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Each market day or public holiday, the arcades are full of country folk, who have
travelled here from afar and who observe these pictures with such devotion, with
their hats removed and often on bended knee.73

The enthusiasm was shared by members of the Bavarian Landtag. In a
debate in 1831, Deputy Rabel spoke in similar terms:

67 G. Schef¬‚er, Deutsche K¨ nstler um Ludwig I. in Rom (Munich, 1981), p. 10.
u
68 69 Dirrigl, Ludwig I., p. 235.
Ibid. Horn and Ruckert, Ludwig I., p. 8.
¨
70 Das Kunstblatt 25 (1825), p. 97.
71 F. Buttner, ˜Bildung des Volkes™, p. 82; Cornelius™s reasoning is strikingly similar to
¨
Blanning™s de¬nition of power, see The Culture of Power, p. 5.
72 73 Inland (1830), p. 732.
Inland (1829), p. 1243.
French power and German culture 359

Often I have been alone in the Hofgarten arcades and I have been amazed at just
how often the country lads, who have come off the land, have stood, as if their
souls had been saved.74

Deputy Kapp underlined the arcade™s importance as a national
monument:

It is of great pro¬t, when a Volk possesses many subjects that recall its history.
The knowledge of national history is a powerful means of fostering love of the
Fatherland; the sight of great events and instruction in the glorious actions of our
early history elevate the mind of men.75

Foreigners likewise joined in the enthusiasm. Following her visit to
Munich, the British writer Anna Jameson explained that Ludwig™s patron-
age was motivated not by ˜the caprices of the king or individual vanity™
but by an ˜honest anxiety for the glory of the art and the bene¬t of the
public™.76 She drew the conclusion that:

appealing to the sympathy and gratifying the pride of his subjects of all classes, by
allowing them “ inviting them “ to take an interest in his magni¬cent undertaking,
to consider them national as well as royal [was] a wise and benevolent policy.77

˜By taking those especially appropriated to the ¬ne arts under his imme-
diate direction™ Ludwig had succeeded in transforming his capital into
the ˜unrivaled queen of modern art™.78 The arts of fresco painting had
not merely been ˜revived™, but ˜carried to their former perfection™.79
Just as eighteenth-century commentators ˜dared to claim that the cul-
ture of contemporary France was the equal of that of the Greeks and
Romans™, so their counterparts in the second-third of the nineteenth
century readily and repeatedly compared the rise of German art to the
Italian Renaissance.80 In 1831, for example, the British travel writer John
Strang had been ˜tempted to predict that the arts in Germany may ere
long rival those of Italy in the ¬fteenth century™.81 Within a decade,
Howitt was pronouncing Ludwig™s reign a ˜new era in art™.82 Jameson
declared that, ˜Me thinks this magni¬cent prince deserves to be styled the
Lorenzo de™ Medici of Bavaria™, while the poet Heinrich Heine claimed

74 75 Ibid., p. 81.
Buttner, ˜Bildung des Volkes™, p. 80.
¨
76 A. Jameson, Visits and Sketches at Home and Abroad (London, 1834), II.47.
77 Ibid., I.241.
78 J. Barrow, Tour in Austrian Lombardy, the Northern Tyrol, and Bavaria in 1840 (London,
1841), p. 316; Howitt, Rural and Domestic, p. 311.
79 J. Murray, A Handbook for Travellers in Southern Germany (London, 1837), p. 28.
80 81 Strang, Germany in 1831, p. 365.
Blanning, The Culture of Power, p. 51.
82 Howitt, Rural and Domestic, p. 332.
360 Emma L. Winter

that Cornelius ˜belongs to the cycle of great masters . . . which blossomed
at the time of Raphael™.83
For his part, the French artist Pierre G´ rard told Cornelius:
e
You occupy an honourable place in the history of art. You have returned to the
genius of painting its ¬rst youth and its ¬rst vigour, and for Germany you have
the honour of having accomplished all that the ¬fteenth and sixteenth centuries
promised by their example.84

It is important to note, as G´ rard did, that the return to the painting of
e
the past was not retrogressive. This can be explained with the aid of John
Hutchinson™s insights in The Dynamics of Cultural Nationalism: ˜the past
is used . . . to re-establish the nation at a new and higher level of devel-
opment™.85 It is ˜not a ¬‚ight from the world but a means to catapult the
nation from present divisions to a more advanced stage of social devel-
opment™.86 Blanning also draws our attention to the ˜cultural surge™ that
took place in Germany in the second half of the eighteenth century.87 The
German artists who rose to prominence in the ¬rst half of the nineteenth
century certainly stood on the shoulders of those German literary, philo-
sophical and musical giants that had ˜created a con¬dent belief . . . that
their culture was becoming supreme in Europe™.88
Just as it had been France ˜that set the standards in all the arts™ in the
eighteenth century, by the second-third of the nineteenth, it was Ger-
many.89 And like Louis XIV™s example before his, Ludwig™s was now
emulated across Europe.90 Echoing Frederick the Great, Howitt noted:
A spirit of truly glorious emulation has grown out of the spirit and achievements
of the King of Bavaria . . . The ¬‚ame of emulation has already spread far and
wide . . . Is it not a proud thing for the King of Bavaria that he has given this
impulse to art? That he has planted this feeling for the great and beautiful in the
heart of the most in¬‚uential nations? That statesmen begin to consider how they
too may introduce similar tastes and similar works amongst their countrymen?91

In 1842, the year in which the new Prussian king, Frederick William
IV, successfully emulated Ludwig by harnessing Cornelius™s services for
Berlin, Howitt declared that ˜it is with the liveliest feelings of pleasure
that I have seen of late this emulative ¬‚ame communicating itself to

83 Jameson, Visits and Sketches, I.230; N. Huse, Kleine Kunstgeschichte M¨ nchens (Munich,
u
1990), p. 130.
84 Raczynski, Histoire, II.285.
85 J. Hutchinson, The Dynamics of Cultural Nationalism (London, 1987), p. 10.
86 87 Blanning, The Culture of Power, p. 215.
Ibid., p. 33.
88 89 Ibid., p. 49. 90 Ibid.
Ibid., p. 261.
91 Frederick the Great™s comment that ˜all Europe sought to imitate the France it admired™
quoted in Blanning, The Culture of Power, p. 53; Howitt, Rural and Domestic, p. 315.
French power and German culture 361

England™.92 Given the nature of British political culture “ its characteristic
combination of parliamentary governance, patriotic Protestantism, vol-
untarism in cultural provision and the pursuit of materialism “ this is the
place one would least expect to ¬nd such emulation.93 Yet, in June 1841,
a British parliamentary select committee, appointed ˜to consider the pro-
motion of the ¬ne arts of the country in connection with the decoration
of the new Houses of Parliament™, had recommended not only that fresco
should be the style of painting employed to embellish the walls of the new
parliament but also that the example set by Ludwig in his patronage of
the arts be used for guidance.94
The relationship between Bavaria and Britain inverted that which had
existed between Wurzburg and France in the eighteenth century: in the
¨
latter case, a minor German bishopric emulated the greatest European
power; in the former, what was arguably the greatest European power
emulated a ˜petty™ German state.95 Wurzburg had been desirous of the
¨
culture that projected the image of power; Britain sought to appropriate
and exploit the power of culture. In the eighteenth century, that power was
French, in the nineteenth, that culture was German. This shift was more
signi¬cant than the semantic inversion suggests: it marked the accession
of German Kultur as the dominant force in European culture and the
relegation of French cultural in¬‚uence that had reigned supreme since
the reign of Louis XIV.
The culture of French power had been carried by the universalizing
code of classicism, which, according to the German art historian Gustav
Waagen, imposed upon a subjugated Europe the ˜cold general rule™ of
˜monotonous uniformity™.96 It was, he continued, during his testimony
before the ¬rst ever select committee appointed to consider the promotion
of the ¬ne arts in England in 1835, destitute of ˜feeling™ and had ˜dead-
ened the national talent™.97 This was because, ˜it was a culture devoid of
any national character™.98
In contrast, the power of German culture lay in its espousal of cul-
tural pluralism. Thomas Wyse, one of the Fine Arts Commissioners

92 Howitt, Rural and Domestic, p. 315.
93 Blanning, The Culture of Power, pp. 306“7, 313, 317, 319“22.
94 E. L. Winter, ˜German Fresco Painting and the New Houses of Parliament at Westmin-
ster, 1834“1851™, Historical Journal 47 (2004), p. 291.
95 On the construction and decoration of the Residenz at Wurzburg, see Blanning, The
¨
Culture of Power, pp. 73“6; for a contemporary description of Bavaria “ undoubtedly
for rhetorical effect “ as a ˜petty™ state, see ˜Historical Painting™, Blackwood™s Edinburgh
Magazine 41 (1837), p. 198.
96 ˜Report from Select Committee on Arts and Manufactures, together with the Minutes
of Evidence and Appendix™, Reports, Committees, Misc. (1835), v.385.
97 98 Blanning, The Culture of Power, p. 234.
Ibid.
362 Emma L. Winter

responsible for implementing the fresco scheme in the Houses of Par-
liament, explained that in the wake of the further universalizing tenden-
cies of the French Revolution and Napoleon, ˜the world has begun to
reconstruct™ itself with the aid of the ˜three great regenerators: religion,
history, country™.99 ˜The religious-historic-national is the school not of
this or that country, but the school of Europe.™100 It was this transnational
movement ˜to which we now seek to unite ourselves™, while retaining a
national commitment ˜to preserve always our own times and our own
idiosyncrasy™.101 It promised the realization of Herder™s ideal of ˜unity in
diversity™.102
It is ironic that just as Ludwig™s reputation was reaching its apogee
abroad, it was beginning to crumble at home. When Cornelius had
devised the plan to decorate the Hofgarten, he had proposed that the
frescoes depict the history of Bavaria. Due to Ludwig™s personal inter-
vention, however, the scheme was altered so that the frescoes depicted
not national history, but the Wittelsbach dynasty.103 Instead of the Volk,
Hormayr observed ˜absolutism stood at the centre™.104 The Landesvater
was depicted as the exemplar of virtues, but any suggestion of suffering
under the Wittelsbachs was avoided. This raised the question of why the
sovereign lord was doing so little to meet the material needs of his people.
Ludwig came in for sharp criticism during the Landtag debate of 1831
over whether to extend the king™s budget. While deputies Kapp and
Rabel praised Ludwig™s art patronage, there were others who were less
impressed. Ludwig™s magni¬cent building projects were criticized as ˜use-
less™ when improved social housing was desperately needed.105 Deputy
Lechner sarcastically proposed themes for further arcade paintings:
My second painting shows us a country schoolteacher, eating his lunch with his
poorly clothed family. On the table one sees potatoes and black bread, the cost
of which he meets with the afternoon™s lesson. The broken windowpanes permit
a view over the Odeon in Munich or the Cursaal in Bruckenau.106
¨

While Ludwig might ˜rather chew on potatoes instead of pineapples, in
order to get mosaics or paintings™, this was not the case for his hungry

99 (Thomas Wyse), ˜Report of the Commissioners on the Fine Arts™, British and Foreign
Review 15 (1843), p. 205.
100 101 Ibid. 102 Blanning, The Culture of Power, p. 256.
Ibid., p. 206.
103 Ludwig™s intervention is reminiscent of Louis XIV™s for ˜more direct treatment™ from
Charles Le Brun in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, see ibid., p. 38; J. Erichsen,
˜“Aus dem Ged¨ chtnis ins Herz”. Zum Verh¨ ltnis von Kunst, Geschichte und Politik
a a
unter Konig Ludwig I.™, in J. Erichsen and U. Puscher, Vorw¨ rts, Vorw¨ rts sollst du
¨ a a
schauen . . . Geschichte, Politik und Kunst unter Ludwig I. (Munich, 1986), p. 399.
104 105 Huttl, Ludwig I., p. 73.
Buttner, ˜Bildung des Volkes™, p. 86.
¨ ¨
106 Droste, Das Fresko, p. 117.
French power and German culture 363

subjects.107 When it came to the vote, ¬fty delegates voted to supplement
the king™s budget, but seventy-four voted against on the grounds that ˜the
glori¬cation of the past may not be bought at the price of the neglect of
the most urgent needs of the present™.108
The defeat was a great blow for Ludwig, coming as it did in the wake of,
and largely encouraged by, the revolution of 1830. Drawing on the public
opinion that the revolution made manifest, the delegates were seeking to
assert their position in the face of the monarchical clampdown “ press
censorship and the removal of radical voices from within the Landtag “
that followed. When 30,000 people assembled at the Hambacher Schloß
between 26 and 30 May the following year to celebrate the anniversary
of the promulgation of the Bavarian constitution in 1817 and to demand
further ˜legal freedom and German national dignity™, Ludwig was left
shocked and embittered.109 Experiencing the constitution as a corset
rather than the sanctuary of regulated freedoms, he became increasingly
inaccessible and intransigent, and, like Louis XV before him, taken to
declaring, ˜I will tolerate no opposition!™110
Ludwig also began to exert tremendous pressure upon his artists, seek-
ing to make them the tools of his desire to create what increasingly resem-
bled a representational culture at the minimum of cost and the greatest of
speed. While executing the Nibelungen frescoes in the Neue Residenz in
1834, the Nazarene Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld lamented, ˜the pressure
of the king drove me to excessive effort™.111 Even the ˜jewel in [Ludwig™s]
crown™ was not spared.112 Though it seemed that Cornelius and Lud-
wig had established the ideal relationship between an artist and a patron,
the honeymoon did not last.113 By August 1840, Cornelius had become
so disenchanted with Ludwig™s ˜artistic despotism™ that he confessed he
would ˜not be bound to Bavaria forever™.114
Ludwig™s growing political and artistic absolutism was matched by
religious conservatism. By the late 1830s, German politics had become
intensely confessionalized as a result of the Cologne Episcopal Dispute
of 1836“8. Swept up in the confessional fervour, Ludwig began spon-
soring a conservative ministry under Count Karl von Abel. According to

107 Huttl, Ludwig I., p. 50.
¨
108 109 Huttl, Ludwig I., p. 84.
Buttner, ˜Bildung des Volkes™, p. 90.
¨ ¨
110 Ibid., p. 109; Huse, Kleine Kunstgeschichte, p. 132. On Louis XV™s infamous autocratic
declarations at the s´ance de la ¬‚agellation, see Blanning, The Culture of Power, p. 379.
e
111 Droste, Das Fresko, p. 45.
112 Huse, Kleine Kunstgeschichte, p. 132. On the ˜proprietorial™ character that Ludwig™s
kingship increasingly shared with Louis XV™s, see Blanning, The Culture of Power, p. 379.
113 Blanning, The Culture of Power, p. 93.
114 Ibid., p. 92, where Blanning describes Frederick the Great as a ˜despotic patron™;
Forster, Peter von Cornelius, II.131.
¨
364 Emma L. Winter

Heinrich von Treitschke, ˜he forgot that he was the heir of the Protestant
palgraves, and that his Bavarians had acquired their position in modern
Germany only in alliance with Prussia, and succumbed to a clericalist
outlook which had originally been more antipathetic to his more liberal
sentiments™.115 Ludwig™s clericalism became ever more pronounced, as
was made plain in the infamous Kniebeugverordnung of 14 August 1838,
which required all Bavarian troops, regardless of confession, to genu¬‚ect
before the host during mass.116
Such a sectarian policy was not only hazardous in a state with mixed
confessional allegiances, but also a solvent of Ludwig™s national claims.
In 1825, Schnorr had turned down an appointment proffered by Prussia
˜because his desires spoke absolutely in favour of Munich™.117 Confes-
sional allegiance had not induced the Protestant artist to prefer Protestant
Prussia, for Ludwig showed every indication of being a liberal in religious
affairs. By 1841, however, even the Catholic Cornelius was ready ˜to kneel
at the feet™ of the new Prussian king, Frederick William IV.118 Nor was he
alone; according to Cornelius™s former student Ernst Forster, now editor
¨
of the pre-eminent Kunstblatt, ˜public opinion in the entire Fatherland
was for him™.119
The loss of Cornelius was a great blow for Ludwig. He tried to deny its
signi¬cance, protesting that ˜the art of Munich is not bound to Cornelius!
I, I the King, am the art of Munich!™, but the die was cast.120 Capitalizing
on Munich™s vulnerability in the early 1840s, an offensive was launched
by the leading critics of the day. Its timing was sparked by the arrival
in Germany of history paintings in oil by Louis Gallait and Edouard
de Biefve, the leading members of the new Belgian school. The most
celebrated among them, Gallait™s The Abdication of Charles V, reached
Munich in 1843 where it was exhibited to great acclaim.
The Belgian pictures led Jacob Burckhardt to wonder, given that ˜the
German governments, especially King Ludwig, have had so many repre-
sentations out of our national history painted, why we are so far behind
our neighbouring peoples?™121 His senior colleague, Franz Kugler, replied
that this was due to the lack of a genuine ˜public life™ in Germany.122
Theodor Vischer, Germany™s most in¬‚uential aesthetician, concurred.
The purpose of art was ˜to provide the people with a consciousness
of their history, tradition and origin™, but the only source from which
true art could ¬‚ower was ˜the substance of the people™s spirit™. Those

115 H. von Treitschke, History of Germany in the Nineteenth Century (Chicago, 1975),
VI.281.
116 117 Forster, Peter von Cornelius, I.375.
Huttl, Ludwig I., pp. 91“3.
¨ ¨
118 119 Ibid., p. 131. 120 Huse, Kleine Kunstgeschichte, p. 132.
Ibid., II.148.
121 122 Ibid., p. 247.
Das Kunstblatt (1843), p. 1.
French power and German culture 365

who spoke of ˜a modern epoch of art in Germany™ were thus mistaken,
because ˜without the corresponding development and formation of pub-
lic life among the people, the rebirth of German art is certainly not fully
possible™.123
What excited these critics most about the Belgian paintings, as well as
the public that ¬‚ocked to see them, was the link they suggested between
national art and national development. For these commentators, art was,
as indeed it had been for the Romantics, ˜the mirror picture of the nature
of a nation. Art affects the national spirit and this in turn reacts upon
art™.124 Enthusiasm for the Belgian pictures was thus a way of express-
ing support for the newly founded Kingdom of Belgium. As Passavant
explained:

Just after the formation of the new political relations, which united the provinces
of the Netherlands into a united kingdom, the national feeling of the people raised
a characteristic artistic tendency to match.125

Thirty years earlier, during the national liberation period, Passavant
had held similar hopes for German art under the leadership of the
Nazarenes. By the early 1840s, these hopes lay in tatters. Nazarene art
had moved into the service of the monarchical restoration and severed
its connection with the political hopes of the people. Philipp Veit was the
exception, having retained his liberal nationalist credentials, by rejecting
Ludwig™s muni¬cence in favour of a post free from monarchical patron-
age at the St¨ del institute in Frankfurt. Veit™s painting Germania, which
a
depicts a blonde German goddess, cloaked in the red, black and gold
¬‚ag of Lutzow™s Freikorps, in which Veit had served, would adorn the
¨
Paulskirche in which the National Assembly convened during the revo-
lutions of 1848“9.
In 1845, the critic Anton Springer let forth ˜the most determined
protest against the extent to which the Munich school has been called
a national and historically signi¬cant art™.126 He began by satirizing the
customary account of its rise under Ludwig™s patronage:

From that time ˜a new, glimmering era of art for the whole of Germany™ arose
like a phoenix out of the ashes of bad taste. Its capital city, Munich, has become
a ˜wonder to behold!™ From being a ˜third rate™ capital, Munich ˜suddenly has
become one of the ¬rst rank™ . . . one speaks again of a ˜new German art, which
demands and deserves the respect, even astonishment, of foreigners™.127


123 124 Ibid., p. 110.
Ebertsh¨ user, Kunsturteile, pp. 110“11.
a
125 126 Ebertsh¨ user, Kunsturteile, pp. 74“7.
Droste, Das Fresko, p. 119. a
127 Ibid., p. 74.
366 Emma L. Winter

Springer denounced this verdict on the political and religious grounds
that ˜the breath of freedom . . . missing™.128
The German Protestant spirit is not represented in Bavarian art, while a German
national basis is similarly totally lacking. Free art, as the inevitable output of the
modern spirit, is far more democratic, taking its origin from the Volk and then
returning to it. The present-day religious and political movements are democratic
and art will also develop itself democratically. The creator of the ˜glorious era of
art™ in Munich is King Ludwig. For this reason, the art of Munich is less than
local, it is a private undertaking.129

What gave these criticisms of Ludwig™s patronage their purchase was
not only the evidence furnished by the Belgian pictures, but also the
emergence of an alternative source of patronage at home. As the crit-
ics were reaching their crescendo, the Kunstvereine were enjoying their
greatest popularity to date. These art unions were subscription clubs that
purchased works of art directly from artists, exhibited them to the public
and then distributed them by lottery. According to Adolf Stahr:
The Kunstverein supports the growing awareness that art must enter into the
public sphere . . . The ˜public™ is the life-giving principle which makes art vital.
Our time has recognized this fact: exhibitions and Kunstvereine have become the
means of realizing this public; the means by which art can pass into life.130

The Kunstvereine were public, participatory and egalitarian. The con-
stitution of the Munich Kunstverein, established in 1823, stipulated that
˜all members have the same rights; the same deciding vote in the affairs of
the Verein which will be decided by majority rule™.131 And to many of their
members their participation in art anticipated participation in politics.132
During the 1820s and 1830s, the muni¬cence of Ludwig™s patronage
for the public swamped the progressive ideas and voluntary activities of
the Kunstvereine. By the 1840s, the public was not only competing, but
challenging the royal patron, by generating art for itself. To paraphrase
Blanning, Ludwig ˜had lost control of the Salons™.133
Just as David™s Oath of the Horatii seemed to foretell the political events
that followed in the train of its exhibition, so the Belgian pictures, the
cultural commentaries they provoked and the activities of the Kunstvereine
foreshadowed the political events of 1848.134 Like Louis XVI before him,
increasingly isolated and alienated, charged with absolutism and betrayal
of the national interest, Ludwig sought comfort in the arms of his foreign
mistress, adding hypocrisy and pro¬‚igacy to the case against him.135 By

128 129 Ibid., pp. 75“6. 130 Ibid., p. 97.
Ibid.
131 Huse, Kleine Kunstgeschichte, p. 132.
132 On how the ˜critical habits™ developed within the public sphere were easily and readily
extended into the realm of politics, see Blanning, The Culture of Power, p. 10.
133 134 Ibid., p. 435. 135 Ibid, pp. 435“8.
Ibid., p. 437.
French power and German culture 367

1848, Ludwig™s approach to governance was bankrupt and outdated, a
fact con¬rmed by his removal from the throne, the sole German monarch
to suffer such a fate, during the revolutions of that year.
During the course of the revolution, the Munich Kunstverein petitioned
the National Assembly to make art ˜a national concern™.136 This echoed
the Memorandum to the German princes of 1814. While the revolution
proved too short-lived to ful¬l this demand, within less than a decade
the Kunstvereine had, by their own efforts, acquired a national voice: in
1854, they joined together to form the Union of German Art Unions for
Historical Art. In 1858, this organization staged the All German Histor-
ical Exhibition in Munich.137 Within a decade of Ludwig™s fall, the art
patronage of the monarch had been replaced by the paying public.
Christopher Clark has noted the prevalent tendency of European his-
torians to characterize the period that lay between the Battle of Water-
loo and the return of revolution to the continent in 1848 in terms of
these momentous historical bookends. It has been cast either as the era
of restoration or as the Vorm¨ rz.138 However, neither paradigm is par-
a
ticularly helpful for evaluating the historical signi¬cance of the cultural
power of Ludwig I of Bavaria between 1825 and 1848. At best, the former
paradigm allows us to appreciate Ludwig™s patronage of the arts as the
last gasp of representational culture, while the latter renders it part and
parcel of the seemingly inevitable triumph of art for the public.
As is the case with all periods, the period 1815“48 contained elements
of both continuity and change, of survival and innovation, of restoration
and progress. Too ¬ne a focus on what it had in common with the periods
that preceded or followed it, can obscure its uniqueness. The aesthetic
character of governance was the period™s most distinctive characteristic.
This was a peculiarly German response to the multifarious challenges that
Europe as a whole faced in the post-revolutionary age. As Wyse acknowl-
edged, ˜in no part of Europe perhaps has it been so marked and instructive
as in Germany, and in no part of Germany . . . as in Munich™.139 Here
society ˜is a brotherhood™, a ˜Tugendbund™ bound together by art.140

[Here art] speaks not to the learned and luxurious in their cabinet, but to the
people. Often have I seen Tyrolese peasants explaining in their weekly visits on
Sunday mornings to their children, their faith and fatherland from the paintings
of the Allerheiligen [hofkapelle] or the Hofgarten, or the Residenz.141


136 ˜Art in Continental States™, Art Union 10 (1848), p. 246.
137 E. Holt, ed., The Art of All Nations 1850“1855 (Princeton, 1981), pp. 223“40.
138 C. M. Clark, ˜Germany 1815“1848: Restoration or Pre-March?™ in M. Fulbrook, ed.,
German History since 1800 (London, 1997), pp. 38“9.
139 (Wyse),™Report of the Commissioners™, p. 210.
140 141 Ibid., p. 213.
Ibid., p. 212.
368 Emma L. Winter

˜Spread upon these walls™ was ˜art in its place of power and blessing™,
where ˜she kindly enlightens, as well as soothes and delights™.142
Yet, aesthetic governance was not Ludwig™s exclusive prerogative; its
currency was open to all, and was indeed tapped not only by the British,
but also by the Russians, the Austrians, the Belgians, the Danish and
the Portuguese (not to mention local and municipal governments). This
draws our attention to the special character of nationalism in this period:
it was Romantic, liberal and cosmopolitan; it was culturally pluralistic
rather than imperious. As Yael Tamir has explained in her theoretical
study of Liberal Nationalism, it could combine ˜praise for the particular™
at the same time as an ˜awareness of universality™.143 This enables us
to appreciate why the German Romantics believed that there was no
contradiction in emulating the early Italians in order to foster their own
national culture, and equally why the British thought they could emulate
the Germans™ emulation of the Italians.144
Religion was the other crucial ingredient of aesthetic governance.145
In the wake of the religious policies of the French Revolution, Christians
across Europe found af¬nity, albeit only for a circumscribed period, in
their common revulsion from secularism. It was an archetypal case of
one™s enemy™s enemy becoming one™s friend. This was an important part
of the appeal of the early Italian example; it dated from the age of universal
Christianity, before the Reformation divided Christians into Protestant
and Catholic confessions.
The revival of fresco painting, the Christian art form par excellence,
promoted unprecedented interest in the Italian painters of the fourteenth
and ¬fteenth centuries, which culminated in the reappraisal of their merits
and the expansion of the art-historical canon to include them. In the
years after the revolutionary experience of 1848“9, when the currency
of aesthetic governance had collapsed, the early masters were liberated
from their service to the present, and entered Europe™s national galleries
as artefacts, to be appreciated as powerful expressions of the culture of
their times.146
142 143 Y. Tamir, Liberal Nationalism (Princeton, 1993), p. 82.
Ibid., p. 214.
144 Though this did not prove to be the case in practice, see Winter, ˜German Fresco
Painting™, pp. 319“29.
145 On the frequent and fruitful alliance between nationalism and religion, see Blanning,
The Culture of Power, p. 23.
146 See E. L. Winter, ˜The Transformation of Taste in Germany and England, 1797“1858™
(Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, 2005).
Index




[Regnal dates are provided for rulers, birth and death dates in other cases.]

army
absolutism, notion of, 37“9, 40“1, 56,
cost of, 55
108
culture, 48“56
Brandenburg-Prussia, 22“3, 37
institution of, 49“51
Enlightened, 108, 134, 158, 226, 238,
sizes, central Europe, 43“4
247
standing, 37“9
models of cultural change, 38“9
status of, 55
Act of Settlement, English (1701), 97
army organisation, models of, 38“9
aesthetics,
art
and power, 350“1
aim of, 353
and restoration era, 352
as a community experience, 353“4
Aiguillon, Emmanuel-Armand de Vignerot
democratisation of, 366
du Plessis de Richelieu, duc d™
and German identity, 351“2
(1720“88), French aristocrat and
and German nationalism, 355“7, 365
foreign minister 1771“4, 244“5
as a means to power, 350“1
ambassador, ideal model of, 78“9
patronage, by the public, 367
American colonies (British), and absence
for the public, 353
of nobility, 293
Romantic view of, 354“5
American Revolution, and the French
assemblies, public, lack of in Europe,
Revolution, 276
250“1
American War of Independence
Aston, Nigel, historian, 108
(1775“83), 275, 281, 308, 314“15
Auerst¨ dt, battle of (1806), 37
a
ancien regime, 11, 61, 85, 107
Aufkl¨ rung, 158, 160“79
a
and the confessional state, 87, 93
changing attitudes to, 175“8
Anglican Church, 88, 95
in Hungary, 209
Anglophobia, in France, 275“6, 318“19
increased study of, 160“2
Anna of Prussia (1576“1625), Electress of
periodisation of, 163“8
Brandenburg and consort of John
supposed crisis of, 168“71
Sigismund, 32
Austria, 159
Annales patriotiques et litt´raires, 311
e
change in censorship system, 249
Anne, British Queen (1702“14), 97
French hostility to, 276“7, 306“11,
anointment,
317
at coronation, 18“19
growth of, 44“5
symbolic, 21
see also: Habsburg, House of
anti-Enlightenment, 171
Austrian Habsburgs, 123, 124
aristocracy,
Austrian succession, problems of, 125
and army command, 38
Austrian Succession, War of (1740“8),
and diplomacy, 72“82
45“6, 71, 123
and military of¬cers, 53
Austrophobia, in France, 276“7, 316,
vitality of, 12
317“18, 323
see also: nobility

369
370 Index

Ausw¨ rtiges Amt (foreign of¬ce in Prussia,
a Black, Jeremy, historian, 87, 108, 112,
created 1728), 77 113“14
authoritarianism, of French monarchy, Blanning, Tim, historian, 2“8, 86, 96,
232“3, 235, 238, 242, 247 107“8, 346, 348
culture, 4“5
Baden, 47 culture and state, 180“3
Baker, Keith Michael, historian, 5, 227, enduring power of religion, 133“4
236 Enlightened Absolutism, 158“9
B´ roczi, S´ ndor (1735“1809), 212“13
a´ a Joseph II, 249
Barrier towns, Dutch, 123 liberalism and nationalism in France,
barri`re de l™est, French diplomatic system,
e 270, 279, 287
308, 319 modernisation, 249“50
Bartholdy, Jacob Salomon (1779“1825), nationalism, 7“8
and the Nazarenes, 357 power, importance of, 5
Basedow, Johann Bernhard (1724“90), public sphere, 249
187 Reform and Revolution in Mainz (1974), 2
Bastard, Fran¸ ois de, ¬rst president of the
c representational culture, 5“6, 348
parlement of Toulouse, 234“5 revolution, 7“8
Bastille, 279, 289 The Culture of Power and the Power of
Bavaria, 43, 47, 348 Culture (2002), 2, 4, 5“6, 13, 112, 348
art and domestic politics, 351 The French Revolution (1987, 1996), 4
and Britain, 361 The French Revolution in Germany
confessional allegiances, 364 (1983), 2, 3, 6
creation of state identity, 351 The French Revolutionary Wars (1996), 2,
demise of Holy Roman Empire, 351 4
growth of, 351 The Origin of the French Revolutionary
opposition to Ludwig I, 362“4 Wars (1986), 4
revolution of 1848, 367 Bohemian Estates, 327, 331
Bavarian Succession, War of (1778“9), Bourbon courts, 121
190“1 bourgeoisie, 12
Beaumarchais, Pierre Augustin Caron de Brandenburg, Elector of, 14
(1732“99), playwright, 11, 12, 327, Brandenburg electoral ministers, and
345 status, 27
Belgian independence, French interest in, Brandenburg-Prussia, coronation of 1701,
317 14“35
Belgian school of history painting, 364“5 Brewer, John, historian, 90, 111
Belgium, petitions to Joseph II, 260“2 Brissot, Jacques-Pierre (1754“93),
Berlin, diplomatic life in, 81“2 journalist and French Revolutionary
Berlin Aufkl¨ rung, 167, 168“9
a politician, 307, 311, 318, 320, 323
Berlin circle, 172“3 Brissotins
Bertier de Sauvigny, Louis Jean (1707“88), Austrophobia of, 318
230“1 campaign for war, 316
Bessenyei, Gyorgy (1747“1811), 212
¨ Britain, 158
Besser, Johann von (1654“1729), 17, 22, anti-Catholic views in, 102“3
31 army, size of, 128
Biedermeier style, 187“8, 193, 194, 195 as capitalist society, 90“1
Bielfeld, Jacob Friedrich Freiherr von colonial strategy, 130, 131
(1717“70), Prussian of¬cial and confessional state, 86“92, 94“6, 108“9
cameralist author, 63 ˜culture of intervention™, 112
Bildung, notion of, 189“90 foreign strategy, 13, 110“14, 130“2
and art, 352 France, threat to, 308“9
Bildungsb¨ rgertum, 186
u insular approach, 116
Bindung(literally ˜binding™ or ˜uni¬cation™), population change, 88
and art, 352 power of culture, 361
Bittschriften, 253 Protestant countries, relations with, 104
Index 371

public sphere, 250 Caroline, Queen (1683“1737), 116
religion in, 12“13, 86“109 Carra, Jean-Louis (1742“93), 311“12,
secularisation of, 91 313, 319
unilateral intervention, 128 Carteret, John Baron, later 1st Lord
British aristocracy, and knowledge of Granville (1690“1763), 118, 119, 120
Europe, 114“16 Castries, Charles-Eug` ne-Gabriel, marquis
e
British court, 107 de (1727“1801), French naval
British diplomats, 74 minister, 309
British foreign policy, 110“32 Catherine II, the Great, Empress of Russia
and Central Europe, 122“3 (1762“96), and petitions, 257
confessional issues, 12“13, 96“106 Catholic Church, 100
˜Don Quixote of Europe™, 126“7 anti-Catholic views of, in Britain, 102“3
Eurocentric approach, 114“20 in Ireland, 89
Europe, balancing role in, 99“100 Catholic emancipation, in Britain, 96, 97
Europe, decreased importance of, 131“2 Catholic toleration
France, policy to contain, 121“2 in Canada, 96
Hanover, interests of, 118, 119 in Ireland, 96
Northern Secretary of State, 126 Catholicism in Alpine Salzburg, 134“43
Southern Secretary of State, 126, 130 Central Europe, and British foreign policy,
strategic culture, 13, 110“14, 130“2 122
Tory view, 114 Ceremonialwissenschaft, 18, 20
Whig view, 114 ceremony, science of, see:
British states, exceptionalism of, 107“8 Ceremonialwissenschaft
˜British Succession, War of™ (from 1688), Charles V, ruler of the Habsburg
105 inheritance, King of Aragon
´
Broglie, Victor-Fran¸ ois, duc and
c (1516“56) and of Castile (1506“56),
mar´ chal de (1718“1804), French
e and Holy Roman Emperor (1519“56),
military commander, 274, 279 100
Brotherhood of St Luke, 355 Charles VI, ruler of the Habsburg
B¨ rger, 1, 189
u Monarchy and Holy Roman Emperor
b¨ rgerlich, 250
u (1711“40), 125, 203
B¨ rgerlichkeit, 12, 180, 184“6, 193
u Charles VII Albrecht, Holy Roman
Burke, Edmund (1729“97), British Emperor (1742“5) and Bavarian
parliamentarian and political elector (1726“45), 45
journalist, 13, 322“3 Chaumont de La Galazi` re, Antoine
e
Butter¬eld, Sir Herbert (1900“79), Martin, 229, 240
historian, 89 Chester¬eld, Earl of (1694“1773), 118
Chodowiecki, Daniel Nikolaus
Calli` res, Fran¸ ois de (1645“1717),
e c (1726“1801), 188“9
´
French foreign of¬ce of¬cial and Choiseul, Etienne-Fran¸ ois, comte de
c
diplomatic theorist, 63, 64, 73, 78, 85 Stainville and duc de (1719“85),
Calonne, Charles Alexandre de French leading minister 1758“70,
(1734“1802), French 225
controller-general 1783“7, 272, 273 Christianity and art, 355, 357“8
Calvinism, 89, 94, 109 Church and state, in Britain, 92“3
Campo Formio, Treaty of (October 1797), Church of England, 95
323 Church of Ireland, 89
Carl August of Saxe-Weimar (1757“1828), churchmen, as diplomats, 73
1, 185, 187, 192 Clark, Jonathan, historian, 86“8, 110
Carl Eugen, Duke of Wurttemberg
¨ classicism, 361
(1728“93), 36 Cloots, Jean-Baptiste (1755“94), French
Carlo, Massimo, and Nazarene Revolutionary politician, 289“90
commission, 357 Club de Valois, 286
Carmichael, John, Earl of Hyndford Club des Enrag´ s, 286
e
(1701“67), 104 Cobban, Alfred, historian, 4
372 Index

Colbert, Jean Baptiste (1619“83), French Prussian, cost of attending, 25
economic and naval minister, 349 Prussian, growth of, 25
College of Foreign Affairs, Russia (created Prussian, masculine ethos of, 33“4
1719), 77 Cowling, Maurice, historian, 88
Cologne Episcopal Dispute 1836“8, 363 Croatian language, 215“16
Combination Act (1799), in Britain, and Croats, in Hungary, 201“2
exemption of Freemasonry, 251 crown tax, Prussian, 17
Conduitelisten, 259“60 Crown treaty (Krontraktat;
Confederation of the Rhine (established in Austro-Prussian agreement, 1700), 24
1806 by Napoleon), 47 cultural hegemony, Gramsci™s notion of,
confession, and diplomacy, 96“106 180
confessional conscience, 10 culture, 9“13, 15, 17
confessional state as an activity, 10
Alpine Salzburg, 133“57 diplomatic, 10, 58, 80, 82“5
Britain as, 11, 86“92, 94“6, 108“9 Habermas on, 7
British foreign policy, 97“106 Marxist tradition, 180
concept of, 87“8, 92“5 as a mentality, 10
English, 89 military, 10, 36“9
confessionalisation theory, 93“4 political, 10“11, 225“48
Confraternity of the Scapulary, 147“9 representational, 5“6, 348
Congress of Vienna (1814“15), 84 state, 180“3
Congress System (1815“23), 84 strategic, 10, 110“34
˜Conquerors of the Bastille™, 289 culture and power, 9“10, 15“17, 180“1
Constituent Assembly (1789“91; also
known as the ˜National Assembly™), in De jure belli ac pacis (1625), work by
France, 279, 289“91, 316, 317 Grotius, 63
abolition of feudal rights and venal De jure naturae et gentium (1672), work by
of¬ces, 295“6 Pufendorf, 63
abolition of nobility, 12, 290“1, 300 De la mani`re de n´gocier avec les souverains
e e
Controleurgang, 254 (1716), work by Calli` res, 63, 64, 65
e
Corbett, Julian, British naval historian, Russian translation of, 64“5
113 De re diplomatica (1681), work by
Cornelius, Peter (1824“74), 356“9, 360, Mabillon, 58
364 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the
Ludwig I™s patronage of, 357“8, 363, Citizen (1789), 295
364 Department of Embassies (Posolskii
coronation, of Prussian king (1701), 14“35 Prikaz), in Russia, 77
ceremonial, 14“15 Department of External Affairs, Prussia,
cost, 17 77
crown, 18 despotism, and France, 247, 248
ritual, 15“17 destiny, semiotic, and the Prussian
signi¬cance, 34“5 coronation of 1701, 19“20
Corporation Act (1661), English, 95 Deutsche Bewegung, 169“70
Cos` fan tutte, opera by Mozart, 327
± Deutsche Klassik, 174
Counter Reformation, 238 diamond necklace affair (1785“6), in
Cour des Monnaies, 241 France, 272
court, 1“2, 11“12 Die Entf¨ hrung aus dem Serail, opera by
u
festivities, 28 Mozart, 327
French, disaffection of nobility towards, Die Zauber¬‚¨ te, opera by Mozart, 336“44,
o
269“88 345
French as the language of, 66 composition of, 328“9
fusion of political and cultural authority, and Enlightenment, 346“7
5“6 and Freemasonry, 341, 343, 344
in¬‚uence on foreign affairs, 77“8 and imagination, 346“7
political and social life, 29 success of, 329
Index 373

Dilthey, Wilhelm (1833“1911), German Die Zauber¬‚¨ te and, 338, 339, 340, 344
o
philosopher and historian, 170 ¬rst, 171
diplomacy, 58“85 irrationalism of, 162
aristocracy, dominance of, 72“82, 84 La clemenza di Tito and, 335
break-up of old order, 83 late, 170“1
changing meaning of, 58“9 Protestantism, 100“1
French language, use of, 65“70 radical, 165“7
French model, in¬‚uence of, 61“2 second, 171“5
in¬‚uences on, external, 61 see also: Aufkl¨ rung
a
in nineteenth century, 84“5 Episcopalianism, in Ireland, 89
norms, 62 Erdmannsdorff, Friedrich Wilhelm von
professionalism in, 73 (1736“1800), 187, 198
protocol of, 79 Estates
Renaissance, 72 of East Prussia, and the 1701
resident, 71 coronation, 19
treatises on, 62“5 and the Reich, 42, 48
diplomatic corps, establishment of, 70“2 Estates General, in France, 243, 251, 276,
diplomatic culture, 10, 59“62, 82“5 285, 295
Diplomatic Revolution (1756), 306, 315, call for convocation of, 70, 269
319 elections for, 271
discipline, military, 49“50 Estates of Brabant, 251
Discours sur l™art de n´gocier (1737), work by
e etiquette, diplomatic, 79
Pecquet, 63 Europe
Dissenters, in England, 95 balance of power, 100, 111, 120, 121,
divine right of kings, and Prussia, 22 129“30
ducs et pairs, aristocratic elite in France, 75 revolution in, and Church and state, 108
Dumont, Jean (1660“1726), compiler of Whig view of, 114
treaties, 79“80
Dumouriez, Charles-Fran¸ ois du P´ rier
c e Favier, Jean-Louis (c.1720“84), French
(1739“1823), French general and publicist, 307“8, 310, 314, 319
Revolutionary politician, 316“17 Favras, marquis de (1744“90), 297, 298
Dutch crisis (1787“8), French paralysis in, Ferri` res, marquis de (1741“1804), 300
e
311 Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762“1814),
Dutch diplomats, 74 German writer, 173, 174, 175, 177
Dutch Republic, 123, 124 Firmian, Leopold Anton Freiherr von
dynastic marriages, threat to Britain, 125 (1679“1744), Archbishop of Salzburg,
133, 144, 155, 156
Eagleton, Terry, literary theorist, 352 ¬scal-military state, notion of 111
Eckermann, Johann Peter (1792“1854), Fitz-James, duc de (1712“87), 234, 243“4,
196 245
education foreign affairs, emergence of ministers for
aesthetic, 354 in eighteenth century, 77
civic, 237“8 foreign secretary, in Britain (created 1782),
military of¬cers, 56 77
Elector Palatine, and Heidelberg, 101, 102 France
Electorate, see: Hanover army of¬cers, reluctance to act in
Elias, Norbert, and civilising process, 38“9 1788“9, 279
Emigrationspatent (1731), Salzburg, 133, Austrian alliance, 315
145 authoritarianism in, 232“3, 235, 238,
England, French hostility towards, 275“6, 242, 247
318“19 British alliance with, 124
Enlightened Absolutism, 158 civic education, 237“8
in France, 226, 238, 247 court, 11, 269“88
Enlightenment, 91, 134, 158“9, 344 court nobility, and the crisis of the
Aufkl¨ rung, relationship with, 161“3
a ancien regime, 287
374 Index

France (cont.) anti-British, 307, 308, 315, 318“19, 324
court nobility, and the French contemporary interest in, 305
Revolution, 269“88 diplomats, 74, 75, 82
cultural in¬‚uence, decline of, 361 from 1793, 323“4
despotism, alliance against (1788), 273 modernisers, 314
diplomats, 74, 75, 82 possibilities for the future, 309“10
Dutch Republic, Prussian invasion, pro-Austrian, 306, 307, 309, 311
278“9 role of women, 320
˜English spirit™, threat of, 236 traditionalists, 314
Enlightenment, and contrast to French language
Aufkl¨ rung, 158“9
a in Hungary, 207
European balance of power, 310 use of, in diplomacy, 65“70
foreign policy, 304“24 French Republic, 1792“1804, and
military despotism, threat of 243“7 diplomats, 82
monarchy, obedience to, 233“4 French Revolution, 4, 13
Napoleonic sense of place, 322 abolition of nobility, 289“303
navy, neglect of, 315 Blanning™s view of, 4
nobility, abolition of, 289“303 and diplomacy, 82“3
nobility, creation of a closed order, German responses to, 173, 178
302“3 fresco painting, and Bavaria, 358“9, 368
nobility, and demands for change, 270 Friedrich Franz III of Anhalt-Dessau
nobility, grievances of, 270 (1740“1817), 185, 187, 188, 192,
political culture, 225“48 197“8
robe-sword cultural split, 234 frontiers, natural, in France 318
Seven Years™ War (1756“63), impact of F¨ rstenbund (˜League of Princes™, 1785),
u
defeat in, 275, 276“7 192
see also: French foreign policy
Frankfurt School, 161 Gamerra, Giovanni De (1742“1803), 325,
Franklin, Benjamin (1706“90), American 326
natural philosopher and diplomat, Gasteinertal valley, Alpine Salzburg, 134
293“4 Gay, Peter, historian, 160
Frederick III/I, Elector of Brandenburg Gegenaufkl¨ rung, see: anti-Enlightenment
a
(1688“1713), Prussian duke Georg Ludwig, Elector of
(1688“1701) and subsequently king Braunschweig-Luneburg, see: George I
¨
(1701“13), 11 George I, Elector of Hanover (1698“1727)
coronation of, 14“35 and British king (1714“27), 92, 97“8,
creation of coronation ritual, 17“18 102, 124
Frederick II, the Great, (1740“86), German
Prussian king, 31, 37, 159, 247, 252 armies, 43“4
Aufkl¨ rung, 169
a art, comparison with Italian
confessional issues, disregard for, 104“5 Renaissance, 359“60
culture, 185 art, as a cultural leader, 360“1
foreign policy of, 77, 81 art and nationalism, 355“7, 365
French diplomacy, 308, 319 courts and B¨ rgerlichkeit, 185“6
u
German culture, 183 culture, 348“68
his opinion of Frederick III/I, 26 culture and B¨ rgerlichkeit, 180“99
u
personal justice, 335 historiography, 3
petitions, 257 history, teaching of, 351
˜public good™, 352“3 identity, 351“2
Frederick William I (1713“40), Prussian Jacobinism, 3
king, 30, 31, 34, 37 nationalism, 1“2
Freemasonry, 251, 340, 341 nationalism and Aufkl¨ rung, 175“9
a
French foreign policy 13, 304“24 Romanticism, 194, 354, 368
anti-Austrian, 306, 307, 309, 310, 311, tradition, particularity of, 159
320, 324 German school of painting, modern, 349
Index 375

German language, in Hungary, 207, Hessen-Darmstadt, 47
209“10, 215 Hessians, 36
Germans, in Hungary, 201“2 Hofgarten, Munich, frescoes, 358“9, 362
Germany, and the French Revolution, 3 Hofgastein, Corpus Christi procession
Gesamtkunstwerk, 194 (1730), 134“43
Gibraltar, 121 Hohenzollern, ruling family of
Gilbert, Alan, historian, 88 Brandenburg-Prussia, 11, 14, 43
Glorious Revolution, in British Isles army, 43“4
(1688“9), 89 cost of coronation of 1701, 17
Glyptothek, Munich, frescoes, 358 military power, 36
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang (1749“1832), Holborn, Hajo, historian, 3, 170
German writer, 1“2, 174, 183, 187, Holland, Prussian invasion of (1787),
189“90, 193, 195, 196 278
governance, aesthetics of, 367“8 Holy Roman Empire, 3, 122“3
Gramsci, Antonio (1891“1937), Italian absolutism, 41
theorist, 180 B¨ rgerlichkeit, 188“9
u
see also: cultural hegemony confessional relations within, 103“4
Grand Tour, 69, 73, 115 diplomatic language of, 67
Great Elector, Frederick William, ruler of dissolution of, 177
Brandenburg-Prussia (1640“88), 37 military culture, 36“57
Great Northern War (1700“21), 101 military power, 47
great power rivalry, 58 military structure, 52, 57
Grotius, Hugo (1583“1645), Dutch political culture, 44“5
international lawyer, 63, 64, 72 princes of, and increased power, 42“3,
Grundbegriffe, 185 44
Guardasoni, Domenico (1731“1806), 327 Prussia, 40
Guelph Protestantism, 98 small-state individualism, 192“3
guilds, in Hungary, and use of Latin, 206“7 sovereignty within, 42“3, 45
territorial rulers, 41“3
Habermas, Jurgen, German theorist, 4,
¨ territory and military structure, 52“3
6“7, 37, 39, 161, 184, 250 Houses of Parliament, British, and art
Habsburg, House of, 13, 45“6, 121 patronage, 361, 362
army, 43, 55 Howitt, William (1792“1879), 349, 359,
court, reduction in size of, 251 360
diplomatic language of, 68 Humboldt, Alexander von (1769“1859),
diplomats, 74 German scientist and philosopher,
imperial title, 45 173
inheritance, 125 Hungary
Halifax, George Montagu Dunk, 1st Earl composition of population, 201“2
of (1716“71), British minister, 117 diet, 251
Hanover, Electorate of, 116, 118, 119 language and politics, 200“24
Hanoverian succession, in Britain, 98 Latin, of¬cial use of, 203“4, 207“8
Harris, Sir James, 1st Earl of Malmesbury Latin, pressures on use of, 207“10
(1746“1820), 82 literary movement, 217
Hausmusik, 194 multilingualism and the trial of
Hauterive, Alexandre comte d™ Kazinczy, 217“20
(1754“1830), French foreign of¬ce national culture and Magyar, 214“15
of¬cial, 64 polyglot nature of, 204“6
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich vernacular languages, mixing of, 206
(1770“1831), German philosopher, 5,
169, 173, 175 Idealism, 170, 175
Heidelberg, 101, 102 in German literature, 183
Herder, Johann Gottfried (1744“1803), Il re pastore (1751), opera by Bonno, 326“7
German philosopher, concept of a Imperial ideology, 41
nation, 353 Innes, Joanna, historian, 87, 88, 89
376 Index

Institutions politiques (1760), work by Kniebeugverordnung (14 August 1838),
Bielfeld, 63 364
international relations, 59 Koll´ r, Adam (1718“83), Habsburg court
a
Irish Test Act (1704), 89 librarian and Hungarian publicist,
213“14
Jacobin club, 298 Konfessionialisierung, 93
Jacobites, 92, 106, 112 Konigsberg, 14
¨
Jameson, Anna (1794“1860), 359 Koselleck, Reinhardt (1923“2006),
Jena, battle of (1806), 37 German historian and philosopher,
Jesuit missions in Salzburg, 144“5 161, 184“5
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Kreise, units of military organisation in the
(1765“90), co-regent (1765“80) and Holy Roman Empire, 47, 51“2
sole ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy Kreistruppen, 52
(1780“90), 11“12, 159 Krontraktat, see: Crown treaty
Belgium visit (1781), 261 Kulturstaat, notion of, 159, 353
decree to replace Latin with German Kunstvereine, 366, 367
(1784), 209“10
department inspections, 260 L™ambassadeur et ses fonctions (1681),
gesture politics, 249 treatise by Wicquefort, 62“3, 64
government, approach to, 257“8 La Chalotais, Ren´ Caradeuc de
e
La clemenza di Tito and, 331“2, 333 (1701“85), 245
military tradition, 252 La clemenza di Tito, opera by Mozart, 325,
modernisation, 249“50 329“36
of¬cials, checking on, 258“60 aristocratic audience, 345, 346
peasants, sympathy towards, 265 b¨ rgerlich approval, 345
u
personal austerity, 252 commission of, 327“8
petitioners, accessibility to, 252“3 composition of, 328
petitions, bureaucratic opposition to, ¬rst London performance, 345
267 Habsburg tradition, 331“3
petitions, from Belgium, 260“2 La Fayette, see: Lafayette
petitions, personal, 253“4, 335 Laclos, Pierre Choderlos de (1741“1803),
petitions, practice with, 264“5 author of Les liaisons dangereuses
public, links with, 284, (1782), 285
˜public good™, 352“3 Lafayette, marquis de (1757“1834),
public sphere, 249 French of¬cer, aristocrat and
travel, 258“9 Revolutionary leader, 269, 271, 275
and abolition of nobility, 290
Kabinettsministerium, Prussian foreign American War, 275, 276
ministry, so-called after 1733, 77 Laimbauer, Martin (1592“1636), peasant
Kaiser und Reich, 46 leader in Upper Austria, 138
Kant, Immanuel (1724“1804), German Lameth, Alexandre de (1760“1829), 290
philosopher, 183 Lameth, Charles de (1757“1832), 290
aim of art, 353 Landeshoheit, 41
Aufkl¨ rung, 164, 169, 170, 173
a Landst¨ nde, 42
a
Kantians, 175 Langford, Paul, historian, 90“1
Kazinczy, Ferenc (1759“1831), 217“19 language
extracts from Journal of My Captivity, diplomatic, 58“9
222“4 in Hungary, evidence of use, 201
ker¨ leti¨ l´sek, 213
u ue and politics, 200“24
kingly status, elevations to, 27 Latin
kingship, in Prussia, 31 defender of freedom, 210
Klassik, 183, 195, 196 Hungarian legal system, 204
Klein, Ernst Ferdinand (1743“1810), increased use in Hungary, 204
Prussian legal expert, 172 language of purity, 210, 211
Kleinstaaterei, 36 lingua franca in Hungary, 202“3
Index 377

replacement of, as diplomatic language, Ludewig, Johann Peter von (1688“1743),
65, 66 22
spoken, and the Hungarian diet, 203“4 Ludwig I of Bavaria (1825“48), 11, 348,
teaching, in Hungary, 210 351
use in Europe, 202“3 aesthetics, 352“3
use in Hungary, defended, 210“11 architectural work, 349
Le c´r´monial diplomatique des cours de
ee art critics, 364“6
l™Europe (1739), work by Dumont and art patronage, 349“50, 352, 360“1, 363,
Rousset de Missy, 79“80 367
Le nozze di Figaro, see: Marriage of Figaro art patronage, criticism of, 362
Leboucher, Odet-Julien (1744“1826), Britain, 361
314“15 comparison with Louis XIV, 350
Legislative Assembly, French, established criticism in Bavaria, 361“3
1791, 319 Hofgarten frescoes, 358“9
Lehensk¨ nig, 23
o increasing isolation of, 366“7
Leibniz, Gottfried (1646“1716), German Peter Cornelius, 357“8
philosopher and historian, 164 political absolutism, 363
Leopold I, ruler of the Habsburg religious conservatism, 363“4
Monarchy (1657“1705) and Holy Rome, visit to (1818), 357
Roman Emperor (1658“1705), 46 Ludwig IX, Landgrave of
and Prussian kingship, 23 Hessen-Darmstadt (1742“90), 36
Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany Lukasbruder, 355
¨
(1765“92) and ruler of the Habsburg Lunig, Johann Christian (1662“1740), 18
¨
Monarchy and Holy Roman Emperor Lutheran identity in Alpine Salzburg,
(1790“2), 254“5, 258 139“40
coronation of, 327, 331 Lutheranism, 94, 109
and denunciation of De Gamerra, 326
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim (1729“81), magistrates, in France, and unconditional
German writer, 189 obedience, 232“3
Letters on a Regicide Peace (1796), work by Magyar language
Burke, 322“3 critics of, 216“17
Linguet, Simon (1736“94), publicist, 249 development as the national language in
literary movement, Hungarian, 217 Hungary, 216
Livre rouge, publication of, 298 diet, use in, 213
´ mother tongue, 210
Lom´ nie de Brienne, Etienne-Charles de
e
patriotism, 210“11
(1727“94), French churchman and
regularisation of, 214“15
leading minister, 273, 274
Magyarization, 217“18
opposition to his reforms, 273“5
Magyars, in Hungary, 201
Lorraine, Duchy of, loss of to France,
Mahan, Alfred Thayer (1840“1914),
122
American naval historian, 113
Louis XIV, King of France (1643“1715),
Mainz, Jacobin club in, 3
12, 100, 235, 348, 352
Malesherbes, Cr´ tien-Guillaume de
e
court, 28
Lamoignon de (1721“94), French
diplomatic service, 71
publicist and parlementaire, 240,
parlements, 242
242“3, 245
representational culture, 352
Manuel diplomatique (1822), treatise by K.
Louis XV, King of France (1715“77), 225,
von Martens, 63, 64, 65
226, 229, 241“2, 246, 247
Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg
attitude towards parlements, 238“9
Monarchy (1740“80), 45, 125, 257
political culture, 225“48
Marian devotional practices as test of
Louis XVI, King of France (1774“92), 12,
Catholicism, 147“53
271
Marie Antoinette, Austrian archduchess
and duc d™Orl´ ans, 281“2
e
and French queen (1755“93), 271“9
royal veto, 299“300
French foreign policy, 320, 321
Lucio Silla, opera by Mozart, 325, 326
378 Index

Marie Antoinette (cont.) Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756“91),
diamond necklace affair, 272 Austrian composer, 325, 326“9,
and duc d™Orl´ ans, 280“2, 285
e 345
opposition to Austria, 277 Die Zauber¬‚¨ te, 336“44
o
Marriage of Figaro (1784), opera by La clemenza di Tito, 329“36
Mozart, 11, 12, 292“3, 327 multi-confessional state, 108
Marseillaise, Latin translation of in Munich, 348, 349, 351, 358
Hungary, 219 Munich school, criticism of, 365“6
Marshall, P.J., historian, 111 music and B¨ rgerlichkeit, 193“5
u
Martens, Georg Friedrich von mutinies, army, 51
(1756“1821), legal theorist, 64
Martens, Karl von (1790“1863), legal and Naples, Kingdom of, 121
diplomatic theorist, 63, 64, 84 creation of diplomatic corps, 75“6
Marx, Karl (1818“83), political Napoleon Bonaparte, French general,
philosopher, 169, 184 Revolutionary politician and emperor
Marxism, collapse of, and in¬‚uence upon (1804“14), 289
historiography, 9 National Assembly, in France, see:
Maupeou, Ren´ -Nicolas-Charles-Augustin
e Constituent Assembly
de (1714“92), Chancellor of France, nationalism, 7“8
225, 226, 236“7, 247“8 nationalism, German, 159
revolution of, 226, 227“30, 242, 248 art, 355“7, 365
Mecklenburg, duchy of, 48 Hofgarten frescoes, 358“9
M´moires historiques et politiques (1801), 306
e nationalism, Romantic, 368
Menschenrechte, 171“2 Nazarenes, 355“7
Metastasio, Pietro (1698“1782), librettist, German nationalism, 355“7, 365
325, 326“7, 329“30 monarchical restoration, 365
Milit¨ rhoheit, 47
a Necker, Jacques (1732“1804), Swiss
Milit¨ rstand, 53
a banker and French ¬nance minister
military action, legitimacy of, 48 1776“81 and 1788“90, 299
military culture, 10, 37“9, 56“7 N´ meth, J´ nos, 219, 220, 223
e a
military culture, and the Holy Roman Newcastle, Duke of (1693“1768), British
Empire, 48“56 statesman, 117, 120, 122, 123, 124,
military organisation, 54 126, 129, 131
military power, 36 Nicolay, Aymar-Charles-Fran¸ ois de, 231
c
Military Revolution, notion of, 49 Noailles, vicomte de (1756“1804), 271
military uniforms, increasingly nobility, and diplomacy, 72“82
standardised, 50 nobility, French
Minorca, 121 abolition of, 297“303
Mirabeau, Honor´ Gabriel Riquetti comte
e arguments over existence of, 294“5
de (1749“91), 294, 299 belief in superiority, 291“2
monarchy, conceptions of, 41 and French Revolution, 289“303
monarchy, universal, 100 opposition to abolition, 300“2
monarchy in France purchase of, 296
authority of, 232“3, 235, 238, 242 noblesse d™´p´e, in France, 74
ee
service to, 231, 232 noblesse de robe, in France, 74
monarchy in Prussia, masculinisation of, non-confessional state, 108
33 Norman, Edward, historian, 87
Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, baron Northern Secretary of State, Britain, 126
de (1689“1755), French philosopher,
28 O™Gorman, Frank, historian, 87, 88
Montmorin, Armand Marc comte de obedience, enlightened, 241
(1742“95), French foreign minister Occasional Conformity, in England, 95
1787“92, 311 Oestreich, Gerhard (1910“78), German
Moser, Justus (1720“94), German
¨ historian, and ˜social discipline™, 38“9
¨
publicist, 191“2 Offentlichkeit, 6“7, 250
Index 379

of¬cers, education of, 55“6 Peter I, the Great, Russian emperor
old regime, see: ancien regime (1682“1725), and diplomacy, 64, 69
opera, 325“47 petitions, in Habsburg Monarchy, 249“68
aristocratic audiences, 326 Belgian, 253
culture and power, 325, 326 contents of, 261“2
patronage, 326 impact of on policy, 266“7
opera buffa, 330 outcomes from, 262“3
opera seria, 330, 331 presented to Joseph II, 254“6
Order of the Black Eagle, Hohenzollern use of in Europe, 256“7
˜knightly™ order established in 1701, variety of words used, 253
18, 31 Peyssonnel, Claude-Charles de (1727“90),
Orl´ ans, Louis-Philippe-Joseph, duc d™
e French publicist, 312“14, 316, 319
(1747“93), 270, 279“87 Philip II of Spain (1556“98), 100
alienation from court, 283 Physiocrats, French economic theorists,
estrangement from Marie Antoinette, 321
280, 286 Pitt, William, the Elder (1708“78), British
loss of accommodation at Versailles, statesman, 114, 115, 117, 123, 129,
282“3 130
naval service, 281“2 Pitt, William, the Younger (1759“1806),
Parlement of Paris, 285 British statesman, 96
support for elections to Estates General, plaintes, 253
285, 286“7 Polignac family, 271, 273, 274, 275, 283
Ormesson de Noiseau, Louis-Fran¸ ois de
c Polish Succession, War of (1733“5/8), 120,
Paule Lef` vre d™ (1718“89), French
e 121, 124
parlementaire, 225, 228, 239 political culture, 10“11, 60“1, 227
Ottoman Empire, 67, 70, 125, 126 politics, de¬nition of, 227
politics and language, in Hungary, 200“24
Palais national des arts, 353 Popularphilosophie, 169, 171, 172
Palais-royal, 283“5 Porter, Roy (1946“2002), historian, 91
as political centre, 285“6 power
Papacy, the, and Protestantism, 102 and art, 350“1
Pares, Richard (1902“58), English and culture, 9“13
historian, 113 military state, 36“9
parfait magistrat, notion of, 239“40 Prussian coronation as symbol of,
parlement, French law court, 229, 232 15“17, 35
Parlement of Brittany, 279 Pragmatic Sanction (1713), fundamental
Parlement of Paris, 225“6, 231, 234, 244, succession law in Habsburg
285 Monarchy, 106, 125
Parlement of Rennes, 231, 236, 240, precedence, 27“8
244“5 pre-emptive strikes, by British Navy, 127
parlementaires Pretender, the, James Francis Edward
attack on conduct of, 235“6 Stuart, known as ˜James III™
concern over increased militarisation, (1688“1766), 106
243“4 Priestley, Joseph (1733“1804), British
response to authoritarianism, 238“42 scientist, 187
Parlements, con¬‚ict with military of¬cers, Protestant book-burning, in Salzburg, 143
233“4, 241“2 Protestant monarchies, limited number of,
Patriotische Phantasien (1770), 192 124“5
patronage Protestant succession, in Britain, 97“9,
and art, 348“68 105“6
and music, 325“47 Protestantism
Pecquet, Antoine (1704“62), French in Britain, 12, 86, 94“5, 96, 109
foreign of¬ce of¬cial and diplomatic in Europe, 94, 98“106
theorist, 63, 64, 65, 73, 78 Protestants, persecution of, in Salzburg,
Perceval, John, British MP, 118 12, 133“4, 143“4, 145“7, 153“6
380 Index

protocol, diplomatic, 79 representational culture, 5, 106
Prussia, Duchy and Kingdom of (1701“), Louis XIV, 352
34, 125, 159, 177 passive audience, 352
absolutism, 37 Restoration culture, and public
court, changes made by Frederick participation, 352
William I, 30 revolution, 7“8
court, and diplomacy, 80“1 Revolutionary Wars (1792“1802), 4
crown, independence from the Holy Rhenish Church, progressive elements, 3
Roman Empire, 24 Rhine, as natural frontier, 318
crown, independence from Poland, 24“5 Rhineland, 2, 3, 4
diplomatic language of, 68 Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis,
diplomats, 74, 77 cardinal de (1585“1642), French
enlightenment, 159 churchman and ¬rst minister, 235
growth of, 44“5 Richmond, Herbert, naval historian, 113
Kingdom of, 34 Robespierre, Maximilien (1758“94),
kingship, 23 French lawyer and Revolutionary
military defeat by France, 37 leader, 289
military power, 36, 38 Robinson, Thomas (1695“1770), British
military structure of Holy Roman diplomat, 124
Empire, 52 Rohan, cardinal de (1734“1803), 272, 274
public culture, 1, 11 Romanians, in Hungary, 201“2
public opinion, 61 Romantics, 354
public participation, and restoration Rome, and in¬‚uence on German artists,
culture, 352 355
Public Peace, and the Holy Roman rosary devotion, 149“53
Empire, 46 Rossbach, battle of (1757), 2
public sphere, 6“7, 11, 61, 107, 108, 250, Royal Academy, in England, 353
268 Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Munich,
concept of, 266 354“5
petitions, 250, 252“68 Royal Navy, as instrument of British
rise of, 6 foreign policy, 127
Pufendorf, Samuel von (1632“94), Russia, 125, 126
German philosopher, 63, 64, 171 use of French in diplomacy, 69“70
Russian diplomats, 74, 77
Quadruple Alliance (1718), 124 Ruthene language, 215
Quebec Act (1774), 96 Ruthenes, in Hungary, 201“2

Raczynski, Athanase, 349 Saint-Pierre, Puget de, 236, 237
Randan, duc de, 234, 245 Saint-Priest, comte de (1735“1821), 309
Rapant, Daniel (1897“1988), 200“1 Saint-Vincent, Robert de, 228
Ratio educationis (1777), educational Salieri, Antonio (1750“1825), composer in
reform in Habsburg Monarchy, Vienna, 327
207“8, 210 Salzburg, Archbishopric of
Rechtsstaat, notion of, 159 anti-Catholic sentiment, 137“8
Reform and Revolution in Mainz (1974), 2 confessional power, 133“57
Regent oligarchy in Dutch Republic, and expulsion of Protestants, 133“4
diplomacy, 74 re-Catholicization of Alpine districts,
Reich, see: Holy Roman Empire 134
Reichspatriotismus, 98 semi-autonomous status, 133
Reichsst¨ nde, 42
a Satow, Sir Ernest (1843“1929), British
Reichstag, 45 lawyer-diplomat, 85
Reinhard, Wolfgang, historian, 94 Savoyard diplomats, 74“5, 76
religion, 12“13 Savoy-Piedmont, Duchy of (from 1720 the
aesthetic governance, 368 ˜Kingdom of Sardinia™), diplomatic
Prussian coronation ritual, 32 language of, 68“9
Index 381

Saxony, Electorate of, 43 Spanish Succession, War of
Schiller, Friedrich (1759“1805), German (1701/2“13/14), 23“4, 101
writer, 174, 187, 196, 350 Sp¨ taufkl¨ rung, 170“1
a a
aesthetic education, 354 Spinoza, Baruch (1632“77), Dutch
Schilling, Heinz, historian, 94 philosopher, 165, 166
Schlegel, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Springer, Anton, and criticism of Munich
(1772“1829), German philosopher, school, 365“6
354, 356 Staatskanzlei (Habsburg State
Schneiders, Werner, and periodisation of Chancellery), 77
the Aufkl¨ rung, 163“4
a standing armies, and absolutism, 37“8
Schonbrunn, Habsburg palace at, 251
¨ state power, 181“2
School for Diplomats, Strasbourg, 69 in Central Europe, 46
Scotland, state church in, 89 and culture, 180“3
secret du roi (Louis XV™s private foreign and military culture, 56“7
policy network), 307“8, 321, 322 ˜strategic culture™, concept of, 10, 112
S´ gur, comte de (1753“1830), 278“9
e strategy, and British foreign policy, 113“14
¨
semiotic practices, 16“17 Strukturwandel der Offentlichkeit, work by
Seven Years™ War (1756“63), 119, 129, Jurgen Habermas, 6
¨
130, 131 Stuart monarchy, Catholicism of, 105
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Sturm und Drang, 164
Earl of (1671“1713) and Aufkl¨ rung,
a Suppl´ment au Corps universel diplomatique
e
167“8 du droit de gens (1739), 79
Sicily, 121 Systemprogramm (1797), 174
Siey` s, Emmanuel Joseph, abb´
e e Szentmarjay, Ferenc (1767“95), 218, 219,
(1746“1836), French Revolutionary 220, 224
politician and constitutional theorist,
285, 286, 295 Talleyrand-P´ rigord, Charles Maurice de
e
Silesia, Duchy of, 108 (1754“1838), French statesman and
Singspiel, 336 political survivor, 319
Slavs, in Hungary, 201“2 Test Act (1673), in England, 95
Slovak language, 215 The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture
Slovaks, in Hungary, 201“2 (2002), 2, 4, 5“6, 13, 112, 348
Snyder, Jack, international relations The French Revolution (1987, 1996), 4
theorist, 112 The French Revolution in Germany (1983),
˜social discipline™ thesis, 38 2, 3, 6
soci´t´, and Marie Antoinette, 271“4, 277,
ee The French Revolutionary Wars (1996), 2, 4
280, 283 The Idea of a Patriot King (1738), 116
Society of 1789, 298 The Origin of the French Revolutionary Wars
Society of the Cincinnati, 293 (1986), 4
˜Society of Thirty™, 271, 273, 275, 285, The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), 1,
286, 288 193
American War, 276 Third Republic, and French diplomacy, 84
soldiers in the Holy Roman Empire Thirty Years™ War (1618“48), and Estates™
foreigners in Imperial armies, 53“4 role in territorial defence, 42
links to local territory, 53“4 Thomasius, Christian (1655“1728),
restricting their autonomy, 49“50 German philosopher, 163, 165, 166,
Sonderweg thesis, 3, 13, 37 171
Sophie Charlotte of Hanover, mourning title, royal, 27
ceremonials, 25“6, 29 Titus, see: Vespasianus
Soulavie, Jean-Louis (1752“1813), 306, ˜Tobacco Ministry™ (Tabakskollegium), in
311 Frederick William I™s Prussia, 33“4
Southern Secretary of State, Britain, 126, Toleration Act (1689), in England, 95
130 Tory party, in Britain, 91, 92
Spain, diplomatic language of, 67 Toryism, 90
Spanish diplomats, 75, 76, 77 Toulouse, city of, 243“4
382 Index

Townshend, Charles 2nd Viscount Wagner, Richard (1813“83), German
(1674“1738), British statesman, 119, composer, comments on Die
120“1, 122, 124, 126 Zauber¬‚¨ te, 336, 338
o
Transylvania, and visit of Joseph II, 264“5 wahre Aufkl¨ rung, 169, 171
a
Triple Alliance (1716), 103, 106 Waldner, Baron de, 309
Tubingen group, 173“4
¨ Walpole, Sir Robert, 1st Earl of Orford
(1676“1745), British statesman, 95,
Ukrainians, in Hungary, 202 117, 120
Union of German Art Unions for Washington, George (1732“99), American
Historical Art, 367 general and president, 293
universal monarchy, concept of, 105, 120, Wedeen, Lisa, and semiotic practices,
121 16“17
Urbarium (1767), agrarian reform Wehlau, Treaty of (1657), 24
measure in Habsburg Monarchy, Weimar, 1, 186“7
207 Westphalian peace settlement (1648), 98“9
Ushant, battle of, (1778), 281 Westphalian system, 12“13
Ushant affair, 281“2 Whig party, in Britain, 91, 92
Utrecht, Treaty of (1713), 92, 106, 123, culture, 131
128 elite, 107
interpretation of history, 89“90
Valmy, battle of (1792), 37 Whitworth, Charles, Baron (1675“1725),
Veit, Philipp (1793“1877), 365 British diplomat, 101“2
Vergennes, Charles Gravier comte de Wick, Daniel, historian, 270, 271, 287“8
(1717“87), French foreign minister Wicquefort, Abraham van (1606“82),
1774“87, 310“11 diplomat and diplomatic theorist,
vernacular languages 62“3, 64, 65, 73
growth of, in Hungary, 215“16 Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, 189“90
as symbols of cultural decay, 210 Wilkes, John (1725“97), British radical
Versailles, location of French court after politician, 90
1682, 5, 348 William I, of Prussia (1861“88), 31
changes in political culture, 272 Wilson, Kathleen, historian, 111
contrast with Palais-royal, 284 Winnington, Thomas (1696“1746), 120
contrast with Vienna, 284 Wittelsbach dynasty, 362
Versailles, First Treaty of (Austro-French Wolff, Christian (1679“1754), German
alliance May 1756), 306 philosopher, 28, 163, 167, 169, 171,
Vespasianus, Titus Flavius, Roman 172
Emperor (¤ 79“81), 331 Wollner edict (1788), in Prussia, 169
¨
Vienna women at court, 32“3
contrast with Versailles, 284 Worlitz, 197“8
¨
diplomatic life in, 81 Wurttemberg, Duchy of, 47, 252
¨
popular theatre, 328 mutiny of army in (1737), 51
Vienna, Treaty of (1725), 103 Wurzburg, 361
¨
Vorm¨ rz authors, 194
a
Vorstellung, 250, 251 Zurich, and radicalism, 165“6
¨

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