
uses of the past 224“8
Withol de Wenden, Catherine 191, 204,
205, 213, 219
van der Veer, Peter 76, 77, 78, 80“2 Witz, Leslie 224, 231, 236
Varley, Bryn 293, 299 Woolard, Kathryn A. 130, 137, 138, 141,
Varshney, Ashutosh 78“9, 125 142, 143
Verba, Sidney 71 Woon, Long Litt 16, 86, 222
Verdery, Katherine 188, 189 worldviews 3, 16, 32
Vietnam War Memorial 40, 41 exclusive 3
Volkan, Vamik 16, 19“20, 22, 27, 34“6, 43, inclusive 3
46, 48“9, 64, 80, 85, 123, 161, 165, Wright, Frank 102
321
Voortrekker Monument 235, 241
Yack, Bernard 144
as a symbol of apartheid 243, 248
defining common ground 247, 248“9
modifying the narrative of 243“4, 247“50 Zartman, I. William 79, 83
Nelson Mandela visit 246, 248 Zerubavel, Yael 33, 41, 50“1, 167, 168, 276
vulnerability, of the group 37, 99, 291, 297“8 Zionism 50“2
and language choice 131 Zolberg, Aristide 16, 86, 222
manifestations in exclusive claims 154 Zuckerman, Alan 167




360
Other books in the Series (contined from page iii)

Michael Bratton, Robert Mattes, and E. Gyimah-Boadi, Public
Opinion, Democracy, and Market Reform in Africa
Valerie Bunce, Leaving Socialism and Leaving the State: The End of
Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia
Daniele Caramani, The Nationalization of Politics: The Formation of
National Electorates and Party Systems in Europe
Kanchan Chandra, Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic
Headcounts in India
Ruth Berins Collier, Paths toward Democracy: The Working Class and
Elites in Western Europe and South America
Donatella della Porta, Social Movements, Political Violence, and the State
Alberto Diaz-Cayeros, Federalism, Fiscal Authority, and Centralization in
Latin America
Gerald Easter, Reconstructing the State: Personal Networks and Elite
Identity
M. Steven Fish, Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open
Politics
Robert F. Franzese, Macroeconomic Policies of Developed Democracies
Robert Franzosi, The Puzzle of Strikes: Class and State Strategies in
Postwar Italy
Geoffrey Garrett, Partisan Politics in the Global Economy
Miriam Golden, Heroic Defeats: The Politics of Job Loss
Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements
Merilee Serrill Grindle, Changing the State
Anna Grzymala-Busse, Redeeming the Communist Past: The Regeneration
of Communist Parties in East Central Europe
Frances Hagopia, Traditional Politics and Regime Change in Brazil
Gretchen Helmke, Courts Under Constraints: Judges, Generals, and
Presidents in Argentina
Yoshiko Herrera, Imagined Economies: The Sources of Russian Regionalism
J. Rogers Hollingsworth and Robert Boyer, eds., Contemporary
Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions
John D. Huber and Charles R. Shipan, Deliberate Discretion? The
Institutional Foundations of Bureaucratic Autonomy
Ellen Immergut, Health Politics: Interests and Institutions in Western
Europe
Torben Iversen, Capitalism, Democracy, and Welfare
Torben Iversen, Contested Economic Institutions
Torben Iversen, Jonas Pontussen, and David Soskice, eds., Union
Employers, and Central Banks: Macroeconomic Coordination and
Institutional Change in Social Market Economics
Thomas Janoski and Alexander M. Hicks, eds., The Comparative
Political Economy of the Welfare State
Josseph Jupille, Procedural Politics: Issues, In¬‚uence, and Institutional
Choice in the European Union
Stathis Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War
David C. Kang, Crony Capitalism: Corruption and Capitalism in South
Korea and Philippines
Junko Kato, Regressive Taxation and the Welfare State
Robert O. Keohane and Helen B. Milner, eds., Internationalization and
Domestic Politics
Herbert Kitschelt, The Transformation of European Social Democracy
Herbert Kitschelt, Peter Lange, Gary Marks, and John D. Stephens,
eds., Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism
Herbert Kitschelt, Zdenka Mansfeldova, Radek Markowski, and
Gabor Toka, Post-Communist Party Systems
David Knoke, France Urban Papi, Jeffrey Broadbent, and Yutaka
Tsujinaka, eds., Comparing Policy Networks
Allan Kornberg and Harold D. Clarke, Citizens and Community:
Political Support in a Representative Democracy
Amie Kreppel, The European Parliament and the Supranational Party
System
David D. Laitin, Language Repertories and State Construction in Africa
Fabrice E. Lehoucq and Ivan Molina, Stuf¬ng the Ballot Box: Fraud,
Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica
Mark Irving Lichbach and Alan S. Zuckerman, eds., Comparative
Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure
Evan Lieberman, Race and Regionalism in the Politics of Taxation in
Brazil and South Africa
Julia Lynch, Age in the Welfare State: The Origins of Social Spending on
Pensioner™s Workers and Children
Pauline Jones Luong, Institutional Change and Political Continuity in
Post-Soviet Central Asia
Doug McAdam, John McCarthy, and Mayer Zald, eds., Comparative
Perspectives on Social Movements
Beatriz Magaloni, Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its
Demise in Mexico
James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds., Historical Analysis
and the Social Science
Scott Mainwaring and Matthew Soberg Shugart, eds., Presidentialism
and Democracy in Latin America
Isebela Mares, The Politics of Social Risk: Business and Welfare State
Development
Isabela Mares, Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Unemployment
Anthony W. Marx, Marking Race, Making Nations: A Comparison of
South Africa, the United States, and Brazil
Joel S. Migdal, State in Society: Studying How States and Societies
Constitute One Another
Joel S. Migdal, Atul Kohli, and Vivienne Shue, eds., State Power and
Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World
Scott Morgenstern and Benito Nacif, eds., Legislative Politics in Latin
America
Layna Mosley, Global Capital and National Governments
Wolfgang C. Muller and Kaare Strøm, Policy, Of¬ce or Votes?
¨
Maria Victoria Murillo, Labor Unions, Partisan Coalitions, and Market
Reforms in Latin America
Ton Notermans, Money, Markets, and the State: Social Democratic
Economic Policies since 1918
Roger Petersen, Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and
Resentment in 20th Century Eastern Europe
Simona Piattoni, ed., Clientelism, Interests, and Democratic
Representation
Paul Pierson, Dismantling the Welfare State?: Reagan, Thatcher, and the
Politics of Retrenchment
Marino Regini, Uncertain Boundaries: The Social and Political Construction
of European Economies
Lyle Scruggs, Sustaining Abundance: Environment Performance in
Industrial Democracies
Jefferey M. Sellers, Governing from Below: Urban Regions and the Global
Economy
Yossi Shain and Juan Linz, eds., Interim Governments and Democratic
Transitions
Beverly Silver, Forces of Labor: Workers™ Movements and Globalization
since 1870
Theda Skocpol, Social Revolutions in the Modern World
Regina Smyth, Candidate Strategies and Electoral Competition in the
Russian Federation: Democracy Without Foundation
Richard Snyder, Politics after Neoliberalism: Reregulation in Mexico
´´
David Stark and Laszlo Bruszt, Postsocialism Pathways: Transforming
Politics and Property in East Central Europe
Sven Steinmo, Kathleen Thelen, and Frank Longstreth, eds.,
Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative
Analysis
Susan C. Stokes, Mandates and Democracy: Neoliberalism by Surprise in
Latin America
Susan C. Stokes, ed., Public Support for Market Reforms in New
Democracies
Duane Swank, Global Capital, Political Institutions, and Policy Change in
Developed Welfare States
Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious
Politics
Kathleen Thelen, How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills
in Germany, Britian, the United States, and Japan
Charles Tilly, Trust and Rule
Joshua Tucker, Regional Economic Voting: Russia, Poland, Hungary,
Slovakia and the Czech Republic, 1990“1999
Ashutosh Varshney, Democracy, Development and the Countryside
Stephen I. Wilkinson, Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and
Ethnic Riots in India
Jason Wittenberg, Crucibles of Political Loyalty: Church Institutions and
Electoral Continuity in Hungary
Elisabeth J. Wood, Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent Transitions
in South Africa and El Salvador
Elisabeth J. Wood, Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El
Salvador

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